SUBHEADINGS

1:18

In some papers the chapters or their equivalents are divided into sections, which may in turn be divided into subsections, and these into sub- subsections, and so on. Such divisions are customarily given titles, called subheadings, which are designated respectively first-, second-, and third-level subheadings and differentiated from one another by typing style. The style of subheading with the greatest attention value should be given to the principal, or first-level, subdivision. On a type written page centered headings have greater attention value than side headings, and underlined headings, centered or side, have greater attention value than those not underlined. A plan for the display of five levels of subheadings in a typed paper follows:

First-level, centered heading, underlined:

Traditional Controversy between Medieval
Church and State

Second-level, centered heading, not underlined:

Reappearance of Religious Legalism

Third-level, side heading underlined, beginning at the left margin:

Jesus and Paul

Fourth-level, side heading, not underlined:

The Gospel as initiated
by Jesus

Fifth-level, heading run into (at the beginning of) a paragraph and underlined:

The gospel legalized in the Church. The gospel that was offered by the early Christians to the pagans was made available through the Church.

Note that first- and second-level subheadings are typed in capital and small letters, and that lower-level subheadings capitalize only the first word, proper nuns, and proper adjectives.

1:19

If fewer than five levels are required, they may be selected in any suitable descending order, as indicated above. (For spacing subheadings see pars. 13:24- 25.)


13:23
  1. Begin every major division (i.e., contents, preface, list of tables, list of illustrations, introduction, each newchapter, bibliography, appendix) on a new page.
  2. Center the heading in capital letters on the twelfth line from the top of the sheet.
  3. If the paper is divided into sections termed "chapters," the chapter number appears alone on the twelfth line, and the chapter title is centered on the third line beneath it.
  4. If the word chapter is not formally expressed and the sections are merely numbered, the number and title are centered on the twelfth line.
  5. If the title is longer than 48 spaces, set it in two or more double-spaced lines, in inverted-pyramid form.
  6. Use no punctuation at the ends of lines.
  7. Begin typing the subheading, the text, or the first entry of a list on the third line below the heading.
13:24
  1. A centered subheading of more than 48 spaces should be divided into two or more single-spaced lines, in inverted- pyramid form.
  2. A side heading of more than a half-line should be divided more or less evenly into two or more single-spaced lines, the runovers beginning at the margin.
  3. Paragraph headings should be underlined and should end with a period.
  4. All other subheadings should omit punctuation at the ends of lines.

13:25

All subheadings begin on the third line below text. if two or more subheadings appear together, a double space should be left between them, and a double space left also between the subheading and the text following.

Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations. 4th ed. Chicago: U. Chicago Pr., 1973. 7-8, 195-196.