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Provenance of Romans

The author of Romans is Paul, based on both internal and external evidence. No one has come up with a good reason for doubting Paul's authorship.

Date & Place
c 56 AD.  Paul wrote the letter to the Romans from the city of Corinth, while he was on his third missionary journey. At the time he was gathering an offering from the Gentile Christians for the church in Jerusalem (15:25; Acts 24:17). Paul mentions three people that help to identify the letter's composition with Corinth: Phoebe (16:1), Gaius (16:23), and Erastus (16:23). He sent Phoebe of Cenchrea to the church in Rome as the bearer of the epistle. With her being from Cenchrea, she would have had ties to Corinth because Cenchrea is the port city for Corinth. There was a Gaius referenced in 1 Cor 1:14 as one who lived in Corinth and many have identified him as the Titius Justus in Acts 18:7. Erastus was the city's treasurer (or director of public works) and in Corinth an inscription was discovered that refers to an Erastus as the city aedile (i.e., an official in charge of public works, etc.), which some have corresponded to Paul's reference to him.
Here there are several theories. My opinion is that Romans primarily deals with the relationships among Jews, Gentiles, and God. He believes that both Jew and Gentile commit the same sins are saved the same way, through faith in Jesus Christ.

The Structure of Romans

Romans chapter 1
Ro 1:1-8. Paul commends his calling to the Romans;

Ro 1:9-15. and his desire to come to them.

Ro 1:16-17. What his gospel is.

Ro 1:18-20. God is angry with sin.

Ro 1:21-32. What were the sins of the gentiles.
Romans chapter 2

Ro 2:1-5. No excuse for sin.

Ro 2:6-13. No escape from judgment.

Ro 2:14-16. Gentiles cannot;

Ro 2:17-29. nor Jews.
Romans chapter 3

Ro 3:1-2. The Jews' prerogative;

Ro 3:3-8. which they have not lost;

Ro 3:9-19. howbeit the law convinces them also of sin;

Ro 3:20-27. therefore no flesh is justified by the law;

Ro 3:28-30. but all, without difference, by faith, only;

Ro 3:31. and yet the law is not abolished.
Romans chapter 4

Ro 4:1-9. Abraham's faith was imputed to him for righteousness;

Ro 4:10-12. before he was circumcised.

Ro 4:13-15. By faith only he and his seed received the promise.

Ro 4:16-23. Abraham is the father of all that believe.

Ro 4:24-25. Our faith also shall be imputed to us for righteousness.
Romans chapter 5

Ro 5:1. Being justified by faith, we have peace with God;

Ro 5:2-7. and joy in our hope;

Ro 5:8-9. that since we were reconciled by his blood, when we were enemies;

Ro 5:10-11. we shall much more be saved, being reconciled.

Ro 5:12-16. As sin and death came by Adam;

Ro 5:17-19. so much more righteousness and life by Jesus Christ.

Ro 5:20-21. Where sin abounded, grace did superabound.
Romans chapter 6

Ro 6:1. We may not live in sin;

Ro 6:2. for we are dead unto it;

Ro 6:3-11. as appears by our baptism.

Ro 6:12-17. Let not sin reign any more;

Ro 6:18-22. because we have yielded ourselves to the service of righteousness;

Ro 6:23. and for that death is the wages of sin.
Romans chapter 7

Ro 7:1-3. No law hath power over a man longer than he lives.

Ro 7:4-6. But we are dead to the law.

Ro 7:7-11. Yet is not the law sin;

Ro 7:12-15. but holy, just and good;

Ro 7:16-25. as I acknowledge, who am grieved because I cannot keep it.
Romans chapter 8

Ro 8:1-4. They that are in Christ, are free from condemnation.

Ro 8:5-12. What harm comes of the flesh;

Ro 8:13-18. and what good of the Spirit.

Ro 8:19-28. The glorious deliverance all things long for,

Ro 8:29-37. was beforehand decreed from God.

Ro 8:38-39. Nothing can sever us from his love.
Romans chapter 9

Ro 9:1-6. Paul is sorry for the Jews.

Ro 9:7-17. All of Abraham not of the promise.

Ro 9:18-24. God's sovereignty.

Ro 9:25-31. The calling of the Gentiles and rejecting of the Jews, foretold.

Ro 9:32-33. The cause of the Jews' stumbling.
Romans chapter 10

Ro 10:1-10. The Scripture shows the difference between the righteousness of the law, and that of faith;

Ro 10:11-17. and that all, both Jew and Gentile, that believe, shall not be confounded;

Ro 10:18. and that the Gentiles shall receive the word and believe.

Ro 10:19-21. Israel was not ignorant of these things.
Romans chapter 11

Ro 11:1-6. God has not cast off all Israel.

Ro 11:7-15. Some were elected, though the rest were hardened.

Ro 11:16-17. There is hope of their conversion.

Ro 11:18-25. The Gentiles may not exult over them;

Ro 11:26-32. for there is a promise of their salvation.

Ro 11:33-36. God's judgments are unsearchable.
Romans chapter 12

Ro 12:1-2. God's mercies must move us to please God.

Ro 12:3-5. No man must think too well of himself;

Ro 12:6-8. but everyone attend on that calling wherein he is placed.

Ro 12:9-18. Love, and many other duties are required of us.

Ro 12:19-21. Revenge is especially forbidden.
Romans chapter 13

Ro 13:1-7. Subjection, and many other duties, we owe to the magistrates.

Ro 13:8-10. Love is the fulfilling of the law.

Ro 13:11-14. Gluttony and drunkenness, and the works of darkness, are out of season in the time of the Gospel.
Romans chapter 14

Ro 14:1-12. Men may not contemn nor condemn one another for things indifferent;

Ro 14:13-14. but take heed that they give no offence in them;

Ro 14:15-23. which the apostle proves unlawful by many reasons.
Romans chapter 15

Ro 15:1. The strong must bear with the weak.

Ro 15:2. We must not please ourselves;

Ro 15:3-6. for Christ did not so;

Ro 15:7. but receive one another, as Christ did us all;

Ro 15:8-14. both Jews and Gentiles;

Ro 15:15-27. Paul excuses his writing;

Ro 15:28-29. and promises to see them;

Ro 15:30-33. and requests their prayers.
Romans chapter 16

Ro 16:1-16. Paul wills the brethren to greet many;

Ro 16:17-20. and advises them to take heed of those which cause dissension and offences;

Ro 16:21-27. and after sundry salutations ends with praise and thanks to God.
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