INTRODUCTION.

fN the preparation of this volume we are indebted to many brilliant and interesting sketches, stories and descriptions, written at different times during the last thirty years for the press of New Orleans, by such eminent historians, litterateurs and journalists as the following : Hon. Charles Gayarre, Judge Alexander Walker, Charles E. Whitney, Mrs. Field ("Catherine Cole"), Alexander and his sons, John and Charles Dimitry, Lafcadio Hearn, Marion A. Baker, Norman Walker, and a number of others long >ince under the sod. We make this acknowledgment here, instead of accrediting the matter to them throughout the book, as each phrase or description is used or story is retold.

Many persons who visit New Orleans find difficulty in knowing where to go and what to see, and after the places have been determined upon they lose considerable pleasure by not knowing the traditions, legends and incidents surrounding such scenes. New Orleans— by its cosmopolitan character, and having been so far removed in its earlier history from the rest of the colonies, and during its occupancy by the Spanish and French—took to itself usages, customs and even a patois of its own, the story of which has furnished material for romances equaled by few other cities in this country. Some of these stories are still preserved and hang round the scenes of their birth like the Spanish moss clinging to the spreading oak, making and forming a part of its grandeur and existence. It has been the endeavor of the compilers to arrange these in such a manner as to facilitate the visitor to New Orleans and to furnish him with a complete Historical Sketch-Book and Guide to New Orleans and the Creole <juarter.

THE PUBLISHER. f New York, Dec, 15/^, 1884.

I take pleasure in recommending the following work. The pens

from which it comes represent not only as careful, trustworthy and

talented effort as could have undertaken it, but entirely different

lines of long experience and acquired knowledge concerning New

Orleans, that together quite bound the whole subject. Some of the

illustrations, I may take the liberty of adding, are from sketches

made under my own supervision.

GEO. W. CABLE.

Simsbury, Conn., Nov. 1 , 1 S84-.

GUIDE TO NEW ORLEANS.

CHAPTER I.—NEW ORLEANS, THE CRESCENT CITY.

THE EXTENT AND LIMIT OF NEW ORLEANS—ITS WARDS, DISTRICTS, AND OTHER SUBDIVISIONS—THE FOUNDING OF THE CITY—A BRIEF REVIEW OF ITS EARLY HISTORY.

New Orleans is par excellence, the city where one can amuse himself during the winter

1 months. In no other on this continent are so many and such varied attractions. This is

- peculiarly the case just now during " The World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition,"

with its myriads of exhibits, more diverse than at any exhibition heretofore. The Carnival, or

Mardi Gras festivities, with their mid-day and nocturnal pageants surpassing anything of the

kind, will this year be a feature of the winter, and the pen fails to describe their splendor.

While all the country north of the Tennessee river is locked in ice : its trees leafless and its homes stormed by fierce arctic winds, New Orleans smiles through the green of orange and magnolia trees. Her gardens are bright and odorous with flowers ; the streets are filled with loungers and sight-seers ; all the open-air resorts are crowded ; there is a busy hum of gaiety and music and laughter everywhere.

The city boasts three waterside resorts. Each has a hotel, a theatre, a fine restaurant. All of them are on Lake Pontchartrain, only five or six miles from the heart of the city, by steam cars running at short intervals. To him who has lived among blizzards and hailstorms, it must be a sensation to dine upon an open balcony in January, to see roses blooming in the garden, to breathe the soft south wind fanned from the Gulf of Mexico, and feel that luxuriousness peculiar to tropical latitudes. He can take his choice of the West End, Spanish Fort and Milneburg, at any of which points he can get an elegant repast. There is the Jockey Club with its races, the bayous and their aquatic sports, the base-ball parks, the river-side resorts with beer and music. In town are many restaurants, theatres, concert halls and saloons, where the stranger can sp^hd his evening pleasantly. Indeed, one must be strangely hard to please who, coming from the bleak and wintry North, cannot find sufficient enjoyment rambling about the bright and crowded streets, peeping into places of amusement and tasting the luxury of the wondrous climate of New Orleans.

The city is situated on the left or east bank of the Mississippi, 107 miles from its mouth. A small portion—the Fifteenth ward, generally styled " Algiers "—is on the west bank, but the great bulk of it, with nineteen-t wentieths of its population, is east of the river.

The Mississippi here is 1,500 to 3,000 feet in width, being much narrower than above. However, it makes up in depth, which here ranges from 60 to 250 feet, and enables the largest vessels to land at the bank or wharf. The speed of the current varies greatly, being 5 miles an hour during high water, at other periods very slow. The current, moreover, is treacherous, and in many places the river runs up-stream. Even when the upper current is moving towards the Gulf, an under-current runs in a different direction. Notwithstanding the power of the river, it is affected by the Gulf, and the latter's tides are felt at New Orleans. Salt water often forces its way up the Mississippi, making the river water, on which many depend, unfit to drink; salt water fish are often caught in the river at and above New Orleans, and sharks over seven feet long.

The tendency of the Mississippi, at the city, is to move westward. This it does, by depositing its alluvium on the east or New Orleans bank, and washing away the other bank, causing large cavings. This movement is rapid, averaging 15 feet a year. It is always adding new squares and streets to the front of New Orleans, which is known as " the batture." When the city was founded, the Custom-house which stood 160 years ago where it stands to-day, was on the river bank. Now it is three squares inland. At the foot of St. Joseph street most batture has been made, the river having travelled westward 1800 feet in a century and a half. What is now the east bank was then the west bank. During that period the Mississippi has filled up,

slowly but surely, its own channel—which is now well built up—and has, at the same time, carved out an entirely new channel for itself.

"New Orleans is specially interesting among the cities of the United States,"' remarks the British Encyclopedia " from the picturesqueness of its older sections, and the languages, tastes and customs of a large portion of Its people. Its history is as sombre and unique as the dark wet cypress forest, draped in long pendant Spanish moss, which once occupied its site and which still encircles its horizon."

It was founded iu 1718 by Jean Baptiste Lemoyne de Bienville, a French Canadian, Governor of the French colony which had been planted nineteen years earlier at Biloxi, on Mississippi Sound. A few yeai*s after its founding when it was still but little more than a squalid village of deported galley slaves, trappers and gold hunters, it was made the capital of that vast Louisiana, which loosely comprised the whole Mississippi Valley. The names remaining in vogue in that portion of the city still distinguished as le vieuxcarre, or the old French quarter, preserve an interesting record of these humble beginnings. The memory of the French dominion is retained in the titles and foreign aspects of Toulouse, Orleans, Du Maine, Conti, Dauphine and Chartres streets ; while the sovereignty of Spain is even more distinctly traceable in the stuccoed walls and iron lattices, huge locks and hinges, arches and gratings, balconies and jalousies, corrugated roofs of tiles, dim corridors and inner courts, brightened with portieres, urns and basins, statues half hid in roses and vines, and musical with sounds of trickling water. There are streets named for the Spanish Governors, Unzaga. Galvez. Miro, Salcedo, Casa Calva and Carondelet.

The site of New Orleans was selected by Bienville as the highest point on the river bank and consequently safe from overflow. The second year of its occupation, however, the entire town was submerged, and it was found necessary to construct a dyke around it to protect it against inundation. This dyke was the beginning of the immense system of levees which have cost the people of the Lower Mississippi Valley over $150,000,000 to erect and maintain. The site selected by Bienville for the city was deemed specially favorable, first on account of its height—it was ten feet above the level of the ocean—and secondly, on account of a bayou which ran just back of the town to Lake Pontchartrain, thus giving the city communication with the Gulf, otherwise than by the river whose strong current at high flood rendered it difficult of ascent. It did not prove to be so favorable as it had appeared at first sight, being covered by a noisome and almost impenetrable cypress swamp, and subject to frequent if not annual overflow. Its distance from the mouth of the river was also a great disadvantage. Bayou St. John, known to the Indians as Choupich (muddy), and Bayou Sauvage, afterward Gentilly, navigable to small seagoing vessels to within a mile of the Mississippi's bank, led by a short course to the open waters of the lake and thence to the Gulf. Here, in 1718, Bienville landed a detachment of twenty-five convicts or galley slaves, twenty-five carpenters and a few voyageurs from the Illinois Country (Canadians) to make a clearing and erect the necessary huts for the new city which he proposed to found, and which he named in honor of his Highness, the Prince Regent of France, Louis Philippe, Duke d'Orleans, one of the greatest roues and scoundrels that ever lived.

The original city, as laid off by Bienville, comprised eleveu squares front on the river, running from Customhouse street (rue de la Douane) to Barracks street (rue des Quartiers), and five squares back from Levee street (rue de la Levee) to Burgundy (rue de la Bour-gogne). These limits constituted for many years the boundaries of New Orleans. During the early French days, houses were built back of this, along the road running towards the lake and Bayou St. John. Plantations were established on the river bank, both above and below the city. "When the city was transferred from Spain to France, and thence to the United States, the great bulk of the population still lived in the old quarters. The Americans, however, began to establish themselves above on what was of old the Jesuits' plantation, building up a new town, which became known as the faubourg St. Mary or Sainte Marie. At the lower end of town, another suburb was laid out, known as faubourg

GUIDE TO NEW ORLEANS.

3

Marigny. This made New Orleans a perfect crescent in shape, for the river just in front of the city bends gracefully in the form of a half moon. To this circumstance is due the title of "Crescent City," bestowed upon New Orleans fifty years ago, and which, although very applicable then, is ridiculous to-day. The city has spread up stream, following the bank of the river, annexing innumerable suburban towns and villages, until it is now in shape very much like the letter " S," long and narrow, while a portion of it, the Fifteenth ward, or Algiers, is situated on the right bank and cut off entirely from the rest of the city.

In this movement upstream and backward towards the lake, New Orleans has swallowed a large number of towns and villages—almost as many as London itself. And as many of the districts thus devoured still retain iu ordinary parlance their old titles, it is very confusing to strangers. Thus, the western portion of New Orleans is never spoken of as the Fifteenth ward, but always as Algiers, recalling the fact that fifteen years ago, it was a city with a complete municipal government of its own, mayor, council and policemen. The extreme upper portion of New Orleans, constituting the Sixteenth and Seventeenth wards, is universally known as Carrollton, while another portion, that bordering on Lake Pontchartrain, still bears the title of Milneburg, in honor of the philanthropist Milne.

New Orleans comprises to-day what originally constituted the cities of New Orleans, Algiers, Carrollton, Jefferson City and Lafayette, the faubourgs Treme, Delord, St. Johnsburg, Marigny, DeClouet. Sainte Marie, Annonciation, Washington, Neuve Marigny, las Communes, and the villages of Greenville, Burtheville, Bouligny, Hurstville, Fribourg, Rickerville, Mechanicsville, Belleville, Bloomington, Freetown, Metairieville, Milneburg. Feinerburg, Gentilly, Marley, Foucher and others.

Of these, the only names still used to any extent are Algiers, Carrollton, Jefferson. Greenville, Gentilly, Milneburg and Freetown.

Algiers is that portion of New Orleans on the right, or west bank of the river, where the Southern Pacific or Louisiana & Texas R. R. has its depot.

Freetown, is a negro suburb of Algiers, lying directly north of it. and between it and Gretna. Carrollton embraces what is known as the Seventh district or the Sixteenth and Seventeenth wards. Upper Line street divides it from the remainder of the city. It extends between parallel lines to Lake Pontchartrain and includes the lake resort or pleasure ground known as West End. Jefferson City constitutes what is known as the Sixth district, or Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth wards. It comprises all that portion of New Orleans between Toledano and Upper Line streets.

Greenville is that portion of Jefferson next to Carrollton and bordering the river, and in the immediate neighborhood of the Upper City Park or Exposition Grounds.

Gentilly is the small settlement mainly of farmers, dairy-men and vegetable dealers in the Bayou Gentilly, a corruption of Chantilly, the celebrated estate of the Condes in France, just back of the Third district on the line of the Pontchartrain Railroad. ( Milneburg is the village lying at the terminus of the Pontchartrain Railroad on Lake Pont-

chartrain. The terminus of the New Orleans & Lake Road is similarly known as West End, and " that of the New Orleans & Spanish Fort Railroad as Spanish Fort.

New Orleans includes the entire parish of Orleans, the greater portion of which is an uninhabitable swamp. All the land between the river and lakes Pontchartrain and Borgne is consequently a portion of the city and controlled by municipal laws and ordinances. The total area subject to municipal government is 187 square miles or 119,680 acres. Of this only a very small portion, less than one-tenth, is built upon or even cultivated in farms or inhabited. The greater portion of New Orleans is still. covered by the primeval cypress forests and sea swamp and marsh. Chef Menteur, the Rigolets, are part and parcel of the city, although thirty miles distant from a house. Within the municipal limits are the best fishing and duck-hunting resorts in the South, and there are probably sections of the Ninth ward of New Orleans which have never been visited by man, and as unknown as the centre of Africa. One can easily get lost in these

morasses, and several instances of quite recent occurrence are on record of men having been lost for days and weeks in the cypress swamps, which are a portion of the municipality, and from which they were rescued when very nearly expiring from starvation.

A short time ago, a writer engaged in preparing sketches of New Orleans scenes, had a photograph taken of the swamp lying in the exact geographical centre of New Orleans, immediately behind the Boys' House of Refuge. The photograph was so weird and gloomy that the magazine declined to print it, confessing that it was a fine sketch, but declaring, at the same time, that no one would believe for a second, that such a melancholy spot existed in the centre of a great city.

This condition of affairs is due to the necessity of placing all this country, between the river and the lakes, under the control of the city authorities, in order to facilitate and improve its system of drainage. The river being higher than the city and Lake Pontchartrain lower, it has been found necessary to drain backward through large open canals into the lake.

New Orleans is divided into districts and wards. The wards are the political divisions, while the districts are mainly used for describing the location of a building. Thus, one seldom speaks of living in the Third ward, but rather says, "in the First district."

The First district, including the First, Second and Third wards, is the old faubourg Ste. Marie or American quarter. It is the commercial centre of the city, and the seat of most of its manufactures.

The Second district includes the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth wards. It is the old city or the Creole quarter. The oldest portion is well built up, well populated, and includes the greater portion of the foreign population of New Orleans.

The Third district includes the Seventh, Eighth and Ninth wards. It is the old faubourg Marigny, and embraces the lower portion of the town, with a population mainly of Germans and Creoles.

The Fourth district includes the Tenth and Eleventh wards. It is nearly entirely a residence quarter, and the location of the finest dwellings, mainly occupied by Americans.

The Fifth district constitutes but one ward, the Fifteenth. It is the seat of the railroad repair shops, dockyards, etc.

The Sixth district is like the Fourth, namely, a residence quarter. It embraces three wards, the Twelfth, Thirteenth, and Fourteenth, and includes the Upper City, or Exposition Park.

The Seventh district, or Sixteenth and Seventeenth wards, known generally as Carrollton, is thinly settled, and mainly given up to dairies, small truck farms, etc.

A still more marked division of the city is that between the French, or Creole, and American quarters. Canal street, which separates the First and Second districts, is that dividing line, and separates two towns as widely different in race, language, customs or ideas as two races of people living close to each other, and separated only by an imaginary line, can well be.

DISTRICTS AND THEIR BOUNDARIES.

FrRST District, is bounded on the North by Canal street, South by Felicity street, East by the River, and West by Felicity street and New Canal.

Second District, is bounded on the North by Esplanade street, South by Canal street, East by the River, and West by city limits.

Third District, is bounded on the North by the Lake, South by the River, East by city limits, West by Esplanade.

Fourth District, is bounded by Felicity and Toledano streets and the River.

Fifth District, comprises all the city on the West bank of the River, formerly Algiers.

Sixth District, comprising Jefferson City, Burtheville, Greenville, Bloomingdale, etc., is

bounded on the North and West by the lower line of Carrollton and Marley avenue, South by the River, and East by Toledano street and the River.

Seventh District, formerly Carrollton, comprises all that portion of the city above the Sixth district to the boundary line of Jefferson Parish.

BOUNDARIES OF WARDS.

First Ward, from Felicity street to Thalia.

Second Ward, from Thalia street to Julia.

Third Ward, from Julia street to Canal.

Fourth Ward, from Canal street to St. Louis.

Fifth Ward, from St. Louis street to St. Philip,

Sixth Ward, from St. Philip street to Esplanade.

Seventh Ward, from Esplanade street to Elysian Fields.

Eighth Ward, from Elysian Fields street to Lafayette avenue.

Ninth Ward, from Lafayette avenue to lower limits of the city.

Tenth Ward, from Felicity street to First.

Eleventh Ward, from First street to Toledano.

Twelfth Ward, from Toledano street to Napoleon avenue.

Thirteenth Ward, from Napoleon avenue to Upper Line.

Fourteenth Ward, from Upper Line street to Lower Line.

Fifteenth Ward, all of the Fifth district.

Sixteenth Ward, from Lower Line to Carrollton avenue.

Seventeenth Ward, from Carrollton avenue to Upper Line No. 2.

HISTORICAL SKETCH BOOK.

CHAPTER II.— EARLY HISTORY.

NEW ORLEANS UNDER THE FRENCH AND SPANISH DOMINIONS—VICISSITUDES OF THE EARLY INHABITANTS -ORIGIN OF THE POPULATION—HOW THE CITY LOOKED IN 1/26.

The city of New Orleans was founded in 1718. that is a few men were landed there and put to work constructing huts and warehouses. In 1719 an overflow occurred which flooded the entire town, and compelled the men to cease work on the buildings and begin the er ction of a levee around the place in order to prevent a recurrence of the calamity. In 1720. New Orleans was placed under the military command of M. De Noyau. Bienville, in colonial council, endeavored to have it declared the capital of the colony of Louisiana, instead of old Biloxi, (now Ocean Springs'), but was outvoted.

He sent his chief of engineers, however, Sieur Le Blond de la Tour, a Knight of St. Louis, to the little settlement, with orders "to choose a suitable site for a city worthy to become the capital of Louisiana." Stakes were driven, lines drawn, streets marked off, town lots granted, ditched and palisaded, a rude levee thrown up along the river front, and the scattered settlers of the neighborhood gathered into the form of a town. To de la Tour, therefore, is due the naming of the streets of the old city.

On Bayou St. John, near this little town, was a settlement of Indians, called Tchoutchouma, or the place of the Houma or Sun, a title which has been often poetically applied to New Orleans.

In 1721 warehouses had already been erected, and Bienville (then Governor of Louisiana) reserved the right to make his residence in the new city on certain governmental regulations. Finally, in June of the following year, 1722, the royal commissioners having at length given orders to transfer the seat of government from Biloxi to New Orleans, a gradual removal was begun of the troops and effects of the Mississippi Company, who had control of Louisiana. In August, Bienville completed the transfer by moving thither the gubernatorial headquarters. In the January preceding these accessions the place already contained 100 houses and 300 inhabitants.

It will be seen, therefore, that it was entirely due to Bienville's perspicuity and obstinacy that New Orleans was finally made the capital of the French possessions in America. The State of Louisiana and city of New Orleans have ill requited him. In the U. S. Custom House there is a basso-rilievo in marble of Bienville, which is the only monument ever erected to him in New Orleans. A single street bears his name, thanks to de la Tour, his own engineer. Beyond this, New Orleans has done nothing to honor the man to whom she owes her foundation, and whom for years her people called "father."

The buildings in the little city must have been very unstable, for the next year, on September 11th, a storm destroyed the parish church—the predecessor of the St. Louis Cathedral, and standing on the same site now occupied by that building—the hospital, and thirty of the one hundred dwellings the town contained.

The population increased with wonderful rapidity. In 1723, a party of emigrants from Germany, who had crossed the ocean to settle on lands in Arkansas, granted to them by the celebrated Law, being disappointed in their original intention, descended the river to New Orleans, hoping to obtain a passage back to France. This the government was unable to furnish, ut small tracts of land were given to them on both sides of the river about thirty miles above New Orleans, at what is known as the German Coast, where they settled and engaged in agricultural pursuits, supplying the city with vegetables and garden products. This was the commencement of the German element in the population of New Orleans.

--'

GUIDE TO NEW ORLEANS. <

Most of these Germans, however, became thoroughly Gallicized in the course of time, and to-day their descendants speak nothing but French, and most of them bear French titles, having translated their Teutonic names into French.

In 1732, the population of the little city had grown to 5,000. A few civil and military officials of high rank had brought their wives with them from France, and a few Canadians had brought them from Canada, but they were the exceptions. The male portion of the population consisted principally of soldiers, trappers, miners, galley slaves and redemptioners bound for three years' service, while the still disproportionally small number of women was almost entirely made up of transported and unreformed inmates of houses of correction, with a few Choctaw squaws and African slave women. Gambling, duelling and vicious idleness were indulge;! in to such an extent as to give the authorities great concern. The ConiDany addressed its efforts to the improvement of both the architectural and social features of the provincial capital, and the years 1726 and 1727 are conspicuous for these endeavors. The importation of male vagabonds and criminals had already ceased, stringent penalties were laid upon gambling, and steps were taken for promotion of education and religion.

Though the plan of the town comprised a parallelogram of 4,000 feet on the river by a depth of 1,800, and was divided into regular squares of 300 feet, front and depth, yet its appearance was disorderly and squalid. A few board cabins of split cypress (pieux) tbatched with cypress bark, were scattered confusedly over the swampy ground, surrounded and isolated from each other by willow brakes, reedy ponds and sloughs bristling with dwarf palmettos and swarming with reptiles.

In the middle of the river front two squares had been reserved, the front one as a parade ground or Place d'Armes (now Jackson Square), the other for ecclesiastical purposes. The middle of the rear square had from the first been occupied by a church, and is at present the site of the St. Louis Cathedral. On the left and adjoining the church a company of Capuchin priests erected in 1726 a convent. A company of Ursuline nuns, commissioned to open a school for girls and to attend to the sick, arrived in 1727 from France, and were given temporary quarters in the house on the north corner of Chartres and Bienville streets, while the foundations of a large and commodious nunnery were laid for them in the square bounded by the river front, Chartres, rue de 1'Arsenal (now Ursuline street, in honor of the nuns), and the lower limit of the city, now Hospital street. This building, which was finished in 1730, being then the largest edifice in New Orleans, was occupied by the nuns for ninety-four years, until 1824, when they removed to their present convent below the city. In 1831 the old building became the State House of Louisiana : in 1834 it was made the archiepiscopal palace for the Catholic Archbishop of New Orleans, in which capacity it still serves. It is the oldest building in New Orleans, being in 1885 one hundred and fifty-five years of age, and as strong and stable as when first built.

A soldiers' hospital was built near the convent in the square above, which gave to Hospital street its name.

The Jesuits received the grant of a tract of land immediately above the city, in consideration of which they agreed to educate the youth of New Orleans. This tract was twenty arpents (3,600 feet) front, by fifty arpents (9,000 feet) depth, and lay within the boundaries now indicated by Common and Terpsichore streets, and back from the Eiverto the Bayou. A further grant of seven arpents front, adjoining the first grant, made the Jesuits' plantation cover all the land now known as the First district. The space between the plantation and the city was declared a terre commune, a pleasure ground not to be built on, but to be used as a public road and for the purposes of fortification. This tetre commune marks Common street, which derives its name therefrom.

The Jesuits settled on their plantation in 1727, being furnished with a residence, a chapel, and slaves to cultivate their lands. They introduced the orange, fig, sugar cane and indigo plant to Louisiana.

g • HISTORICAL SKETCH BOOK.

A map of New Orleans, made in 1728 when Perier was Governor of the colony of Louisiana shows the ancient Place d'Armes of the same rectangular figure as to-day, an open plot of grass, crossed by two diagonal paths and occupying the exact middle of the town front. Behind it stood the parish church of St. Louis, built like most of the public buildings of that day, of brick. On the right of the church was a small guardhouse and prison, and on the left was the dwelling of the Capuchins. On the lower side of the Place d'Armes, at the corner of Ste. Anne and Chartres, were the quarters of the government employees. The grounds facing the Place d'Armes in St. Peter and Ste. Anne streets were still unoccupied, except by cord-wood and a few pieces of parked artillery on the one side and a small house for issuing rations on the other. Just off the river front, on Toulouse street, were the smithies of the Marine, while on the other hand two long narrow buildings lining either side of the street named in honor of the Due du Maine, and reaching from the river front nearly to Chartres street, were the King's warehouses. Upon the upper corner of the rue de l'Arsenal (now Ursulines) was the hospital, with its grounds running along the upper side of the street to Chartres, while on the square next below was the convent of the Ursulines. The barracks and the Company's forges were in the square, bounded by Royal, St. Louis, Bourbon and Conti. In the extreme upper portion of the city, on the river front, at what in later years became the corner of Customhouse and Decatur streets, were the house and grounds of the Governor; and in the square immediately below them the humbler quarters transiently occupied by the Jesuits. The fine residences, built of cypress, or half brick and half frame, mainly one story and never over two and a half, stood on Chartres and Royal streets. The poorer people lived in the rear of the city, the greater number of their houses being located in Orleans street. Prominent among the residents of New Orleans at that early day, to whom belongs the honor of being the original founders of the city—its F. F.'s—stand the names Delery, Dalby, St. Martin, Dupuy. Rossard, Duval, Beaulieu-Chauvin, D'Anseville, Perrigaut, Dreux, Mandeville, Tisseraud, Bonneau, DeBlanc, Dasfeld, Villere, Pro-venche, Gauvrit, Pellerin, D'Artaguette, Lazon, Raguet, Fleurieu, Brule, Lafreniere, Carriere, Caron and Pascal. About half these names are now extinct, but the remainder still flourish in New Orleans and throughout Louisiana.

In that same year, 1728, occurred the one important event, the arrival of a consignment of reputable girls, sent over by the King of France to the Ursulines, to be disposed of in marriage by them. They were supplied by the King on their departure from France with a small chest of clothing, and were long known in the traditions of their colonial descendants by the honorable distinction of the filles dela cassette, or "the casket girls," to distinguish them from the "correction girls" previously sent over from the prisons and hospitals of Paris.

Incidents of Indian warfare and massacre are not lacking on the pages of the early history of New Orleans.

It was in 1730 that the Natchez Indians murdered all the French at Fort Rosalie (Natchez) and at a number of other settlements above New Orleans. All the able-bodied men of the little city, black as well as white, were armed and sent against them. This was followed in 1732 by a negro insurrection, which was only suppressed by the execution of the ringleaders, the women on the gallows, the men on the wheel. The heads of the men were stuck upon posts at the upper and lower extremities of the town front, and at the Tchoupitoulas settlement, and at other points, to inspire future would-be conspirators with awe.

In 1758, New Orleans received a considerable accession of population, on account of the absorption by the British of the French settlements on the upper Ohio, at Fort Duquesne, now Pittsburgh, and the consequent migration of the French colonists from these points to New Orleans. This required the construction of additional barracks in the lower part of the city front, at a point afterwards known by the name of Barracks street (rue des Quartiers). Expecting an attack from the British, Governor Kerlerec seized the opportunity to improve the fortifications around the town.

The Creoles of New Orleans were at this time greatly agitated over what is known in Louisiana history as the "Jesuit War," a quarrel between the Jesuits and Capuchins as to jurisdiction. This strife was characterized by "acrimonious writings, squibs, pasquinades and satirical songs," the women in particular taking sides with lively zeal. In July 1763, the Capuchins were left masters of the field, the Jesuits being expelled from all French and Spanish possessions on the order of the Pope. Their plantation, which was in a splendid condition and one of the best in Louisiana, was sold for $180,000, a very large sum in those days.

In November, 1762, the treaty of Fontainebleau was signed, by which France transferred Louisiana to Spain. The transaction was kept a secret, and it was not until after the lapse of two years that the people of New Orleans learned with indignation and alarm that they had been sold to Spain. In March, 1766, the new Spanish Governor, Don Antonio de Ulloa, arrived with only two companies of Spanish troops. For some time, the incoming Spanish and the outgoing French Governors administered the affairs of the colony, but on October 25th, 1768, a conspiracy, long and carefully planned, and in which some of the first officers of the government and the leading merchants of New Orleans were engaged, revealed itself in open hostilities. At the head of this movement were Lafreniere, the Attorney-General, Foucault, the intendant Noyau and Bienville, nephews of the city's founder, and Milhet, Carresse, Petit, Poupet, Marquis, DeMasan, Hardy de Bois-Blanc and Yillere, prominent merchants and planters. On the night of the 28th, the guns at the Tchoupitoulas gate at the upper side of the city were spiked, and the Acadians, headed by Noyau, and the Germans, by Yillere, entered the city. Ulloa and his troops retired aboard the Spanish frigate lying in the river and sailed for Havana.

Thus, freed from the Spanish dominion, the project of forming a republic was discussed by the Louisiana Creoles, and delegates were sent to the British American colonies to propose some sort of union of all the American colonies. But the republic was short-lived.

On August 18th, 1769, Don Alexandro O'Reilly—whom Byron's Donna Juana mentions so favorably—arrived with 3,600 picked Spanish troops, 50 pieces of artillery, and 24 vessels. TheLouisian-ians could not resist this force. Twelve of the principal movers of the insurrection were arrested ; six of them shot in the Place d'Armes, and the others imprisoned in the Moro Castle at Havana.

At the time that O'Reilly took possession of New Orleans, the trade of the city was mainly in the hands of the English. He soon broke this up, however, refusing to admit any English vessels to New Orleans. The commercial privileges of the city were, however, gradually extended. Trade was allowed with Campeachy and the French and Spanish West Indies, under certain restrictions. The importation of slaves from these islands had long been forbidden on account of the insurrectionary spirit which existed among them, but the trade in Guinea negroes was encouraged. In 1778, Galvez gave New Orleans the right to trade with any port in France, or of the thirteen British colonies, then engaged in their struggle for independence. In 1776, Oliver Pollock at the head of a number of merchants from New York, Philadelphia, and Boston, who had established themselves in New Orleans, began, with the countenance of Galvez, to supply, by fleets of large canoes, the agents of the American cause with arms and ammunition delivered at Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh).

On Good Friday, March 21st, 1780, occurred the great conflagration which destroyed nearly the entire city. It began on Chartres street near St. Louis, in the private chapel of Don Yincento Jose Nunez, the military treasurer of the colony. The buildings on the immediate riverfront escaped, but the central portion of the town, including the entire commercial quarter, the dwellings of the leading inhabitants, the town ball, the arsenal, the jail, the parish church and the quarters of the Capuchins were completely destroyed. Nineteen squares and 856 houses were destroyed in this fire.

Six years later, on December 8th, 1794, some children playing in a court on Royal street, too near an adjoining hay store, set fire to it. A strong north wind was blowing at the time, and in three hours 212. dwellings and stores in the heart of the town, were destroyed. The cathedral,

lately founded on the site of the church, burned in 1788, escaped ; but the pecuniary loss exceeded that of the previous conflagration, which had been estimated at $2,600,000. Only two stores were left standing, and a large portion of the population was compelled to camp out in the Place d' Amies and on the levee.

In consequence of these devastating fires, whose ravages were largely attributable to the inflammable building material in general use, Baron Carondelet, then governor, offered a premium on roofs covered with tiles, instead of shingles, as heretofore ; and thus came into use the tile roof which to-day forms one of the most picturesque features of the old French quarter. As the heart of the city filled up again it was with better structures, displaying many Spanish-American features—adobe or brick walls, arcades, inner courts, ponderous doors and windows, balconies, portes cocheres, and white or yellow lime-washed stucco. Two-story dwellings took the place of one-story buildings, and the general appearance as well as the safety of the city was improved.

New Orleans now made rapid improvement. Don Andres Almonaster y Eoxas, father of Baroness Pontalba, erected a handsome row of brick buildings on both sides of the Place d'Armes, where the Pontalba buildings now stand, making the fashionable retail quarter of the town. In 1787 he built on Ursuline street a chapel of stucco brick for the nuns. The Charity hospital founded in 1737 by a sailor named Jean Louis, on Rampart, between St. Louis and Toulouse, then outside of the town limits, was destroyed in 1779 by the hurricane. In 1784, Almonaster began and two years later completed, at a cost of $114,0C0, on the same site, a brick edifice, which he called the Charity Hospital of St. Charles, a name the institution still bears. In 1792 he began the erection upon the site of the parish church, destroyed by fire in 1788, of a brick building, and in 1794.when Louisiana and Florida were erected into a bishopric separate from Havana, this church, sufficiently completed for occupation, became the St. Louis Cathedral. Later still, he filled the void made by the burning of the town hall and the jail, which, until the conflagration, had stood on the south side of the church, facing the Place d'Armes, with the hall of the Cabildo, the same that stands there at this time, consecrated to the courts, with the exception of the upper story added since, the French roof which at present distorts its architecture.

The Government itself completed very substantially the barracks begun by Governor Ker-lerec, on Barracks street. Close by, it built a military hospital and chapel, and near the upper river corner of the town, on the square now occupied for the same purpose, but which was then directly on the river, it put up a wooden customhouse. The " Old French market" on the river front, just below the Place d'Armes, was erected and known as the Halle de Boucherles.

In 1794 Governor Carondelet began, and in the following two years finished, with the aid of a large force of slaves, the excavation of the "'old basin," and the Carondelet Canal, connecting New Orleans with Bayou St. John and Lake Pontchartrain.

In 1791 the Creoles of New Orleans became infected with republicanism, and Carondelet found it necessary to take the same precautions with New Orleans as if he had held a town of the enemy. The Marseillaise was wildly called for at the theater which some French refugees from San Domingo had opened, and in the drinking shops was sung " C'a ira, ca Ira, lesaristocratta a lalanterne.' 1 ''

To ensure safety the fortifications of the city were rebuilt, being completed in 1794. They consisted of a fort, St. Charles, at the lower river front, with barracks for 150 men, and a parapet J8 feet thick faced with brick, a ditch and a covered way ; Fort St. Louis, at the upper river corner, was similar to this in all regards. The armament of these was twelve 12 and 18-pounders. At the corner of Canal and Rampart street was Fort Burgundy ; on the present Congo square, Fort St. Joseph, and at what is now the corner of Rampart and Esplanade street, Fort St. Ferdinand. The wall which passed from fort to fort was 15 feet high, with a fosse in front, 7 feet deep and 40 feet wide, kept filled with water from the Carondelet Canal.

in 1794 ^tienne de Bore" whose plantation occupied the site where the Seventh dis

trict of New Orleans (Carrollton) now stands, succeeded in producing $12,000 worth of superior sugar, and introduced sugar culture into Louisiana.

In 1787, New Orleans was doing a very large export trade for the American possessions, on the upper Mississippi and Ohio, the goods being shipped to the city on flat boats. In August, 1788, Gen. Wilkinson, received through his agent in New Orleans, via the Mississippi, a cargo of dry goods and other articles, for the Kentucky market, probably the first boatload of manufactured commodities that ever went up the river to the Ohio.

In 1793, the citizens of the colony were granted the valuable concession of an open commerce

with Europe and America, and a number of merchants from Philadelphia established

i commercial houses in New Orleans. On October 20th, 1795, was signed at Madrid, the treaty,

which declared the Mississippi free to the people of the United States, and New Orleans a port

of deposit for three years free of any charge.

On the 1st of October, 1800, Louisiana was transferred by Spain to France. It was not however, until March 2Gth, 1803, that the French colonial prefect Laussat, landed at New Orleans, commissioned to prepare for the expected arrival of General Victor, with a large force of French troops. Instead of General Victor, however, a vessel from France brought the news in July that Louisiana had been purchased by the United States. On November 3rd, with troops drawn up in line on the Place d'Armes, and with discharges of artillery, Salcedo, the Spanish governor, in the hall of the Cabildo, delivered the keys of New Orleans to Laussat. On the 20th of the next month, Laussat, with similar ceremonies, turned Louisiana over to Commissioners Claiborne and Wilkinson, and New Orleans became a part of the United States. At that time, with its suburbs, it possessed a population of 10,000, the great majority of the white population being Creoles.

CHAPTER III.—THE OLDEN DAYS.

NEW ORLEANS UNDER THE SPANISH DOMINION—CONDITION OF THE CITY JUST PREVIOUS TO ITS ANNEXATION TO THE UNITED STATES—OLD HABITS AND CUSTOMS THAT STILL SURVIVE.

The traveler approaching New Orleans by the river in the year 1802, would have discerned at the first glance, what would have seemed a tolerably compactly built town, facing the levee for a distance of some 1,200 yards from its upper to its lower extremity. From the rue de la Levee (now Decatur street) the town extended in depth (on paper) about 600 yards, although Dauphine street was in reality the limit of the inhabited quarter in that direction. The line of what is now Rampart street was occupied by the palisaded fortification, with a few forts, all in a greater or less condition of dilapidation. At the upper end of the ramparts was Fort St. Louis, and on the ground now known as Congo square, was Fort St. Ferdinand, the chief place for bull and bear fights. Esplanade street was a fortification, beginning at Fort St. Ferdinand and ending at its junction with the ramparts on Rampart street. Along what is now Canal street was a moat filled with water, which terminated at a military gate on the Che?nm des Tchoiipitoulas, near the levee. Thus was the city protected from siege and attack.

Along the river the city's upper limit of houses was at about St. Louis street, and the lower at about St. Philip. The Spanish barracks on Canal street covered the whole block between what are now known as Hospital and Barracks streets.

The house occupied by the Spanish Governor-General of the province was situated at the corner of Toulouse and the rue de la Levee. It was a plain residence of one story, with the aspect of an inn. It fronted the river. One side was bordered by a narrow and unpretending garden in the form of a,parte? , re ) and on the other side ran a low gallery screened by latticework, while the back yard, inclosed by fences, contained the kitchens and the stables. This house was burned down in 1S27, after having been used for the sessions of the Legislature.

Other public buildings, now passed away, were the Military or Royal Hospital, the Public or Charity Hospital, and a convent of Ursuline nuns. There was no merchants' exchange for the transaction of business, no colonial post-office, no college, no library, public or private, and but one newspaper, the Moniteur de la Louisiane, which, issued once a week, had but a limited circulation, and was confined to the printing of a few Government orders or proclamations on local affairs, business advertisements, formulas for passports, bills of lading, and a driblet of political news, Joachim Salazar, a portrait painter from Mexico, lived in the city at that period, and testimony to his presence still survives in the shape of portraits to be seen in the houses of some old families.

In the faubourg that extended above the city, with a frontage of 600 yards by a depth of 300, were two establishments where cotton was cleaned, put up in bales and weighed. The only other factory that deserved the name, also in the faubourg, was a sugar refinery, where brown sugar was transformed into a white sugar of fine appearance. This establishment the city owed to the enterprise of certain French refugees from San Domingo.

Of the public buildings which are familiar to the eyes of the present generation, only the French Market, the Cathedral, and the Cabildo, or City Hall, adjoining the Cathedral at the corner of St. Peter and Chartres streets, still remain. The Cathedral was not yet finished and lacked those quaint white Spanish towers and the central belfry, which in 1814 and 1815, were added to it. The " Very Illustrious Cabildo," whichheld weekly meetings in this building, was the municipal body of Xew Orleans. It was composed of twelve individuals called regidors awl was presided over by the Governor-General or his Civil Lieutenant. Jackson Square, called

picture0

f||^^^l!^gpf~

'^'

/ftwuwtf^'

then the Place d'Armes, was used as a review ground for the troops, and was resorted to by nurses and children, the elders taking their " airing" on the Levee or the Grand CheminXhoX fronted the houses of the rue de la Levee. It was then but a grass plot, barren of trees and used as a playground by the children. It was rather a ghostly place, too, for children to play. A wooden gallows stood in the middle of it for several years and more than one poor fellow was swung off into eternity, about the spot where General Jackson now sits in effigy. Then there were no trees and no flowers, and no watchman to drive away the little fellows at play. The gallows was not the only stern and forbidding and uncongenial thing about the place either, for the calabosa stood just opposite ; it is the police station now.

Here, in front of the Place d'Armes, everything was congregated—the Cathedral Church of St. Louis, the convent of the Capuchins, the Government House, the colonial prison or calabosa, and the government warehouses. Around the square stretched the leading boutiques and restaurants of the town; on the side, was the market or Halles, where not only meat, fruit and vegetables were sold, but hats, shoes and handkerchiefs; while in front was the public landing. Indeed, here was the religious, military, industrial, commercial and social center of the city; here the troops paraded on fete days, and here even the public executions took place, the criminals being either shot, or nailed alive in their coffins and then slowly sawed in half. Here, on holidays, all the varied, heterogeneous population of the town gathered; fiery Louisiana Creoles, still carrying rapiers, ready for prompt use at the slightest insult to their jealous honor; habitans, fresh from Canada, rude trappers and hunters, voyageurs and coureurs-de-bois; plain unpretending 'Cadians from the Attakapas, arrayed in their home-made blue cottonades and redolent of the herds of cattle they had brought with them ; lazy emigre nobles, banished to this new world under lettres de cachet for interfering with the king's petits amours or taking too deep an interest in politics; yellow sirens from San Domingo, speaking a soft bastard French, and looking so languishingly out of the corners of their big black melting eyes, that it was no wonder that they led both young and old astray and caused their cold proud sisters of sang pur many a jealous heart-ache; staid and energetic Germans from "the German coast," with flaxen hair and Teutonic names, but speaking the purest of French, come down to the city for supplies ; haughty Castilian soldiers, clad in the bright uniforms of the Spanish cazadores ; dirty Indians of the Houma and Natchez tribes, some free, some slaves; negroes of every shade and hue from dirty white to deepest black, clad only in braguet and shapeless woolen shirts, as little clothing as the somewhat loose ideas of the time and country permitted ; and lastly, the human trash, ex-galley slaves and adventurers, shipped to the colony to be gotten rid of. Here, too, in the Place d'Armes the stranger could shop cheaper if not better than in the boutiques around it, for half the trade and business of the town was itinerant. Here passed rabbais, or peddling merchants, mainly Catalans and Provencals who, instead of carrying their packs upon their backs, had their goods spread out in a coffin-shaped vehicle which they wheeled before them ; colored marchandes selling callas and cakes; and milk and coffee women, carrying their immense cans well balanced upon their turbaned heads. All through the day went up the never-ceasing cries of the various street hawkers, from the " Barataria ! Barataria ! " and the "callas tous chaudsf' .'in the early morning, to the " belles chandelles/" that went up, as twilight deepened, from the sturdy negresses who sold the only light of the colony, horrible, dim, ill-smelling and smoky candles, made at home from the green wax myrtle.

Lake Pontchartrain was connected with New Orleans by the Carondelet Canal and the Bayou St. John, by which water-way schooners reached the city from the lake and the neighboring Gulf coast. The canal served moreover to drain the marshy district through which it ran and to give outlet to the standing waters.

With the exception of Levee, Chartres, Royal and perhaps Bourbon streets in the direction of its breadth, and the streets included between St. Louis and St. Philip in its length, the city was more in outline than in fact. The other streets comprised within the limits of the town were regularly laid out, it is true, but they, as well as the faubourg, were but sparsely settled. Along

Levee street, Chartres and Koyal, and on the intersecting squares included between them, the houses were of brick, sometimes of two stories, but generally one story high, with small, narrow balconies. These had been erected witbin a few years, and since the disastrous fires of the years 1788 and 1794, terrible calamities which had compelled the inhabitants to flee for safety to the Place d'Armes and the Levee to avoid death by the flames. Farther back in the town the houses were of an inferior grade, one story in height, built of cypress and resting on foundations of piles and bricks, and with shingled roofs. On the outskirts and in the faubourg the houses were little better than shanties. The sidewalks were four or five feet wide, but walking was sometimes rendered difficult by the projecting steps of the houses. ' One of the most disagreeable features of the city in those early days was the condition of the streets in which not a stone had been laid. A wooden drain served for a gutter, the banquette was also of wood, and the street between the sidewalks was alternately a swamp and a mass of stifling dust. Wagons dragged along, with the wheels sunk to the hubs in mud. It was not until 1821 that any systematic attempt was made to pave the streets. The city, in that year, offered $250 per ton for rock ballast as inducement to ship captains to ballast with rocks instead of sand, and this plan was quite effectual. In 1822 St. Charles street was paved for several blocks, and patches of pavement were made on other streets.

Prior to 1815, and, indeed, for some years afterward, the city was lighted by means of oil lamps suspended from wooden posts, from which an arm projected. The light only penetrated a very short distance, and it was the custom always to use lanterns on the streets. The order of march, when a family went out in the evening, was first, a slave bearing a lantern; then another slave bearing the shoes which were to be worn in the ball-room or theatre, and other articles of full dress that were donned only after the destination was reached, and last, the family. There were no cisterns in those days, the water of the Mississippi, filtrated, serving as drinking water, while water for common household needs was obtained from wells dug on the premises. Some houses possessed as many as two of these wells.

New Orleans, eighty years ago, was woefully deficient in promenades, drives and places of public amusement. The favorite promenade was the Levee with its King's road or Chemin des TcJioiqntoitlas, where twelve or fifteen Louisiana willow trees were planted, facing the street corners, and in whose shade were wooden benches without backs, upon which people sat in the afternoon, sheltered from the setting sun. These trees, which grow rapidly, extended from about St. Louis street to St. Philip. Outside the city limits was the Bayou road, with all its inconveniences of mud or dust, leading to the small plantations or truck farms forming the Gen-tilly district and to those of the Metairie ridge. It was the fashion to spend an hour or two in the evening on this road, riding on horseback or in carriages of more or less elegance. This custom was one that had crept in with other luxurious habits within the past eight or ten years, a period which had been marked by a noticeable growth in the desire for outside show of the citizens. Almost up to the year 1800 the women of the city, with few exceptions, dressed with extreme simplicity. But little taste was displayed either in the cut of their garments or in their ornaments. Head-gear was almost unknown. If a lady went out in summer, it was bareheaded ; if in winter, she usually wore a handkerchief or some such trifle as the Spanish women delight in. And at home, when the men were not about—so. at least, said those who penetrated there-she even went about barefooted, shoes being expensive luxuries.

A short round skirt, a long basque-like over garment ; the upper part of their attire of one color and the lower of another, with a profuse display of ribbons and little jewelry—thus dressed, the mass of the female population of good condition went about visiting, or attended the ball or theatre. But even three years had made a great change in this respect; and in 1802, for some reason that it would be difficult to explain, the ladies of the city appeared in attire as different from that of 1799 as could well be imagined. A surprising richness and elegance of apparel had taken the place of the primitive and tasteless garb of the few preceding years—a garb which, had it been seen at the ball or theatre in 1802, would have resembled to the critical

feminine eye a Mardi-Gras disguise. At that peried the natural charms of the ladies were heightened hy a toilette of most captivating details. Their dresses were of the richest embroidered muslins, cut in the latest fashions, relieved by soft and brilliant transparent taffetas, by superb laces, and embroidered with gold. To this must be added rich ear-rings, collars, bracelets, rings and other adornments. This costume, it is true, was for rare occasions, and for pleasant weather ; but it was a sample of the high art in dress that had come just in the nick of time to greet the fast-approaching American occupation.

Of the ten thousand people, of all ages, sexes and nationalities, who at that time formed the permanent population of New Orleans, about four thousand were white—native, European and American; three thousand free colored, and the rest slave. In addition to these there were from seven to eight hundred officers and soldiers composing the Spanish garrison, many other Government underlings, and numerous undomiciliated foreigners. In the ranks of those not native to the city or the colony were Frenchmen, Spaniards. English, Americans from the States, Germans, Italians, a few refugees from San Domingo and Martinique, emigrants from the Canaries and a number of gipsies. The mass of the Frenchmen were small shopkeepers and cultivators of the soil; the Spaniards were generally in the employment of the Government, either in the magistracy or the military service, or as clerks; the Catalonians kept shops or drinking houses ; the commercial class comprised chiefly the Americans, the English and the Irish ; the Italians were fishermen; the Canary Islanders or Islennes as they were termed, cultivated vegetable gardens and supplied the market with milk and chickens ; and the gipsies who had been induced to abandon a wandering life, were nearly all musicians or dancers. Of the Americans, some were of the Kaintock. (Kentucky) element, worthy fellows who came periodically to the city in their flatboats, floating down the river laboriously and bringing with them up-country produce from the banks of the Ohio and the Illinois, and returning on horseback to their distant homes, by the way of the river-road, after having disposed of their wares. Kaintock was a generic name given by the Creoles of those days to the Americans who came from the Upper Mississippi, and, as the name imports, chiefly from the flourishing State of Kentucky. They were regarded as in some way interlopers on the profound conservatism of the city. There was an idea of something objectionable—even more so than in the later phrase, Americain— attached to the word. Creole mothers would sometimes say to ill-behaved and rude children, '* Toi, tu n'es qu'un mauvais Kaintock." 1 But still, fortunately for the future of New Orleans, the Kaintock continued to come, clad in his home-spun and home-dyed jeans—sometimes in the hunter's buckskin garb—the advance guard of that great subsequent immigration of Americaim, who were destined to be seen, ten or fifteen years later, on the streets of the city, and of whose presence, about 1816, there is still extant In most abominable French, a reminder in the way of a quatrain which was sung by small boys, white as well as black, natives of the town, at the passing-by of these strange and unwelcome new-comers—

" 'Mericain coguin, 'mitten nanqidn, Yoleur di pain Chez MicJie D'Aqnin /"

Which may be thus freely rendered in English :

'* American rogue ! Dressed in nankeen! Stealer of bread, Mr. D'Aquin !"

In 1802 New Orleans possessed a theatre—such as it was—situated on St, Peter street, in the middle of the block between Royal and Bourbon, on the left-hand side going toward the swamp. It was a long, low wooden structure, built of cypress and alarmingly exposed to the dangers of fire. Here, in 1799, half a dozen actors and actresses, refugees from the insurrection in San Domingo, gave acceptable performances, rendering comedy, drama, vaudevilles and coi,.

operas. But owing to various causes the drama at this place of amusement fell into decline, the theatre was closed after two years, and the majority of the actors and musicians were scattered. Some, however, remained, and these, with a few amateurs, residents of the city, formed another company in 1802. Several pieces were presented, among others one, by the amateurs, entitled The Death of Ccesar—the character of the illustrious Roman having been taken by an old citizen who had lived in the colony forty years. This gentleman, who was an ancient militaire, was very stout, and it required some ingenuity on the part of the audience to fail to recognize in this personage and in Antony, Brutus, Cassius, etc., the familiar lineaments of their unheroic camarades in daily life.

The devotees of the dance in those primitive days were compelled by circumstances to satisfy themselves with accommodations of the plainest description in the exercise of this amusement in public. In a plain, ill-conditioned, ill-lighted room in a wooden building situated on Conde street, between Ste. Ann and Du Maine—a hall perhaps eighty feet long and thirty wide—the adepts of Terpsichore met. unmasked, during the months of January and February, in what was called the Carnival season, to indulge, at the cost of fifty cents per head for entrance fee, in the fatiguing pleasures of the contre-danses of that day. Some came to dance, others to look on. Along the sides of the hall were ranged boxes, ascending gradually, in which usually sat the non-dancing mammas and the wall-flowers of more tender years. Below these boxes or loges were ranged seats for the benefit of the wearied among the fair dancers, and between these benches and chairs was a space some three feet in width, which was usually packed with the male dancers, awaiting their turn, and the lookers-on. The musicians were composed usually of five or six gipsies; and to the notes of their violins the dance went on gayly. The hall was usually opened twice a week—one night for adults, and one night for children—and was under the management of one Jean Louis Ponton, a native of Brittany, who died in New Orleans about 1820, and who once figured as an English prisoner of war.

Tradition has preserved the memory of quarrels and affrays that originated in, or were developed from, this ball-room. Sometimes these quarrels ended in duels with fatal results. To tread on one's toes, to brush against one, or to carry off by mistake the lady with whom one was to dance, was ample grounds for a challenge. Everything was arranged so nicely and quickly, even in the ball-room itself. The young man who had received the fearful insult of a crushed corn dropped his lady partner with her chaperone, and had a few minutes' conversation with some friend of his. In a very short time everything was arranged. A group of five or six young men would quietly slip out of the ball-room with a careless, indifferent smile on their faces. A proper place was close at hand.. Just back of the Cathedral was a little plot of ground, known as St. Anthony Square, dedicated to church purposes, but never used. A heavy growth of shrubbery and evergreens concealed the central portion of this square from observation; and here, in the very heart of the town and only a few steps from the public ballroom on the rue d'Orleans, a duel could be carried on comfortably and without the least danger of interruption. If colchemards, or Creole rapiers, which were generally used, and are to this day, in Creole duels, could be obtained, they were brought into use; but, if this was impossible, the young men had to content themselves with sword-canes. According to the French code, the first blood, however slight, satisfied jealous honor. The swords were put up again ; the victorious duelist returned to complete his dance, while his victim went home to bandage himself up.

There was one disturbance in particular, which promised at the time of its occurrence to provoke a serious riot between the natives and the Spaniards, and which furnishes a significant commentary on the ill-will that prevailed between the Creoles and their uninvited temporary rulers. One night the eldest son of the Governor-General, wearied out, perhaps, with the French contre-danses of the evening, several times interrupted the festivities by calling to the musicians to play the English contre-danses. At first the citizens, out of respect to him as the son of the

Governor, yielded to his arbitrary whim. But finally, seven French contre-danses having been formed, the Governor's son again cried out: " Contre-danses Anglaises/" To this, the dancers in the sets replied, by crying out in a still more animated tone: " Contre-danses Francaises /" The young Spaniard, backed by some of his adherents repeated his call for the English contre-danses, and as the dancers and the spectators redoubled their cries of "Contre-danses Francaises /" the young man in the confusion of cries and tongues, ordered the musicians to cease playing, an order which was promptly obeyed. What followed has been graphically described by a writer who was in the city shortly after the event.

" The Spanish officer," says this gentleman, '* who was deputed to preserve good order at this place, thought only of pleasing the Governor's son, and ordered up his guard composed of twelve grenadiers, who entered the ball room with swords at their sides and with fixed bayonets. It is even said that, the tumult having redoubled at the sight of this guard, he gave the order to fire on the crowd unless it should disperse at once; but that is only what people say. Imagine, now, the terror of the women, and the fury of the men, whose numbers were increased by the addition of their friends who flocked in from the gaming-halls. The grenadiers on one side and the players and dancers on the other were about to come to blows ; on the one hand were guns, bayonets and sabres—on the other side, swords, benches, chairs, and whatever could be conveniently utilized as a weapon of offense or defense. During all this squabble, what was done by several Americans, peaceably disposed individuals, accustomed to the prudent and advantageous role of neutrality, and who had pronounced for neither the English nor the French contre-danses ? They carried away from the battle-field the ladies who had fainted, and, loaded with these precious burdens, they made a path for themselves through the bayonets and swords and reached the street. M , a French merchant of the city, running from a gaming-room to the assistance of his wife, found her already outside of the dancing hall in a fainting condition and in the arms of four Americans who were bearing her off.

"The confusion was at its height, and the scene seemed to be about to be transformed into a bloody one, in which the farce begun by the Governor's son should end in a tragedy. It was at this critical moment that three young Frenchmen who had but recently arrived in the city ascended into the boxes that lined the hall, and harangued the company with eloquence and firmness, urging peace and harmony, in the interest of the sex whose cause they had espoused. They succeeded, like new Mentors, in calming the agitation of all alike, pacifying the minds of the antagonists, and restoring order and concord. Even the dancing was resumed and continued the rest of the night in the presence of the old Governor, who repaired to the spot to affirm by his presence the happy pacification that had been effected; the victory remained to the French contre-danses, and the officer of the guard escaped with the simple penalty of being put under arrest next day."

The cordon bleu balls were most productive of these dueling encounters. The quadroon women, from whom these balls take their name, were probably the handsomest race of women in the world. They were, besides this, splendid dancers, and finished dressers. The balls were, consequently, very popular with gentlemen, and nearly all had a favorite among these women. They were also popular with strangers, many of whom came from Alabama, Georgia and the Carolinas, and it was between these and the Creoles that the trouble oftenest arose, and almost, invariably from jealousy excited by too much attention paid to some gentleman's favorite. Duels were fought with pistols and small swords, the French and Creoles invariably choosing the latter and the Americans almost as invariably choosing the former. The small sword duels were generally fought in halls or rooms, while those with fire-arms were of course fought in the open air. " The Oaks " was a favorite duelling ground, as was also a place on theMetairie road called " Les trois Capalins," or the three sisters, from three principal trees which grew there.

Bernard Marigny, of the most illustrious family in Louisiana, was a great wag. Among his friends was a Monsieur Tissier, afterward a prominent judge, who was a confirmed beau, or dude we would call him in this generation. Marigny delighted in nothing more than to quiz his

friend, and did so upon every occasion. Meeting him in the street or in the ball room, Marigny would throw up his hands, assume an attitude and expression of the most intense admiration, and exclaim, " What a beau you are ! How I do admire you ! " Monsieur Tissier bore it for a longtime without remonstrance, but forbearance at last ceased to be a virtue, and he insisted that Monsieur Marigny should be more considerate of his feelings. Monsieur Marigny waited until he met his friend in a ball-room among the ladies, and repeated the offensive exclamation, whereupon Monsieur Tissier challenged him. The challenge was accepted,pistols were chosen,and the whilom friends repaired to the Oaks. They w T ere placed in position, and the word was about to be given, when Monsieur Marigny threw up his hands, his face assumed the old expression and he said in tones of the deepest grief, " How I admire you ! Is it possible that I am soon to make a corpse of Beau Tissier?" Monsieur Tissier's anger was not proof against this attack, and he burst into laughter, threw himself into his opponent's arms, and the duel was brought to a sudden and peaceful termination.

Another affair is recorded somewhat later, in which Monsieur Marigny was also one of the principals. Marigny was sent to the Legislature in 181T, at which time there was a very strong political antagonism between the Creoles and Americans, which provoked many warm debates in the House of Representatives and in the Senate. Catahoula parish was represented by a Georgian giant, an ex-blacksmith, named Humble, a man of plain ways, but possessed of many sterling qualities. He was remarkable as much for his immense stature as for his political diplomacy, standing, as he did, nearly seven feet in his stockings. It happened that an impassioned speech of Monsieur Marigny was replied to by the Georgian, and the latter was so extremely pointed in his allusions that his opponent felt himself aggrieved and sent a challenge to mortal combat. The Georgian was non-plussed. "I know nothing of this duelling business," said he; "I will not fight him."

" You must," said his friend ; " no gentleman can refuse."

"I am not a gentleman," replied the honest son of Georgia ; "I am only a blacksmith."

"But you will be ruined if you do not fight," urged his friends ; "you have the choice of weapons, and you can choose in such a way as to give yourself an equal chance with your adversary."

The giant asked time to consider the proposition, and ended by accepting. He sent the following reply to Monsieur Marigny:

" I accept, and in the exercise of my privilege I stipulate that the duel shall take place in Lake Pontchartrain in six feet of water, sledge hammers to be used as weapons."

Monsieur Marigny was about five feet eight inches .in height, and his adversary was almost seven as has been stated. The conceit of the Georgian so pleased Monsieur Marigny, who could appreciate a joke as well as perpetrate one, that he declared himself satisfied, and the duel did not take place.

The father of Bernard Marigny, the hero of these anecdotes, was a Creole of immense wealth and distinction. It was he who received Louis Philippe, when he came to this country, on his plantation, which comprised the territory afterward laid out as a faubourg, and now the most densely populated portion of the city. When the father died, Bernard inherited his wealth, and laid out the plantation in squares, and called it the Faubourg Marigny. The ground was sold at a large profit and Bernard became the wealthiest man of his time.

However insignificant and rude may seem to us this ball-room of Conde street and of the year 1802, it must not be supposed that the citizens of that day were not vain of it. Far removed as they were from the great world and its powerful centres, the good people of our little municipality looked upon it almost as a Ridotto, a Vauxhall, or a grand bal de Popera de Paris.

A singular custom of the period and one so generally observed among the families of planters living within thirty or forty miles of New Orleans as almost to have been a fashion of the day, was to transport the sick from the country to the city, there to be treated by the physicians of the town. Nearly every well-regulated family possessed its copy of the medical

hand-books of Tissot and Duchan (translated) and when, on the occasion of sickness, it became necessary to prescribe medicines, these were the authorities consulted. But when the sickness threatened to become serious the patient was brought to New Orleans and placed in the hands of one of the dozen or so surgeons who practiced in the city and who were, indifferently, surgeons, physicians, apothecaries, and even accoucheurs, according to the necessities of the case.

The authority of the Spanish rulers of the colony was mildly exercised in 1802. The citizens of New Orleans, assured full liberty under the civil and municipal rather than military rule that prevailed, had little reason to complain. Everyone, in town and country, enjoyed the ordinary : independence of the law-abiding citizen. The duty of preserving the peace was confided to a few soldiers and citizens who patrolled the streets, rather negligently it must be confessed. Hence crimes were not infrequent—a result which might have been anticipated from the number of cabarets, constantly open, where the white and black canaille, thieves, etc., drank to excess, night and day, and from the numerous gambling dens and ball-rooms of the lower class. One of these last, the maison Coquet, notorious in its day, situated nearly in the center of the town, often posted its advertisements at the street corners, with the express permission, as announced in the placard, of the Honorable Civil Governor of the city.

Rents on the rue de la Levee and the streets nearest to the river were much higher than in other parts of the town. Immigration had tended to double the price of nearly every commodity, and as the commerce of the place was carried on near the Levee, in front of the city, where were moored the flatboats, the pirogues (small vessels of six or eight tons, with a latteen sail), and the schooners and few barks and ships that constituted the shipping, rooms and houses in that quarter were held at high rents. A barrel of rice cost in the market from eight to nine dollars ; a turkey from $1.50 to $2.00; a capon from 75 cents to $1.00 ; a hen from 50 cents to 75 cents ; a pair of small pigeons 75 cents ; a barrel of flour from seven to eight dollars. The average expenses, without superfluities, of a family consisting of father, mother, a few children and two or three servants, would have amounted to not less than $2,000 per annum under ordinary circumstances.

The city was guarded at night by Spanish watchmen, who sang out the hours as well as the state of the weather—"nine o'clock and cloudy," or "ten o'clock and the weather is clear," as the case might be. In the daytime the gens d'armes patrolled the city in squads of four or five, each with a full uniform of gold lace, cocked hat and sword. Many were the battles fought between the gens d'armes and the flat-boatmen.

The city guard of those days wore a most imposing uniform. His cocked hat, his deep-blue frock coat, his breast straps of black leather supporting cartridge box and bayonet scabbard, his old flint-lock musket and his short sword made him an object of profound respect on the part of the small boys, and a terror to the slaves who happened to be out a little late. These proud old guardians of the peace were not compelled to do beat duty. Early in the evening the sergeant would gather his squad together in the guardroom, which adjoined the old calaboose, and under his orders the corporal would put his men through the manual of arms. Then with muskets at a right shoulder, they would march off on their patrol.

The limits extended as far up as Canal, down to Esplanade street and back to Eampart. Beyond this, nothing but swamps and neighboring plantations wex*e to be seen. After making a tour they returned to the guardroom, to make a second round later. If a disturbance occurred the guard had to be sent for, as it would have been almost a breach of discipline to have been on hand in time to prevent a fight, or to disperse a crowd before a riot had already taken place.

They bore themselves with that stern, sullen demeanor that awed the peaceable and amused the gay spirits of those days. Frequently in the upper portion of the city, where the Kentucky flatboatmen mostly did congregate, were the gens d'armes ignominiously put to flight, swords, muskets and all.

The old calaboose in which they incarcerated the victims of their displeasure was a curious old building of Spanish style. It was situated on St. Peter street, just in the rear of what is now the Supreme Court room, and occupied all the space down to within about fifty feet of Royal street, where now there are private dwellings. It was two stories in height, with walls of great thickness. Opening on St. Peter street where now runs St. Anthony's alley, near the Arsenal, was the huge iron gateway. The ponderous door was one mass of bars and crossbars and opened upon an ante-room, on either side of which were the officers' rooms. Passing through a second iron door one entered the body of the prison, a gloomy, dismal-looking place, as silent as the dungeons of the old Inquisition. A number of windows opened on the street, through which the inmates drew what little fresh air they got. The building was put up in the year 1795, by Don Almonaster, when the Cabildo or City Council occupied the present Supreme Court rooms. When the Territorial Government of Louisiana was formed it was still used as a calaboose, and, as imprisonment for debt was then allowed, its upper story was given up to unfortunate debtors.

After the close of the war with England, New Orleans began to grow rapidly, and overflowed beyond its ancient boundaries. The old Marigny plantation below had been cut up into squares, and new comers were building there, whilst, above, scattered houses showed that the people could not be confined to the narrow and restricted limits of the ramparts. A new and larger prison became necessary, and in 1834 the foundations for the present Parish Prison were laid just back of Congo square. As soon as it was completed all the prisoners were carried thither, and the work of demolishing the calaboose was commenced. It was a work of much more difficulty than was expected. The mortar of the Spaniards, made from the lime of lake shells, was as tenacious as the most durable cement, and would not yield. It was found easier to cut through the solid bricks than to try to separate them, and, therefore, the work of tearing the old donjon down occupied some time. There is a story of how the workmen discovered skeletons bricked up in the walls, and chains and shackles in the vaults, but none of our citizens who were living at that time ever saw any of those ghastly souvenirs of Spanish rule.

Beneath the building, it is true, they came across some three or four deep vaults, which had not apparently been used for years, and this was enough to give rise to the report that they had discovered the dungeons of the Spanish Inquisition. The tale has come down, and many old Creoles still believe it.

After it had been razed to the ground, parties claimed the ground, alleging that the Spanish Government had occupied the site without reimbursing them, and accordingly it was awarded to them, and private dwellings were built upon it, saving an alleyway, which now intersects Cathedral Alley.

In those days flatboating was a business of immense proportions. The flatboatman was a distinct character, like no one else in the world, and disposed to believed himself a superior being. Rough as he was, a great deal was owed to him, and his lack of refinement is lost sight of in the contemplation of his worth as a pioneer. He was the only medium of trade in those days with the Northwest, and his real importance was, perhaps, not overrated even by himself.

The crews of the flatboats, after a passage of many weeks, during which they underwent hardships that we know nothing of in these days of railroads and steamboats, were disposed to enjoy themselves at the end of their journey, and their idea of enjoyment was in harmony with their rough lives. When they came on shore they spent their money like lords, and assumed privileges in accordance with their individual views of their own importance. They resented interference, and were disposed to protect their rights with their muscle.

The natural consequence was war. In these battles the flatboatmen, armed with clubs, were as often victorious as the gens d'armes, armed with swords. When their carousals were over they went peaceably across the lake on some sailing craft, and made their way back to their Northern homes overland and on foot, throngh the Indian country, leaving their boats to

be utilized as junk shops, or to be still more debased by doing duty as sidewalks or banquettes. To come by a keel boat from Louisville, Kentucky, to New Orleans took over three months. Very few passengers employed this mode of travel, the custom being to go overland on horseback through the Indian country.

Socially, the people were happier in those times than now. Their wants were few, their tastes simple. Balls were the most popular form of amusement, and the play came next. These two were all, and they were sufficient. They extracted genuine enjoyment from a ball. Here was found pleasant social intercourse, and the excitement of the minuet, the reel and the contra-dance filled the measure of their requirements.

The old colored nurse, the Creole " mammy " was the ideal servant—a good cook, a thorough nurse, a second mother to the children, but teaching them to prattle a horrible jargon, sometimes called "gombo," and again " Creole." The negro linzo of Virginia is classical compared with the jargon of the Creole negro. Whether it was that French was a language too difficult for their tongues, or whether it was due to the presence of so many negres brutes, wild negroes of African birth, in the colony, cannot be said ; it is only known that they spoke a distinct patois —another language from that of their masters, made up of about equal parts of French and African words, and absolutely incomprehensible to an ordinary Frenchman. Who was to know tho,t u ma pe court" was gombo for "jem'en vais," "I am going away;" "mo va taye li," for "jevaislefwetter," '"I am going to whip him ;" "me ganye choue," for "faiuncheval," "Ihave ahorse"? The whole gibberish contained but a few hundred words and was without tense, mood or grammar. One word did duty for a hundred, and the very animals and trees were without distinctive titles, because the language was not rich enough to give them names.

There were a few Indian slaves. They were always troublesome, not submitting to slavery as readily as their African brethren, and becoming finally so dangerous that the government interfered and issued the first American emancipation proclamation, freeing all the Indians. The result was a negro rising which was put down only with considerable loss of life, and which was commemorated for some time afterward by the decapitated heads of the negro leaders, which were stuck on pikes at the city gates to overawe the colored population.

In those days, the children cast fearful glances under the old beds with their baldachins while the old negro nurse told of Compe Bouqui (the clown of the negroes), and the knavery of Compe Lapin, whose type represents punchinello of Europe, or sang some of those Creole ballads whose simple and touching melody goes right to the heart and makes you dream of unknown worlds.

One of the favorite stories was that of Jean Bras Coupe, captain of the runaway negroes of Bayou Sara, who filled the whole of Louisiana with the reports of his sanguinary exploits. He resisted alone, this hero of the swamps, all the expeditions sent in pursuit of him. Strange rumors were in circulation on this subject. Sometimes it was a detachment of troops that had ventured to the haunt of this brigand, who disappeared without anyone being able to discover any trace of them. Sometimes it was the hunter, who told of a ball flattened against the breast of Bras Coupe, whose skin was rendered invulnerable by certain herbs with which he rubbed it. The negroes asserted that his look fascinated, and that he fed on human flesh.

He was finally captured and condemned to be hung in the square opposite the Cathedral. He had been attacked by a terrible scurvy, and the infecting odors exhaled by his corpse, two hours after his execution, made them bury him contrary to the law, that condemned him to remain suspended to the gallows for two days.

Sometimes the old negro servant interrupted this tale to exorcise a "zombi," whose impure breath she felt on her face ; and the children shivered with fright and gathered around the grandmother, who crossed herself and went on with the story.

NEW ORLEANS IN 1805.

Governor Claiborne, when he came down here to inspect Louisiana and take possession of New Orleans, noticed among the curiosities and striking buildings of the city a saw mill with two saws turned by horses, a wooden-horse riding circus for children, a French theatre, two banks, a custom-house, navy-yard, barracks, a fort, public storehouses, government house . (its hospital has been lately burnt), a Catholic church of the first order in size and elegance, and the Capitol, a superb building adjoining the church, both built by a Spaniard, at an expense of half a million dollars, and presented by him to the Spanish Government at New Orleans. The cotton presses of the city give much labor, and the pressing song of the men is interesting. It is similar to the heave Jwi of the sailor, with this difference, that several are engaged in singing, and each has his part, consisting of two or three appropriate words, tuned to his own fancy, so as to make harmony with the other. Other presses go by horse and steam power, where the men have no other labor than rolling in the bales, untying, retying, etc. They repress a bale in seven or ten minutes.

NEW ORLEANS IN 1822.

The first directory ever published in New Orleans, in 1822, gives the following description of the city, showing the changes that had taken place under American rule :

The city is regularly laid out; the streets are generally thirty-eight feet wide, and with few exceptions cross each other at right angles ; Orleans street is forty-five feet wide ; Esplanade and Rampart streets, each 108 feet; Canal street, 171; and Champs Elysees street, 160 feet.

The spacious streets which bound the city, namely, Canal, Rampart and Esplanade streets and the levee, have lately been planted with four rows of the sycamore or butter-wood tree, which in the course of a few years will afford a fine shade, contribute to the health of the city and present one of the most elegant promenades in the United States. There are several large public squares, one of which, The Place of Arms, 350 feet on the levee, by 330 in depth to Chartres street, is very handsome, being planted with trees, and inclosed with an iron palisade, having beautifully ornamented gateways of the same metal. The Circus public square, is planted with trees, and inclosed, and is very noted on account of its being the place where the Congo and other negroes dance, carouse and debauch on the Sabbath, to the great injury of the morals of the rising generation; it is a foolish custom, that elicits the ridicule of most respectable persons who visit the city; but if it is not considered good policy to abolish the practice entirely, surely they could be ordered to assemble at some place more distant from the houses, by which means the evil would be measurably remedied.

Those streets that are not paved in the middle, have brick sidewalks, and gutters formed of wood, which are kept clean by the black prisoners of the city, who are generally runaways, carrying heavy chains to prevent them making their escape.

The wells are generally from five to fifteen feet in depth, the water in them is clear from salt, but unpleasant to the taste, and unfit for drinking or washing of clothes. Drinking water, and that used for cooking and the washing of clothes, is taken from the river, carried through the city for sale, in hogsheads or carts, and sold at the rate of four buckets for six and a quarter cents, or fifty cents per hogshead. The water for drinking is either filtered through a porous stone or is placed in a large jar, and cleared by alum, etc. The water is considered wholesome. In consequence of the deposits of earthy particles from the eddy part of the river, the harbor above St. Louis street becomes more shallow annually; and below the said street it deepens, as the channel or main current approaches the shore. It is thcught by most persons that the water ought to be introduced from the river into the city, from above the eddy and point, as it is certainly more pure than that opposite the city, where it becomes impregnated with all kinds of filth, the very thought of which is sufficient to turn the stomach of a person of delicate onstitution.

The buildings of the city were formerly almost entirely of wood, but those recently erected are, for the most part, neatly built of brick, covered with slate or tile. On the streets nearest the river the houses are principally of brick, from one to four stories high, but in the back part of the town they are generally of wood. The buildings have no cellars, except the vacancy, in some of them, formed between the ground aud lower floor, which is raised five or six feet from the earth. The houses are built without cellars, in consequence of the dampness of the earth, w r ater being found generally by digging from one and a-half to three feet; but an experiment has lately been made in the new stores, New Levee, above Gravier street, which promises to be j highly useful. The cellars are lined with strong plank, the joints of which are caulked and ' pitched, to keep out the w r ater ; and which is found to answer, notwithstanding the surface of the water in the river is at this time higher than the bottom of the cellars.

There are two villages, McDonoughville and Duvergesville, on the opposite side of the river, where ship-building is carried on, and where a number of vessels are always harbored; this port is considered as part of the port of New Orleans. A steam ferry-boat keeps up a constant aud regular communication between this city and the opposite shore ; it starts from the Levee, near the Market House.

The barracks and military hospital have been sold, cut through by Hospital street, and converted to private use, by being altered into stores and dwellings. The fortifications erected in former times for the defence of the place, were found not to answer the intended purpose, and have therefore been entirely removed, and new places of defence have been built at more distant and judicious points. " It is likewise defended by nature ; on one side by the river, and on the other by a swamp that no labor can reclaim, and no effort can penetrate; it is only to be approached through a defile three-fourths of a mile in width, which, being protected by a breastwork, manned by 5,000 men (for a greater number could not operate), New Orleans, in point of strength, is another Gibraltar ; she laughs defiance at the most powerful invaders."

The incorporated portion of New Orleaus embraces the city proper, and the suburbs St. Mary, above, and Marigny, below, beingbetween Delord street, the upper boundary, and D'En-ghien street,the lowest boundary. The city is governed by a Mayor and City Council, and a number of wholesome ordinances have been passed for the establishment and support of order. The city is guarded at night by about fifty armed men, who, during the daytime, are generally private citizens. They patrol the streets in smali squads, which are generally, and should always be, composed of persons capable of speaking both French and English.

Every exertion has been made to render the city more healthy; the low ground in the rear has been drained by ditching, and care is taken to remove all nuisances.

.A cannon is fired at eight o'clock in winter, and nine in the summer, as a signal for all sailors, soldiers and blacks to go to their respective homes, and all such persons found in the streets afterwards, without a pass from their employers or masters, are taken to the calaboose or city prison ; it is also a notice for groceries and taverns, with the exception of a few reputable hotels and coffee-houses, to be closed.

The present population of the city and suburbs of New Orleans is about 40,000. The population was much increased by the unfortunate French immigrants from San Domingo, and afterward, in 1809, by those who were compelled to flee from the island of Cuba, to the number of about 10,000. The population is much mixed, consisting of foreign and native French, Americans born in the State, and from every State in the Union ; a few Spaniards and foreigners from almost every nation ; consequently the society is much diversified, and there is no general fixed character. There is a great "confusion of tongues,'" and on the levee, during a busy day, can be seen people of every grade, color, and condition; in short, it is a world in miniature.

The State Prison, in 1821, contained 226 debtors and criminals, and the calaboose, or city prison, 140 black and colored prisoners, generally runaways, who are employed on the public works and the streets.

(The unfortunate debtor was at that'time confined in the same prison with criminals.)

The Charity Hospital is situated on Canal street, and consists of two large white buildings, having a number of convenient apartments, which are kept remarkably clean. The lot on which these buildings stand embraces the whole square between Canal and Common, and Basin and St. Philip streets. About 1,300 males and females were admitted during the year 1821, and the average number of the patients is about 130. Sick persons wishing admission, apply to the Mayor of the city, or to one of the administrators.

There are, besides the above, the Masonic and Naval Hospitals, and a private hospital.

The Poydras Female Orphan Asylum, situated at 153 Poydras street, is a neat, new frame building with a large garden. This institution commenced its operations in 1816, with 14 orphans, which increased in 1821 to 41. Any female child in want may be admitted by consent of the board, though not an orphan. The constitution declares "that they shall provide a house for the reception of indigent female orphans and widows, which shall be enlarged according to the income of the society."

This excellent charitable establishment owed its existence, principally, to the liberality of Julien Poydras, who contributed a house and the large lot on which the new house stands. The State Legislature voted $4,000.

New Orleans appears to have been pretty well supplied with educational institutions at that time, as the following enumeration of the various establishments will show: The New Orleans College, a large building, situated at the corner of Bayou and St. Claude streets ; an Academy on the Levee, two miles below town, under the direction of the Rev. Bertrand Martial and several other gentlemen attached to the Catholic clergy, where sixty boys receive the benefit of their united labors ; an academy under the direction of the Rev. Dr. Hull, No. 2 Bourbon street, below Canal street; four schools on the plan of Joseph Lancaster, one of which, 77 Chartres street, under the superintendence of the Rev. Michael Portier, an academy with 170 boys; a large brick school on Magazine street, under the direction of Francis F. Lafon ; one for young ladies, 27 Conti street; one for colored boys and girls; an academy for young ladies in the convent of the Ursuline nuns, where about sixty scholars receive " the most accomplished education, with the exception of dancing ;" twenty-five orphans are supported and educated gratis in a separate apartment, and as many poor day-scholars. Also several other academies, and forty-eight common schools, some of which are for persons of color.

Among the public buildings standing in 1822 may be mentioned: The City Hall or Principal, with a front on Chartres street of 103 feet, built in 1795, in which are the City Council chamber, city officers and city guard; the City and State Prisons, on St. Peters street, in the rear of and adjoining the City Hall; the Presbytice, with a front on Conde street, of 114 feet, built in 1813, in which the Supreme, District and Parish Courts hold their sessions; the Government House, built in 1761, where the Legislature meets and in which is the Treasurer's office and the Orleans Library, of about 6,000 volumes; the Customhouse, a spacious, plain brick building, with a coating of white plaster, situated on the levee, where, besides the offices connected with the customs, are the United States District Court-room, and offices of the United States District Clerk, Attorney, Marshal and Land; the Charity Hospital, on Canal street, a large building, erected in 1815; the Ursuline Convent, built 1733; the New Orleans College, built 1812; the Market House, a neat building about 300 feet long, situated on the levee, near the Place of Arms, contains more than 100 stalls, erected in 1813; the Orleans Theatre, with Davis' Hotel, and the Orleans Ball-room, a considerable pile of brick buildings, first erected in 1813, destroyed by fire in 1815, rebuilt and furnished with a very handsome front and interior decorations in 1816 (there were dramatic performances here almost every night throughout the year by full and respectable French and English companies, who played alternately); the St. Philip street Theatre, a neat brick building, with a handsome interior, erected in 1810. The public expecta-tation, for a long time manifested for an American theatre, will soon be realized, as Mr. Caldwell, the manager of the American Theatre, has purchased the ground between Gravier and Poydras streets for a theatre. Liberal subscriptions have been made, and it is said that

the foundation of a large and elegant edifice, to be styled the American Theatre, will be laid in June next. A new brick market-house, 42 feet in width, by from 200 to 250 feet in length, is to be built immediately on the upper end of the batture, between St. Joseph and Delord streets. A new and handsome brick building is to be erected at the corner of Orleans and Bourbon streets, for the accommodation of all the courts and public officers of the parish. It is contemplated to build a corn and vegetable market. The State Bank is a neat brick building with a coat of white plastering, and there are two other banks, kept in buildings that were formerly dwellings, altered for their reception. The Louisiana Insurance Office is a small but neat brick building. The United States Navy Yard and stores, a marine barracks, quartermasters' stores, an ordnance arsenal, with a great number of mounted field and battering cannon, mortars, shells, balls and other implements of war ; and a fine commodious building, erected exclusively for the accommodation of different lodges and Free Masons, may be mentioned as the most important buildings in the city.

Among the public institutions of this city are a branch of the United States Bank, and two others, whose joint capital is $3,000,000—three insurance companies, whose joint capital is $1,000,000; besides there are agents of four foreign insurance companies; the New Orleans Library Society, two medical societies, and a board of medical examiners.

There are no less than nineteen lodges of the various orders of Free Masons in New Orleans, and the Grand Lodge of Louisiana was formed and constituted on the twentieth day of the month of June, 1820, and of Masonry, 5820, by five regular lodges which then existed in the State, and deriving their charters from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. There is a " Female Charity Society," the object of which is to relieve women and children laboring under sickness, and-for the accommodation of whom it is contemplated to build an hospital. There are several handsome ball-rooms, where balls are frequent and well attended by the inhabitants, more particularly the French.

The means for extinguishing fires are twelve fire-engines and hose, ladders, hooks, and a great number of leather fire-buckets; "the "Washington Fire Society," has been formed for the protection of property; each member is provided with two leather buckets, two bags four feet long, a bed-screw and a knapsack. The citizens, during fire, are generally active, are set a worthy example by the indefatigable Mayor and Fire Wardens, who, on an alarm, are amongst the first to repair to the spot. In order to remedy the evil of fire, no other than brick houses are allowed to be erected within the compactly built part of the city.

Perhaps no city in the Union can boast of being better lighted than New Orleans. There are 250 of the most complete and brilliant reflecting lamps, suspended to iron chains, which are stretched from the corners of houses or high posts, diagonally across the junctions of the various streets, in such a manner as to be seen in a range from the middle of any street, the cost of which is about forty-five dollars each.

The following were the various branches of manufactures and business carried on in the city and suburbs of New Orleans at that time, embracing the professional, mercantile, mechanical and other establishments, namely : many physicians and counsellors-at-law ; 260 mercantile establishments; wholesale grocery and dry goods merchants, carrying on an exten sive trade in produce and merchandise; seven auctioneers, with a great business; 102 retail dry-goods stores, twenty-seven millinery and fancy stores and a number of small shops of various kinds; a number of billiard tables ; the Planters' and Merchants' Hotel, a spacious building, 60 feet front, situated on Canal street, containing upwards of one hundred rooms, besides which there were other very extensive hotels and coffee-houses, that had not their superiors in the Union; 350 taverns and groceries, retail, and seventy groceries that sell by wholesale, besides a number of porter and oyster houses, etc.; one public bath-house, two fumigating bathhouses; thirty-two blacksmiths, five brass-founders, one bell-hanger, thirty-seven barbers, one brewery, twelve bricklayers ; nine book and stationery stores, four bookbinders ; the New Orleans Society library, kept in the Government House, containing 6,000 volumes, principally in

i

French and English, and one English and one French circulating library ; nine book and newspaper printing offices ; the following daily gazettes were printed : " The Louisiana Courier," the "Orleans Gazette and Commercial Advertiser," the " Louisiana Advertiser," the "Friend of the Laws," the "Louisiana Gazette," and the "Commercial Report," a weekly paper; three of these were printed in French and the same number in English ; one lithographic printer, many commission and exchange brokers, four lottery offices, thirty-seven coopers, fifty-three cabinet makers; many builders, carpenters and bricklayers ; six large steam saw-mills, one of which was of brick, embracing a grist mill, and was built by Dr. Geo. Hunter ; 105 cordwainers, employing 153 persons; sixteen confectioners and pastry cooks ; a number of public officers ; several surveyors; four carvers and gilders, thirteen coach and harness-makers, forty-four coach, sign, ship and ornamental painters, glaziers and paper-hangers ; thirteen portrait and miniature painters; several landscape and scene painters; four musical insti-ument makers and stores; i many musicians, dancing and fencing masters; two chocolate manufacturers, six cutters, a number of French and English comedians, five chair stores and makers, twenty-four drug and apothecary stores ; six large rum distilleries, three for gin and nine for cordials ; seven dentists, four dyers and scourers, three engravers; two iron foundries, lately established ; one fringe maker, a number of gardeners, fowlers, fishermen, oystermen, boatmen, mariners, caulkers, stevedores, riggers and ship carpenters ; five sail makers ; three furniture stores, thirteen glass china and queens ware stores ; seventeen gunsmiths ; a very great number of ivovld-be gentlemen and ladies, or, in other words, persons who had no apparent business ; four working hatter shops; fifty-six hat, shoe and clothing stores ; twenty-one hardware and ship chandlery stores ; a number of perfumers and hair dressers, two ice houses, one laboratory; several large livery stables and veterinary hospitals, a number of wood and lumber merchants, two last makers, one screw cutter, several mill-wrights and engineers, one mathematical instrument-maker, two mineral water establishments, a number of mid wives and nurses, many notaries, translators, interpreters and ship brokers; three pump, block and mast-makers ; one plumber, two rope-walks, twelve saddlers and saddlery stores, one sugar refinery, four stone-cutters, one spectacle-maker, two sculptors, many shoeblacks, sixly-two working tailor-shops, nineteen tin and copper smiths; a great number of traders, peddlers and travelling merchants, of all colors, four tanners and curriers, seventy-seven tobacconists and siigar-makers, employing 417 hands ; four soap and candle manufactories, eight turners in wood and metals, a number of victuallers and sausage-makers, twenty-two upholsterers and mattress-makers, two umbrella-makers, eight wheelwrights, and fifty-six watch-makers, gold and silver smiths and jewelry stores, 450 licensed drays and carts, sixteen two-wheeled and thirteen four-wheeled carriages for hire.

There were a number of extensive cotton pressing and tobacco warehouses, among which were the large fireproof warehouses of Mr. B. Rilleux. corner of Tchoupitoulas and Poydras streets, worthy of particular notice. They were commenced in 1806; they were on Tchoupitoulas, Poydras and Magazine streets, with passages leading to each, and contained 11,500 bales of cotton ; there were three cotton presses—one by steam, one hydraulic, and one by horse-power; with this range of buildings were eight wells, a fire-engine, hose and fire-buckets for extinguishing fire, if it should occur, and twenty-five men who slept in the yard. This building, with the lots, presses, etc., cost about $150,000; the passages and alleys through this building were paved with pebble stones in 1806, so that this gentleman has the credit of being the first to introduce that necessary and important improvement in highways.

Mr. Benjamin Morgan followed Mr. Rilleux in the important experiments of improving the highways, by paving Gravier street w'th pebble stone, between Tchoupitoulas and Magazine streets, which was so well executed as to stand the test of some years, and convinced every Chinking person of its utility.

CHAPTER IV.—BY RAIL.

HOW TO REACH NEW ORLEANS—THE VARIOUS RAILROAD LINES CENTERING THERE-REMINISCENCES OF HALF A CENTURY AGO—THE FIRST RAILROAD IN THE UNITED STATES—ITS STYLE OF ENGINES AND CARS—STREET CAR AND FERRY LINES.

The Pontchartrain Railroad, out Elysian Fields street to Milneburg, was the first railroad for general transportation completed in the United States, and was opened for traffic in 1830. The President of the Company was Morris W. Hoffman, of Maryland, then a prominent lawyer of New Orleans, and among the Board of Directors were Judge Eustis, Samuel J. Peters, and Messrs. Pritchard, Hewlett. Cornelius Paulding and others, all of whom have died long since.

The Albany & Schenectady, Baltimore & Ohio, and Camden & Amboy Railroads were commenced about the same time as the Pontchartrain Railroad, but the latter was completed and in use before any of the others. The capital stock of the company was originally $500,000. Capt. John Grant contracted to build the road, and when it was finished he was made Superintendent. While acting in that capacity, he had the honor of running the first locomotive over the Pontchartrain Railroad that ever turned a wheel south of the Potomac River. This engine never went into regular service on the road, being too light for the purposes for which it was intended. It was built in Cincinnati, Ohio, by a man named Thomas Shields, and was originally designed for a turnpike locomotive. Finding that his invention did not answer his expectations in this respect, Shields changed the wheels to flange wheels, and there being then no railroad on which to use his invention at Cincinnati he shipped it on a steamboat, and in 1832 arrived in New Orleans. He took rooms at Richardson's Hotel, on Conti street, and placed himself in communication with the officers of the old Portchartrain Railroad Company. They agreed to allow him to test the merits of his engine on their road, and referred him to Capt. Grant. After the engine had been fitted up and placed on the rails, Shields could not find an engineer to run the locomotive, and Capt. Grant volunteered, and one morning a coach was attached and steam raised. The engine did not possess power enough to make the apparatus a success, and Capt. Grant so informed Shields. The latter had expended all his money on the perfection of his engine, was indebted to the boat for freight charges as well as his own passage, and could not liquidate his board bill at the hotel. In this dire strait he appealed to Capt. Grant, begging the latter to make him an offer for the engine. Capt. Grant candidly informed him that he could not pay him anything near the money which the construction of the locomotive had cost, as he could not utilize it as it stood. If he bought it he would have to dismantle it, and apply one of the engines to use it as a motor to turn a lathe and grindstone in the repair shops of the company. He therefore made Shields an offer of $1,000 for the locomotive, which was accepted, and soon afterwards the inventor left for Cincinnati.

For many years afterwards this engine did service in the shops, and was finally superseded by more modern and improved machinery. The first locomotive in actual service on the Pontchartrain Railroad was the "Creole," and soon afterwards the locomotive "Pontchartrain" was received and placed in service. The coaches were of every design and pattern, and a train of cars presented a unique appearance which compared with those of the present day would be ludicrous in the extreme ; but at that time they were a source of admiration and wonder to everybody.

The road, according to the measurement of the engineers, was originally 5}£ miles long, and there was a turntable at each end of the line. The engine, when it reached the end of the run, was detached from the tender and turned; then in succession the tender and each of the cavs

were turned and the train again made up for the return trip. The fare for the round trip was 75 cents, and the transportation of freight was attended hy a corresponding high rate of charges.

The loading and unloading of freight to and from the cars was accomplished by means of a crane, by which it was picked up or deposited on the floor of the depot.

Captain Grant, after mature deliberation, concluded that the handling of freight would be greatly facilitated by building a raised platform, and broached the subject to the directors of the road. They were opposed to this plan, but he was confident that it would be successful, and the next day commenced the work. He left instructions with his men that if the President or any of the officers came and ordered them to cease operations not to pay any attention, but to continue the work.

As he had anticipated, the President did visit the depot, and on ascertaining what was going on he ordered the men to cease. They however continued, and after the platform was built Captain Grant invited the directors to visit the depot and witness the loading and unloading of freight.

Thus it is that New Orleans not only has the honor of having the first railroad on this continent, but also that of the first freight platform in the world. It was not until after the year 1858 that the raised platform was finally adopted generally throughout England and Europe.

The first schedules for trains over the Pontchartrain railroad provided for hourly trips, the train leaving each alternate hour from either the city or Milneburg. The demand for transportation for both passengers and freight was so great that it was desired to place two trains on, but there being only a single track built, the running of these trains was impossible.

Capt. Grant was also found equal to this emergency, and commenced the construction of a side track at Gentilly Ridge, which, when completed, answered all the requirements.

The first locomotives were not provided with cabs for the engineers and firemen, who were thus exposed to all the variations of weather. The smokestacks were straight, and not supplied with spark arresters, and cinders and sparks flew into the cars so that accidents in which the clothing of the passengers took fire were frequent. The adoption of the funnel-shaped stack and other improvements obviated this danger.

It was the original intention of the company to build a solid pier of earth, shells and brick protected by wooden fascines, out into the lake ; and they did, indeed, erect about five hundred feet of it, which yet stands as firm as a rock. This work was covered with an arched roof, high enough to allow trains to pass underneath ; but at the suggestion of the superintendent, afterthe first five hundred feet had been built, the design was abandoned and a wharf was built, which was several times washed away by storms and destroyed by fire. The Louisville & Nashville Railroad, on acquiring this road by purchase, have since rebuilt the wharf.

The iron rails used on this road were originally nothing but flat bars of iron perforated at short intervening distances, with drilled holes, to allow spikes or screws to be driven into wooden sills, which were bolted on top of the cross ties. These flat iron rails were subsequently superseded by the T rail (iron), similar in shape to the steel rails of modern railways.

The New Orleans & Nashville Railroad was commenced in 1835. The road was graded as far as Bayou LaBranche and was ready for the superstructure when the company failed. It extended out Canal street in a bee line to the lake shore, which it first touched between Bayou Labarre and Lorriet, about five miles west of West End. The remains of the roadbed can still be found all along the lake shore as far as Bayou La Branche, whilst the piling of a larger pier, extending out into the lake for the distance of fully half a mile, at what is still known as Prairie Cottage, can be seen distinctly, and proves a source of danger to vessels plying in the waters of Lake Pontchartrain. Prairie Cottage was intended to be a watering place, and had the road been completed would doubtless have proven to be as popular a resort as West End and Spanish Fort have since become. It was located about midway between Long Point and

Bayou Lorriet, and is decidedly the best place for a resort that could be found west of the New' Canal, the ground being higher and the beach a very good one indeed for bathing purposes.

The roadbed was constructed in a most substantial manner, and to this alone can be attributed the fact that much of the old roadbed still remains, despite the washings over it of the lake. First, a layer of flatboat gunwales was placed, and on these flatboat planks were laid. Clam shells and clay formed the roadbed on which the cross-ties were placed, and on top of these were laid the sills on which the flat iron rails were to be spiked.

The piling of the bridges across Bayous Tchoupitoulas, Indian and Labarre still stands firmly in the channels of these water courses, and the planking of the old roadbed is frequently used by hunters and fishermen in the marshes for fuel.

When the New Orleans & Nashville Company, the capital stock of which was $10,000,000, failed, the six miles of completed road was sold to Martin Gordon and Laurent Millaudon, who afterwards used the iron to construct the old Mexican Gulf Railroad to Proctorville.

The Mexican Gulf Railroad, the route of which was the same as the present Shell Beach Railroad, was completed in 1838 or 1839, and Mr. F. Garcia was the first President. The capital stock was $2,000,000, and when the road was first completed it was well patronized. Several railroads were in contemplation during the early days of railroads. One was designed to run out to Spanish Fort alongside of the Bayou St. John, but the Pontchartrain Company had the exclusive right of way from New Orleans to Lake Pontchartrain in Orleans parish, aud they enjoined the Bayou St. John Company. Subsequently the Carrollton Railroad was built, and then a branch road from Carrollton, in Jefferson parish, to the lake at West End, then called Jefferson Lake End.

Prior to the building of railroads the popular route from New Orleans to Washington overland, was as follows: From New Orleans to Mobile, via the lake and Mississippi Sound, by schooner. Thence by a small steam ferryboat to Blakely, where the stage coach was met, and travelers then proceeded on to the East.

PRESENT RAILROAD LINES AND CONNECTIONS.

New Orleans was one of the last cities in the Union, east of the Mississippi, to be brought into communication with the railroad system of the rest of the cottntry, and it was but a very few years before the war that the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern Railroad, now the Chicago, St. Louis & New Orleans connected it with Columbus, Ky., whence a boat carried passengers to Cairo, Ills., connecting there with the Illinois Central Railroad. Even at the end of the war, New Orleans had but one trunk line. Within the past few years, however, five new roads have been completed, which place it in an almost air-line communication with all the leading cities of the country.

Its railroad connections now are the Louisville & Nashville, running to Mobile, which gives it connection with all of Florida, as well as the Southern and Eastern States.

The Cincinnati, Newj Orleans & Texas, or New Orleans & Northwestern, an almost direct line to Cincinnati via Meridian, Birmingham and Chattanooga.

The Chicago, St. Louis & New Orleans, or as it is familiarly called, " the big J," which connects with the Illinois Central at Cairo, and gives a line to St. Louis and Chicago.

The Louisville, New Orleans & Texas Pacific, running parallel to the river in an almost direct line to Memphis.

West of the river—The Texas & Pacific, running alongside the Mississippi and Red River to Shreveport, and there connecting with the Texas system of the Texas & Pacific.

The Southern Pacific, running direct to San Francisco via Houston, San Antonio and El Paso.

The trip to New Orleans by eaHi of these lines has special features of interest to pa=-senders,,

r

Coming by the Louisville & Nashville, you skirt the beautiful Mississippi Sound for a hundred odd miles. In the distance can be seen the islands of the Southern seas, while fringing the shores is a constant succession of watering places into which New Orleans pours itself in summer time. Pascagoula, Scranton, Ocean Springs, Biloxi, Camp Grounds, Mississippi, Pass Christian, Bay St. Louis, Waverley follow each other in rapid succession. Here are to be seen elegant seaside villas, gardens rich in foliage, orchards in which the orange and other tropical fruits predominate, while in the background rise the mighty pines of a virgin forest extending a hundred miles into the interior. As you get nearer New Orleans and pass the Pearl river, yon reach a region of sea marsh cut up by myriads of bayous and lakes, which are the favorite hunting and fishing grounds of the South. You can see the fish in the streams as the cars ilas'i by, and the dull winking eye of lazy alligators ; or the roar of the train may frighten from some lagoon where they were feeding a flock of ducks or poules d'eavx. Houses are miles and miles apart. Here and there the few there are for the accommodation of the sportsmen from the city will recall Venice, for they are perched high above the waters, on long stilts. You cross the beautiful Pearl river which separates the two States of Louisiana and Mississippi, the Rigolets, and then dash into New Orleans by way of Elysian Fields street, and thence along the Levee, where you can see the whole commerce of the city, the French Market, the Mint, the Cathedral and Jackson Square, the train landing you at the foot of the great boulevard of New Orleans, Canal street.

If you come by the New Orleans & Northeastern, you run through a portion of Mississippi thinly settled but wonderfully beautiful, a rolling country of trees, forests and crystal streams, where deer and bear are still to be found, and where wild turkeys and such game are abundant. "When finally you reach Lake Pontchartrain, you are treated to a most extraordinary trip on the water, for you cross over the lake on the longest bridge in the world, with its approaches being over 16 miles in length. When you reach the middle of the bridge and see the land dimly visible in the distance, you cannot but feel as if you were at sea, while the strong but pleasant lake breeze pours through the cars, and the red-sailed Italian luggers sail alongside the train.

By the Jackson route you skirt the southern shores of Lake Pontchartrain and come into the city over one of the worst prairies tremUantes that have ever defied an engineer, the soil a perfect quicksand, which sinks under any weight. Thousands of dollars and millions of cubic feet of earth and lumber have been expended to give the road a solid foundation, which has only just been accomplished. As it is, you pass through the dreariest and most dismal swamp it is possible to see, the track of the old Bonnet Cave crevasse.

By the Mississippi Valley route you run alongside of the river, striking Vicksburg, Baton Rouge, and all the river towns. As you approach the city, you traverse the finest sugar plantations of the State, run close by the plantation quarters ; by the immense sugar houses looking with their big bagasse chimneys like some feudal castle; by the palatial residences of the planters, built in the old " flush times" of Louisiana; by acres on acres of cane, the purple sticks and dark-green leaves making a handsome contrast; by rice fields and orange orchards. The country is thickly, densely populated, and while towns may be few, or rather none of any importance south of Baton Rouge, you will find the country covered with houses, and each plantation looking like a village.

The Texas Pacific will bring you through the cotton country along Red River, through long pine forests, over the turbulent, boiling Atchafalaya, and through a series of fine plantations; and thence across the Mississippi in a ferry to New Orleans.

The Louisiana & Texas, the Southern Pacific route, will bring you first over the prairies of Calcasieu, with their flocks of cattle ; and thence along the Teche—the beautiful, poetic, romantic Teche—the loveliest stream in Louisiana, with its mossy rolling banks, the giant live oaks •vatering Ibeir branches in it, and the plantation houses hidden in groves of trees.

JJy wbichP'Ypr roiite you come, yoy cannot fail to gpt a view of trulv representative Scenery,

and the scenery of each road is absolutely different—one gives you the sea, another the swamp, another the sugar plantations, another the weirdest, wildest forest seen east of the Mississippi River.

The following is the location of the ticket offices and the passenger and freight depots of the various roads centering at New Orleans, and the means of reaching them:

Star and Crescent Route—Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Railroad, or, New Orleans & Northeastern. Ticket office, 34 St. Charles street, opposite the St. Charles Hotel. Depots, passenger and freight, at the old Natchez Cotton Press, corner of Press and Decatur streets, in the Third district, two miles from Canal street. Depot reached by the Rampart & Dauphine, and Barracks & Levee lines of street cars.

Great Jackson Route—Chicago, St. Louis, & New Orleans Railroad. Ticket office, on Canal street, corner of Carondelet, under the Pickwick Club. Passenger depot, corner of Magnolia and Clio streets, about a mile and three quarters from Canal street, uptown. Depot can be reached by the Clio, Erato, Royal and Bourbon street cars.

Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Ticket office, corner of St. Charles and Common, under St. Charles Hotel. Passenger depot, foot of Canal. Can be reached by the Coliseum & Upper Magazine, Canal & Claiborne, Canal & Common and Tchoupitoulas & New Levee cars. Freight depot on the river, at the foot of Girod street.

Star and Crescent Route, Southern Pacific—Morgan's Louisiana & Texas. Ticket Office, corner of Natchez and Magazine. Passenger depot in Algiers ; depot for New Orleans, foot of Elysian Fields street, whence passengers are carried by ferry to the depot on the opposite side of the river. Ferry landing reached by Clio, Erato, Royal & Bourbon, and by Levee & Barracks cars. Freight depot, foot of Julia street.

Texas & Pacific Railway. Ticket offices, 47 St. Charles street, under the St Charles Hotel. Depots, foot of Terpsichore street, whence passengers are ferried to the opposite side of the river to reach the cars.

New Orleans, Louisiana & Texas Pacific. Ticket office, 61 St. Charles. Passenger and freight depots on Poydras and Magnolia, reached by the Canal & Common, and Poydras & Girod cars.

Beside these trunk lines, New Orleans possesses a number of local steam lines connecting it with suburban, seaside and other resorts.

The Shell Beach, or Mississippi River, Terre aux Boeufs & Lake Borgne Railroad runs along the line of the Mexican Gulf Railroad to Shell Beach, formerly Proctorsville, on Lake Borgne, where fine fishing, hunting and bathing is to be had. The depot is at the corner of Claiborne and Good Children streets, and is reached by the Canal & Claiborne cars. Thence the line runs along the Gentilly ridge, and through a number of sugar plantations in St. Bernard parish, and out on the Terre aux Boeufs ridge to Shell Beach. Along the Terre aux Boeufs is to be seen the colony of Islingues, or descendants of the Canary Islanders, who settled in Louisiana over a century ago. This colony, nearly purely Spanish, still preserve all the names, habits, language and characteristics of their Castilian ancestors. In the immediate neighborhood of shell Beach is the singular Malay colony of St. Malo, a settlement composed almost without exception of Malays, speaking only the Tamil and Spanish languages, living in a queer little village, perched on stilts over the water, following the habits and customs of the Philippine Islands, their main diet, fish, generally eaten raw, their laws of their own make, and their supreme control vested in a chief, the most ancient of the inhabitants.

The Pontohartrain Railroad, by which all visitors to New Orleans from the North, formerly reached the city, coming by way of boat from Mobile, and thence by this line to the city, is now the property of the Louisville & Nashville railroad. The cars start either from the depot of the latter road at the foot of Canal street, or from the old Pontchaitrain depot, at the foot of Elysian Fields street, to be reached by the Clio, Erato, Royal & Bourbon streets cars. The road runs along the levee and thence out Elysian Fields street, due north in a straight line over

the swamps to Mandeville, famous in former years as the old Lake End. Here Boudro, Miguel, and other famous restaurateurs flourished in the olden days, and here New Orleans came to eat its fish and game dinners. Here, too, in the little straggling village, which rises in the midst of the marsh Milneburg, named in honor of the philanthropists who gave all these swamp lands iu charity, was bom that remarkable woman who electrified the world afterwards as Adah Isaacs Menken. Milneburg, or "the Old Lake " as it is called, has suffered somewhat from the establishment of New Lake resorts, such as Spanish Fort and West End, but it still boasts of several delightful hotels and restaurants, with elegantly shaded and well laid-out walks; a long wharf projects into the deep water of the lake, at which steam-vessels plying with Mobile, Pensacola and points on the Mississippi Sound, land. From here, also, steamers run regularly to Mandeville, Louisburg, Covington, and other watering places lying on the north side of Lake Pontchartrain, and distant from the wharf some twenty or thirty miles.

The depot of the New Orleans & Spanish Fort Railroad, also a steam line, is located on the corner of Canal and Basin streets. Thence, the cars run out Bienville street, through the Lower City Park, and along the Orleans Canal to Lake Pontchartrain, and for about a mile along the lake to Spauish Fort, formerly Fort St. John, lying at the mouth of Bayou St. John, and erected over a century ago by the Spanish Governor, Baron Carondelet, for the purpose of preventing the invasion of New Orleans. The fortifications still remain, built in the Spanish style, and as massive as ever, and some of the long Spanish cannon then in use are preserved here; but the whole place has been converted from its military use into a pleasure resort. The old building inside the fort has become a restaurant and hotel; the old orchard is now laid off in mounds and shell walks, with seats for visitors where they can listen to the music, A large casino has been erected, and a theatre built directly over the water in which dramatic and operatic performances are given. Besides these are shooting galleries, bath houses, and everything else to make the place agreeable. Spanish Fort may also be reached via the shell road running along Bayou St. John from Esplanade street.

The cars of the New Orleans, Cemeteries & Lake Railroad start from the corner of Canal and Dauphine, running straight out Canal street on the same track as the Canal street horse-cars to the cemeteries ; and thence along the new canal to West End on Lake Pontchartrain. On the opposite side of the canal is the famous Shell road, famous thirty years ago for the display of fast horses. The canal itself is a favorite rowing place for the various rowing clubs, a number of whom have their club-houses located directly on it. At West End most of the rowing regattas are held, the crews rowing to Spanish Fort and back ; here also is the magnificent house of the Southern Yacht Club, one of the finest in the country, and from which all sailing matches take place. From the terminus of the railroad extends westward for about a mile the revetment or protection levee to prevent the overflow of New Orleans from the waters of the lake, which sometimes become very turbulent and high, being driven up by the winds from the south and east, and frequently flooding the back portions of the city. This levee is laid out in an elegant esplanade, with the choicest flowers and shrubs, statues, mazes, and walks and drives. Innumerable hotels and restaurants face it, and there are, in addition, the Lake Hotel, an opera house and concert saloon, at which dramatic performances are given in the summer.

West End is also reached by the Shell road, from Canal street, and Washington and Carrollton avenues.

On all these three lake lines, the Pontchartrain, Spanish Fort, and West End railroads, the cars leave both termini, from every ten minutes to every hour according to the season and time of day. The fare is 15 cents to the lake and return, the distance being from 6 to S miles, and requiring from 20 to 40 minutes to make it.

The Carrollton railroad, formerly a regular steam line, is now run with horses from Canal and Baronne streets to Napoleon avenue and St. Charles, and thence to Carrollton by dummies, ea.ch of which draws a single ordinary horse-par. This roftd. tiJTAP along Baronne to

Delord, thence to St. Charles avenue, and thence along that street, which is semicircular, to Carrollton. It runs by way of the prettiest avenue in New Orleans, the palatial residences on the avenue, in their gardens and parks exceeding anything to be found in this country in the extent of their grounds and the variety of their architecture. The line runs by the upper end of the Exposition Park and terminates at the Carrollton Garden, directly on the river, a favorite evening resort and whence a beautiful view of the river can be obtained.

On the opposite side of the river, in what is known as the Fifth district, or Algiers, is the Algiers & Gretna street railroad, also a dummy line. The road begins immediately on the river front at a point in Gretna nearly opposite the Jackson street or Fourth district levee, and runs through various water levees and settlements to the depot of the First district or Canal street ferry.

STKEET CARS.

In the matter of street cars, New Orleans is as bountifully provided as any city in the Union, there being over twenty different lines with over 150 miles of track. It has grown the custom to take the cars on every possible occasion, and an Orleanist seldom walks if there is a horse car in sight. The cars are small, capable of holding twenty conveniently, and drawn by one horse or generally by a mule, and are of what is known as the bobtail variety, being without conductors. The drivers are required to make change but collectors collect fares at most of the depots. The time is rather slow, not averaging over five and a half miles an hour. The universal price of travel is 5 cents, no matter what distance you go; and if it is two squares or six miles, for some of the roads are of that length, the fare is the same. There are no tickets sold—save on the Carrollton cars—and no transfers made, not even between two branches of the same line. Passengers on the Napoleon avenue branch of the Carrollton cars, however, need not pay on the main line ; and passengers by the Barracks & Levee, and Rampart & Dauphine" lines can travel from their terminus on Poland street via the Barracks & Slaughterhouse road, to the slaughterhouse below the city, in St. Bernard parish, without paying extra fare.

The following are the different railroad companies and their respective lines :

Canal & Claiborne line—office, 6 Camp street—operates the following lines :

Canal & Claiborne Line.— The cars of this line start at the foot of Canal street near the Levee, and go out Canal to Claiborne, thence out Claiborne to Elysian Fields, thence by Elysian Fields to Urquhart street, thence by Urquhart to the station on Lafayette avenue. In returning, the cars pass from Lafayette avenue into Good Children, thence to Elysian Fields back to Claiborne, and through Claiborne by a double track back to the starting point on Canal street.

Cars of this line marked Canal & Common streets, start from the same point near the Levee, thence go cut Canal street to Rampart, through Rampart to Common, out Common to the station between Tonti and Rocheblave streets. On returning, the cars pass by a parallel double track down Common to Basin, out Basin to Canal, and thence to the starting point.

The Canal & Claiborne street cars leave the starting point at the head of Canal street every five minutes until nine p. m., then every fifteen minutes until midnight. The cars are yellow and carry at night a red light.

The Canal & Common street cars leave their starting point at the head of Canal street every five minutes until nine p. m., and then every fifteen minutes until midnight. The cars are yellow with a white light at night.

The Girod & Poydras Line starts from the head of Common street, going out Front, Girod, and Claiborne to Common, where they run along the same track as the Common street cars to the Rocheblave street station. Returning, they come by way of Common to Claiborne, thence to Perdido, thence to Poydras, and out Poydras to Fulton and their starting point at the head of Common street. The cars run every five minutes until nine p. m., and from that time every fifteen minutes until midnight. They are yellow and carry a green light at night.

The Canal and Claiborne lines run along some of the widest and prettiest avenues in the

city. On Claiborne street it runs in the centre of four rows of large and ancient trees, which give the street a neat park-like appearance, and a drive here is almost like a ride in the country. The cars pass the St. Louis Cemetery, and the St. Bernard and Delamore markets. At the corner of Claiborne and Elysian Fields is the Claiborne street station of the Louisville & Nashville and Pontchartrain Railroads, where passengers can take the cars of these lines without going to the head of Canal street. At Good Children street is the depot of the Mississippi River, Terre aux Boeufs & Lake Borgne or Shell Beach Railroad.

The Common street line runs in front of the Charity Hospital, Hotel Dieu, and St. Joseph's Church.

The Girod and Poydras line is the shortest road to the depot of the Mississippi Valley, or Louisville, New Orleans & Texas Pacific Railroad.

The office of the Crescent City Bailroad Company is at the corner of Canal and Well streets. It operates the following lines:

The Tchoupitoulas and Levee Line. —The Tchoupitoulas street cars start from Canal street, near Camp, thence up Tchoupitoulas street to Louisiana avenue. Return by Tchoupitoulas street (double track) to Felicity road, thence down Peters street to Canal to starting point.

By this line the visitor can see the ice manufactory and the grain elevator. By a change of cars at Louisiana avenue visitors can go to the Upper City, or Exposition Park, Sixth district, and return by the same route. At Louisiana avenue and Napoleon avenue, visitors can take cars to return to the city by Carrollton railroad cars.

The line runs very near the river front, and enables one to get a very good view of the shipping and wharves of New Orleans, the warehouses, cotton presses, etc. Cars leave the starting point every five minutes until 9 p. m., then every 15 minutes until midnight; yellow cars; at night, green light.

Chippewa & Annunciation Street Line.— The cars of this line start on the river side of the Clay Statue, between Camp and Magazine streets, thence out Tchoupitoulas to the junction of Delord and Annunciation, thence by Annunciation street and to the right around Annunciation square back into Annunciation street, and out Annunciation street to the station on Louisiana avenue.

In returning, the cars enter Chippewa, and follow that street to Annunciation square, thence around that square to Annunciation street, and down that street to Delord, thence by Delord to Peters street, and via Peters street to Canal and back to the starting point. This line, like the Tchoupitoulas & Levee, connects with the cars running along Tchoupitoulas to the Upper City or Exposition Park. The Annunciation cars run by Maginnis' cotton mills, the old St. Mary market, Annunciation square, the water works, and through the district devoted to the compressing of cotton.

On Annunciation street are to bg seen very many handsome residences, including a number of old plantation houses, around which the city has grown up, and the first residences built by the Americans settling in New Orleans, as the road traverses the old faubourgs, Ste. Marie and Annonciation, the original American quarters of the city.

The cars start every five minutes until 9 p.m., then every fifteen minutes until midnight. Red • cars ; at night, red light.

The Canal, Coliseum & Upper Magazine, generally known as "the snake line," from its frequent turnings and twistings. The cars start from the head of Canal street, near the depot of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, thence to Carondelet, and up that street to Clio, in Clio to Coliseum, up Coliseum along Coliseum place to Felicity, in Felicity to Chestnut, up Chestnut to Louisiana avenue, thence to Magazine and up Magazine to the Upper City or Exposition Park. It returns by way of Magazine to Louisiana avenue, thence to Camp, thence to Calliope, thence to St. Charles, down St. Charles to Canal, and by Canal to the starting point.

Green cars ; at night, green light. Cars leave the starting point every five minutes until nine p.m., then every fifteen minutes until midnight; after midnight, every hour until five a.m., when the morning cars begin to run.

The line traverses one of the prettiest residence quarters of the city, in the Fourth and Sixth districts, and also passes the Jefferson market.

The New Orleans, City, & Lake Railroad, Office, 102 Canal street, operates the following lines:

Canal Street Steam Railway.— Starts from corner Canal and Carondelet to Cemeteries and West End ; returns by same route.

Canal Street Line.— Starts from Clay Statue, out Canal to Cemeteries. Returns by same route. Green cars; at night, white light. Leaves starting point every seven minutes for station on White street, and for end of route every fifteen minutes until midnight. Cars marked to " station only " go only to White street depot.

Esplanade Street Line.— Starts from Clay Statue, out Canal, Rampart, Esplanade to Louisiana Jockey Club Racecourse. Returns by same route. Yellow cars'; at night, red light. Leaves starting point every five minutes until nine p.m., then every thirty minutes until midnight; after midnight, every hour until five a.m.

Esplanade & French Market Line.— Starts from Custom Liouse, and goes by Canal, Peters and Esplanade, to Fair Grounds and Bayou Bridge. Returns by the same route. Yellow cars; at night, red light. Leaves starting point every eight minutes until ten p.m., then every thirty minutes until midnight.

Levee & Barracks Line.— Starts from Customhouse, goes by Peters, Lafayette avenue, Chartres, and Poland street to station (here take Barracks cars for Barracks and Slaughterhouse, without extra fare). Returns by Poland, Royal, Lafayette avenue, Peters and Canal. Green cars; at night red light. Leaves starting point every 5 minutes until 10 p. m., then every 30 minutes until midnight.

Magazine Street Line.— Starts from Clay Statue, goes up Camp and Magazine to Upper City Park. Returns by Magazine and Canal. Green cars, at night white light. Leaves starting point every 2 minutes from 5 a. m. to 9 a.m.; every 3 minutes from 9 a. m. to 3 p. m. ; every 2 minutes from 3 p. m. to 7 p. m., and every 5 minutes from 7 p. m. to midnight; after midnight, every hour until 5 a.m.

Rampart & Dattphine Line.— Starts from Clay Statue, goes by Canal, Rampart, Esplanade, Dauphine and Poland to station (here take Barracks cars for Barracks and Slaughterhouse, without extra fare). Returns by Rampart and Canal. Red cars, at night white light. Leaves starting point every 5 minutes until 10 p. m., then every 15 minutes until midnight; after midnight, every hour until 5 a. m.

Barracks & Slaughterhouse Line.— Starts from station on Rampart, corner of Poland street, goes by Poland, Dauphine, Delery and Peters to Slaughterhouse. Returns by Peters, Flood, Dauphine and Poland. Red cars, at night white light. Leaves starting point every 15 minutes until 7 p. m., then every 30 minutes until midnight.

Camp & Prttania Line.— Starts from Clay Statue, up Camp and Prytania to Upper City or Exposition Park. Returns by Prytania, Poyfarre, Magazine and Canal. Yellow cars; at night red light. Leaving starting point every 5 minutes until 10 p. m., then every 15 minutes until midnight ; after midnight every hour until 5 a. m.

Canal Street Line.— The horse cars on the lake side of the Clay statue marked "Ridge Cemeteries," convey passengers out Canal street to the Half-Way Ho ase, a distance of about three and a half miles. This Half-Way House is so called from being about one-half way between the city and the lake end of the new canal, on the route of the various shell-road drives which concentrate at that point, and is a famous place for rest and refreshment.