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Luke



Lecture

 

 

Provenance of Luke-Acts


Authorship
The author of Luke-Acts is not mentioned in either book. Traditionally, the authorship of Luke-Acts is ascribed to Luke, gentile Christian physician who sometimes accompanied Paul on his missions. There is some internal evidence for this, mainly the "we passages" in Acts 16:10-17, 20:5-15, 21:1-18; 27:1-28:16. Ancient Christians studied the passages to see who was with Paul, and concluded that Luke the physician was the most likely candidate. Luke and Acts are both long books, at the upper limit for the amount of material that could fit in a single scroll.
Date
c 80-90 AD. This is the best guess IMHO. That's assuming, as I do, that Luke used Mark to compose his gospel rather than the other way around.
Place
Both books address their audience as Theophilus (θεόφιλος), meaning loving God or beloved by God. Theophilus could be a generic gentile Christian or God-fearing gentiles (God fearers were gentiles who were attracted to Judaism.), or he could be a literal individual. The location of the original audience is open to wide speculation: some say Rome, others Alexandria, Egypt, at the other end of the empire.


The Structure of Luke
Dennis Bratcher

This is the structure Luke overlays onto the gospel of Mark.

There is also a larger structure with Luke and Acts. Luke starts and ends in the Temple. Acts starts with Jesus' farewell in Galilee, and the disciples returning to Jerusalem to await Pentecost. Acts then ends in Rome. This fits into Luke's argument that Christianity is rooted in Judaism but that it spreads to the world from there.

  1. Preface (1:1-4)
  2. The Infancy Narratives (1:5-2:52)
    1. Annunciation and response (1:5-56)
      1. 1:5-25 - Zechariah and the announcement of Johnís birth
      2. 1:26-38 - Mary and the announcement of Jesusí birth
      3. 1:39-56 - Elizabeth and Mary: The Magnificat
    2. Births (1:57-2:21)
      1. 1:57-66 - the birth of John the Baptist
      2. 1:67-80 - Zechariahís blessing: The Benedictus
      3. 2:1-21 - The birth of Jesus
    3. Jesus in the Temple (2:22-52)
      1. 2:22-40 - presentation of Jesus: The Nunc Dimittis
      2. 2:41-52 - Left in Jerusalem by his parents
  3. Preparation for Jesusí Ministry (3:1-4:13)
    1. The activity of John the Baptist (3:1-20)
      1. 3:1-6 - the voice in the wilderness
      2. 3:7-18 - Johnís preaching
      3. 3:19-20 - the imprisonment of John
    2. The emergence of Jesus (3:21-4:13)
      1. 3:21-22 - the Holy Spirit affirms Jesus
      2. 3:23-38 - the genealogy of Jesus
      3. 4:1-13 - temptations of Jesus
  4. Jesusí Ministry in Galilee (4:14-9:50)
    1. Jesus returns home (4:14-44)
      1. 4:14-15 - return to Galilee
      2. 4:16-30 - Jesus in Nazareth
      3. 4:31-41 - preaching and miracles in Capernaum
      4. 4:42-44 - a wider Galilean ministry
    2. Disciples and opponents (5:1-6:16)
      1. 5:1-11 - the catch of fish and fishermen
      2. 5:12-16 - the leper healed and spreading fame
      3. 5:17-26 - healing, forgiveness, and controversy
      4. 5:27-39 - the calling of Levi, and further tensions
      5. 6:1-11 - Jesus, healing, and Sabbath laws
      6. 6:12-16 - the Twelve Disciples
    3. The Sermon on the Plain (6:17-49)
      1. 6:17-19 - the seeking crowds
      2. 6:20-38 - teaching about being the people of God
      3. 6:39-49 - responsibility for faithful response
    4. The nature of Jesusí ministry (7:1-50)
      1. 7:1-10 - the Centurionís slave: power and faith
      2. 7:11-17 - the widowís son: a prophet among us
      3. 7:18-35 - John and Jesus: are you the one?
      4. 7:36-50 - the alabaster jar: the nature of forgiveness
    5. Teaching throughout Galilee (8:1-9:20)
      1. 8:1-3 - the Twelve and women followers
      2. 8:4-15 - parable of the sower: proclaiming and receiving the Kingdom
      3. 8:16-18 - faithful listening
      4. 8:19-21 - true family
      5. 8:22-25 - the stilling of the storm
      6. 8:26-39 - the Gerasene demoniac: Jesusí authority over evil
      7. 8:40-56 - the raising of Jairusí daughter: Jesusí authority over death
      8. 9:1-6 - sending of the Twelve
      9. 9:7-9 - Herod inquires about Jesus
      10. 9:10-17 - feeding five thousand
      11. 9:18-20 - Peterís confession
    6. Forebodings of a change (9:21-50)
      1. 9:21-22 - Jesusí ominous prediction
      2. 9:23-27 - the nature of discipleship
      3. 9:28-36 - the Transfiguration
      4. 9:37-45 - healing, amazement, and further warnings
      5. 9:45-48 - true greatness
      6. 9:49-50 - the unknown exorcist
  5. The Journey to Jerusalem (9:51-19:27)
    1. Preparations for the journey (9:51-62)
      1. 9:51-56 - rejection by the Samaritans
      2. 9:57-62 - the nature of discipleship
      3. 10:1-16 - commissioning of the 70: preparing the way
      4. 10:17-20 - return of the 70: priorities in success
      5. 10:21-24 - Jesus; prayer and blessing
    2. Love, mercy, and listening as the heart of discipleship (10:25-42)
      1. 10:25-28 - a lawyerís challenge
      2. 10:29-37 - parable of the Good Samaritan: mercy fulfills the law
      3. 10:38-42 - Martha and Mary: listening the better part
    3. Teaching on prayer (11:1-13)
      1. 11:1-4 - Lord, teach us to pray
      2. 11:5-8 - persistence brings help
      3. 11:9-13 - children asking the father
    4. Growing conflict and controversy (11:14-54)
      1. 11:14-23 - Jesusí power is from God not Satan
      2. 11:24-26 - an empty life invites intruders
      3. 11:27-28 - the value of hearing and responding
      4. 11:29-32 - the sign of Jonah: the need to repent
      5. 11:33-36 - light and understanding
      6. 11:37-54 - condemnation of false piety: neglecting justice and love
    5. Explaining discipleship (12:1-48)
      1. 12:1-3 - warning against hypocrisy
      2. 12:4-12 - encouragement to those who acknowledge Jesus
      3. 12:13-21 - parable of the rich fool: the danger of possessions
      4. 12:22-34 - trust in God eliminates anxiety
      5. 12:35-48 - faithfulness to the Master
    6. Impending judgment and accountability (12:49-13:9)
      1. 1. 12:49-52 - the coming judgment
      2. 2. 12:54-56 - reading the signs of the times
      3. 3. 12:57-59 - do not wait for the judgment
      4. 4. 13:1-5 - the need for repentance
      5. 5. 13:6-9 - the barren fig tree: a last chance
    7. The nature of the Kingdom of God (13:10-35)
      1. 13:10-17 - a crippled woman healed, and controversy
      2. 13:18-19 - parables of the Kingdom: the mustard seed
      3. 13:20-21 - parables of the Kingdom: leaven
      4. 13:22-30 - the narrow door: reversal of expectations
      5. 13:31-35 - Jerusalem: threat and lament
    8. The nature of true discipleship (14:1-35)
      1. 14:1-6 - healing on the Sabbath
      2. 14:7-11 - humility: human expectations not Godís
      3. 14:12-14 - generosity beyond social conventions
      4. 14:15-24 - parable of the banquet: anticipation of an unrestricted Kingdom
      5. 14:25-33 - the cost of discipleship
      6. 14:34-35 - warning against unfaithfulness
    9. Parables of the lost and found (15:1-32)
      1. 15:1-2 - complaints against Jesus
      2. 15:3-7 - the lost sheep: joy at the rescue of one
      3. 15:8-10 - the lost coin found
      4. 15:11-24 - the Prodigal Son
      5. 15:23-32 - the jealousy of the eldest son: a failure of love
    10. The dangers of misplaced loyalties (16:1-31)
      1. 16:1-9 - parable of the dishonest manager
      2. 16:10-15 - Godís economy: faithful in little
      3. 16:16-18 - the abiding validity of the torah
      4. 16:19-31 - the rich man and Lazarus: consequences of self-centeredness
    11. Living the Kingdom of God (17:1-37)
      1. 17:1-10 - disciples and relationships within community
      2. 17:11-19 - 10 lepers cleansed: thankfulness
      3. 17:20-21 - the Kingdom of God is present now
      4. 17:22-37 - the end of the age
    12. Attitudes toward the Kingdom (18:1-19:27)
      1. 18:1-8 - parable of the unjust judge: patience in prayer
      2. 18:9-14 - parable of the Pharisee and tax collector: self-righteousness
      3. 18:15-17 - receiving the Kingdom as a child
      4. 18:18-30 - the rich ruler: the hindrance of wealth
      5. 18:31-34 - Jesus again predicts his death
      6. 18:35-43 - healing a blind man: sight and understanding
      7. 19:1-10 - Zacchaeus: a model response to the Kingdom
      8. 19:11-27 - the parable of the talents: trusting servants with the Kingdom
  6. Jesusí Ministry in Jerusalem (19:28-21:38)
    1. Jesusí arrival in Jerusalem (19:28-47)
      1. 19:28-40 - the triumphal entry
      2. 19:41-44 - Jesus weeps over the city and its future
      3. 19:45-47 - the cleansing of the Temple
    2. Teaching in the Temple and growing hostility to Jesus (20:1-21:4)
      1. 20:1-8 - a challenge to Jesusí authority
      2. 20:9-19 - parable of the vineyard: rejecting the cornerstone
      3. 20:20-26 - trick questions: paying taxes to Caesar
      4. 20:27-40 - more dishonest questions: the resurrection
      5. 20:41-44 - is the Messiah a son of David?
      6. 20:45-47 - the dangers of pride and self-righteousness
      7. 21:1-4 - the widowís offering
    3. The coming devastation (21:5-38
      1. 21:5-6 - destruction of the Temple foreseen
      2. 21:7-11 - signs and portents
      3. 21:12-19 - persecution and endurance
      4. 21:20-24 - the devastation of Jerusalem
      5. 21:25-33 - the coming of the Son of Man
      6. 21:34-36 - a call to vigilance and prayer
      7. 21:37-38 - teaching in the Temple (narrative transition to the Passion narratives)
  7. The Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Jesus (22:1-24:53)
    1. The final hours (22:1-46)
      1. 22:1-6 - the betrayal of Judas
      2. 22:7-23 - Passover: the Last Supper
      3. 22:24-30 - disciplesí dispute over status: becoming servants
      4. 22:31-34 - Peterís denial foreseen
      5. 22:35-38 - adequate resources
      6. 22:39-46 - prayer in Gethsemane
    2. Jesusí arrest and trial (22:47-23:25)
      1. 22:47-53 - Jesusí arrest
      2. 22:54-62 - Jesus in Caiaphasí house: Peterís denial
      3. 22:63-65 - Jesus mocked and tortured
      4. 22:66-71 - the Sanhedrin interrogates Jesus
      5. 23:1-5 - accusations before Pilate
      6. 23:6-12 - Jesus before Herod
      7. 23:13-16 [17] - Pilate finds Jesus innocent
      8. 23:18-25 - Pilate surrenders to the pressure of the crowd and condemns Jesus
    3. The crucifixion of Jesus (23:26-56)
      1. 23:26 - Simon of Cyrene bears the cross
      2. 23:27-31 - Jesusí words to the daughters of Jerusalem
      3. 23:32-38 - the crucifixion
      4. 23:39-43 - Jesus and the two criminals
      5. 23:44-49 - the death of Jesus
      6. 23:50-56 - Joseph of Arimathea buries Jesus
    4. The resurrection and response (24:1-53)
      1. 24:1-12 - the women and Peter at the empty tomb
      2. 24:13-35 - the two men on the road to Emmaus
      3. 24:36-43 - Jesus appears to the disciples
      4. 24:44-49 - instructions and commissioning of the disciples
      5. 24:50-51 - the ascension of Jesus
      6. 24:52-53 - the response of joy and worship

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