Normans/French invaded. William imposed Norman law, gov't., & language on AS.
FEUDAL SYSTEM the foundation of Norman civilization. Based on the holding of land. King owned all land. (Queen of England still technically owns much of country). He granted areas to his lords who promised him their services. Lords gave portions to the knights who pledged to assist them in battle. Serfs were lowest on social scale. Paid goods & services to the lord in return for land they farmed & protection.
Two families ruled.
Plantagenets (1154-1485), beginning with Henry II.
Parliament. Edward I (1272-1307) called the first Parliament. Represented propertied classes--barons & clergy.
Hundred Years War (1337)--England tried to claim French crown. Eventually lost. Burned Joan of Arc in the war.
War of the Roses--dispute over crown between Yorks & Lancasters. The two houses joined in the Lancaster Earl of Richmond (Henry VII) & Elizabeth (a York). Formed Tudor dynasty.
1. Education Oxford & Cambridge founded in 12th-13th centuries.
3. Black plague. Bubonic plague. 1346-1349. Killed 40% of population. Spread through fleas. Pneumonic plague--same germ spread through the air. Breakdown of mores. More mobility of people. Self-emancipation of the serfs, who sought higher wages & freedom.
4. Vernacular. English lit. began to reappear. Middle English. Very different from Old English--product of mixing of languages.
2. Devotional literature. religious focus (sermons, meditation)
Didactic literature. Teach or provide instruction on both religious or non-religious topics. (Allegorical dream vision & historical chronicle).
3. Lyrics--songs. covered any topic.
4. Drama--began w/mystery or miracle plays. Dramatizations of Biblical events concerned w/ the mystery of X's redemption.