John Bunyan- went to jail because
he was a Baptist ~ People who refused to worship in the Anglican church
were called "non-conformists".
-Considered act of treason against state to be a member of church
who was not the national church. Must belong to Anglican Church to be a
good citizen. It was the "established" church.
-Puritans wanted to purify Anglican Church
Those who favored a state church were establishmentarians.
Those who opposed the state church (like Bunyan) were disestablishmentarians.
Thus those who opposed people like Bunyan were antidisestablishmentarians,
giving us everybody's favorite long word. These word came along later,
but the conflict arose during this period.
-Separatists formed separate churches. Novel ideas to separate church
-When the Puritans came to power, they had closed the Anglican churches,
and killed Charles I, a Catholic.
-When Charles II returned to power in 1660, the Anglican church again
became the establised church. Some diversity was allowed, but well-known
nonconformists like Bunyan were jailed as examples.
Bunyan was not well educated. The Bible was his only textbook.
Thus the major influence on Bunyan in his writing is the Judeo-Christian
-Pilgrims Progress is an allegory. Christian allegories date
back to the fourth century a.d., when Boethius wrote The Consolation
-Allegory ~ is the reading of documents on several levels.
It was used by church in middle ages, and still is popular. Allegory
was Invented by Greeks because their gods' immorality was embarrassing.
(Example - Zeus sometimes turned himself into an animal and raped women.
Allegorical interpretations of these myths thus arose). Allegory
was later adopted by Christians.
The medieval church expressed its understanding of allegory in the following
Littera gesta docet;
quod credas allegoria;
quid agas moralia;
quo tendas anagogia.
The letter teaches the events;
what you believe is allegory;
what you are should do is the moral (tropological)
where you are going (after you die) is anagogical.
Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not
of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit
The verse that the church used to justify this method of interpretation
is 2 Corinthians 3:6:
The early church took this to mean that interpretation of the Bible
should be symbolic as well as literal. "By
dismissing the spiritual sense as a pious fantasy, modern critics have
missed the profundity of this verse, and hence of the tradition of spiritual
exegesis. This medieval distich expresses what the Church has always believed
about the Bible.
The Bible records God's action in history (the
letter), and it is the task of the interpreter to discern the relation
between what is written there and what has come about (and will come about)
because of what happened.
The three latter senses show how this is best
done, by relating the text to what we believe (allegory),
to how we are to live (the moral sense),
and to what we hope for (the anagogical sense)."
the Bible: Three Views)
Jerusalem in the four-fold allegorical senses:
Jerusalem, e.g., according to its literal sense, is the Holy City;
taken allegorically, it denotes the Church Militant;
understood tropologically, it stands for the just soul;
finally, in its anagogical sense, it stands for the Church Triumphant.
In Pilgrims Progress:
Literal - journey from the City of Destruction to Celestial City despite
Allegorical - the progress of any Christian from Baptism through trials
Moral - courage, trust, effort ~ to have these there characteristics.
Anagogic - Godís providence and care for us. Worthiness of goal - to
get to city.
- Christianís burden that he carries on his back is sin; carrying
a Bible-lifeís guidebook.
-Heís crying because he is going to hell. Realizes his sin and feels
-His family thinks he is crazy.
-Evangelist comes to see him. Heís preaching the euangelion -
the "good news" or gospel.
-Bunyan uses the personification of attributes (wisdom, hope). Little
character development in the story.
-Apollyon ~ personification of Greek figure of destruction.
Christian is leaving his city. They fight for a long time. Line 240 and
245, Quotes scriptures, which cause Apollyon to flee.
-Vanity Fair ~ place where you can buy anything you want.
Jesus was only 1 who didnít purchase anything
Diffidence tells him to beat them. When he finds them alive, she
tells him to tell them to kill themselves. But they bear their suffering.
Hopeful tells Christian they must persevere. Christian has
key of promise in his heart (because he's, well, hopeful). Promises
-Leave mortal clothes and body behind when you cross the river.