It was in co-operation with him and other old Napoleonists in this city and Charleston that Bossiere proceeded with great energy in constructing and equipping his clipper. When completed she proved to be a beauty, a model of a fast sailing and strong clipper of about 200 tons. The crew, too, had already been engaged and thoroughly drilled. They were picked sailors and fighters, men of the most desperate character. Bossiere had been provided with the most accurate maps of the harbor and plans of the fortifications, with the stations and armaments of the various ships of war guarding the island, and with the regulations of the military force and garrison.

Bossiere's whole soul was in this enterprise. He was a Frenchman by descent. His father was an officer in the army of Count Rochambeau, which co-operated with Washington's army in the siege of Yorktown, and led the French force which, with a column of Americans under Col. Alexander Hamilton, escaladed the principal fort defending the position of Lord Cornwallis. Bossiere's mother, too, was of French descent, from the island of San Domingo.

He thought and dreamed of nothing but the glory of scaling the precipitous heights of St. Helena, with his cutlass between his teeth, his trusty pistols in his belt, and, followed by his desperadoes, rushing upon the guard and breaking into Napoleon's chamber, securing his person, and bearing it to a chair, attached with a rope to block and tackle, and lowering him upon the deck of the "Seraphine," which, taking advantage of a dark night, had eluded the guardships and crept noiselessly into the position assigned in the carefully-drawn plan. When once deposited on the deck of the "Seraphine" he could trust to her heels, and defy pursuit

by the whole British navy. This was the plan which for months engaged the thoughts and faculties of Bossiere, and was rehearsed by him every night before going to bed, and again before rising in the morning.

Alas ! alas ! alas! Man proposes. God disposes. Three days before that which had been fixed for the departure of the " Seraphine " the news reached America of the death of the great Napoleon on the fifth of May, 1821. Never was a man stricken with more poignant grief and disappointment than Bossiere by this sorrowful intelligence.

That the plot which we have described was known to and authorized by Napoleon's staff at St. Helena was long afterwards acknowledged by Dr. Antomarchi and Marshal Bertrand, who visited the city some years after the death of their chief. Dr. Antomarchi testified his appreciation of the generous impulses and sentiments of the people of New Orleans by presenting a marble bust or cast of Napoleon after his death, which was long preserved in the old city hall. Marshal Bertrand, who visited the city in the forties, and was accompanied by young Ney, the Due de Moskowa, was received with great eclat and with the most enthusiastic demonstrations by the old Napoleonists, often referred to the plot which had been concocted in New Orleans, and which he believed would have been successful; and repeated Napoleon's frequent expressions of his great desire to spend the remainder of his days in that great and free country, and among the noble republican people of the United States of America.

It was in the summer of 1842, in the midst of that calm and indolence which are wont to possess New Orleans, and when there always exists a susceptibility, rather a longing, indeed, for some event or intelligence of a startling and sensational character, that some one brought to the city an appalling and frightful story of the capture of the ship Charles in the Gulf by pirates, and the murder of her crew and passengers, and the plunder and rifling of her cabin and cargo. After this foul deed, the bloodthirsty pirates had tried to scuttle and sink the vessel, but, being loaded with slaves, this proved impracticable. She was found floating in the Gulf, evidently without direction or crew, and on boarding her the awful reality was demonstrated by unmistakable signs. There were distinct marks of the fray. The decks were stained with the blood of the unfortunate crew. Trunks were found broken open and emptied ; old clothes were scattered around; bottles, which had evidently recently contained spirits, wine and beer, strewed the deck. Nothing of any value was left on the vessel; even her charts, chronometer, and all her portable furniture had been removed.

The intelligence was soon diffused through the whole city, and produced, of course a violent ferment, a wild excitement. The City Council met to consider the matter, and popular meetings were held. It was determined to organize a force of volunteers, to charter a steamer, and proceed immediately in pui*suit of the daring freebooters. That gallant and judicious military commander, General Persifer F. Smith, was placed in command of the expedition, which was quickly under way down the river. It was a fine body of citizen soldiers—of gentlemen of heroic mould, who tore themselves from the embraces of anxious wives and timid mothers, and hastened to engage in the perilous cruise against the successors to the bloody buccaneers of the Gulf, who had perpetrated this great outrage and insult upon our peaceful community.

The steamer reaching the Gulf, proceeded to cruise through the sound, keeping a close watch of the islands and inlets, where it was suspected the pirates had taken refuge to conceal their spoils. Every vessel, every fishing smack, was overhauled and examined, and every person who could be found on the islands was closely inspected, cross-examined and required to account for his presence, and treated generally as suspicious and a probable confederate of the bloody pirates. The Dagoes who frequent these little sand islands for fishing were especially subjected to the most rigorous inquisition. Doubtless they had good grounds for apprehension that they had in some way or other become offenders against the legal authority, and seeing such an army of armed men, deemed it most prudent to submit to a thorough search, and to employ any chances of evasion and misinformation to get rid of their visitors. They favored

and encouraged the piratical rumors, and they designated certain places where the pirates might be found, and which they frequented. One particular island of the Chandeliers was marked out as a suspicious locality. There was an encampment on that island of unknown and suspicious persons. Let the expedition make for that island, surround and arrest the parties, and there was every prospect of the capture oi the bloody villains who murdered the crew and plundered the ship " Charles." This story was confirmed by other accounts.

Accordingly, General Smith directed his steamer toward the suspicious locality. As he neared it a telescope betrayed the presence of a tent and of persons on the*.island. It was then dark. But the impatient valor of the heroic volunteers would not brook delay. It was urged to make a nocturnal attack. Arrangements were accordingly made therefor. A:id about 9 o'clock the several boats of the steamers were launched and all filled with gallant volunteers heavily armed. They made for the island silently and gloomily, General Smith in the bow of the foremost boat. Landing near the tent the men leaped on the beach and advanced in column of attack, General Smith in front. When within forty steps of the tent there was a cry of qui va la? The reply of General Smith was, " Surrender; lay down your arms," at the same time rushing towards the front of the tent. He was answered by a rifle shot, whistling near his head. But this did not arrest the General, who was some paces in advance of his men, when suddenly he stumbled over the tent ropes and fell prostrate. The person who had fired the gun then rushed to the fallen General and endeavored to slay him by cutting him with a knife, inflicting several wounds on his person, not, however, of a very serious character. In the meantime, the General's force had reached the scene, and seeing their prostrate commander, discharged a volley of musketry at his assailant, and then rushed into the tent. The enemy had fled, and was pursued to a lagoon, where he was captured by Captain George Washington Eeeder, a famous little light comedian and excellent newspaper reporter of his day. The prisoner proved to be badly wounded, and, alas ! alas! instead of a pirate, a most respectable Creole gentleman of New Orleans, Mr. Lucie, who, with his brother and son, a little boy, had pitched their tent upon this desolate island to enjoy a little fishing and other marine pleasures. The brother and son were found in the tent asleep. Mr. Lucie had heard of the piratical rumors, and of course, assailed in the manner he had been at night by armed men, took General Smith and his party for the bloodthirsty, plundering ruffians, and determined to sell his life as dearly as possible. Hence his manly resistance and the lamentable result. His wound was mortal, and he died that night, to the heart-rending grief of his little son and brother, and the bitter chagrin and sorrow of his unfortunate slayers.

This tragical result brought all parties to their senses. They began now to see that they had permitted a senseless panic to confuse their faculties and mislead their judgments. Further reflection created a doubt as to the whole story, which had begot their expedition, and led them on so desperate a wild chase. From credulity they rushed to the other extreme of thorough skepticism of the whole story about the ship " Charles." Accordingly, General Smith directed the captain of the steamer to take the expedition back to New Orleans as rapidly as possible. The dead body of Mr. Lucie and his mourning relatives, and all his effects were put aboard, and the steamer directed her course to the city. It was a melancholy trip ; all the valorous enthusiasm of our gallant volunteers had evaporated: their hopes of being received by their friends and families-in the city, as conquering heroes returning from the war, had given way to a profound despondency and disgust. Arriving safely in the city at night, General Smith disbanded his command, and each man slunk home with more of the feeling of defeat and dismay than that of pride and triumph.

A few days afterward, the roll of the expeditionary party disappeared, and it was always very difficult ever afterward to discover who were the members of it, though, when it started, they were all well-known citizens.

This modesty was due to two events.

The next day after the return of the expedition, capias was issued by the Criminal Court of

New Orleans for the arrest, on a charge of murder, of General P. S. Smith and George Washing ton Reeder, the two actors in the affair, who could not disguise their connection with it. It required a very thorough investigation before these gentlemen could release themselves from this anno/ing involvement. The second fact, which stripped this expedition of all the glory and renown which it was expected to achieve, was the intelligence which came from the North, of the safe arrival of the crew and passengers of the ship " Charles," who, finding the vessel in a sinking condition as they imagiued, concluded to abandon her, and hailing a passing vessel, bound for New York, took passage on her, taking good care to remove all their baggage and all the portable effects. The mysterious blood stains on the deck were caused by the butchering of some chickens or the emptying the contents of claret bottles.

In fact, it was shown that there had never been so senseless a panic as that created in New Orleans by the mysterious abandonment of the ship " Chai*les."

It proved a good lesson. We have never since heard of any piratical exploits or deeds in the Gulf. That ancient disturbance of our slumbers has never visite our couches.

CHAPTER XX.—THE FILIBUSTERS.

THE SEVERAL EXPEDITIONS FROM NEW ORLEANS AGAINST CUBA—THE EXPLOITS OF THE FILIBUSTERS—DEATH OF LOPEZ AND CRITTENDEN—THE NEW ORLEANS CUBAN RIOT.

It was from New Orleans that the various filibustering expeditions which invaded the possessions of Spain and other South American states sailed. This filibustering spirit may be said to be the legitimate sequence of Lafitte's expeditions against the Spanish main, for Lafitte was in reality more filibuster than pirate.

From early in the thirties, the filibustering spirit was all-powerful in New Orleans. Hundreds of men went from the city to take part in the Texan War of Independence, and to engage in the various expeditions into Mexico. Later William Walker, the " blue-eyed man of destiny," who had been editor of a New Orleans paper, organized the expedition to Central America, which was composed mainly of Louisianiana and Mississippians. The success of this filibustering exploit was so great, Walker being dictator and in absolute control of Nicaragua for some years that it incited a number of other expeditions of like nature.

But the most popular of all the filibustering movements from New Orleans was that which sought to free Cuba from the dominion of Spain.

In 1849 the first Cuban Junta was established in New York. It was composed of Gen. Narcisso Lopez, president; Juan Manuel Macias, Jose Maria Sanchez, Yznaga, Cirilo Villaverde and Ambrosio Gonzales. The military commission of Cuba at once took the matter in hand, and the sentence of death by the garrote was duly passed upon its members.

A season of inactivity, for utter want of means, then ensued until the early part of 1850, until at alevee of President Zachary Taylor, Gen. Gonzales, who had throughout represented the Cubans in Washington, was asked by a lady to be introduced to her friend, Gen. John Henderson, ex-Senator[f rom Misssissippi and a prominent lawyer of New Orleans, a friend of Cuba. After a short conversation he was encouraged by Gen. Henderson, if ever he thought of moving in behalf of Cuba, to come to New Orleans and see him. Some days after some young gentlemen from Kentucky, hearing in Washington of Gen. Gonzales being a representative of Cuba, called on him. They had served as officers in the Mexican war. They were Col. Theodore O'Hara, editor of the Louisville Democrat, author of the "Bivouac of the Dead," commander of Fort McRae, in Pensa-cola, and inspector-general to Sidney Johnston, at Shiloh, in the civil war; Col. Pickett, afterward consul and acting minister to Mexico, and Major Hawkins. They asserted their ability and willingness to raise at their own expense and bring down to New Orleans a regiment of Kentuckians, as fine material as could be found anywhere, if the authority were given them.

Coming to New Orleans, the Cubans found a large number of persons very enthusiastic over the proposed expedition to Cuba, and had no difficulty in raising the men and money they wanted.

With the money collected, about $40,000, the little steamer Creole, that had been plying between New Orleans and Mobile, was purchased, repaired, coaled, officered, manned and provisioned, arms and uniforms were procured, and the bark Georgina was chartered as a transport.

Authority was given to Col. Bunch and Lieut.-Col. Smith, son of Justice C. Pinkney Smith, of Mississippi, to raise in that State a skeleton regiment. At this juncture, Col. Robert Wheat, who had served in the Mexican war, presented himself, begging to be allowed to go. He was told that there was no transportation for him, but he removed the objection by offering to procure it if he was only given the.authority to form also a skeleton regiment of Louisianians. This being done, he obtained money from young gentlemen friends of his, to charter the brig Susau. Loud, provison her, etc., all for the mere privilege of going.

Such were the men who went to Cuba—men of family, position and means.

There were about 500 men, 200 and odd Kentuckians, the remainder of Louisianians and Mississippians. Some of the arms were sent out in a vessel, a portion only being taken on the "Creole" in cases and opened at sea, and most of the men in the other. The vessels were ordered to meet at a certain point, and the "Creole" steamed away from New Orleans with the rest of the men, without arms. At the very point marked out the vessels were found, and the little fleet proceeded to the islands of Mugeres and Contoy, on Mexican territory, on the northeast coast of Yucatan ; the same islands where Cortez stopped before his desceut upon Vera Cruz.

There the party landed, armed and perfected its organization, and drilled. About forty-two of the men refused to go any further, and General Lopez told them they might return in the vessels to New Orleans, as he wanted no unwilling spirits. They tarried there after the departure of the expedition, and the fishing-smacks of Pancho Marti, the fishmonger of Havana, owner of the Tacon Theatre, gave information of their being there. Spanish war-vessels promptly appeared and carried them off to Cuba. These were the well-remembered "Contoy Prisoners" whom the Spaniards wanted to hang for having deserted the filibusters who were sent to Spain, and whom the U. S. Minister, Mr. Barringer, of North Carolina, had so much difficulty in rescuing from a sad fate. As they came off the harbor of Havana, in charge of two Spanish men-of-war, they fell in with the United States sloop-of-war " Albany,*' Commander Randolph, who demanded them, and, being refused, prepared for action against superior force, when Captain Tatnall, coming up from Key West in the "Saranac," overruled him and consented, to avoid complication, to their being carried off. The "Creole," in the meantime giving a wide berth to the coast of Cuba, made a circuit toward Florida, and suddenly made for Cardenas, the point of destination.

Having no pilot.the party was taken, unfortunately, to a wharf in Cardenas, where the water was shoal, and the " Creole " grounded a few yards from it. The moon had gone down and it was utterly dark, so that nothing could be seen. It was then that Fassoux, a native of South Carolina, who was mate of the "Creole," jumped overboard with a plank with rope attached, climbed the wharf and thus secured communication with the vessel. The plank was rested on a gunnel and unsteady. Fassoux, wet to the skin, sat on the wharf and steadied it. The delay in the landing was so great the alarm was given, and the Spaniards had time to prepare for defense. Foiled in the expectation of surprising the place, the filibusters were constrained to take it by force. Lieut.-Col. Pickett, with sixty Kentuckians, was sent'to the railroad depot to take possession and hold it.

A detachment was sent to the skirts of the town to cut off communication with the country, and Gen. Lopez and the rest of the expedition moved in solid columns toward the barracks, which were built of stone, with the windows grated, a species of fortress.

On approaching them a line of Spanish soldiers formed, and as Gen. Lopez answered "Cuba" to their challenge, a volley was fir.ed, which wounded Colonels Wheat, O'Hara, and many others. The Spaniards then retreated into the building and fired upon the filibusters through the grated windows. After a time means were devised to batter down the gate. The gate soon succumbed, and the Cuban troops rushed in and the Spaniards evacuated by a rear door.

Many of the Spanish troops in the garrison deserted to Lopez, threw off their uniforms, put on the blouses of the Cubans and came over with Lopez to the United States. They returned with him to Cuba in 1851, and perished by his side there.

The "Creole" having taken these men on board, steamed away to the eastern portion of the island where they expected assistance from the natives. When a short distance from Cardenas, the "Creole" stopped to give burial to one of the officers who had died of his wound in the night. Just then the Spanish man-of-war, "Pizarro," came in sight. Then ensued one of the most remarkable naval chases ever witnessed, but the " Creole " succeeded in reaching Key West, and disembarking her men there just as the "Pizarro " came up with her.

This ended the first filibustering expedition to Cuba. It encouraged rather than disheartened these who had participated in it, and every arrangement was made for another one.

In the meanwhile, Gen. Lopez came to New Orleans, and stood a trial for the part he had taken in this movement. The trial, which was a prolonged one, and aroused the deepest interest throughout the country, resulted in a mistrial—eleven for acquittal to one for conviction.

All the arrangements were now perfected for organizing another filibustering party.

General Lopez had agreed with General Ambrosio Gonzales to start in the fall an expedition from New Orleans and land on the southeastern coast of Cuba, while Gonzales, with a force of men from Georgia and Florida would land on the northeastern coast, and form a junction with him. The standard being raised, General Quitman, of Mississippi, was to come to their support with men from the west and southwest. Here commenced the series of errors, which, link by link, led to the final disaster. It is to be believed that they were brought about, to a great extent, by the consummate artfulness of the wily Concha, Captain-General of Cuba. Joaquin Agiiero and the Arteagas rose pi'ematurely in Puerto Principe, on the fourth of July, 1851. The plea for precipitating the movement was that as soon as it was inaugurated in Cuba the United States government xvould interfere with assistance from this country. This rising was followed by that of Armenteros, in the province of Trinidad. A great meeting was held in New Orleans on July 23, in Lafayette square, to express sympathy for the Cubans.

Says the New Orleans Delta :

"But one feeling, one voice, one hope prevails among all classes, that of success in the glorious struggle. Were it practicable one tithe of our fighting population would rush to the aid of the patriots. The wealthy planters of the South are among the most eager friends of Cuba. Our sugar planters, whose interests, it has been falsely alleged, would be jeopardized by the independence of Cuba, are too sensible to be deceived by such arguments, or too patriotic to be restrained by them.

On the 26th another enthusiastic meeting was held at Bank's Arcade.

Misled by false news from Cuba, General Lopez t without waiting for the other parties to organize, hurriedly left New Orleans in the steamer "Pampero."

Col. Pragay, distinguished in the Hungarian war, was his chief of staff ; Major Rugendorf a Hungarian, commanded the engineers. There was a company composed exclusively of Cubans and Spaniards, including the soldiers who deserted General Lopez at Cardenas, all under command of Felipe Gotay, a gallant and commanding son of Porto Rico, who had joined the filibusters at Cardenas the previous year. Its lieutenant was Miguel Lopez, the sergeant of the Spanish garrison at Cardenas, who had also come with his men in 1850. There was a company commanded by Oberto, a Cuban, and a gallant and experienced soldier, who had been an officer in the Spanish army. The rest of the command were Americans, mostly from New Orleans and Mississippi, young men of good standing and habits. They were commanded by Col. Crittenden, a nephew of the Attorney-General of the United States, a graduate of the Military Academy, and by Col. Donovan, of Georgia, with Major J. A. Kelly and Capts. Saunders, Brigham, Stewart, Ellis, Victor Kerr and others.

The " Pampero," havingleftNew Orleans, proceeded to Key West. Near there she remained for several days for the purpose of evading the vigilance of the Spanish ships. Having learned from the Key West wreckers that the inhabitants of the District of Vuelta Abajo (nearly opposite Key West) were up in arras, Gen. Lopez determined to avail himself of the information and make his landing among them. Steering from Bahia Honda, his purpose was to land at a small port called Mariel. When about eighteen leagues from Havana the machinery of the " Pam. pero " got out of order, thj consequence of which was that she floated for two hours along the current of the Gulf Stream, approaching all the while toward that city. Before the accident was repaired she was carried full in view of the Morro Castle, and even in sight of the soldiers on the water battery. Getting up steam again, sheabore away for Bahia Honda, intercepting on the way a coasting vessel, from which Gen. Lopezfobtaiued two pilots.

Gen. Lopez landed and left Crittenden with his battalion of 120 men on the coast to guard the baggage and ammunition while he proceeded inland. Crittenden was attacked and repulsed the Spaniards, but was worsted in the next onset, when his men were dispersed, and he and fifty more took to the boats to escape. He was met by the steamer " Habanero " and captured and taken to Havana.

Here after a short imprisonment Crittenden and his entire party were all shot in the back, on the slope of the Castle of Atares, at the bottom of the Bay of Havana. They were sentenced by a drum-head court-martial, on board the frigate "Esperanza." Havana correspondents of American newspapers North and South reported their bodies to have been mutilated and thrown pele-mele into a ditch.

Gen. Lopez, after leaving Crittenden on the coast, proceeded inland with his 300 and odd men to a village called Las Pozas, where he was attacked by a Spanish column of 800 or 1,000 men, which he defeated, killing Cols. Justez, Nadal, etc., but losing most of his staff and officers. He then retreated to Cafetal de Trias, formerly belonging to his wife's family, where he was attacked by Major-Gen. Enna, second in command of the island of Cuba, with a very large force of infantry, cavalry and artillery. The small band left him received the attack at an avenue of mango trees, and then took a position by a stone fence. Their fire was so murderous and the loss inflicted upon the enemy so great that Gen. Enna, his troops being demoralized, was himself compelled to head a charge with a few men. He fell, mortally wounded, and Gen. Lopez is said to have exclaimed : " Oh! for fifty horses, and there would not be one of them left! " Then came a fearful hurricane, which added to his difficulties. The successor of Gen. Enna adopted the policy of surrounding the patriots and starving them out. Probably 4,000 men, in separate columns, confronted in every direction the 100 and odd remaining. Gen. Lopez's horse was killed for food, and the General then asked his men to seek their safety and leave him to his fate. Finally he left them, accompanied by one faithful friend. Wounded in the shoulder, faint and exhausted from fatigue and loss of blood, he wandered about until at last he was pursued with bloodhounds and captured by some sixteen Catalans. He surrendered, exclaiming: "'Kill me, but pardon my men ! " When captured he had scarcely the strength to stand erect. He was taken to Bahia Honda and kept there until the garrison could be reinforced by drawing men to that place.

On the 31st he was taken in the " Pizarro " to Havana and the order of his execution issued. When he arrived there he was so weak that he could scarcely sit up. On the day of his execution a large military force was drawn up and all the cannons of the fort fully manned and directed to the place for execution. When the general was taken from the steamer and placed on shore, to the surprise of his guards, he stood up erect and marched to the place of execution with a bold and manly port. His demeanor evinced the utmost coolness, manliness and dignity.

Just before his death he made a short address, in which he stated that his intentions looked to the advancement and happiness of the people of Cuba; that the imputation of plunder and piracy was a calumny; that he had meditated no greater crime than that of seeking to secure a free institution for that people, and he was willing to meet his fate. Before, however, he had concluded, he was forced into the garrote, and his last words, which were uttered in a loud tone, were : " Adios, Cuba Querida "—"Adieu, dear Cuba."

When the news of the shooting of Crittenden reached New Orleans it produced the wildest excitement. A meeting called to denounce the outrage wound up in a serious riot, and the mob, marching through the principal streets, attacked all the dagoes (Spaniards) that could be found, and wrecked whatever property it could lay its hands on, the principal victims being the keepers of several cigar stores.

The shooting of Crittenden and Lopez had the effect of destroying all filibustering enthusiasm, and with their death died, for a time at least, the idea of freeing Cuba by means of a military expedition from New Orleans.

CHAPTER XXI.—FLATBOATING DAYS.

FLATBOATS AND KEELBOATS—THE LONG VOYAGE DOWN THE RIVER—THE SCUFFLES BETWEEN THE FLATBOATMEN AND THE GENS D'ARMES.

The river commerce of the older days, before steamboats were invented, and when all the produce of the Mississippi Valley came to New Orleans in flatboats, was much more picturesque than it is to-day, and just as profitable. There were several varieties of I oats in use then, the flatboat, just what it is now, being the favorite.

The barge was of the size of an Atlantic schooner, with a raised and outlandish looking deck. It had sails, masts and riggingr not unlike a [sea vessel, and carried from fifty to one hundred tons. It required twenty-five or thirty hands to work it up stream. On the lower courses of the Mississippi, when the wind did not serve, and the waters were high, it was worked up stream by the operation that is called "warping." a most laborious, slow and difficult work of ascent, and in which six or eight miles a day was good progress. It consisted in having two galleons, the one in advance of the other, carrying out a warp of some hundred yards in length, making it fast to a tree, and then drawing the barge up to thattree by a warp. When that warp was coiled, the galleon in advance had another laid, and so on alternately. From ninety to one hundred days was a tolerable passage from New Orleans to Cincinnati. In this way the intercourse between Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Louisville, Nashville and St. Louis, for the more important purposes of commerce, was kept up with New Orleans. One need only read the journal of a barge on such an ascent to comprehend the full value of the intervention of steamboats.

The keel boat was of a long, slender and elegant form, and generally carried from fifteen to thirty tons. Its advantage lay in its small draft of water and the lightness of its construction. It is still used on the Ohio and Upper Mississippi in low stages of water, and on all the boatable streams where steamboats do not yet run. Its propelling power is by oars, sails, setting poles, the cordelle, and when the waters are high, and the boats run on the margin of the bushes, bushwhacking, or pulling up by the bushes. Before the invention of steamboats, these boats were used in the proportion of six to one at the present time.

The ferryboat was a scowboat, and when used as a boat of descent for families, had a roof or covering. These were sometimes, in the vernacular phrase, called " sleds." The Alleghany, or Mackinaw skiff, was a covered skiff, carrying from six to ten tons, and much used on the Alleghany, the Illinois, and the rivers of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri. Pirogues were sometimes hollowed from one very large tree, or from the trunks of two trees, united and fitted with a plank rim. They carried from one to three tons. They were common skiffs, canoes and dugouts for the convenience of crossing the rivers ; and a select company of a few travelers often descended in them to New Orleans. Hunters and Indians, and sometime? passengers, made long journeys of ascent of the rivers in them. Besides these were a number of anomalous water crafts, that can hardly be reduced to any class, used as boats of passage or descent: such as flatboats worked by a wheel, which was driven by cattle, that they were conveying to the New Orleans market.

There were horse-boats of various constructions, used for the most part as ferryboats, but sometimes as boats of ascent. Two keel-boats were connected by a platform. A pen held the horses, which by circular movement propelled the wheels. United States troops frequently ascended the river by boats, propelled by tread-wheels; and more than once a boat moved rapidly up stream by wheels, after the steamboat construction, propelled by a man turning a crank.

But the boats of passage and conveyance that were most in fashion were keel-boats and fiats. The fiatboats were called in the vernacular phrase, "Kentucky flats" or "broad horns." They were simply an oblong ark. with a roof slightly curved to shed rain. They were generally about fifteen feet wide, and from fifty to eighty, and sometimes an hundred feet in length. The timbers of the bottom were massive beams and they were intended te be of great strength, and carry a burden of from two to four hundred barrels. Great numbers of cattle, hogs and horses, were conveyed to market in them. Family boats of this description, fitted up for the descent of families to the lower country, were fitted witn a stove, comfortable apartment, beds and arrangements for commodious habitancy, and in them, ladies, servants, cattle, horses, sheep, dogs and poultry, all floating on the same bottom, and on the roof, the looms, plows, spinning-wheels, and domestic implements of the family, were carried down the river to New Orleans.

Along the river front, about where St. Mary's market now stands, moored to posts in the levee, were hundreds of these rude craft, lying side by side, so that one could walk almost a mile on their curved decks without going ashore. In their capacious hulls they held cargoes of Western products from Kentucky and other river States, and they were manned by a class of men who were fearless in danger, and as thoughtless of the morrow as any of the pioneers who threaded the forests of the West. Strong, courageous and full of vitality, they sought to get out of their fare what there was in it, and so, when their journey was ended, and the boats tied up in New Orleans, they made the upper section of the city quite as lively as some frontier towns of the present day.

On the front street, where the flatboats lay, was a row of saloons where they congregated, and in the rear of these, in the furthermost end of the room, were the faro and roulette tables. Gambling was then not prohibited or licensed, and there was no attempt to conceal it. In fact, from the sidewalk one could hear the roulette roller calling out: "Twenty-eight on the red," " Eagle bird by chance." Up-stairs were boarding-houses for the accommodation of this floating population. Away back on Girod street, near where the cemetery now is, there was a collection of buildings which, from the low situation, was known as " The Swamp." This was a great rendezvous for the flatboatmen, and here they reigned supreme, the city police never caring to invade those precincts. The double-acting Colt or Tranter were then unknown, but it seems the flint-lock pistol of the date was equally efficacious in putting out the light of an antagonist, and desperate affrays here were not uncommon.

The men usually stayed here until they had spent or gambled the result of their trip away, and then left for homo by land. The captains or owners of the flatboats were of the more provident sort, but the hired men seldom cared to save their money. When the leathern purse was growins liglit. three of them would club together and purchase a horse, and prepare to start on their long journey through the woods. After securing transportation across Lake Pont-chartrain, one would mount the horse and ride for two hours, leaving the rest trudging on behind. When his time had expired, the mounted man would dismount, tie the animal to a tree, and start ahead on foot. When the one whose turn it was to ride second came along to where the horse was tied, he would take him and push along for his two hours, leaving him for the third man. Thus the journeys were made in this "whip-saw" fashion, as it was called. Through Mississippi and Tennessee the trail used by these hardy fellows is known even to-day, and tales of some of the wildest of these men are still told along the route.

Probably no one was better known either on the river or on the trail homewards than Bill Sedley, one of the curious characters of these times. Standing six feet two inches in his russet brogans, with shoulders of a Hercules, he was reported to be the most skillful man with a sweep and the quickest man in a fight of anybody visiting that select neighborhood, known as "The Swamp." " His heart was a big as an apple bar'l," they used to say ; but when "he was agen yer," look out! There was one occasion when he was evidently "agen " somebody, for even until to-day one can sometimes hear on the river about ''the Sedley fight of '32,"

Old Mother Colby, a dame of about 50 winters and 200 pounds, kept a boarding-house and caravansary in " The Swamp," known as the " Sure Enuf Hotel," the lower floor of which was occupied as a saloon, with a gambling-room just behind, The old woman was a great favorite with the boys, and she was considerably ahead of the world by their patronage. She rented the saloon to two Mexican brothers by the name of Contreras, one of whom dealt faro, whilst the other attended the bar.

Whether it was from the defeat at cards, received from one brother, or the "fire juice" received from the other cannot be defini ;ely stated, but the fact remain ed that Bill Sedley walked out of the bar-room one afternoon as savage an individual as could be found in " The Swamp." "I be dansred," said he, " whether I know if it's the whiskey or I seed it right, but I am a yellow bantam pullet but I thought T saw Rafe Contreras deal a keerd from his sleeve."

The boys standing around said nothing, and drinks were called for again. Whatever may have been Sedley's doubts before, this additional "cocktail, stiff, you bet." which he ordered, settled them, and with a loud cry, " I'm a child of the snapping-turtle, and raised with the painters," he walked in the back-room where Rafe Contreras was about starting from the table to go to dinner. Some high words followed, and a pistol shot was heard.

The crowd rushed into the street, and immediately Juan Contreras, who attended bar, closed and barred the door, shutting on the inside Bill Sedley, his brother and himself.

The crowd gathered close to the door on the outside to listen. Aleck Masters, a short, thick-set Kentuckian, suggested that somebody give him a lift on the back fence, as he wanted to get inside to see fair play. But nobody paid any attention to him, as just then the report of a pistol, followed by another, was heard. A crash of glasses in the bar followed, and above everything then, " I'm a child of the snapping turtle, I am." Tables were being thrown around the room, chairs broken, and a pandemonium of sound followed.

In a few minutes the excited listeners heard some one taking down the bar to the front door, and soon it was throwni open.

" Gentlemen, w T alk in; it's free drinks to-day. The American eagle has lit on the Alle-ghanies."

There stood Bill Sedley covered with blood, but smiling. His left hand hung powerless at his side and a ruby stream ran down from a wound near the temple. His shirt was cut in several places, with a bloody spot to each cut.

"Gentlemen," said he, " the proprietor of this here place has gone on a journey, and left me in charge. Help yourselves, and drink hearty."

Behind an overturned table was Juan Contreras, knife in hand, in death agonies, and in the back room Rafe was lying on the fatal faro table, a bowie-knife w T ound in his left breast telling the tale.

Sedley was hurried over the lake, and he was soon on the trail, bound for Kentucky, and though he never returned, it is said he lived to a good old age.

GUIDE TO NEW ORLEANS. '20'■)

CHAPTER XXIL— THE GREEN CLOTH.

SPORTING MEN OF " AULD LANG SYNE "—HIGH-TONED GAMBLING—SALOONS AND THE

FORTUNES MADE AND LOST IN THEM.

Until about the year 1827 or 1828, no extensive gambling houses had been opened to the public iu New Orleans, and any gambling whatever before that period was on a small scale and very private. At the time designated by the above dates, the first two establishments were opened by John Davis, Sr., the impresario of the old Opera House, on Orleans street, and the first impresario in the United States. One of these gaming resorts was at the corner of Orleans and Bourbon streets, and the other on Bayou St. John. The latter place was intended more especially for Saturday night and Sunday games, which were favorite days at that period for such indulgences, and dinner was always provided for the Sunday players. The Orleans street branch was for daily or nightly operations. At this place arge crowds congregated, the games being faro, roulette, and vingt-et-un, and the betting heavy At these public games, however, the elite and notabilities of that day did not as a rule participate to any great extent. For these, especial and private rooms were set apart in which brag nd ecarte were played almost exclusively. Large, very large sums, were won or lost in these private rooms, and the gamesters were business and professional men, who kept regular memorandum books, in which were entered their daily gains or losses.

As a confirmation of these facts, years after the occurrence, one of the players at this resort, in an unguarded moment, related that he lost in one year upwards of thirty thousand dollars at ecarte ; that this loss was covered by his winning: at brag, which had exceeded fifty thousand. It was well known that Colonel Ghrymes, the most distinguished lawyer and advocate at the New Orleans bar, not .excepting Edward Livingston, notwithstanding his large professional income, never accumulated ; but on the contrary was frequently in an open impecunious condition, although living in no extravagant style. This abnormal condition in so remarkable a man, was only accounted for by his contemporaries upon the hypothesis of heavy losses at Davis's, while the rapid accumulation of a large fortune by another by no means brilliant professional man of the same period, within a career of less than ten years, and while keeping up an expensive style of living, was attributed to his enormous gains. This success was probably achieved by the same shrewd and machiavellian methods, which, added to the powerful backing of a patriarchal family, finally and in the face of bitterest opposition, won him the political success he had long vainly struggled for.

Davis was very successful, made money fast, and no one envied his success and good fortune, for with the money thus acquired he was enabled to cater to the musical taste and to the attractions of our city by introducing the opera.

True, he only brought out at first such operas as "La Dame Blanche," "Le Cheval de Bronze." "L'Eclaip," "Lucie," "La Favorite," " Le Postilion de Lonjumeau," and other light gems ; but he was at the same time laying the foundation and creating the resources which were thereafter to enable his brilliant son, John Davis, Jr., or " Toto " Davis as he was familiarly called, to bring out in our city, and in advance of any and all impresarios in America, the chef d'ceuvres of the great masters—such operas as " Robert," the "Huguenots," " Moi'se," "LaJuive," "Don Giovanni," " Le Prophete," "Trovatore," in short, the entire repertoire up to his times. This John, or " Toto " Davis, was one of the most talented and accomplished men ever in Louisiana. Apart from a thorough classical education, acquired in one of the royal colleges of France, he had also gone through a complete course of musical studies, an artistic

training which was of great service to him in the selection and formation of his opera companies in Europe.

Davis's success in his gambling-room ventures soon prompted others to follow in his footsteps, and by 1832 not less than fourteen large gambling establishments had sprung into existence. To effect this, however, legislative sanction was required, and an appeal having been made to the Legislature, an act was passed by that body authorizing the opening and running of gambling houses in New Orleans upon payment by each to the State of an annual license of $7,500. Under the enabling clause of this law the fourteen houses above referred to went into operation. These were owned and managed by the following named parties : Hicks and Hewlett opened at the corner of St. Louis and Chartres street; Duval, on Chartres, between Conti and Bienville ; St. Cyr, on Chartres, between St. Louis and Conti; Toussaint, on Chartres, between St. Louis and Conti; Chartou, on Canal, between Camp and St. Charles; Elkin, <>n Canal, near St. Charles, and Pradat, also on Canal, corner of Camp, in the building at present occupied by Moses as a photograph gallery. The remaining seven were distributed between the two old municipalities, the First and Second.

These houses were public in the full sense of the term, open to all by day and by night, as similar houses have been under more recent administrations; and they were resorted to by all classes, but more especially by strangers from all parts of the world, who flocked to New Orleans at that period, as if to an El Dorado, in quest of wealth which they supposed could be grasped without effort, and which only required the pains of picking up. Those were lively times, not unlike those of San Francisco in 1849 and 1850, and all these gamblers and gambling-houses did what is so forcibly expressed by the term, a "land office " business ; but in 1836 all these institutions, like many others of a more legitimate character, came to grief. Their end was an act passed, accelerated by the repeal of the Act of 1832, at the instigation and upon the motion of Mr. Larrimore, Representative of the parish of St. Tammany. As a matter of course, they ceased to keep open houses, in compliance with the legislative mandate, but they continued their operations in a clandestine manner. Out of the whole number of individuals engaged in the gambling business as far back as 1828, and of those who owned and operated a house under the Act of 1832, there still lives in our midst one old man, the only survivor of the thousands who witnessed and participated in those exciting times. This is old St. Cyr, aged eighty-six years, but with all those years, still possessed of health, vigor and memory. This same octogenarian was also a member of Plauche's celebrated battalion, which distinguished itself at the battle of the 8th of January, and won the applause and commendation of General Jackson.

After the suppression of the houses under the law of 1836, and in consequence of the great panic wh jh ensued, and the consequent scarcity of money, the business did not flourish as it had in the years described, and continued to languish until 1846. With the breaking out of the Mexican war, which brought thousands of soldiers and officers to our city, then the base of operations and supplies, and the great California mining fever, which concentrated tens of thousands of emigrants for the land of gold in our midst, another bright era dawned upon the sporting element. Under the stimulating effects of two so powerful agencies as an immense and reckless transient population, all of them by nature and temperament bold speculators, ready to stake anything or everything on the throw of the dice, and the plethora of money produced by such causes it will not be wondered at that the gambling furor again broke out in New Orleans. Gambling houses were now opened in all directions, all over the city, near the St. Mary's Market, near the steamship landings, near the hotels, the boarding and lodging houses, wherever retm-ning soldiers or emigrants quartered or congregated. At that time certain houses were licensed by city ordinance, such as carried on the games of "rondeau "and "loto;" and all through the night, from "dusky eve to early morn," in every frequented thoroughfare, could be heard the deep and sonorous voice of the game keeper as he called time and game at rondeau. None of these establishments, nor of those which had preceded them, assumed any

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pretensions to luxury or elegance. It was not until the fifties, that elegantly-furnished houses, where sumptuous dinners and suppers were supplied to visitors and patrons, were introduced in New Orleans and the new departure was first brought to perfection by a trio comprising three notable men.

McGrath, Sherwood and Perritt were men of marked individual character, with strong distinctive personal points, and all of them self-made men. In all their dealings and in all their intercourse in New Orleans or elsewhere—and these were not confined to sporting business and sporting circles, but extended in many directions and embraced many sections of legitimate trade—those three men ever enjoyed a name and reputation for fair play, for strict honesty and integrity in all transactions of whatever nature. Price McGrath, one of the partners, upon the breaking out of the war between the States, closed up his establishment and went North, but finally settled down in Kentucky, established a stock farm, and turning his attention to racing and blooded stock, became one of the most successful turfmen of latter days, and the owner of many winners, among them the famous Tom Bowling. McGrath died some years ago on his farm in his native State, Kentucky.

Henry Perritt, one of the trio, in his pride and devotion to his adopted State, and for the South, at his own expense organized, equipped, and sent to the battlefields of Virginia one of the finest military commands which set out from New Orleans in 1861, known as the " Perritt Guards."

The firm of McGrath & Company had established itself at No. 4 Carondelet street, afterward the domicile of the " Boston Club," which they had purchased and fitted up at a cost of nearly seventy thousand dollars. This establishment was patronized and visited by leading men not only of this State and city, but by prominent men of the West and North, and especially was it the headquarters of all Southern and Western turfmen. All the pools on the races of the period, and particularly those on the races of the grand Old Metairie, were sold at McGrath's ; and on these occasions the house, thronged with merchants, planters, lawyers, looked more like a club, or an exchange, than a gambling-house. It would be superfluous, with such patronage and so much popularity, to speak of its success. It coined money, and no one begrudged this well-deserved success.

James Sherwood was born in North Carolina, of a poor but respectable family, and enjoyed few opportunities of early education ; but gifted with lively mental qualities, those of imagination, imitation and observation, he contrived most successfully in after life to overcome the disadvantages and deficiencies of his youth. In his composition, egotism and selfishness found no lodging place. He had drifted unconsciously into this line of life, though born with tastes, inclinations and abilities, which in the sphere for which nature had fitted him, would have placed him on the highest pinnacle. Had Sherwood gone upon the stage and devoted himself to the study of comedy, he must have ranked with George Holland, the Placides, Chippendale, and Owens. As a raconteur he had few equals, and columns could be filled in reproducing the amusing stories and anecdotes with which he kept his friends or listeners in a perpetual state of merriment. So great was his enjoyment of social pleasures that he often invited friends and acquaintances to his palatial parlors with the express understanding that no game should be played, entertaining them with a sumptuous feast, at which the wit was as sparkling as the wine.

It was in the beginning of the late war, and during the early stages of that conflict, that he fairly exhibited the shining qualities of his loyal and generous nature. HI health and a delicate constitution not permitting him to undergo the fatigues and hardships of camp and military life, he more than compensated for this exemption by aiding several organizations of New Orleans, supplying them with money, clothing and equipments. Nor did his good and loyal deeds stop there, for he contributed generously to the families of those who remained at home.

At the same period .that the popular house of Sherwood & McGrath flourished, there were several other large and elegantly appointed gaming houses which attempted to compete with it

for popularity. One of these was owned and conducted by Lauraine and Cassidy. They, no doubt, were very popular, and secured some share of success, as thev had made their establishment very attractive by profuse liberality in their entertainments. Their supper service was of massive embossed silver, and formed a feature of the house. At this establishment it was that a prominent Greek merchant, the representative of a large Greek commercial firm having branches in all the large commercial cities of Europe and America, lost very large sums, which embarrassed his firm and led to his recall from the city. The loss at one night's play was reported at the time to have been eighty thousand dollars. This establishment, like that of McGrath, closed its doors in 1861.

One of the partners, Charles Cassidy, who went to New York, where he died, was a facile and entertaining -writer, particularly on racing and turf matters. For awhile he was correspondent of the Spirit of the Times, reporting to that valuable sporting jonrnal the spring and fall races at New Orleans, under the nom deplume of " Larkin."

Augustus Lauraine, his partner, also left New Orleans in 1861, and, after swinging all around the country, finally settled in the nourishing city of Dallas, Texas. There, however, he fell from grace in the estimation of his brother professionals in New Orleans on account of certain infractions of their rules. It must be understood that among these sporting men there exists a code as rigid and exacting as any enforced on any exchange and stock board. A debt between one and another is a sacred obligation—one which is never proscribed and never sued upon. If loss and misfortune befall any of them, they are ever ready to assist the unfortunate and contribute to his support. They never oppress with lawsuits, but at the same time they do require and exact by their code that if one retrieves his fortunes he shall come up like a man and take up his old obligations. This, it is claimed, Lauraine has not done, and that he has failed in gratitude, especially to one, a veteran of the fraternity in this city, the man and brother who had started and staked him in his first ventures in New Orleans.

A number of other establishments existed, among them that kept by Sam Levy and "Count" Lorenzo Lewis, called count, on account of his urbane and polite manners and faultless dressing. Then Montiro, game and plucky little Montiro, who was located on Canal street, near Eyrich's. He followed our boys to Virginia, opened a house in Richmond, where he received, fed, and succored many a sick and wounded New Orleans soldier. Who of the old ones will forget the episode of Montiro's wounding and checking the boldest and most daring burglar ever in New Orleans, the notorious Charles Alexander Gordon?

There was also a quaint establishment at the corner of Toulouse and Chartres streets, kept by a Frenchman, with the Roman name of Curtius, called by courtesy a club, which is worthy of description on account of those who frequented the place, and were considered "habitues." or members. It was a hightoned place. There was no initiation fee, but every player paid fifty cents an hour. This entitled him to refreshments free of cost, and also to a solid, substantial and well cooked dinner, with claret ad libitum. The games played were Boston, poker, and chess. There was a limit to the betting at poker, not more than $100 being allowed as a bet on one single hand. It was not public, and a formal introduction by an old member and indorsement of character were required before admission.

There were also, in olden times, a class of traveling gamblers, who journeyed up and down our western rivers, among whom there were characters worthy of a pen picture.

It was during the winter of 1850, that New Orleans was honored by the visit of a trio of titled and peripatetic gamblers, who might with more propriety, be called adventurers and impostors. Their names were the Duke de Calabritto, an Italian, and the Counts de Biennerie and de Frienge, both Hungarians, hailing from Pesth, who fleeced the whole town, especially the Jeunesse dorie, very thoroughly.

CHAPTER XXIII.—EXECUTIONS.

WHY HANGINGS ARE PRIVATE IN NEW ORLEANS—HORRORS OF THE EARLY PUBLIC

HANGINGS—MUMFORD'S FATE.

In former years all or nearly all executions were public; but the last one was that of Delisle and Adams, the former a Creole and the latter a Frenchman, who were convicted of murdering a woman in what is now known as the Third district. They saw the woman secrete a bag containing what they thought was specie, and they killed her to obtain possession of it, when, to their consternation, the bag was found to contain pecans. The circumstances surrounding their execution were so horrible that a riot was imminent. It is said that they appeared -to the eyes of the multitude assembled in the neutral ground on Orleans street—on the small gallery extending across the alley or court between the two buildings, the male and female departments, which form the Parish Prison.

Delisle was violent and demonstrative, whilst Adams was subdued and quiet, and wished to precipitate matters. The ropes were adjusted around their necks, Delisle expostulating loudly all the time. The weather was dark and gloomy, a sombre cloud overspread the face of the blue sky, angry flashes of lightning lit up the scene with short lurid darts of flame, followed by the dull, rolling noise of thunder in the distance.

The trap fell, and at the same instant a blinding flash of lightning, almost instantaneously followed by a loud clap of thunder, almost frightened the people into spasms. The rain poured down in torrents, drenching all. Many fled the terrible scene, rendered doubly terrible by the ominous appearance of the heavens. When the fear, which was only momentary with most of those present, had somewhat subsided, the ropes were seen dangling and swaying loosely in the wind, for there was nothing at the lower end.

On the flagging beneath the gallows two forms were seen lying on the pavement; they were the bodies of Delisle and Adams. The former started to crawl away on hands and feet, and the latter lay moaning with pain. His arm was broken. Pity for the two men became predominant in the hearts of the multitude; but the law was inexorable, and its servants were compelled to perform their horrible duty. The two men were picked up and conducted back to their former positions on the scaffold, despite the torrents of rain which fell; and in defiance of what seemed to the terror-stricken people to be an intervention of Providence, they were hung.

The police force at that time was under the command of Steve O'Leary, and he with a detail of fully two hundred men had great difficulty in quieting the mob during the confusion which ensued.

This execution was viewed with so much abhorrence and indignation throughout the city, that the Legislature at its next session passed a law prohibiting public executions.

Up to this time hangman's or execution day was a gala day ; for the morbid curiosity so common to human nature then had an opportunity for gratification, and there were but few persons who remained at home.

Many persons are yet living in this city who remember when the condemned criminals were conducted under strong military escort to the Place d'Armes, or Congo square, the corner of Orleans and Rampart street, or the neutral ground in front of the Parish Prison. In 1843, or thereabouts, a man was executed somewhere in the vicinity of Dryades and Felicity streets, then known as Gormley's Pond. His crime was the attempted assassination of Recorder Baldwin.

A number of instances where condemned criminals sought to cheat the hangman by suicide, can be cited. One was the case of a German who had murdered a child, and who sought to cut

his throat with a piece of tin-plate or spoon; but the most notable and successful attempt was that of a man named Costello. He and a man named Pat Kennedy, both convicted of murder, were doomed to die on the same day. Kennedy had been respited on a previous occasion, although fully prepared then to meet his doom. When Costello was sentenced his execution was fixed for the same day. Several days previous to that fixed for the execution, the elothes which were to be worn by the condemned men wore brought to them. In the cuff of Costello's shirt was concealed a small package of strychnine.

On the morning of the execution Costello said to Kennedy: "Are you going to let that howling crowd see you dance on nothing?"

Kennedy did not answer ; whereupon Costello tore open the wristband of his shirt and produced a package containing the poison. Facing Kennedy he said : "Here you can have half of this; there is enough for two."

Kennedy asked him what he was going to do, when Costello opened his mouth and dropped the contents of the package on his tongue and swallowed it. Kennedy gave the alarm, but too late, for half an hour afterwards Costello was in convulsions and beyond the reach of human skill or science. Kennedy died quietly, confident that his sins had been forgiven.

During what is now called Know-Nothing times, Antoine Cambre, who was under sentence of death, suicided by poison in the condemned cell. He had been convicted of murder, having wantonly shot and killed a lamplighter, who was in the act of extinguishing a lamp one morning in the Third district.

On June the 16th, 1858, the first private execution under the law of the Legislature took place in the criminal yard of the Parish Prison, and James Nolan, a young man of 22 years, was launched into eternity from the same trap-door, which up to the present day has performed its ghastly offices, and which has ever since been brought into requisition.

On March the 8th, 1869, a triple execution took place and Joseph Lindsey, Peter Smith and Henry Haus paid the penalty for the crime of murder at one and the same time. Lindsey was a young boarding-house runner, who killed a mate in a difficulty on shipboard, Henry Haus a German, who killed a fellow-prisoner in the lock-up, and Peter Smith, a backsliding minister of the gospel, who murdered his mistress and threw her body into a well.

On July 29, 1859, James Mullen expiated the crime of murder on the gallows. For weeks previously Mullen used his coffin co sleep in. He passed his time in decorating this, his last home ; and on the day of execution had it ornamented with fringe, metallic crosses and other trimmings.

On May 7, 1862, W. B. Mumford was executed in front of the United States Mint on Esplanade street, charged with tearing down the Federal flag from that building. The trap door was built out in front of the middle of the landing at the head of the double flight of stairs leading up on each side. A strong military escort, both cavalry and infantry, was present, and kept the large crowd back from the fence. Mumford died, apparently without a struggle. The next execution was also a public one, and was carried into effect on the levee between the Reading and Vicksburg Cotton Presses. The victim in this case was a soldier named Francis T. Scott, who foully murdered Major Pullen, of the 28th Maine Regiment. Father Duffo ministered to his spiritual wants, and was with him at the last moment. Scutt was shot to death.

In the spring of 1866 a negro named Polydor was hung for rape in the Parish Prison.

In 1870 a Malay named Bazar was on the scaffold, the rope was around his neck, the black cap had been drawn down over his eyes. The executioner stood in cell No. 9 arrayed in his black domino, with his face covered by the sombrc-hued mask. The nervous fingers of the hangman had already grasped the handle of the keen-edged axe, the arm was uplifted and about to fall, when a commutation of sentence stayed proceedings, and Bazar's sentence was commuted to imprisonment for life.

Another case where a reprieve was granted at the last moment, almost, was that of six Confederate soldiers: Abraham McLane, Daniel Doyle, Edward C. Smith, Patrick Kane, George L. Williams and William Stanley. They had been captured at Fort Jackson by the Federal troops and paroled, and afterward endeavored to organize a company of Confederates in the city, called the Monroe Life Guard, armed and equipped to force their way through the lines. They were sentenced to be shot on the 4th of June, 1862, by Gen. Butler, but their sentence was commuted to imprisonment on Ship Island.

Pedro Alriel and Vincent Bayonne died cursing the persons who had assembled to witness their execution. They were Spaniards, and proudly proclaimed their nationality ere the fatal • loor fell from under them. They were executed for murder on the 13th of May, 1871.

Six years elapsed ere the trap door was once more swung on its hinges, and on the 15th of June, 1877. George Norris, Adrien Eveque and Joaquino Florenza, a Chinese or Malay, were executed for murder at one and the same time. The few executions since the date given do not possess any special dramatic interest.

CHAPTER XXIV.—THE CARNIVAL—MARDI GRAS.

HOW IT IS CELEBRATED IN NEW ORLEANS—THE PROCESSIONS AND PARADES OF FORMER DAYS—ORGANIZATION OF THE CARNIVAL SECRET SOCIETIES.

'Tis known—at least it should be—that throughout

All countries of the Catholic persuasion,

For, some say, ere Shrove-Tuesday comes about,

The people take their fill of recreation,

With fiddling, revels, feasting, fun and masking,

And other things * * * *

— Byron's Beppo.

One of the most graphic papers of the celebrated Parisian critic and newspaper writer, Jules Janin, is an article published many years ago, entitled " Le Carnaval." Combining wit, erudition, philosophy and social ethics, the sketch, graced with all the fascinations of this inimitable feuilletoniste's style, would be as truthful and readable now as it was when, some forty years ago, it presented a dazzling kaleidoscope of the Mardi Gras celebration in Paris, at the height of that city's splendor and gayety, in Louis Philippe's time.

Those w T ere the days, too, of the prosperity of Louisiana, when her wealthy planters and merchants, descendants of the adventurous Frenchmen who colonized the delta of the Mississippi, looked to the motherland for their fashions, their amusements and their literature; and sent scores of their sons to Paris to complete their education. These young Creoles returned home with Parisian ideas and tastes so engrained in them that is was natural they should seek to transplant to New Orleans the theatrical, operatic, terpsichorean and other amusements of the great metropolis on the Seine.

It was in 1827, sometime before the elder Davis opened the old Orleans Theatre Ball-room, t'^at a number of young Creole gentlemen, some of them just returned from finishing a Parisian education, organized the first grand street procession of masqueraders in New Orleans. One more splendid still, and still larger in numbers, took place on the Mardi Gras of 1837; and another, still more brilliant, in 1839.

The French side of the Bee, of Tuesday, 13th February, 1839, had a very gay and witty article on the day's celebration, written by one of its assistant editors, Hans Boussuge, a talented young Frenchman, a new-comer from Paris, who died a year or two after, of yellow fever. This article concludes thus :

" The persons who are to take part in the mascarade are requested to meet at the Theatre d'Orleans, at 3J^ o'clock p. m., at the latest.

ORDER OF MARCH.

From the Theatre d'Orleans, Royal street, St. Charles, Julia, Camp, Chartres, Conde, Esplanade, Royal."

We very well remember the appearance of this long and brilliant cavalcade as it passed up St. Charles street, near Lafayette square, one of the most conspicuous figures being an immense chicken cock, six feet high, who rode in a vehicle and whose stentorian crow, as he flapped his big wings, elicited cheers of admiration and applause from the crowds on the sidewalks. A distinguished physician, then quite a young man, it was understood, bore this admirably rendered disguise.

A grand mask and fancy dress ball in the old St. Louis Hotel Ball-room, and one in the Salle d'Orleans (next to the theatre) wound up the famous Mardi Gras of 1839.

From 1840 to 1845, several of these brilliant day displays took place. They were in the hands of gentlemen representing all the respectable element of the city's heterogeneous population, and were conducted in the same thorough style, and with the same taste and liberal expenditure that have made the later displays of the Mistick Krewe, the Twelfth Night Revelers, and the Knights of Momus memoratle gala nights in the history of New Orleans.

The lapse of years and changes of fortune brought many changes, also, in the social characteristics of New Orleans; and the day celebration of Mardi Gras lapsed into oblivion. The last, most brilliant and most successful of all, delighted and amused the town, after several years' quiescence and neglect, on the Mardi Gras of 1852.

A number of New Orleans' first young men determined to get up a procession, on the occasion alluded to, that would equal in numbers, in order, variety, elegance and piquancy of costumes, any that the chronicles of Mardi Gras in this country could record. The announcement of this intention, through the press, excited universal curiosity ; and when the memorable day came, New Orleans boasted of an accession to her population, in the shape of visitors from the North, West and South, that has not been surpassed since.

The procession traversed the leading streets of the city, which were positively jammed with admiring throngs, and at night the old Orleans Theatre was the center of attraction for all that the Crescent City held of beauty and fashion. The maskers of the day there received their friends; and that bewildering ball was long remembered as the gem of many such jewels clustering in the diadem of the Queen of the South.

In these days.however, the celebration of Mardi Gras was confined mainly to a number of maskers who walked or rode around the streets. It was a great day with the boys, also, who, clothed in old dominoes and masks, with a stout hickory club in their hands and a bag of flour by their sides, would march around the streets, looking for an available victim on whom they could throw their flour, and whom, if they resisted, they would punish with their shillelaghs. Some of the wilder boys, conceived, however, the idea of substituting lime for flour, and as this on more than one occasion came very near producing blindness, the police had to step in and arrest the boys. This surveillance was kept up for several years, until both the flour and the lime disappeared. The flour throwing was evidently a relic of the Roman habit of throwing little confetti made of paste or plaster at maskers.

But, although for many years Mardi Gras was celebrated by the appearance of many maskers on the streets, there was no attempt at a general procession or celebration such as we have to-day.

Mobile first inaugurated the idea of presenting scenes on floats moving around the streets, the Cowbellions of that city having had a parade as early as 1831. The first entertainment of this kind in New Orleans was given in 1857. The affair had been well worked up, and there was -so much secrecy about it that not even the wives of those who were engaged in it knew aught of it. All that the public was aware of was that an organization, known as the Mistick Krewe, would appear on the streets at night, representing various tableaux. The consequence was that the streets were crowded with people, who welcomed this display with shouts of applause. Its complete success was assured, and as a consequence the Mistick Krewe has not since ceased to parade on Mardi Gras except when war or pestilence forbade.

The following is a description of first appearance of the Mistick Krewe procession on our streets, from a paper of that date:

This Krewe, concerning whose identity and purposes there had been such tortures of curiosity and speculation, made their debut before the public in a very unique and attractive manner. They went through the streets at nine o'clock with torchlights, in a guise as much resembling a deputation from the lower regions as the mind could possibly conceive. The masks displayed every fantastic idea of the fearful and horrible, their effect being, however, softened down by the richness and beauty of the costumes, and the evident decorum of the devils inside.

After going through the principal streets, and calling upon Mayor Waterman for the purpose, we suppose, of obtaining a license to "raise the supernatural" in the Gaiety Theatre, they proceeded to that elegant establishment in order to entertain the hosts of guests they had summoned.

The interior of the theatre was decorated with a profusion of hanging wreaths and festoons of flowers. In a short time after the doors were thrown open, all the space inside, apart from the floor and stage, was jammed with an audience composed of the elite of Louisiana and the adjacent States—none being in mask but the Krewe.'

In due time the Mistick Krewe appeared on the stage in the full glare of the lights. If we may so speak, they were beautiful in their ugliness—charming in their repulsiveness. There were upwards of a hundred of them, and no two alike, whilst all were grotesque to the last degree. They represented the different characters with which religion, mythology and poesy have peopled the Infernal Regions, and which Milton has aggregated in his " Paradise Lost."

Four tableaux were given. The first represented Tartarus, the second, the Expulsion, the third, the Conference of Satan and Beelzebub, and the fourth, and last, the Pandemonium.

At the conclusion of the tableaux, the barriers were removed, and the brilliant audience crowded upon the dancing floor. The Mistick Krewe having: disbanded, dispersed among the crowd and joined in the dance in a manner which showed them to be very gentlemanly and agreeable devils.

Since then the other processions have followed in this order:

1858—MYTHOLOGY.

First came Comus leading the Krewe ; following him came Momus ; then Taurus, in a car attended by the Four Seasons ; Flora, Goddess of Flowers, in a car wreathed with flowers and drawn by butterflies, attended by a Pomona and Yertumnus ; Ceres in a car drawn by oxen, and followed by Pan and Fanus; Bacchus in a leopard-drawn car, and after him his intoxicated preceptor, Silenus, scarce able to retain his seat on his donkey. After them followed all the principal mythological characters.

1859—THE ENGLISH HOLIDAYS.

Comus selected this year for representation the four great English festivals : Twelfth Night, attended by the Lord of Misrule and the Abbot of Unreason ; May-Day, with its attendants, Jack-in-Green and Bobin Hood, and his merry archers of Sherwood forest; Midsummer Eve, with Titania and her fairy attendants, Pease-Blossom, Mustard-Seed and Moth, and Christmas, well represented by the various dishes and drinks of a Christmas dinner—Plum Pudding, Mince-Pie, the Wassail-Bowl, Ale, Port and Champagne.

I860—THE HISTORY OF AMERICA.

With his graphic pen, Comus sketched rapidly the history of America from its discovery to the Missouri compromise

1861—SCENES FROM LIFE.

The procession this year was in five sections, Childhood, Boyhood, Youth, Manhood and Old Age, while Death followed in the rear.

Then came the war, and Comus for a brief period ceased to please the people with his pageants. During the four years of that struggle—1862-5, Mardi Gras was without any celebration whatever here. With peace, however, Comus again appeared, and in 1866 renewed his parades.

1866-THE PAST, THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE.

The Past was represented by strife, destruction, want, grief and terror; the Present by Washington, surrounded by industry, commerce, science, agriculture, history and art, while

peace and plenty attended the Future. Behind these came Comus, attended by his followers in

the form of animals.

1867—THE FEAST OF EPICURUS.

The procession this year was simply a personification of the various dishes, wines, etc., that go to make up a grand dinner.

The Heralds of Appetite—sherry, absinthe and bitters, with their special aids, oysters, and Johannisberger—led the van. The Lords of the Ladle followed with the soups, and the Knights of the Shell—shrimp, crab and crayfish. Then came the Rulers of the Roast, attended by mac-caroni a l'ltalienne, canard grecque, patedes oiseaux, snipe, sausage, etc. Lettuce followed in the company of the salad fork and castor, and behind them artichoke, asparagus and cauliflower. Ice cream and strawberries attended by the Court Ushers—macaroon and meringue-came next, and the various fruits—pineapple, orange, melon and grapes ; then came the Triflers —nuts and confections ; and last of all the Peacemakers—coffee and segars.

1868—LALLA ROOKH.

This procession was led by a cavalcade of horsemen, bearing aloft the blazing insignia of Oriental royalty, armed with the flying javelin, the vengeful scimitar and twanging bow.

1869—THE FIVE SENSES. Each sense was represented by an antique statue. Phoebus represented sight, Ceres taste, Flora smell, and Venus touch. These emblematic representations gave the Krewe an opportunity of representing in a fantastic and amusing manner the various species of animals, insects, fruits and flowers of the earth. The tableaux corresponded, in number and character, with the senses,

1870—THE HISTORY OF LOUISIANA.

The procession this year contained sixteen floats, each giving a picture from the history of our State. The first car contained Louisiana with her attendants—Pelican, Justice and Union, and old Father Miche Sebe as her companion. The other floats represented the following scenes : De Soto and his followers in America, De Soto's march from Florida to Louisiana ; the Discovery of the Mississippi; the French priests preaching the gospel to the Indians ; La Salle, Tonti and Hennepin; Iberville and the French settlers ; Bienville and his followers ; the priests in Louisiana; the Spanish Governors of Louisiana ; the cession of Louisiana to the United States; the heroes of January 8, 1815; Lafitte, the pirate; Gen. Villere, and the Louisiana Creoles, who fought under Jackson.

1871—SPENSER'S FAERIE QUEEN. It was a pity that so few persons had read this exquisite poem of Edmund Spenser, because very few of the lookers-on could fully appreciate the procession, although they all knew it was beautiful.

1872-HOMER'S TALE OF TROY.

A Doric temple was in the lead, in which was placed the bust of Homer. Helen and Paris followed in their chariot; then came the Court of Agamemnon, Achilles, Ajax, Patroclus, Men-elaus, etc., and last the Trojans, headed by Priam, surrounded by Cassandra, Hilenus and Hector.

Scenes from the Odyssey were also given, and from Homer's comic poem, the " Battle of the Frogs and Mice.''

1873-THE MISSING LINKS.

Comus appeared in a chariot drawn by Shetland ponies. Following him came the Krewe, representing the gradual development of man from the original zoophyte, to which Darwin traces our ancestry, to his present condition.

1874—COMUS' GREETING TO THE NATIONS.

The five great divisions of the world, Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Australasia, were here represented, together with the various countries they contain. The last tableau, the Arctic world, represented the Polar Queen seated on an immense iceberg, with a large white bear lying at her feet.

In consequence of the political troubles in which Louisiana was just then involved, Cornus gave no parade in 1875.

1876—BIBLICAL HISTORY.

The five thousand years of Biblical history as illustrated by Comus has always been confessed to be the finest and most elegant show of the kind ever given here by any of our carnival organizations. The materials and dresses used were much finer than ever before seen, and the floats were the grandest in design placed on our streets.

1877-THE ARYAN RACE.

The development of the great Aryan race, to which all of us, English, German and Irish, belong, its civilization, fashions and future, was the subject of Comus's procession this year. Comus's chariot formed the figure of an immense swan, garlanded with flowers, in which he sat, wine-glass in hand, surrounded by his followers, Then followed twenty-three pictures of our progress toward perfection : the feast of Isis in ancient Egypt; a tragic scene in the ancient theatre of Dionysius at Athens ; a picture of Rome in its warlike and republican days; another of Rome under the empire—a feast worthy of Lucullus ; the Dark Ages standing in the midst of a ruined and broken temple; the baptism of King Clovis ; Charlemagne mounted on his throne, holding the globe of empire in his hands ; the Crusaders en route to the Holy Land ; a court of justice in the Middle Ages, wherein two knights are settling a disputed point with sword and battle-ax; a picture of domestic life, a hunting party and a dinner party of the Middle Ages, with all quaint costumes of that epoch ; a gondola party at Venice ; a fashionable call in the fifteenth century ; the tournament; the Renaissance ; a church scene in the sixteenth century, the era of mighty muffs and ruffs ; a scene in the garden of Versailles during Louis Quatorze's reign ; a soiree of the last century and a view of Boston Common at the time of the Revolutionary War. Our present century was represented by two floats, a promenade in the early half of the century, when mutton-leg trousers and crinolines were fashionable, and a party of ladies of to-day who have just come out of the modiste's arrayed in all the finery of long trains, high bonnets, etc. In the last tableau Comus glanced forward a century and gave his view of what would be the styles of 1976. The statue of Minerva stands as patroness in the centre, around whom the weaker sex are congregated in Bloomer costumes, carrying on all the trades and professions now usurped by man, while the men, in hoops and skirts, are nursing the children or attending to household duties.

1878—THE METAMORPHOSES OF OVID.

This year comus selected the Metamorphoses of Ovid, which were represented in the form of statues on twenty-one floats. There was no procession in 1879.

1880—THE ROMANCE OF MEXICO.

A number of scenes were given from the history and customs of the ancient inhabitants of Mexico—the Aztecs. Unfortunately, in the procession, several of the handsomest floats caught fire and were destroyed. Among the finest tableaux were the following: The Administration of Justice in Mexico ; the sacrifice of human victims to the god, Qualtzoacoatl; the floating gardens of the lake Tezcuco ; an ancient Aztec marriage ; the meeting of Cortez and Montezuma ; the defeat of the Spaniards on the Noche Triste ; and finally a scene of the present day in the plaza of the city of Mexico.

1881—THE MYTHS OF NORDLAND.

Prom the story of Sigurd, the Viking, Comus gave pictures of the ancient history, mythology and tradition of the Norwegians. The handsomest tableaux were the Workshop of the Dwarfs; Elfland: the voyage of the Nibelungs; the Norwegian Hell; andRagnaroc or the end of the world.

1882—THE WORLD'S WORSHIPS.

The floats represented various scenes from different worships, the worship of the Sun, of the sacred bull, Moses receiving the laws, the Druids, the Vestal Virgins bringing the religious wor ship down to the Mormons of to-day.

There wa3 no procession in 1883.

1884—IRELAND.

Comus told the legendary history of Ireland beginning with the invasion of Partholan, 2855 years before Christ, and coming down to the great council of Irish chiefs held just before the battle of the Boyne.

In 1870 another organization, styling themselves The Twelfth Night Revelers, sprang into existence and paraded our streets on Twelfth Ni^ht (January 6). They continued this fo t several years, but in 1877 the club which gave this entertainment disbanded, and these parades ceased.

. 1871—MOTHER GOOSE'S TEA PARTY. Mother Goose led off, drawn by Humpty Dumpty. Eehind her came the great Giant Fa-fe-fi-fo-fum, with Jack, the celebrated slayer of giants and ogres. Little Bo-Peep, Jack Frost and Mr. and Mrs. Spratt, occupied the next float; then came Jack and Jill, Jack Horner and Daffy Down Dilly; Little Boy Blue escorted Miss Red Riding Hood; the Old Woman who lived in a Shoe, and Saddle My Cock and Saddle My Hen. Behind these come various other friends of the children: Beauty and the Beast, Tom Tucker and Johnny Grace, Tom the Piper's Son, Robin Hood and his Merry Men, Richard and Robin, Cinderella and her Fairy Godmother, the Cow that Jumped over the Moon, King Cole, Mother Hubbard, her Dog and Puss in Boots, the entire Heart Family—King, Queen and Knave—Pease-Porridge Hot, the Lion and L'nicorn, Cock Robin and Jenny Wren, and last of all, famous Old Santa Claus.

1872—ENGLISH HUMOR. The Lord of Misrule's next picture was of English humor, representing pictures from the works of the leading English humorists. The Wife of Bath and the Clerke of Oxforde, represented Chaucer; Sir John Falstaff, Shakespeare; the Alchemist and Boabdil, Ben Jonson; Hudibras, Samuel Butler ; Captain Maeheath and Polly and Lucy, John Gay ; Gulliver in Lilliput, Jonathan Swift; Tristram Shandy, Lawrence Sterne ; Moses at the Fair, Oliver Goldsmith ; Dominie Sampson and Dandy Dinmont, Walter Scott; Rip Van Winkle and Ichabod Crane, Washington Irving; the Two Wellers, Silas Wegg, Captain Cuttle and Mr. Bumble, Charles Dickens ; and the Heathen Chinee, Bret Harte.

1873—THE BIRDS OF AUDUBON. Taking the work of our celebrated Louisiana naturalist as a basis, the Lord of Misrule proceeded to give a thorough review of the ornithological kingdom. The grouping of the birds was excellent, and nearly every float contained a picture that was at once instructive, beautiful and laughable. There was a barn-yard meeting, over which Sir Chanticleer presided, and where, of course, his trusty hens and the duck and goose were present; the Woodpecker's Workshop, where the partridge, woodpecker, and others were busy at work with saw, hammer and chisel; the Birds of War, the eagle of France, and his double-headed brother of Russia; the Bird Club, mostly birds of a sporting character, snipe, woodcock and grouse ; the Mocking Bird Choir, composed of all the song birds, presided over by the gifted singer of the South; the

HISTORICAL SKETCH BOOK.

birth of Tomtit; the Grand Turk-ey, represented as a pasha, swelled with pride and rage ; the Crows in Council; the Bird Ball, where are congregated the peacock, pheasant, and all the ornamental birds ; closing with the Pelican, emblematic of Louisiana.

1874—DOLLY AND HER TOYS. The Lord of Misrule again came forth with a show to amuse and delight the children as well as their grown-up friends, who were only too delighted to be recalled to the happy days of infancy. This time he gave a picture of Dolly with all the treasures of her nursery. The doll was seated before a table covered with a small tea-set. Her escort was a body of wooden soldiers, just such as come out of Christmas boxes. Behind her came her cabinet, also of carved wood, and looking supernaturally wise, but rather stiff for all that. The ark followed, filled with angular birds and beasts. Then came a parlor, and a kitchen, and a stable scene; a children's band rattling drnms, bugles, whistles and other devices for making a din. The stage was represented by Puneh and Judy. The Christmas feast followed with Santa Claus driving a sleigh filled to its very brim with the choicest toys and candies. The last two floats were occupied by " citizens," among whom could be distinguished Messrs. Jumping Jack, Jack-in-the-Box, Hobby Horse and others.

1876—THE MARCH OF AGES.

The Revellers turned out with the greatest number ever presented in any parade in this city. Float No. 1 told of the Birth of Time. Then came the Age of Fire, with Vulcan, Vesta and the Cyclops ; the Age of Water, with Neptune ; the Nebulae the first Birth of Light, then the Sun. Moon and Stars. Chaos followed, and behind him Creation. The Primeval Age was then represented, with man in his first stage. The Age of Stone followed, and then the Golden Age, where, under the protection of Cybele, all the beasts lay down together, and war and trouble were unknown. The Dark Ages came next, then the Biblical Age, the Bronze Age, that of Semiramis, Queen of Assyria, the Silver Age, that of Solomon, the Iron Age, over which the sword of the Roman Republic rules. Then the Age of Chivalry, with St. George fighting the dragon, and the Knights of the Round Table met at the Court of King Arthur; the Age of Adventure, when Columbus and his followers crossed the Atlantic in search of new worlds ; the Present Age, represented by a man bowed down by incessant study, and an enormous Krupp gun. The Future Age, if the Lord of Misrule is to be believed, will be the triumph of woman, for here is a gallant army of Amazons congregated around their Queen, Pallas Athene, and promising her the aid and support of their strong right arms. Last of all comes Eternity—deep, mysterious Eternity—a broken column,with Saturn (Time) asleep, the hour-glass empty, the dial of time broken, and the sun obscured by dark clouds.

In 1872 a number of gentlemen in this city organized the Knights of Momus, celebrating the event with a procession, which appeared on the streets on the last day of the year.

1872—THE TALISMAN.

Momus selected for its first procession Scott's beautiful story of the Talisman, the scene of which is laid in Palestine during the Crusades. All of the leading crusaders, Richard Coeur de Lion, Philip of France, Leopold of Austria, and others, were present, as were likewise their Saracen enemies, led by the great Saladin.

1873—THE COMING RACE. The second theme selected by Momus was The Coming Race. The procession took place, as the former one had done, on the last day of the year. It was a curious picture, such as one might well imagine after a too hearty meal of mince pie, Welsh rarebit or something very indigestible. Led by the great naturalists, Darwin, Cuvier, Humboldt and others, came their curious army—dogs with tortoise-shell heads, men with heads like lobsters' claws—everything absurd, ridiculous and impossible.

In neither 1874 nor 1875 did Momus arrive. It had been determined to change the time for the Momus procession so as to bring it nearer to Mardi Gras. This was done to make the carnival as attractive as possible, and present all the displays near together during the gay season. It was determined, therefore, that Momus in f ntui-e should turn out during the week before Mardi Gras. When that day came around, however, the political complications just then affecting us were so unpleasant that Comus declined to parade, and Momus followed the example of his illustrious brother.

1876—LOUISIANA AND HER PRODUCTIONS.

In 1876, however, Momus came with his display, far exceeding anything he had hitherto attempted, a picture of our own beloved State.

Louisiana led off, a gorgeously attired lady, with Bienville as her protector, and surrounded by Union, Confidence, Justice and our Pelican. Spring was heralded by Flora, behind whom followed Magnolia, Acacia and all the flowers of our clime. Ceres led the van of Summer, with King Carrot, Corn, Lettuce, Cauliflower, Tomato, Cucumber, Garlic, Turnip and others. A kitchen scene followed, wherein the Irish and Sweet Potato were wrangling in a pot, the Squash courting the Egg plant, and the other denizens of the kitchen—Leek, Beet and Onion —were attending to various culinary duties.

Pomona followed as Autumn, with a court of Grapes, Strawberries, Melons, Pineapples and other fruits.

Irene led the last division, Winter, and behind her followed the Royal Agricultural Family of Louisiana—Princess Rice, Queen Sugar on a throne of hogsheads, and King Cotton on a dais of cotton bales. The procession occupied nineteen floats,

1877—DEMONOLOGY. The fourth representation of Momus occurred on Thursday, February 8. The subject chosen was one which would have delighted good King James of Scotland and England—a history of the demons, witches and monsters of the lower world—behind which was conveyed a deep, political satire, for the faces worn by those demons were fac-similes of those of the leading Radical politicians just then engaged in oppressing Louisiana. Verdelet and Leonard (Babcock and Boss Shepherd), two inferior imps, led the procession; then came the Department of State, with Adraraelech (Fish) at its head ; the chariot of Mars, with Baal, Camer and Chamos (Sherman, Sheridan and Grant); the Department of Justice, Lucfer in a landaulet (Williams); and so on through the entire book of demonology, Blaine, Packard, Kellogg and ah the leading Radicals of the country being represented by some favorite of the demon world. There were the Dukes of Debauch, the Knights of the Black League, with Sabnack (Packard) driving the dragon, whose face was that of a cornfield darkey; the Counts of the Returning Board, with the well recognized faces of Tom Anderson, W T ells & Co., the whole winding up with the Ship of State going down in a sea of fire.

1878.—SCENES FROM THE REALMS OF FANCY.

From the realms of Hades, Momus leaped to the heights of fantasy, giving us one of the prettiest pictures ever seen here. The floats were sixteen in number. Momus, himself led off in a grand coral chariot, resting on the clouds. Queen Mab followed him in her chariot, drawn by four butterflies. And then came various pictures from our fairy tales, such as the Prince awaking the Sleeping Beauty from her century-long sleep ; the combat between Valentine and Orson ; the Knight's combat with the Yellow Dwarf, etc.

In 1879, in consequence of the presence of yellow fever here during the previous summer, the great cost to which it had put our citizens and.societies, and the larsre tiumber of persons in mourning, it was resolved both by Comus and Momus to have no public celebration, but to leave Mardi Gras to Rex alone.

1880.—A DREAM OF FAIR WOMEN.

Momus showed this year the most famous women the world has produced, among them Semiramis going to battle ; Sappho flying with Phaon ; Samson in the arbor of Delilah; Aspasia and Pericles; Judith before Holofernes; Cornelia and her jewels; Cleopatra sailing down the Cydnus in her galley ; Boadicea harranguing the Britons ; Fair Rosamond and Eleanor ; Queen Isabella, the Catholic ; Mary Stuart going to execution; Queen Elizabeth and her Court; and Maria Theresa being crowned Queen of Hungary.

1881—POPULAR SUBJECTS.

Momus presented curious pictures from popular novels and stories. There were Robinson Crusoe on his desert island; Hans Christian Andersen's story of Little Totty ; the marriage of Hoho of the Golden Belt; Baron Munchausen, William Tell, The Ancient Mariner, Paul and Virginia, Hiawatha, and many other creations of the poet and novelist.

1882—THE RAMAYANA. The tableaux of Momus this year was highly Oriental, and taken from the great epic of Hindostan. Among other scenes were the Nuptials of Rama : the Council of the Gods; the Banishment of Rama ; Rama invoking the Ocean ; and the combat of Rama and Ravanna.

1883—THE MOORS IN SPAIN. Momus appeared on Mardi-Gras night this year (Comus not parading), reprGo-eriiiig curious scenes from the rise and fall of the Moorish power in Spain.

1884—THE PASSIONS.

The various evil passions which escaped from Pandora's box were given, each represented by some celebrated historical personage, Jealousy, by Amertus, Xerxes' wife; Ambition by Alexander the Great, Licentiousness by Sardanapalus.

REX

made his first entry in our city m 1872. He came then attended by a body-guard of Arabs. This organization was started for the purpose of showing all the maskers in the city combined in a procession to pass before the Grand Duke Alexis, who was a guest of the city, and reviewed the procession at the City Hall. It was brought prominently before the public and became popular through a series of edicts emanating from Arabia, which were published almost daily in the public press. It was through the influence of Rex that Mardi Gras became a legal holiday in New Orleans, and business was suspended, so that all classes could join in the general festivities.

The next year he appeared in still grander style, and so on, each subsequent year. It was not until 1877, however, that he emulated his brothers, Comus and Momus, and presented us with a parade representing scenes and tableaux.

1877—THE MILITARY PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. In twenty-four floats, Rex represented the gradual development of military science from the prehistoric ages to the present day, briefly reviewing the various wars by which the world has been afflicted. The procession began with the warriors of the prehistoric age; then followed an Egyptian army marching to conquest: the Israelites and Philistines engaged in war; the Assyrians and Babylonians accoutred for conquest; Greece 500 years before Christ, and Rome at the Christian Era; the Ancient Britons preparing to resist the Romans ; the Huns, Goths and Vandals ; the Danes and Anglo-Saxons in their war vessels, preparing for a descent on the the British coast: the Moslems invading Europe and Asia ; the Crusaders about to march against them; the famous battering ram of the mediaeval ages : the Spanish in Mexico : the Thirty Years' War; the conquest of India by the English; the War of Independence ; the battle of Waterloo;

the Crimean war; the late war between the States, with the Confederate and Federal soldiers fraternizing ; the Franco-Prussian war, and lastly, the Turco-Servian war—which was waging at the very time the procession was marching through our city.

1878—MYTHOLOGY.

Rex burlesqued this year, and he chose for his theme the Immortal Gods of Greece. The procession was a long and exhaustive one, containing no less than twenty-eight floats. Jupiter, Juno and Neptune led off in their appropriate chariots. Minerva was an ancient and wrinkled blue-stocking, surrounded by the arts and sciences. Apollo and the Muses had organized a brass band. Venus in her shell chariot was flirting outrageously, ogling every passer-by, behind her fan. Mars was mounted on a mighty cannon. Mercury, as a merchant, was liberally sampling cotton bales and watering his whiskey. Vulcan was busy making horseshoes. Then followed the Fates, Janus and the Months, iEolus and the Winds, the Vestal Virgins, Silenus, Bacchus gorgeously drunk, the Sirens, Circe, the Harpies, the Furies, Momus, Comus, Pomona, the Supreme Court of Hell, the Heroes of Homer's poems, Paris and Helen fleeing from the wrath of Menelaus in a steam yacht, the Trojan Horse, and lastly the Wheel of Fortune.

1879—HISTORY. In twenty-six cars, Rex gave a burlesque history of the world.

1880—THE FOUR ELEMENTS.

Rex appeared this year as the King of Hamuth, surrounded by an army of Assyrians. The floats represented the four elements of Fire, Water, Earth and Air, and were of unusual brilliancy and color. All the fish of the sea and the birds of the air appeared, while Oxygen, Carbon, Zoroaster and Thunder, and other tableaux represented the various divisions and forms of fire,

1881—THE ARABIAN NIGHTS.

Rex this year appeared as Schahriah, the hero of the Arabian Nights, accompanied by the famous story-telling Scheherazade.

The tableaux were various scenes from that great collection of Oriental romances.

1882-THE PURSUIT OF PLEASURE.

Among the tableaux were Christmas, a Picnic, Surf Bathing, Hunting, the Circus, Fishing, Baseball, Dinner, the Opera, the Gaming Table, and all the other forms that pleasure can take.

1883—ATLANTIS.

The habits, customs and life of the lost continent of Atlantis were given by Rex. The tableaux were the Hanging Gardens of Atlantis ; Nuptial Ceremonies of the Natives ; the Courts of Justice ; Theatrical Amusements; the Feast, etc.

1884—THE SEMITIC RACE.

Rex as Solomon in all his glory, renewed; the History of the Semitic Race ; Nimrod, the Mighty Hunter; Asshur, Semiramis, Sardanapalus, Nebuchadnezzar, Moses, Samson, David, King of Israel and Mohammed.

KNIGHTS OF PROTEUS.

The Knights of Proteus, a new organization, appeared in 1882, the day before Mardi Gras, with a very handsome parade. A Dream of Egypt, showing the various Egyptian deities, Osiris, Isis, Thoth and Nilus ; the Mourning of the Egyptians, an Egyptian Wedding, etc.

1883—THE HISTOKY OF FRANCE.

Proteus produced various pictures from the history of France, Hesus, the god of the Druids Charlemagne, the Normans' Landing on the Coast of France, the Crusaders, Francis the First, Marie Antoinette and the guillotine, and Napoleon crowning Josephine Empress.

1884—THE ^ENEID.

This was decidedly the handsomest display of the year. Vergil's classic was magnificently illustrated, and tableaux of the Gates of Ivory, Falace of Picus, the Judgment of Rhadamanthus and others were among the best ever seen in New Orleans.

HOW THE PARADES ARE PREPARED.

The Carnival celebration in New Orleans has of late years surpassed, in extent and grandeur, all similar events occurring either in Europe or this country. Beside it the carnivals of the Corso of Rome and the canals of Venice are tame affairs, lacking the exquisite order and organization with which the Americans have endowed it. Though frequently described in letters and by the public press, it yet has to be seen to be appreciated, and few enjoy that privilege once without thereafter making an annual pilgrimage to the Crescent City during its festive season.

Few understand the admirable and thorough system of organization, through which alone such grand successes can be achieved—a system as complete in its little way as that of an army or an established government.

In fact, it does embrace a phantom government, ruled over by the mythical Rex, whose reign is absolute for twenty-four hours, during which his flag is alone permitted to fly ; and whose edicts are as implicitly obeyed as were those of an Alexander or a Nero. The central power is contributed to and supported by several secret societies, each independent within itself, but all co-operating to a single end. Outside of Rex's court there are other and some older secret associations, such as the Mistick Krewe, the Twelfth Night Revelers, the Knights of Momus, etc. Each of these has its own distinct gala night devoted to its street procession and its tableau balls, to which the tickets are invariably complimentary.

The expense of one of these displays ranges in cost from $12,000 to $18,000, and sometimes higher. In one instance Rex's display cost $28,000. Each association owns its twenty floats, its ladders and lights, housings for the draft-horses and disguises for the torch-bearers, but none of them have any known permanent meeting-place, which changes constantly and is kept sacredly secret.

Each association numbers from 150 to 200 men, generally club men, some of them grandfathers. One hundred are generally selected to appear in the display, while the others are utilized in other duties which are much more onerous than is generally supposed. The preparation for a display occupies almost an entire year, and the torchlights of one hardly die out before work is on foot for its successor, all of which is conducted with the greatest secrecy.

The first step taken after Mardi Gras is a meeting for the election of a design committee for the ensuing year, over whom is elevated " the captain," with absolute power, experience having demonstrated imperial power and blind obedience to be the main essentials of the system.

Next the artist is summoned for consultation. Each member of the committee now proposes one or more subjects fo.. treatment, the best half-dozen of which are delivered to the artist to reproduce in rough crayon sketches throughout. When completed, the committee meets again for consultation, and a final selection is made. This is always the most difficult problem encountered, and generally consumes an entire month, after which the work begins in earnest.

The artist at once commences the preparation of accurate water color sketches of each of the hundred characters, upon cardboards about the size of an imperial photograph. These are finished to the minutest detail and carefully colored for the use of the costume manufacturer, the material of which every part of tne dress is to be made being incribed upon it.

I

These completed to the satisfaction of the design committee—no easy task, by the by, and one requiring a couple of months for execution—the cast of characters is then made in harmony with the individual characteristics of the members, who from that time forward lose their identity and are designated only by numbers which are inscribed upon the separate character cards. These cards also bear upon their reverse the height, girth, weight, size of foot, head and hand, together with a record of the physical peculiarities of the individual who is to assume the indicated role.

This done, the artist at once commences upon a duplicate series of eighteen or twenty larger, and much more elaborate watsr color designs in which all the characters appear grouped in the respective emblematic tableaux they are to exhibit upon the floats in the street procession,! together with the float, designs, decorations and accessories, each one being a little scene within itself.

When completed, one set of these—each figure duly numbered—is posted upon the walls of the club-room, or " The Den," as it is generally called, for the members' close scrutiny and study during the balance of the year.

The other set, together with the individual character cards, are then either taken or sent to Paris, where the costumes are maufactured and numbered to correspond. These preliminaries are generally consummated by July 1, and a short breathing spell ensues, during which time the local papier-mache maker is busy moulding the properties which are required to decorate the floats.

By December 1st the costumes generally arrive in New Orleans. They are at once removed to " The Den," where they are ranged upon long tables, each costume being surmounted with its appropriate picture. Here, during a period of six or eight weeks, the members come in regular detail to be fitted with their dresses by a corps of tailors, armorers and milliners in constant attendance for that purpose.

This task completed to perfect satisfaction, each costume is placed in one of a hundred boxes, duly numbered with the cast number, which is locked up and laid aside in waiting for the eventful night. Meanwhile, the Float Committee, with the duplicate set of designs, has been engaged for weeks at some out-of-the-way place, generally the yard of a cotton press, building up, with the aid of carpenters, painters, carvers, gilders and papier-mache makers, the wonderful structures upon which the figures are to pose during the street procession. Another committee is at work preparing for the ball, which takes place at the Opera House, and is generally preceded by three tableaux, the last embracing all the characters, the large and elaborate designs for which have consumed most of the artist's leisure time up to the holidays.

As the eventful day, or rather night, approaches nearer, everybody is at work—some preparing the lights for the procession, some engaging horses, others drilling the torch bearers, who are forced to discharge their duties with military precision; others arranging matters with the authorities, so that the streets will be in order and all obstructions removed—all this being accomplished with such thorough system and secrecy that not until the display is actually upon the street, are the public aware of either its subject or where it will first appear.

A few days prior to the great event the boxes containing the costumes and other properties are moved at dead of night to some building in the immediate vicinity of the yards where the floats have been prepared. The front of this building, generally a warehouse, is kept closed and the windows darkened. Temporary entrances are improvised by cutting through the wall into adjoining houses, so that it can be reached from two or three different streets by members of the association, who alone are in the secret.

The processions usually move about 9 o'clock at night, but as early as 2 p.m., upon the appointed day, the members commence straggling into the Den, all in full evening dress. This they remove and deposit in their numbered boxes in place of the costume in which they array themselves. About 7 o'clock in the evening, when all are dressed, the roll is called; the Characters all masked) take their places in line, and a final inspection takes place. i

About this time a squad of police arrives upon the scene, and after clearing the street in front of the building, cordon all the cross streets for four or five squares. Into the left of this reserve space shortly file the torch-bearer3 under guidance of officers, who silently take up the places along the curbs for the entire distance. In a few moments the floats follow and drive in regular order up to the door of the warehouse. When the first arrives the hitherto sealed doors are thrown open, and a long bridge is run out over the sidewalk. As the captain calls the numbers each man steps out and takes his appointed place upon the floats, which are driven off expeditiously until all are in line. The bands are then marched to position, and everything is in order in a remarkably short space of time.

The proceedings, so far, have been conducted in utter darkness. The captain then rides rapidly along the lines, and, finding everything in order, gives an appointed signal. In a moment all the torches flash out into a blazing parallelogram of light, securely inclosing the procession, and guarded outside at regular intervals by the police, who have quietly taken up position.

The procession thus formed marches rapidly until it reaches the nearest prominent thoroughfare, when the bands strike up, the bombs explode, the rockets fly, and port fires of every color blaze brilliantly along the line, over which hangs a heavy cloud of smoke, reflecting tho many-hued tints of a monstrous fantastically illuminated canopy, which lends an indescribable weirdness to the unnatural, yet artistic scene.

After traversing the route appointed, which is generally short and hemmed in by throngs of admiring and wonder-stricken people, the floats finally arrive at the stage-door of the Opera House, where they unload their living freight, and drive rapidly away in the darkness.

Meanwhile the boxes containing the clothing of the members have been taken by express wagons to the Opera House, and are all arranged in order in the dressing rooms.

The tableaux generally occupy the time up to 11 o'clock, after which the characters are permitted to mingle with the guests upon the dancing floor, under no restrictions save that of keeping their individuality unrevealed.

Precisely at 12 o'clock the captain's shrill whistle sounds, and from that moment they gradually disappear, until long before the next hour strikes every one has vanished and the members are mingling unnoticed among the guests, save where they are occassionally found explaining their absence for the day to unsuspecting wives or daughters, with the most unconscionable excuses, and—not to put too fine a point upon it—lies.

They have merely slipped into the dressing rooms, exchanged their costume for ordinary everyday dress, and long before the ball closes in the wee sma' hours the express wagons have carried the entire paraphernalia back to the den and packed it away securely. When the actor gets up in the morning it is all over, as fleeting and illusive as the dreams from which he wakes.

The Mardis Gras of the six coming years will fall on the following days : 1885... .February 17. 1888.... February 14.

1886....March 9. 1889... March 5.

1887.... February 22. 1890 .... February 16,

CHAPTER XXV.—ALL SAINTS' DAY.

DECORATING THE TOMBS OF THE ILLUSTRIOUS DEAD BURIED IN THE NEW ORLEANS

CEMETERIES—Mc DONOGH'S TOMB.

The day of All-Saints, Hallowmas or All Hallows has from very early times been celebrated as a festival by the church. In pagan times, before the Christian era, the people of various nations, particularly those of the Celtic race, were accustomed to celebrate the 1st of May, when the earth was crowned with flowers, and the 1st of November, when the fall of the leaf heralded the death of nature. The church, wisely choosing rather to adopt and utilize these popular festivals than to destroy them, incorporated them into the calendar.

The death of the flowers and the approaching dissolution of nature as represented in the vegetable kingdom, naturally suggests to a poetical fancy the death of friends and loved ones, and so the 1st of November became a day when the dead were remembered and their tombs adorned with the floral offerings of the living.

The cemeteries of New Orleans are in many respects different from those of most other countries and cities. Built in a marsh the city has neither cellars for the houses of the living nor graves for the dead. For both, habitations must be built above the ground, and side by side with the city of the living is the city of the dead. In fact, the older cemeteries, such as the St. Louis, Girod, Lafayette and others which were once the outskirts of the town, are now in the heart of the populous parts of the city, and every consideration of public sanitation demands that they be closed against further interments.

The old cemeteries of New Orleans are rich in engraved annals which include nearly all the names identified with the founding and growth of the city. Inscriptions in the French, Spanish and English tongues show the successive nationalities that have dominated this ancient municipality, while the Latin epitaph marks the last resting-place of the priest or prelate, representing the Church which belonged to every age and to which all nationalities were as one, since people of all races were its children.

The weather is always bright, crisp and delightful. On All Saints' Day that is proverbial, and a rainy November 1st is almost unknown.

By act of Congress the entire North has adopted one of the most poetic and tender traditions of this French city. This flower town, on the first day of November, has from time immemorial closed all her places of toil or trade and gone forth by thousands and hundreds of thousands with baskets of flowers to decorate the graves of its dead. There are flowers in the yards in New Orleans in November, flowers in the fields, on the walls and in the hedges, wild and tame; flowers of all colors and all kinds. And on this particular day it is as if all these flowers, gathered in the arms of a hundred thousand pretty children, had set out to decorate the graves of the cherished dead. Nearly every street in New Orleans is a living, moving mass of fragrant flowers and beautiful children. And all this is sincere. No idle sentimentality about it; but each one who bears flowers has some memory of cherished kindred to hold sacred and beautify with flowers, as has been the custom here for generations out of mind.

A vast, flat field, with trees here and there, some stately and venerable oaks with moss sweeping almost to the ground; a field of tombs, with lanes and avenues, a painful monotony of rounded sepulchres that constantly reminded one of the white covered wagons in a great camp, for the dead are buried above ground here, laid in tiers inside these great white wagon covers that dot the vast level field of green grass and mossy oaks and orange trees. The flcral offerings are mostly immortelles wrought into anchors, harps, crosses and crowns, and other emblematical figures. A very pretty design represents a §ick\le embracing a, gheaf of wheat which it has cut

down. Of fresh flowers, white chrysanthemums are used in great numbers, and with beautiful effect. The large trumpet flowers of the white dotura are also seen in numbers.

A singularly pretty sight as you enter this home of the dead is that of a heavily laden orange tree growing close up to and over one of these white and monotonous tombs. The apples of gold in the fervidly green foliage, and there, this gold and green, this life against death, this green and gold dashed against the cold, white tomb, making a marked and a remarkable picture. At each of the many gates of the very many graveyards of New Orleans on All Saints' Day sits a silent nun or sister of charity in her snowy habit of purity, with little orphans at her side. These are her flowers ; their fathers, mothers, are up the avenue, further on. resting with the dead. A little plate sits by, and each person as he enters the cemetery drops something into it. In Metairie Cemetery, which marks where the famous old Metairie race-course once was, the Army of Northern Virginia has a tomb surmounted by a column bearing a statue of Stonewall Jackson, and the Washington Artillery monument is crowned by a statue of their old commander, Col. J. B. Walton.

Just as the gate is entered the new tomb of the Army of Tennessee is seen. It is a Gothic vault covered with a green, grassy mound. Inside are receptacles for 48 bodies. The whole is of solid masonry finished in marble. It is to be surmounted by an equestrian statue in bronze of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, the statue to be executed by Alexander Doyle, the sculptor. The following is the epitaph inside the vault;

ALBERT SIDNEY JOHNSTON, A General in the Army of the Confederate States, Who fell at Shiloh, Tenn,, on the 6th day of April, 1862. A man tried in many high offices and critical enterprises

And found faithful in all:

His life was one long sacrifice of interest to conscience,

And even that life, on a woful Sabbath,

Did he yield as a holocaust at his country's need.

Not wholly understood was he while he lived,

But in his death his greatness stands confessed

In a people's tears.

Resolute, moderate, clear of envy, yet not wanting

In that finer ambition which makes men great and pure.

In his honor—impregnable ;

In his simplicity—sublime ;

No country e'er had a truer son, no cause a nobler champion;

No people a bolder defender, no principle a purer victim

Than the dead soldier.

His fame, consigned to the keeping of tha^t time which

Happily is not so much the tomb of virtue as its shrine,

Shall, in the years to come, fire modest worth to noble ends.

In honor now, our Great Captain rests :

A bereaved people mourn him ;

Three commonwealths proudly claim him ;

And History shall cherish him among those choice spirits who,

Holding their conscience unmixed with blame,

Have been, in all conjunctures, true to themselves,

Their people and their God !

His Statue surmounts this structure,

Erected by the Ass'n Army of Tenn., La. Div., C. 8. A.,

To his Memory and in Honor of their Brave Coinrades who fell with Him,

And. is the Cause he fought for.

On a block of stone near the entrance is to stand in marble an orderly sergeant " calling the roll," executed by Doyle. Inside the vault, marble tablets bear the names of the battles of the association.

The entrance of the vault is surmounted by a trophy of arms and flags, such as appears on the badges of tbe association. It was designed by Perelli, the New Orleans sculptor.

The Firemen's Cemetery at Metairie Ridge is full of interest. It has a number of fine tombs belonging to various fire companies. They were splendidly decorated and were the centres of great attraction for visitors.

On the main aisle is the column that commemorates John T. Monroe, the war Mayor of the city.

Maunsel White, the merchant, soldier and patriot, sleeps there, He lives in the hearts of many and is immortalized among epicures by the celebrated pepper sauce he invented, which to-day is found on many a dinner table.

Irad Ferry, the heroic fireman, who lost his life in saving that of a child, is celebrated by a splendid marble column. He died January 4, 1837, while rescuing a little one from a burning building.

The Bakers' society tomb is also in that cemetery.

In Greenwood, the societies of the Swiss, of the Typographers, inaugurated in 1855, and of the Association of Alsace and Lorraine, in 1874, are conspicuous; but the beautiful and artistic monument dedicated to the Confederate dead, under which sleep near five hundred soldiers of the lost cause, and over which a marble sentinel ever keeps watch, is one of the finest tombs in the country.

Among the noted characters whose tombs were noticed were Mayor A. D. Crossman, who died in 1857, and D. S.Woodruff, ex-foreman, and Wm. McLeod, foreman of Mississippi Fire Company No. 2, who lost their lives at a fire on Natchez street, March 17, 1854, while' in the line of duty.

Dan C. Byerly, a gallant soldier and journalist, who fell in one of the heated political conflicts which grew out of the bitterness of the days of reconstruction, peacefully sleeps there.

In the Old St. Louis No. 1. the oldest of the cemeteries, are seen almost in juxtaposition the tombs of Benedics Van Pradelles, an officer of the Revolution with Lafayette, who died in 1808, and of Paul Morphy, the world's greatest chess player, who died in June 1884.

In this cemetery many of the oldest tombs are so dilapidated that they cannot be identified and some are missing altogether.

Among the noticeable monuments are those of benovolent societies, such as the Portuguese, erected in 1848 ; the Italian, in 1857; the Orleans Artillery, the French Mutual and the Catalan Volunteers. These tombs are large and handsome structures of substantial masonry, faced with marble and decorated with statuary and carving.

In St. Louis No. 2, the various historic stratifications appear in strong contrast, but closely associated. The fine tomb of Gen. J. B. Plauche, the friend of Gen. Jackson, the Commander of the Orleans Battalion in the war of 1812-14, and one of the defenders of New Orleans in the famous victory over the British, tells of the early history of the city. The veteran was subsequently Lieutenant-Governor of the State.

Dominique You, one of Lafitte's pirates, another defender of New Orleans in that same memorable battle, sleeps in a plain brick tomb not far off. The tablet bears no date, but discloses the words : "The New Bayard, the intrepid warrior and patriot." His was a history full of romance and strange adventure.

Alexander Milne, the philanthropist, born in Scotland, but long a resident of this city, sleeps under a massive granite pillar. He died at the age of 94 in 1838, and left a large fortune to endow the Milne Asylum for orphan boys in New Orleans.

Francis Xavier Martin, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the State, and author of a history of Louisiana, is represented by a granite column. He graced the Supreme bench as early as 1815.

Pierre Soule\ Senator of the United States, jurist, diplomat and orator, sleeps there. A native of France, he attained the highest distinction in Louisiana, and he rests in the bosom of his adopted country.

On all hands are the tombs of men who were identified with the history of the city from the earliest times to the present, and to mention their names would be to fill a volume. A relic of the days of reconstruction is the tomb of Oscar J. Dunn, colored, Lieut.-Governor of the State under Warmoth.

Of Society tombs those of the Iberian Society erected in 1848; the Spanish Cazadores erected in 1836, are most distinguished.

St. Louis, No. 3, at Bayou Bridge, contains many interesting tombs. Those of the Menor-quina Society, established in 1859 ; the Young Men's Benevolent in 1866 ; the Slavonian in 1876, are noticeable.

Col. Charles D. Dreux, one of the first Southerners to give his life for his country, sleeps there. He fell at Bethel, Va., July 5,1861.

A tomb, bearing an inscription which tells that James Gallier, architect, and his wife, Marie, were lost at sea, Cct. 31, 1866, when the steamship Evening Star foundered with all on board, in a hurricane off the coast of Florida, brings up a thrill of sympathetic horror as the dreadful event is recalled.

Girod Cemetery is old and dilapidated. It does not bear the marks of constant attention seen elsewhere, but it had many visitors, and its tombs are interesting. Prominent is the-monument to Col. W. W. S. Bliss, a son-in law of Gen. Taylor, and chief of staff of the army commanded by him in the Mexican war. He survived all its battles and died peacefully. The monument was built by his friends of West Point.

The monument of the Marine Association and the splendid temple of the New Lusitanos are also prominent. Many colored societies have large and well constructed receptacles for the dead, but an item of more than ordinary interest is recorded on a marble tablet of a slave, an old family servant. It reads as follows : "Mammy, aged 84, a faithful servant. She lived and died a Christian." Nothing could be more simple, nothing more touching. It was a gleam of light from the days of slavery, showing that the ties of a common humanity were not destroyed by that institution.

Lafayette Cemetery contains many fine and historic tombs.

Henry W. Allen, the war Governor of Louisiana, sleeps here beneath a lofty column. Gen. John B. Hood and Gen. Harry T. Hays, distinguished figures on the Southern side in the civil war, are there also, besides many lesser officers and soldiers.

S. J. Peters, who died in 1855, rests there.

Lafayette No. 2 is a new cemetery ; but prominent among its monuments are those of the French Society of Jefferson, built in 1872, and that of the Butchers' Association, built in 1868. The last-named is very large, containing room for eighty corpses. It was much visited by ladies.

The Valence Street Cemetery, better known as the City Cemetery of Jefferson City, is situated at the far end of Valence street. The associated tombs of the cemetery are: St. Joseph's sepulchre of the male and female associations of the Sixth District; Jefferson Lodg^ No. 191, F. and A. M.; Pioneer Steam Fire Company No. 1, erected in 1869, and Odd Fellows' Rest of Helvetia No. 44. Both white and colored use this cemetery as a burial place for their dead.

St. Vincent No. 1 is comparatively a new cemetery, and it is one of the most beautifully-arranged in the city. On entering the main gate are seen on both sides of the centre avenue handsome and well-kept tombs, showing that those who sleep within their poi'tals are well remembered. The sepulchre of the Society of the Holy Family, and that of Altarverein der St. Heinrichs Kirch are situated in this cemetery.

There are four cemeteries in Algiers—St. Bartholomew, St. Mary, Olivier, and the Firemen's Charitable Association of the Fifth District. All Saints' Day is always observed over in Algiers, and flowers and wreaths are profusely strewn over the graves of the dear departed.

St. Bartholomew Cemetery occupies the square bounded by De Armas, Verret, Lapeyrouse and Franklin streets, and is the oldest cemetery in Algiers, having been established in 1849. St. Mary's, on the opposite side of De Armas street, was opened recently as a receptacle, on account of the overcrowded condition of St. Bartholomew Cemetery.

At the corner of Market and Verret streets is situated the Olivier Cemetery, established and used by the wealthy and numerous family of that name and their descendants. It covers nearly a square of ground, surrounded by a high plank fence, which is always kept in excellent repair and well whitewashed. On the grounds there has been a house built by Mr. Olivier and his brother, in which reside the keepers of the cemetery. A small chapel adjoins, the altar of which is always festooned with flowers, and on either side are the portraits of members of the family.

The Firemen's burying ground is on Webster avenue. It was purchased but a few years ago, and as yet contains only a few tombs.

In the rear of the town of Gouldsboro, which was former^ called McDonoghville, in a field near the Morgan Bailroad track, is an empty sarcophagus, in which once rested the remains of the philanthropist John McDonogh. It .is built of marble, and is about four feet high, ten feet long and six feet wide, and is in a good state of preservation, although brown with age. The remains were removed to Baltimore some years since, and his tomb in that city is said to be annually decorated by the school children in grateful remembrance for the benefits derived from the wealth he bequeathed for educational purposes. The inscriptions on the tomb proclaim the character of the man.

On the east front appears the following:

Sacred to the Memory of

of

JOHN McDONOGH,

Born in Baltimore, State of Maryland,

December the 29th, 1779 ;

Died in the Town of McDonogh, State of Louisiana,

October the 26th, 1850.

"Written by Himself."

" Here lies the body of John McDonogh, of the city of New Orleans, in the State of Louisiana, one of the United States of America ; the son of John and Elizabeth McDonogh, of Baltimore, in the State of Maryland, also one of the United States of America ; awaiting, in firm and full faith, the resurrection and the coming of his glorious Lord, Kedeemer, and Master to judge the world.

Inscription on north side :

Rules for My Guidance in Life, 1804. " Remember always that labor is one of the conditions of our existence. " Time is gold, throw not one minute away, but place each one to acconnt. " Do unto all men as you would be done by. " Never put off till to-morrow what you can do to-day. " Never bid another do what you can do yourself. " Never covet what is not your own.

" Never think any matter so trivial as not to deserve notice. " Never give out that which does not first come in. "Never spend but to produce.

"Let the greatest order regulate the transactions of your life. " Study in your course of life to do the greatest possible amount of good. "—McDonogh.

Inscription on south side:

( Continued.)

" Deprive yourself of nothing necessary to your comfort, but live in an honorable simplicity and frugality.

" Labor then to the last moment of your existence.

"Pursue strictly the above rules, and the Divine blessing and riches of every kind will flow upon you to your heart's content; but first of all, remember, that the chief and great study of our life should be to tend, by all the means in our power, to the honor and glory of our Divine Creator.— John McDonogh.

"New Orleans, March 2nd, 1804."

" The conclusion at which I have arrived, is that without temperance there is no health : that without virtue, no order ; without religion, no happiness ; and that the sum of our being is, to live wisely, soberly and righteously "

There are other graves in the field where once did rest the remains of McDonogh. Some are old and dilapidated, and some well kept.

In Gretna there is the Cemetery of William Tell Hook and Ladder Company. This cemetery was first made a resting place for the dead in 1858, and each year the graves are decorated with care.

The Bisbee graveyard, as it was once known, is the oldest in Gretna, and was named out of respect to the memory of Judge D. W. F. Bisbee, who is buried there. It has recently been purchased by the Catholics, and called after St. Joseph.

The National Cemetery at Chalmette is in charge of the Quartermaster's Department.

This beautiful resting-place of the dead, is situated on the left bank of the Mississippi River, a little over one mile below the Jackson Barracks. The ground was donated by the city in 1865, and was laid out by Captain Chas. Barnard.

There are 12,192 graves—6,913 of these are classed as "Known," and 5,279 are marked as "Unknown."

The following named States—twenty-three in number—have contributed their quota to swell the grand aggregate : Maine, 631, New Hampshire, 120, Vermont, 294, Massachusetts, 446, Rhode Island, 69, Connecticut, 223, New York, 626, New Jersey, 8, Pennsylvania, 41, Maryland, 24, Ohio, 108, Indiana, 265, Illinois, 293, Iowa, 149, Michigan, 226, Wisconsin, 240, Minnesota, 14, Kentucky, 22, Tennessee, 14, Missouri, 151, Kansas, 3, Louisiana, 330, and Texas, 19.

The Regular Army, 396, Navy, 233, Quartermaster's Department, 64, Commissioned Officers, 67, U. S. Army, 1,670, colored, miscellaneous known, 167.

The beautiful custom of decorating the Soldiers' Graves, takes place annually on the 30th day of May.

The monument in the cemetery was donated by Joseph A. Merves Post, No. 1, G, A. R., being turned over to the cemetery authorities in 1883.

CHAPTER XXVL—ST. JOHN'S EVE—VOUDOUISM.

THE VOUDOU MEETING ON LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN -THE QUEEN OF THE VOUDOUS, AND

THEIR QUEER RELIGIOUS DANCES.

St. John's eve is specially devoted to the worship of the Voudous. It is on that night that they congregate at some secret meeting-place on Lake Pontchartrain—changed from time to time—and hold their religious dances and impious ceremonies of worshipping the prince of evil, for, in their theology, the devil is God, and it is to him they pray. Voudouism is rapidly dying out, even among the negroes of Louisiana, but, for all that, a negro is frightened to death if he is "hoodooed," and with reason. The secret magic of the Voudous was nothing more than an acquaintance with a number of subtle vegetable poisons, which they brought with them from Africa, and which caused their victims to fade gradually away, and die of exhaustion.

Every St. John's eve thousands of persons visit the lake ends in the hope of coming upon the Voudous, but few succeed in finding them.

On St. John's eve, last year, the night was dark, and on the eastern sky hung a black cloud, from which now and then burst flashes of lightning, which lit up the road, the bayou and the surrounding swamp with a lurid glow, in fit introduction to what was to follow. The scene on the lake coast from Spanish Fort to Milneburg, was one which cannot easily be forgotten. All along the shore, at intervals scarcely more than 300 yards, groups of men and women could be seen standing around blazing pine-knot fires, their dark copper-colored faces weirdly gilded by the red flames and their black forms thus illuminated appearing gigantic and supernatural against the opaque background of the lake and sky on one side and the mystical darkness just tinged with starlight of the seemingly limitless swamps on the other. Some of the men were stripped to the waist, and all were gesticulating with animation, or seemed to be in waiting for something. Along the road at various intervals were negresses standing by small tables where gombo and coffee were dispensed.

Between Spanish Fort and Milneburg, the shore was crowded wifh negroes, who seemed to be enjoying themselves laughing, talking and romping like children, but the music which came from the shanty where a dance had evidently been started, sounded like that of an ordinary negro ball.

As soon as the purlieus of Milneburg were left, the way down the Lake shore toward the now brilliant bonfires was difficult, for in the darkness one had to pick his steps. Between the Lake on the one side and the swamp on the other there was a belt of land not more than fifty feet across, and in some places this was diminished by more than half, by the encroachment of Pontchartrain's waves. There was no roadway, but simply a devious by-path which wended around stumps and mud holes in a most irregular manner.

After some ten minutes' walk there came to the ear the faintest sound as of a drum beaten rhythmically, and on listening a chorus of voices could be heard.

Behind the hundreds of small watchfires along the shore twinkled like stars in the distance, and where they were built upon little points of land they were reflected in the water so brightly the duplication added a peculiar weirdness to the scene.

Pursuing the same path was a party of Creole negroes, the men carrying musical instruments and the women laden with coffeepots and tin buckets of gombo. They were not inclined to talk, and when asked where the Voudou dance was to take place answered that they knew nothing about it.

Passing around a little willow copse that grew almost in the lake there opened to the view a scene Dore would have delighted to paint. The belt of land here was about 100 feet in width,

and in the middle of this little plot was burning a huge fire. Grouped around it were some thirty or forty negroes, the rising and falling of the firelight giving a grotesqueness t j their figures that was as curious as ic was entertaining. Their shadows stretched out over the rushes and reeds of the swamp, and their faces brought out in effect looked wild enough to satisfy any lover of the wild and mysterious.

Built half over the swamps and half on the land stood a small hut or, to give it all its pretensions, a house of two rooms. It was like most of the fishermen's cabins seen along the Lake, but rather more roomy.

Through the open window there came quite a flood of light, and a song was heard chanted, it seemed by some eight or ten voices.

It was about three-quarters of a mile below Milneburg, and the place was appropriately selected, for certainly no more dismal and dreary spot could have been found. Citywards the swamp, with its funereal cypress, stretched in gloomy perspective, while in front, lapping the rushes and stumps, the ripples in the Lake came in, the water appeai-ing almost black from the vegetable matter held in suspension.

Near the fire were two or three tables laden with gombo and dishes of rice, while on the embers hissed pots of coffee.

When the group near them was approached they gave evidence of uneasiness at the appearance of the party, there being no white persons present.

A few words in Creole patois made the negroes feel more at ease, and when a cup of coffee was purchased they ceased to look suspiciously on the new arrivals.

The music in the house began with renewed vigor at this time, and there was by general consent a movement thither. It was nearly midnight.

The wide gallery on the front was soon thronged, and it was noticed but few were allowed to enter the large room which formed the eastern side of the building. The door was closed, and a stout young negress guarded it on the inside.

A few words from Chief Bachemin in Creole proved an open sesame, and the door was opened just wide enough to permit the party to enter one at a time. "With their entrance the music ceased and all eyes were turned upon the new comers.

A bright mulatto man came forward and, in good English, said that if the gentlemen desired to remain they would have to obey the orders that had been given. It would spoil the charm if they did not take off their coats.

Accordingly the coats were removed.

Seated on the floor with their legs crossed beneath them were about twenty-five negro men and women, the men in their shirt sleeves, and the women with their heads adorned with the traditional head handkerchief or tignon.

In the centre of the floor there was spread a small tablecloth, at the corners of which two tallow candles were placed, being held in position by a bed of their own grease.

As a centre-piece, on the cloth, there was a shallow Indian basket filled with weeds, or, as they call them, heroes. Around the basket were diminutive piles of white beans and corn, and just outside of these a number of small bones, whether human or not could not be told. Some curiously wrought bunches of feathers were the next ornamentations near the edge of the cloth, and outside of all several saucers with small cakes in them.

The only person enjoying the aristocratic privilege of a chair was a bright cafe au lait woman of about forty-eight, who sat in one corner of the room looking .on the scene before her with an air of dignity. She said but little, but beside her two ola and wrinkled negresses whispered to her continually. She was of extremely handsome figure, and her features showed that she was not of the class known in old times as field hands. She was evidently raised about the plantation house. She was neatly attired in a blue calico dotted with white, and on her head a brilliant tignon was gracefully tied.

On inquiry it was learned that her name was Malvina Latour, and that she was the queen.

As soon as the visitors had squatted down in their places against the wall an old negro man, whose wool was white with years, began scraping on a two-stringed sort of a fiddle. The instrument had a long neck, and its body was not more than three inches in diameter, being covered with brightly mottled snake skin. This was the signal to two young mulattoes beside him, who commenced to beat with then- thumbs on little drums made of gourds and covered with sheepskin.

These tam-tams gave forth a short, hollow note of peculiar sound, and were fit accompaniments of the primitive fiddle. As if to inspire those present with the earnestness of the occasion, the old darkey rolled his eyes around the room aud then, stamping his foot three times, exclaimed: ' A present commencez ! "

Rising aad stepping out toward the middle of the floor a tall and sinewy negro called the attention of all to him. He looked a Hercules, and his face was anything but attractive.

Nervous with restrained emotion, he commenced at first in a low voice, which gradually became louder and louder, a song, one stanza of which ran as follows :

Malle couri dan deser, Malle marche dan savane, Malle marche su piquan dore, Malle oir ca ya di moin !

Sange moin dan Tabulation ci la la ? Mo gagnain soutchien la Louisiane, Malle oir ca ya di moin ! Which can be translated as follows :

I will wander into the desert, I will march through the prairie, I will walk upon the golden thorn— Who is there who can stop me ?

To change me from this plantation? I have the support of Louisiana— Who is there who can resist me ?

As he sang he seemed to grow in stature and his eyes began to roll in a sort of wild frenzy. There was ferocity in every word, boldness and defiance in every gesture.

Keeping time to his song the tam-tams and fiddle gave a weird aud savagely monotonous accompaniment that it was easy to believe was not unlike the savage music of Africa.

When it became time for all to join in the refrain he waved his arms, and then from

every throat went up :

" Malle oir ca ya di moin ! "

He had hardly ended the fourth stanza before two women, uttering a loud cry, joined their leader on the floor, and these three began a march around the room. As the song progressed, an emaciated young negro stepped out, and, amid the # shouts of all, fell in behind the others.

The last addition to the wild dancers was most affected of all, and in a sort of delirium he picked up two of the candles and marched on with them in his hand. When he arrived opposite the queen she gave him something to drink out of a bottle. After swallowing some he retained a mouthful w r hich, with a peculiar blowing sound, he spurted in a mist from his lips, holding the candle so as to catch the vapor. As it was alcohol it blazed up, and this attempt at necromancy was hailed with a shout.

Then commenced the regular Voudou dance with all its twistings and contortions. Two of the women fell exhausted to the floor in a frenzy and frothing at the mouth, and the emaciated young man was carried out of the room unconscious.

CHAPTER XXVIL—ROWING IN LOUISIANA.

ITS INCEPTION AND HISTORY—THE OLD CLUBS AND WHAT BECAME OF THEM—FAMOUS

REGATTAS OF HALF A CENTURY AGO.

The first rowing club of New Orleans was organized nearly half a century ago. It wa* composed of many of the best young men of the time, but few of whom are left by the ravager Death. The late Mr. Joseph Walton was elected president, and a boat-house was erected on the New Basin, about the spot where the Magnolia Bridge now stands. The first boat, the "Wave" by name, was presented to the club by Mr. J. B. Walton, who brought her from New York, and in honor of her the club received the name of the Wave Boat-Club. This boat was one of the then fashionable, sharp, deep, gunwale-rigged gigs, and had been winner of a number of races in the waters about New York. What a contrast there is between the racing gig of that time and the needle-like " shell" of the present!

The boats were generally six-oared, and rowed long ash oars, nowadays classed as "sweeps." Built of white pine or cedar they were usually about 40 feet in length, from 48 to 54 inches beam and of a model somewhat resembling a plank set edgewise with a weather-board laid flat on top of it. Their depth was generally about 20 inches, and their sides flared out from the keel to gunwale ; and, consequently, they drew almost as much water as a steamboat. They were very crank—the result of the flaring sides—and when the crews were getting in the greatest care had to be observed to keep them on an even keel. The thwarts were made of oak, and they together with the entire inside of the boat were scraped after its completion to save weight, the looks being the last consideration. The oars, too, were scraped, that they might respond to the effort of the oarsmen by bending almost double, and they were pulled with a jerk at the end of the stroke, commonly called the "fisherman's dig."