John Bunyan- went to jail because
he was a Baptist ~ People who refused to worship in the Anglican church
were called "non-conformists".
-Considered act of treason against state to be a member of
who was not the national church. Must belong to Anglican Church to be a
good citizen. It was the "established" church.
-Puritans wanted to purify Anglican Church
Those who favored a state church were establishmentarians.
Those who opposed the state church (like Bunyan) were
Thus those who opposed people like Bunyan were antidisestablishmentarians,
giving us everybody's favorite long word. These word came along
but the conflict arose during this period.
-Separatists formed separate churches. Novel ideas to separate
-When the Puritans came to power, they had closed the Anglican
and killed Charles I, a Catholic.
-When Charles II returned to power in 1660, the Anglican church
became the establised church. Some diversity was allowed, but
nonconformists like Bunyan were jailed as examples.
Bunyan was not well educated. The Bible was his only textbook.
Thus the major influence on Bunyan in his writing is the
-Pilgrims Progress is an allegory. Christian allegories
back to the fourth century a.d., when Boethius wrote The
-Allegory ~ is the reading of documents on several levels.
It was used by church in middle ages, and still is popular.
was Invented by Greeks because their gods' immorality was embarrassing.
(Example - Zeus sometimes turned himself into an animal and raped
Allegorical interpretations of these myths thus arose). Allegory
was later adopted by Christians.
The medieval church expressed its understanding of allegory in
Littera gesta docet;
quod credas allegoria;
quid agas moralia;
quo tendas anagogia.
The letter teaches the events;
what you believe is allegory;
what you are should do is the moral
where you are going (after you die) is anagogical.
Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not
of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the
The verse that the church used to justify this method of
is 2 Corinthians 3:6:
The early church took this to mean that interpretation of the Bible
should be symbolic as well as literal. "By
dismissing the spiritual sense as a pious fantasy, modern critics have
missed the profundity of this verse, and hence of the tradition of
exegesis. This medieval distich expresses what the Church has always
about the Bible.
The Bible records God's action in history
letter), and it is the task of the interpreter to discern the relation
between what is written there and what has come about (and will come
because of what happened.
The three latter senses show how this is
done, by relating the text to what we believe (allegory),
to how we are to live (the moral sense),
and to what we hope for (the anagogical
Bible: Three Views)
Jerusalem in the four-fold allegorical senses:
Jerusalem, e.g., according to its literal sense, is the Holy
taken allegorically, it denotes the Church Militant;
understood tropologically, it stands for the just soul;
finally, in its anagogical sense, it stands for the Church
In Pilgrims Progress:
Literal - journey from the City of Destruction to Celestial City
Allegorical - the progress of any Christian from Baptism through
Moral - courage, trust, effort ~ to have these there
Anagogic - God’s providence and care for us. Worthiness of goal
get to city.
- Christian’s burden that he carries on his back is sin; carrying
a Bible-life’s guidebook.
-He’s crying because he is going to hell. Realizes his sin and
-His family thinks he is crazy.
-Evangelist comes to see him. He’s preaching the euangelion -
"good news" or gospel.
-Bunyan uses the personification of attributes (wisdom, hope).
character development in the story.
-Apollyon ~ personification of Greek figure of
Christian is leaving his city. They fight for a long time. Line 240 and
245, Quotes scriptures, which cause Apollyon to flee.
-Vanity Fair ~ place where you can buy anything you
Jesus was only 1 who didn’t purchase anything
Diffidence tells him to beat them. When he finds them alive,
tells him to tell them to kill themselves. But they bear their
Hopeful tells Christian they must persevere. Christian
key of promise in his heart (because he's, well, hopeful).
-Leave mortal clothes and body behind when you cross the