In 1859, the year of her first marriage, the adventurous career of Adah Isaacs Menken began. At a road-house near New York, called Rock Cottage, she was married, by the Rev. J. S. Baldwin, to John C. Heenan, the pugilist, by whom she had a male child. A quarrel with Heenan occurred within a year ; the news of her mother's death simultaneously arrived, and, poor and deserted, Adah would have died unknown in a tenement house on Third avenue, but for a solitary friend.

The first success of Menken as Mazeppa was quite an accident. J. B. Smith, a bill-poster, had taken the Albany Theatre, and did not know what to do with it. Menken proposed to play Mazeppa and be strapped to the horse instead of the usual dummy figure. There was a rehearsal, and Menken and the horse tumbled from the " runs " to the stage. The horse was frightened, but Menken was not. '"I will go up those 'runs ' before I leave the theatre," she cried. The next attempt was successful, and so was the performance, which afterward excited New York, London, Paris and Vienna.

After a sensational engagement in New York, as Mrs. John C. Heenan, and a tour through the country, during which she was arrested at Baltimore as a Confederate, Menken procured a divorce from Heenan, in order to marry Mr. Newell, " Orpheus C. Kerr,'" stipulating in her marriage contract to give up the stage forever. Mr. and Mrs. Newell went to live in comfort and retirement in New Jersey ; but, before a week had elapsed, the bride escaped by a window and returned to New York, declaring that she could not live without her Bohemian associations. Then she went to California with her husband, played at San Francisco and Sacramento with Tom Maguire, and returned to New Orleans in 1864 to start for Europe with Captain James Barkley, a professional gambler, who had superseded Newell and become her fourth husband.

In London Menken lived like a princess, at the Westminster Hotel, and gave breakfasts, dinners and reunions there that would break a Belmont's heart or purse. To the exhortations to save money for a rainy day, Menken replied : "When I get so that I have to borrow money, I want to die."

Look at the list of people to be met at Menken's rooms, in London, " Charles Dickens, William I. Thompson, Charles Reade, Thomas Purnell, the Duke of Edinburgh, Henry Moir Feist, PrinceBaorto, Frederick Ledger, the Duke of Wellington,,George H. Parker, the Duke of Hamilton, Howard Paul, Charles Fechter, Belle Boyd, Watts Phillips, George Masdick, John Oxenford, Lieut. Wylde Hardynge and wife, Algernon Swinburne, Jenny Lind, Frank L. Down ing, Mme. George Sand, Capt. Webster." What a mixture ! Yet Swinburne supervised one of Menken's books, which was dedicated, by permission, to Charles Dickens.

At this halcyon period Menken called herself the " Royal Bengal Tiger." At Astley's she had a Jumbo success. She drove about the London streets in a four-in-hand, with liveried servants, and a horse's head surmounting four aces for a crest, and silver bells on the harness-She toured the English provinces as Mazeppa. In 1865, she returned to London, and produced John Brougham's "Child of the Sun;" but the Menken fraud was over, and both she and the piece were failures; so she returned to New York in the autumn, went back to England almost immediately, and revisited this country in 1866, all her engagements, except that in an Indiana divorce court, being financial failures. Here she kept open house for her Bohemian friends in a residence on Seventh avenue, which she called "Bleak House," and was married to Captain

i

Barkley, who died in California in 1868. Two years before his death Menken took an overdose of poison, whether intentionally or by accident, has never been ascertained.

Paris remained to her, and at the Gaiete Theatre, in a pantomime part in " Les Pirates de la Savane," she renewed her London furore. The receipts for the first eight nights were over $72,000. She played a hundred nights; she wore little more costume than a statue; the Emperor went to see her; Dumas pere loved her as a daughter ; her house was a free hotel for everybody she knew, and especially for the Confederates stranded in Paris ; she was at the height of her celebrity. Her descent was as rapid as her rise. She ceased to draw, ceased to make money and, died, as poor as when she started out on her grand career.

MYRA CLARK GAINES.

One of the most conspicuous and well-known persons to be met with on the streets of New Orleans, is Mrs. Myra Clark Gaines. Her lawsuit, developing as it did her most extraordinary energy and pertinacity, and containing as it did the germs of a dozen romances, has become in the course of time the greatest of American cases.

The Myra Clark Gaines case began nearly half a century ago, when the little woman, who is the heroine of the suit, made her first appearance in court—she was then Mrs. Whitney-claiming the immense estate of Daniel Clark, who had died twenty-three years previous, as his only child and heir. Her claim excited the greatest surprise and wonder. Clark had been the most prominent man in Louisiana, its wealthiest citizen, its representative in Congress, its leading merchant. He had been a social leader, a great favorite among women, and reported engaged to half a dozen, among others, to the Caroline Caton, who afterwards became Duchess of Leeds, but no one dreamed that he had married or left a child behind.

It was in 1836 that the Gaines or Whitney suit begun, Mrs. Whitney claiming the property left by her father. For forty-eight years since, that suit has constantly been before one court or another. It has occupied the time of hundreds of judges ; all the original lawyers in it are long since dead, but the little woman who began it has outlived all of them, and at the age of 79 still continues to manage the case herself. During this long period over a million and a half dollars have been expended in costs and lawyers 1 fees ; the suit has been decided again and again, sometimes one way, sometimes another, but all the same it goes on forever.

The facts involved in it are alone sufficient to make it interesting. As recited by the plaintiff, they were as follows:

In 1813, Daniel Clark, a Creolized young Irishman living in New Orleans, who had represented that State in Congress and held other high positions, and who was one of the richest men in Louisiana, just before dying made a will bequeathing all his property to his child, Myra, the issue of a secret marriage with Zuleme De Grange, a young Creole, half Provencal, half gypsy. | The little girl was at that time living in Philadelphia, in the family of a retired sea captain, ^ named Davis, and was generally believed, and even by herself to be Davis's own child. I The will which left her the fortune, was never found. When Clark died, a search was made for it, but it had disappeared, and a will, made two years previously was probated and the property deeded under it.

It was not until 1832, when Myra Clark, or as she was generally known Myra Davis, was married to William Whitney that the true facts of her parentage were made known to her, and soon after made known, she entered suit for the recovery of the property bequeathed to her by her father. The story told by the numerous defendants, for there were several score or more in number, was altogether different from this. There lived, they said, facing the Place d'Armes (Jackson square), where the Pontalba buildings now stand, a confectioner by the name of Jerome De Grange, who kept the leading confectionery in New Orleans a century ago. De Grange was very ugly but seemed to have a great fascinating power over the fair sex. He had won for

wife Zuleme Carriere, one of the prettiest Creole girls in the colony, who assisted him in minding the shop. Among his patrons were all the jennesse doree of the city, Clark being a great frequenter of the place and a great admirer of Madame Zuleme. Clark pretended to become very much interested in De Grange and finally supplied him with money to visit Europe to attend to a certain lawsuit. During his absence. Clark and Zuleme eloped from the city, going to Philadelphia where it was claimed they were secretly married, and where they pretmded to discover that De Grange had previously been married, thus rendering his marriage with Zuleme null and void. It was from this connection of Zuleme and Clark that Myra Clark Gaines was born.

The will under which Mrs. Gaines claimed Clark's property was read by him to two persons, friends of Mr. Clark, to wit: Chevalier De la Croix and Mrs. Harper, but after his death it could never be found.

Efforts were made to discover it, and when they failed an attempt was made to have it probated as a lost or destroyed instrument. This attempt failed, and a previous will of 1811, wherein Myra was not recognized or created an heir, was probated and executed, and all of Clark's property was sold under it.

On reaching womanhood Mrs. Gaines commenced the prosecution of her claims as forced heir, and in every imaginable form of proceeding and by every legal device and strategy she sought to establish her rights. The results of these several suits were various and uncertain. Sometimes they appeared to be in her favor, and the little lady and her numerous friends became jubilant when this large estate seemed within her grasp, and the newspapers and gossipers exhausted their inventive powers in devising schemes and plans for the investment and disposition of the immense property which would accrue to her.

Alas ! a few months and another trial of the Gaines case would dissipate these rosy hopes, and the little lady would be again in the slough of despondency. The court had gone back on her. But there was no such word as fail in her vocabulary—and never has been either, while a budding young woman, a full blown matron or elderly lady. She was equal to every rebuff, and wrestled bravely with every disaster. A legion of lawyers embarked in her case. She outlived and wore them all out. Her path for fifty years was strewn with the corpses of ambitious attorneys, who were oonfident of winning fortune and fame by bringing the Gaines case to a final judgment. But the plaintiff never turned from the path, never wearied or paused, in her pursuit of the great object and aim of her life—to establish her legitimacy and vindicate the faith of her father and the virtue of her mother. It was not extraordinary that such earnestness and intensity should develop a sturdy and dauntless intrepidity and belligerency, which involved her in many episodical conflicts with lawyers and others.

It would require a volume to sketch never so superficially these various episodes, and the suits and scenes in which Mrs. Gaines filled the leading part. There never was so elaborate, intricate and exciting a judicial and legal drama.

Finally, when her case seemed to be desperate, two ingenious and able attorneys conceived a new plan to revive her claim Grymes, John A. Campbell, Keene and a host of other able lawyers had exhausted their powers in the effort to bring her case to a favorable conclusion. Undismayed by their failures, these young advocates resolved to embark on a new voyage of discovery for the long-sought treasure.

Their plan was to revive the suit to probate the lost will. Since this question had been passed on, thirty years before, decisions had been rendered by the highest courts in England and in this country, sanctioning such proceeding. It was vigorously opposed, but the young lawyers finally succeeded, and Mrs. Gaines was permitted to prove the lost will.

The witnesses were then living in extreme old age. They were Mrs. Harper, the relict of a former judge of the United States District Court in this city, and the Chevalier De la Croix, an octegenarian, who was led into court by his son, himself an old man.

The chevalier was blind and infinn, but he was a true knight, and though the probating of

this will would render null and void the title to nearly all the property he held, he did not hesitate to testify with distinctness to the existence of such a will and its contents shortly before the death of his friend Clark.

By these witnessess the will was established and probated, and thus Mrs. Gaines was recognized as the heir and universal legatee of Daniel Clark. This proceeding took place a few years before the civil war.

Thus armed for the combat, she commenced various suits against holders of the property of her father, which had been sold under the old and void will. She had now a standing in court. These suits were prosecuted with increased zeal and vigor and various fortune. Sometimes she obtained judgments, and they were appealed or their execution prevented by side suits and other contingencies of all lawsuits. Sometimes she was non-suited, and at times appeared to be utterly routed, but again revived and reappeared in the arena, always cheerful, sanguine and untiring.

Finally, by some crook of the law, the judgment of the Court of Probate, admitting the will of 1813, was ordered to be reviewed.

After a long argument the judge reversed the decision rendered twenty years before by the Supreme Court, and refused to probate the will.

On appeal this decision was affirmed by the Louisiana Supreme Court. Here apparently was a sad and fatal extinction of all of Mrs. Gaines' fond and bright hopes and dreams, but nothing daunted, she secured a transfer of her case to the United States Court and a judgment in her favor. The judgment, which was against the City of New Orleans—for the city had bought a portion of the Clark estate and sold it to others—was for the large sum of $2,000,000. An appeal has been taken to the U. S. Supreme Court, before which body the case now is.

Thus the case stands to-day, so complicated that all the original issues have been forgotten, and with so extensive a transcript that it has cost the city of New Orleans several thousand dollars to merely copy the evidence in the case. Scores of persons have been ruined by the prosecution of this case. Mrs. Gaines herself has gained nothing from it, indeed the large fortune of her second husband, the late Gen. Gaines, U. S. A., was expended in litigation, in court charges and lawyers' fees, without bringing anything in return, but she is still in her old age looking forward to the future, in the hope that some day a final judgment will give her the great fortune she has been striving for a lifetime. The wonderful litigant is still in the enjoyment of good health, but growing, perhaps, a little feebler year by year.

ALBERT DELPIT.

Albert Del pit, though but thirty-five years old, is one of the most illustrious of French writers. Singularly enough, as far back as 1880, French biographical dictionaries and encyclopaedias contain long accounts of his life and elaborate analyses of his literary works. Albert Delpit was born in 1849 in the city of New Orleans. By birth, therefore, he is an American. He was sent to France to be educated, and graduated from the Lycee de Bordeaux at the early age of fifteen. This precocity followed him throughout his whole career, and the taste for literature thus implanted was destined never to be eradicated, His father, a rich tobacconist in the Creole city, strongly opposed his son's inclinations, and, with the hope of deflecting him from a literary career, sent him traveling through the United States. To this, young Delpit did not strongly object; but as soon as he returned to New Orleans he commenced writing on the French papers of the city.

In 1868, when only nineteen, he went to Paris ; he became one of the staff of the Elder Dumas' paper, Le Mousquetaire, and subsequently also collaborated on the staff of its successor, jyArtagnan. Delpit's life now became one of extreme hardship, as he had fallen out with his father, but he struggled manfully for the conditions of literary and journalistic success. In a

short while he became a regular contributor to the Paris Journal. About this time M. Ballande, who was conducting a series of literary matinees at the Gaiete theatre, offered a prize for the best poem in praise of the French poet, Lamartine. This prize was carried off by young Delpit over all competitors. On the strength of this success Delpit produced a one-act comedy at the Odeon, which was only moderately successful.

The Franco-Prussian war now broke out, and although an American citizen, young Delpit immediately joined the army and served with marked distinction through the siege of Paris. On the motion of Admiral Saisset he became, on the 3d of August, 1871, a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. An inspiration of the war was a poem called " The Invasion." This work proved an enormous popular success, running through fifteen editions in a few months. All the critics, even those the most severe, opened their arms to the new poet. "He suffered with us," says Francisque Sarcey, pathetically ; " and he titters our same cry of sorrow ; he translates our sentiments in a language all his own ; a language if unequal, at least, sincere, vivid and young." In the Revue des Deux Mondes M. Louis Etienne accorded him still higher praise. "It is a book which must profoundly move the soul, for it is written from the heart." This is Delpit's chief characteristic—heart; but however chivalrous and sincere it must not be supposed that he is lacking complexity. Nothing could be further from the truth. No man is more varied in his originality, more subtle and graceful in the expression of his thoughts. He is a man of the world ; only he is a gentleman. "The Invasion" secured from the French Academy the prize called "Montyon." In the following year another poem entitled "Le Repentir, ou Eecit d'un Cure de Campagne '' was again crowned by the Academy. Shortly after these brilliant successes, M. Delpit became one of the editors of Le Gaulois.

Thus, having achieved the highest distinction in his profession, he soon left, by his own choice, the paths of belligerent journalism to engage in general literary pursuits. He next directed his attention to the stage. His first long play was a failure. Shortly before its production. Delpit became the hero of an adventure which might have found a place in Major Truman's interesting book on dueling. A play by Francois Coppee and Armand D'Artois, entitled "Le Petit Marquis" was being performed at a Paris theatre. A well-known man about town was hissing; and Delpit, on the other hand, was loudly applauding, the authors being his personal friends. A violent altercation ensued, in which Delpit, indignant in behalf of his friends, was provoked to an overt act which led to a duel. In the conflict which ensued Delpit was severely wounded. But, nothing daunted, he had hardly recovered when he began writing again. He published successfully three novels in the Moniteur Universel, Le Paris Journal and in La France Nouvelle. From the last-named source he dramatized "Jean Nupieds," which was very successful on its first representation. But the intense heat interfered seriously with its Parisian run. This play made the tour of all France, and was everywhere received with the greatest enthusiasm. His later comedies and dramas have all been successful. "Le Message de Scapin," at the Comedie Francaise, and "Les Chevaliers de la Patrie," at the Theatre Ristorique, both enjoying long runs. But his greatest popular success was his play " Le Fils de Coralie," which was dramatized from one of his own novels. This play made an enormous sensation in Paris, and was translated into English.

As a novelist, Albert Delpit, as in everything, has taken first rank. An enumeration of the works of this prolific writer would be a mere catalogue, as we cannot give the space to any analysis of their contents. He has long been the bright, particular star of Le Revue des Deux Mondes, and several stories from this source have been translated into English, and have gone the rounds of the American press. Besides all his other vocations, M. Delpit has traveled much, and has written charmingly from the experience of his travels. We have given our readers a sketch of his life as it now stands. But Albert Delpit's life is yet to be written. Most men at thirty-five have but begun to live. Let us hope that even more distinction, if that be possible is in store for him.

MORPHY, THE CHESS KING.

Paul Charles Morphy was born in the city of New Orleans on the 22d of June, 1837. His paternal grandfather was a native of Madrid, Spain, and, emigrating to America, resided for some years at Charleston, South Carolina, in which city Paul Morphy's father, Alonzo "Morphy, was born in the latter part of 1798. The family not long afterward removed to New Orleans, where Alonzo Murphy, after receiving a collegiate education, studied law under that great jurisconsult Edward Livingstone, practiced his profession with great success, and for a number of years previous to his death was an honored justice of the Supreme Court of Louisiana. Judge Morphy's wife was a Miss Le Carpentier, one of the oldest French Creole families of the State. Paul was the second son of four children born to his parent;. He received a good academical education in this city, and when about thirteen years old was enrolled as a student of St. Joseph's College, conducted by the Jesuit Fathers, at Spring Hill, near Mobile, Alabama. Here, after four years' attendance, he graduated with the highest honors ever awarded in the institution, in October, 1854, but remained a year longer, occupying himself almost exclusively with the study of mathematics and philosophy. He was a hard, indeed a very hard student, and his intense application, combined, as it was, with phenomenal powers of mind, and especially of memory, gave him such success in his studies that his classmates actually came to consider as not surprising any mental feat, however great or difficult, when accomplished by him. In 1855he became a student in the law department of the University of Louisiana, and again, in the prosecution of his legal studies showed the same intensity of application and notable success as in his CDllege life. He graduated in April, 1857, when but twenty years of age, and was pronounced by an eminent member of the faculty the most dee ly read and most thoroughly prepared student that had ever graduated from the law school of the University.

Chess had always been a conspicuous feature in the amusements of the Morphy family. Paul's maternal grandfather, old Mr. Le Carpentier, was devoted to the game ; Judge Alonzo Morphy was a player of fair strength, while his brother, Ernest Morphy, was not only almost a first-rate of his day, but was also a particularly strong and deep analyst. Among a number of frequent visitors who played chess was, also, Eugene Rousseau, whose hard-fought match, contested in this city in 1845. with Stanley, the English player, is one of the landmarks in the early history of American chess. Paul Morphy's father taught him the moves of the game in the latter part of 1847, when he was a little over ten years old, and though his indulgence in its pleasures was then, as indeed all through his boyhood, limited to certain days of the week, he proved so apt a pupil under the instructions of his father and uncle, that almost from his first game he was able to fight on even terms against either. His strength of play increased with incredible rapidity, and within two years he had defeated by overwhelming majorities all the strongest players in the city, among them Rousseau, who, out of upwards of fifty games played, lost at least nine-tenths ! But the crowning proof of the young player's genius for the game was given when in May, 1850, he contested three games against Luwenthal, the eminent Hungarian player, who was then passing through New Orleans, and who not many years previously, in consultation with Szen and Grimm at Buda-Pesth, had defeated the foremost players of France in a memorable match by correspondence. Any victory over such an an antagonist by a mere child of less than thirteen years would have been an astonishing feat, but Paul Morphy achieved it by the unique score of two games won and one drawn ! His departure for Spring Hill in the autumn of the same year seems to have caused a prolonged interruption in the youthful prodigy's practice of the game, for, excepting such play as he may have had at home during his brief vacations, he may be said to have virtually abandoned chess during his collegiate career. It was only in the summer of 1853, the year before his graduation, that, to oblige some college mates who had become enthusiastic over chess, he played witli them a number of games, and these at odds of Queens, or of Rook and Knight combined. After leaving college, and during his legal studies, from November, 1855, to April, 1857, he played more, though still not very

frequently, but nearly always yielding large odds. It was during this period that he contested on two occasions, ten games with Judge A. B. Meek, then the strongest player in Alabama, winning all, and also two from Dr. Ayers, another strong amateur of the same State. It was with this practice and with this experience that Paul Morphy entered in October, 1857, the lists of the first American Chess Congress, convened in New York—an assemblage including the strongest players of the Union, paladins and veterans of the game—but destined to become ever memorable as the occasion of the young hero's first public appearance in that world of chess, whose universal sceptre he was so soon destined to sway with undisputed right. Stanley, the conquerer of Rousseau, Montgomery of Philadelphia, Fiske, Thompson, Perrin, Marache and Lichtenhein of New York, Paulsen of Iowa, Raphael of Kentucky, and many others were opposed to him in the tournament proper, or in side-tilts, off-hand or formal, during its progrt-ss, but his triumph was so absolute, his victories so overwhelming, that the defeated felt not even a twinge of jealousy. Comparisons were simply impossible, and the idea of rivalry would have been an absurdity. Out of about one hundred games thus contested during the period of the congress, Paul Morphy lost but three, only a few more being drawn.

The discovery of such a genius naturally aroused the greatest enthusiasm throughout the whole chess world of the Union, and there were not a few members of the then National Chess Association who wished at once to issue a cartel on behalf of their champion to all Europe, but overborne by the prestige clinging to the reputations of the European masters, the more timid sentiments of others prevailed and no action was taken. The New Orleans Chess Club, however, lacked no confidence in Morphy's powers, and in February, 1858, singling out no less a master than Howard Staunton, the champion of British chess, they addressed a challenge to him to play a match of eleven games up, in this city for stakes of $5,000 a side, and offering him $1,000 for expenses. Staunton, in reply, simply declined to come to New Orleans to play, but in terms clearly indicative of a willingness to contest the match in London. Not to be balked of their desire that their youthful champion should measure swords with the masters of Europe, a deputation from the club called upon Morphy's family and entreated their consent to the plan. After some hesitation this was at length accorded, and in May, 1858, Morphy set out on what proved to be the most bewilderingly brilliant career of successes recorded in the history of chess ; successes so numerous, so unbroken, so dazzling that we can but epitomize them here.

Paul Morphy arrived in London on the 21st of June, 1858, and met with a most cordial reception at the hands, not only of the British chess public, but of English society at large, and more particularly through the medium of the two great London clubs, the St. George's and London, within the precincts of which all of his most important contests in England were played. Of course, his first step, looking to the principal object of his journey, was to issue a defi to Staunton, which the latter first accepted, then postponed, then clearly sought to evade and finally peremptorily declined.

In off-hand play and more or less formal matches, Morphy, duriug his stay of a little over two months in England, met and vanquished nearly, if not every, strong player in that country. Bird, Boden, Medley, Barnes, Lowe, Mongredien, and numbers of others all went down before his victorious lance, and all in the same decisive style of defeat that had marked his conquest in America. Of his more serious or notable contests, the most important was his match with his old adversary, Lowenthal, whom he defeated by 9 to 3 with 2 draws ; his match yielding Pawn and move to "Alter" (Rev. J. Owen), which he won by the remarkable score of 5 wins and 2 draws ; his two games won in consultation with Barnes against Staunton and "Alter;" and three brilliant exhibitions of blindfold play, conducting eight games each time simultaneously—one at Birmingham where he won six, lost one and drew one ; one at the London Chess Club where he gained two, the other six being abandoned as drawn owing to the lateness of the hour ; and one at tine St. George's Club, winning five and drawing three. His decisive victories oyer the British oliess players had almost as thoroughly convincing a result as those

in his Amerioan triumphs. Nearly every feeling of doubt or of rivalry disappeared, and when he crossed the channel to Paris in the early part of September, 1858, almost exclusively the good wishes of friends and admirers followed him in his forthcoming battles with the Continental champions.

Nor were those good wishes disappointed. His experiences in the French capital were but a repetition of his preceding triumphs ; every French player of note lowered his colors before the crushing attacks of the new monarch of the chess world, and many even of the best did not disdain to accept, nor often successfully at that, varying odds at his hands. His principal victories in Paris, however, were that over the famous Harrwitz, who abruptly abandoned the match after winning the first two games and then losing five out of the next six, one being drawn ; that over his English friend, Mongredien, by 7 to 0; and finally, that over the renowned Prussian master, Anderssen, then the acknowledged champion of the world. The score in this latter contest was even more surprising than that of any of its predecessors, the result being: Morphy, 7 ; Anderssen, 2; drawn, 2. It was in Paris, moreover, that perhaps Morphy's greatest feat of blindfold play was given, taking into consideration the remarkable strength of the eight players simultaneously opposed to him, and against whom, nevertheless, he won six and drew two. As in England, his stupendous feats and triumphs caused a profound sensation in the Parisian world. He was, during his stay, its greatest lion; "victories and ovations," in the language of one of his biographers, "became the monotonous order of his seven months' residence in that fascinating city. His extremely modest, quiet and courteous bearing under the most exciting applause which attended his unparalleled achievements added to his immense popularity as an unrivaled chess player, and he became the courted favorite of every circle of society." Nor were his countrymen at home slow in catching the same impulse, and on his return to America in May, 1859, his whole homeward journey was simply a succession of. fetes, entertainments and ovations of every description. In the presence of a grand assembly in the chapel of the University of New York, he was presented with a superb testimonial in the shape of a magnificent set of gold and silver chessmen ; he was given a splendid banquet in Boston, at which Longfellow, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Lowell, Agassiz and many other eminent citizens were present to tender him their congratulations. Reaching New Orleans not long afterward, and having issued, without response, a final challenge offering to yield the odds of Pawn and move to any player in the world, he declared his career as a chess player finally and definitely closed—a declaration to which he held with unbroken resolution during the whole of the remainder of his life. Even in private and among intimate friends his participation in chess was of rare occurrence, and in brief contests nearly always at considerable odds ; indeed, his only subsequent games on even terms were a few contested with his friend, Mr. Arnous de Riviere, on the occasion of a second visit to Paris in 1862. He paid that city a third visit during the world's exhibition of 1867, and the completeness of his abandonment of the game may be inferred from the fact that although at that period the great international chess tournament of 1867 was going on in Paris, he never even once visited the scene of its exciting and splendid battles.

Morphy died suddenly in New Orleans in July, 1884, from congestion of the brain, induced by a cold bath imprudently taken while overheated from a rapid walk. His servant discovered him in a dying condition.

E. A. BURKE, DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF THE EXPOSITION.

Major Burke is a predestined leader. Descended from a line of soldiers, he possesses by heredity the combative instinct which insists upon conquering something, but whioh, falling happily upon peaceful times and pursuits, finds a nobler satisfaction in vanquishing impediments to civic progress,

He is of Irish descent, though of the second generation native to the United States ; and the democratic spirit of the grandfather who escaped to our shores from the threatened pris n which would have rewarded his patriotic share in the Irish rebellion, has lost nothing in transmission. Like so many of the men most prominent in the affairs of our country, Major Burke is not a college man. He has gone to school to events, and in that grand university, has achieved a " doubie first."

The outbreak of the war between the States found young Burke, a lad of nineteen, railroading in Texas, whither that roving occupation had led him from his native city of Louis-viile. It need hardly be said that he became a soldier of the Confederacy. A military career beginning at that age and lasting but four years in that section of the country could hardly be expected to furnish many incidents for a biographical sketch, yet even here opportunity was found for the display of his peculiar aptitude for overcoming the insuperable. The Trans-Mississippi department was deficient in means of transportation. No wagons had ever been manufactured in Texas ; there was neither material nor mechanics adapted for the work, yet, by the potent spell of his own energy, he evoked all these requisites and created an efficient wagon factory, as it were out of nothing.

Fortune did not smile upon him in Texas, and shortly after the war he came to New Orleans, where he began life over, as a stone-cutter in a marble yard ; but soon resorted again to his original occupation, in which he graduated as general freight agent of the Jackson railroad.

In this position he had room to develop his marked ability as an organizer and commander, and being at the same time a popular member of the favorite company of the volunteer fire department, he soon became well known to the community as a man of high integrity, cool judgment and unfailing courage. In the year 1872 Major Burke was made the regular Democratic nominee for Administrator of Improvements, but the nomination of an independent candidate divided the conservative vote, and so gave the victory to the Republicans.

In 1874 he rendered the State the great and much needed service of revising the registration, and being again nominated for Administrator of Improvements, was elected by a large majority.

The economy and thorough efficiency of his administration won for him the esteem and good will of all, and he has not since ceased to play a conspicuous part in all the affairs of the State. During the long and unequal struggle for home rule, Mr. Burke was the opponent whom the Republican carpet-baggers most feared, and to him probably more than to any other one man is due the credit of their defeat and deposition. It was by his well devised and cleverly executed plot that the troops ordered from Holly Springs on the ever memorable 14th of September, 1874, were delayed long enough to give the citizens the victory, which, although not immediately effective, so crippled the carpet-bag power as to assure its speedy fall.

During the hotly contested campaign of 1876, Major Burke acted as chairman of a committee appointed to act as a check upon the Republican Returning Board, and canvassed the entire State returns with such thoroughness that he was able to locate with absolute certainty all the fraudulent votes polled, as well as the legal votes which were suppressed.

After the election he went as the representative of the people's government to Washington, where his astute diplomacy won from the incoming administration an informal agreement that the Republican faction in Louisiana should be left to stand or fall as it could, unaided by military support. This practically settled the fate of the Packard faction, and gave the Stat ■ once more into the hands of its own citizens.

In 1877 he received the appointment of State Tax Collector, the most responsible and lucrative office within the gift of the government. This he relinquished the following year to accept the State Treasury, a position he still holds. The constitutional convention of 1879, which legislated out of office all other incumbents, not only continued him, but extended his term two years in order to make the election for that office coincide with other State elections, givinghim an uninterrupted term of six years, at the expiration of which, in 1884, he was re-elected.

Major Burke's reputation as a political leader is not confined to his own State. At the Cincinnati Convention which nominated Hancock, he led the delegation from Louisiana, and at Chicago he not only controlled his own delegation, which was, from first to last, almost unanimous for Cleveland, but took an active and influential part in the discussion of all the issues that came before the body, being one of three appointed to draft the important tariff resolutions. In the year 1879 Mr. Burke, in company with several others, purchased the New Orleans Democrat, of which the following year he became sole proprietor and managing editor. December 4, 1883, he purchased the Times, and consolidated the two, forming the Times-Democrat.

The crowning work of his life, however, is that to which he has devoted himself duriug ; ae past eighteen months with all the energy of his ardent nature. No one but himself could adequately picture the enormous difficulties he has met and surmounted. Upon him has rested th? great financial burden of the undertaking, a burden which he has sustained with a fortitude which nothing but a heroic devotion to the cause could have inspired.

He has visited in its interest every important city east of the Rocky Mountains, spoken before all their Boards of Trade, met in conference all their great capitalists and financiers, and fraternized with all the chiefs of the great journals, kindling their interest in the gigantic enterprise, at the torch of his own enlightened enthusiasm.

Returning home he has labored literally night and day, not only mapping out the general features of the work, but entering into all the minutiae of its execution.

He has made himself master of every trade and profession represented in the work, and to-day he is architect with architects, engineer with engineers, and horticulturist and landscape gardener with men of that ilk. in addition to all the sheaf of innumerable peculiarities included ;n the title of Director-General.

His capacity for work is simply enormous. He wears out everybody about him; but though a thousand fall by the way, he keeps steadily on. Nothing escapes him, nothing is neglected. Not only has he, by almost individual effort, raised the needed funds, but he has largely superintended their disbursement, being an economist of that rare order who knows both how to lavish and how to withhold.

Personally Major Burke is a man of fine presence, and of affable and winning manners. He is a forcible writer and an eloquent speaker. He is emphatically a man of the people, and a staunch upholder of the purest democratic principles. It is as the people's champion that he has risen to his present eminence, and his highest ambition has always been wide enough to include the interests of his fellow-citizens. No man has a higher record for personal courage and daring. Although opposed in principle to the "code," he has not flinched from meeting h!s adversary upon the field when the exigencies of the case seemed to him and his friends to absolutely demand it. In his last encounter he received a desperate wound, from which he still suffers occasionally.

Both as private citizen and State official, he is of unblemished reputation, and his public virtues are beautifully rounded out and completed by a domestic life of unsurpassed tenderness an ! cevotiou. Between himself and his noble wife the fullest sympathy exists ; she is his eon-fid int and adviser upon all subjects, even those apparently most foreign to the feminine mind, and with the single exception of his affairs of honor, he has perhaps never taken an important step without first consulting her. Her presence is always an essential to his complete content, and her approbation his dearest reward. The little home world is always first in his thoughts and affections, and in the midst of the most pressing and perplexing cases, its fetes and anniversaries are never forgotten.

His social qualities make him a charming host, and he delights in dispensing a generous hospitality. During the gay season the doors of his pretty white cottage are always open, and many of the most notable men of the day have sat at his board. Among his intimate personal friends is General Porfirio Diaz, President of Mexico. Major Burke's courtesy and badness are unfailing and are exercised toward all who approach him, the application of the

day-laborer meeting as prompt and punctilious attention as the most important communication from higher sources. That he should have some enemies is the inevitable consequence of his success, but the number is few, for he possesses the magnanimous art of preserving himself frcm petty animosities, and of transforming political opponents into personal friends.

Few men of Major Burke's age have accomplished so much for the benefit of the community among which they reside. As a politician he has been largely instrumental in conferring upon his State the boon of self-government. As a journalist he has labored uninterruptedly for the enlightenment of the people of the South, and to arouse them to an appreciation of the immense resources of their territory, the wise development of which will form a surer basis of wealth than thev have ever yet enjoyed.

Taken altogether, he is a rare man, and one whose name will long be preserved in honored and grateful remembrance among the citizens of Louisiana.

CHAPTER XLIL— THE WORLD'S INDUSTRIAL AND COTTON CENTENNIAL

EXPOSITION.

BRIEF SKETCHES OF THE PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS, AND THE ORNAMENTATION OF THE

GROUNDS.

The National Cotton Planters' Association, at its annual meeting in October, 1882, by resolution, suggested the policy of celebrating by a special Cotton Exposition the centennial of that now leading and greatest product of Southern industry.

The first record of cotton as an industrial product for export from this country is the account of the shipment of six bags (about one bale) from the port of Charleston, S. C, in 1784, to England. In one century the export has increased four million fold, and the production to 7,000,000 bales, and to a value as an export in excess of any known product.

When the scheme was first agitated by the Southern press, it found a host of friends, some of whom allowed their interest to quietly subside before any lasting action was taken. The great cost and labor attending such an enterprise appalled the weak-hearted and kept the matter in abeyance for months. Thus valuable time was lost that might have been turned to good account. The project was not abandoned, howevei*, but made to take a new and better shape. After a time the design of holding a cotton exhibition simply was abandoned, and the plan enlarged so as to embrace an industrial exposition of the first order. The highest authority in the land was invoked to give the proposed exposition an official existence and recognition among the nations of the earth.

Congress passed an act creating the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition, under the provisions of which the Board of Management was selected.

The preliminary plans having been adopted, the location of the Exposition was fixed at New Orleans, and the exact site selected, the Upper City Park.

The wisdom of this selection is perceived in the manifold advantages offered on every hand. It placed the Exposition upon the great waterway of inland navigation of the United States, the Mississippi river, and opened direct communication with the towns and cities along 20,000 miles of navigable streams. By railway it is connected with every State, and Mexico as weil as Canada. The Eads system of jetties has opened the mouth of the river, so that now the largest ships afloat can come to the park and discharge their freight within a few feet of the Exposition Buildings.

The park itself is a level tract of land containing 249 acres. It is naturally adorned by liveoak trees, whose giant forms add to the picturesqueness of the scene. The views obtained from various high objects embrace the metropolitan city of the fair South, the Father of Waters rolling silently by, and a stretch of country thirty miles in extent that is attractive at all seasons of the year.

The Board of Management began active operations by opening popular subscriptions to the stock of the Exposition, and at the same time it urged citizens and corporations to make donations to the general fund. These efforts were crowned with success. Congress voted a loan of $1,000,000, and $300,000 for a governmental exhibit. The City of New Orleans appropriated $100,000, and the State of Louisiana $100,000. The popular subscription reached the sum of $500,000, and various States appropriated from $5,000 to $30,000, and numerous cities and counties in different parts of the country have contributed from $500 to $1,000.

Among foreign nations, Mexico has been most generous with her grant of $200,000; even Liberia gave $5,000.

With abundant pecuniary means in hand the management set about the task of erecting

buildings, making the scope and general characteristics of the Exposition known, and issuing invitations to possible exhibitors.

The Main Building is the largest ever erected, and covers thirty-three acres of ground. It is 1,378 feet long by 905 feet wide, without courts, and has a continuous roof composed largely of glass so arranged as to afford an abundance of light without subjecting the interior to the direct rays of the sun. Within, the view is unobstructed, from one side or corner of the building to its opposite, the interior showing all the phases of the exhibit at a glance. There are no partitions, and the lofty pillars, wide apart, supporting the roof structure, present no impediment to one's vision, but only serve to assist the eye in measuring the vast expanse. Wide and spacious galleries, twenty-three feet high, are reached by twenty elevators supplied with the most approved safety appliances and convenient stairways. The view from the one in the central tower is simply superb.

The Machinery department occupies a space of 1,378 feet long by 300 feet wide, within the main building, and has an iron extension 750 feet long by 120 wide, for factories and mills in operation. From the galleries overlooking it, over two miles of shafting can be seen rapidly revolving, driving every known character of machinery.

Music hall, with a seating capacity, in commodious chairs, for 11,000 people, a platform capacity for 600 musicians and a mammoth organ built to order for the Exposition, occupies the centre of the interior.

The Main Building will contain general exhibits. It is situated nearly in the centre of the grounds.

The second building in size is that erected for the United States Government and State exhibits. This building is 885 feet long by 565 feet wide. It is one of the largest exposition buildings ever erected. At the time of the adoption of the plans it was supposed that the main building, having the largest capacity of any building heretofore erected, in conjunction with the horticultural hall and such minor outside buildings as were necessary, would afford ample space and accommodation for all exhibits; but the interest in the World's Exposition became so widespread, and the applications and inquiries fcr space so numerous, that the necessity for additional accommodation became imperative, and the management determined upon the erection of this magnificent structure specially for the General Government and State exhibits. It will contain the exhibits of the general government. This exhibition will be complete—of itself, almost a mammoth exposition. Each department will have its distinctive exhibit. In addition to the government exhibits, the collective State exhibits and the general educational display will be located in this building. The structure has a beautiful architecture and presents a very attractive appearance.

The third building in size, and a conspicuous feature of the group, is the Horticultural Hall, which is 600 feet in length and 194 feet wide through the centre. It is the largest conservatory in the world. It is substantially built as a durable structure, becoming, by arrangement with the city, a permanent feature of the park. It is located on high ground, in the midst of magnificent live-oak groves. Surmounting the centre is a magnificent tower, 90 feet high, roofed with glass. Beneath this tower, in constant play, is a grand fountain. Extending through the centre of the Hall will be exhibited 20,000 plates of fruit, double the amount ever before displayed at any exposition. Around the Hall will be arranged an infinite variety, gathered from every available source, of rare tropical and semi-tropical plants, flowers and shrubbery. Above this display, on a fair decline, appears the roof, almost as a solid plate of glass. In the central hall, with a much higher roof, part only of glass, is located a tropical hot-house, 250 feet long by 25 feet wide, in which the most delicate flowers from the far South will be nurtured and made to bloom in their most brilliant perfection. Tropical fruits in the various stages of growth will be exhibited. Fruits of every section and the production of all seasons will, by arrangements for stated supplies and through processes of preservation and cold storage, be available for exhibit.

The Art Gallery is 300 feet long: by 100 feet wide. It is a structure built wholly of iron. The building is elegant and artistic, so arranged for mounting, accessibility and light as to present with best effects, precious pictures and rare statues lent by connoisseurs to the management. Its interior arrangements are unsurpassed for the mounting and lighting of pictures, and there is every indication that the collection will outrival any hitherto made on this hemisphere.

Despite the enormous and at first apparently extravagant size of the Main Building, it was found necessary to extend the machinery department, which, as noted before, already exceeds the entire space of two great expositions. This extension, under the title of the Factories and Mills Building, was at first planned to be 350 by 120 feet, but the length has lately been extended to 570. This building is made of iron, and in it will be especially exhibited cotton in all its processes, and with all the newest appliances. Sugar cane and rice will here too be shown in all their stages. A continuation of this, in a sort, the Saw-mill Building, on a stretch toward the great river, is calculated to attract much attention, as it will reveal the extraordinary wealth of the forestry of the South. This, too, was at first to be only 600 feet long, but has since been doubled.

The ornamentation of the grounds has been made a matter of special consideration, and the setting out groves of orange, banana, lemon, mesquite, maguey, etc., with tropical and semi-tropical plants attracts daily hundreds of curious visitors, who watch the laying out of the winding walks and the raising of the flower-mounds from under the shady shelter of the grand, guardian live-oaks, whose great size, close foliage and long, graceful pendants of Spanish gray moss symbolize that combination of the massive and the delicate which a world's exposition should abundantly possess. Fountains and miniature lakes, all things, in fact, that can delight the eye, have been provided. In the centre of Lake Rubio, named after the wife of President Diaz, of Mexico, 100 feet of fountain standpipe rise, throwing out three lessening circles of jets at intervals of twenty-five feet. From the top of a spire rising fifteen feet above this column an electric lamp of 100,000 candle-power will shed its radiance over the falling jets of the fountain and across the waters of the lake. In front of five of the principal entrances a 36,000 candle-power Leavitt-Mueller electric light is placed and in five different sections of the grounds, towers, 125 feet high, are each lighted by ten standard arc lights of the Jenny system. Fifty additional Jenny standard arc lamps are ranged around the grounds and steamboat landings on the river front. The systems represented in this grand display of electric lighting are the Edison, Leavitt-Mueller, Brush, Jenny, Thompson and Houston, aggregating 4,000 incandescent and 1,100 standard arc lamps, wnich require 1,600 horse-power of engines for the electric lighting alone, or 200 horse-power more for the service than the great Corliss engine which furnished the entire power for the Centennial building, and which is now at Pullman, 1,400 horse-power. This electrical combination, sayingunto the night, "Let there be light," and crowning the splendid scene with a mimic day, will constitute the finest exhibition of the contrasts of the different systems of lighting that the world has ever seen.

There is a another thing of strange and striking beauty on the grounds, which, though not provided by the Exposition Company, may be rightly deemed the result of their endeavors. Built in iron compartments at Pittsburg by the Mexican government, from the design and under the supervision of their architect, Seiior de Ybarrola, this structure is a triumph of taste and architectural achievement. A quadrangle 192 feet front by 288 feet deep incloses an open courtyard 115 feet by 184 feet, according to the general plan of a Mexican gentleman's residence, except that it has more entrances. Graceful towers at each corner and in the center of each side save it from any accusation of straight line sameness and give ample chance for a wealth of florid ornamentation in the most oriental style. The coloring, too, is ravishing with its cunning conspiracies of gold and green and maroon, with touches of intense red here and there.

The interior gallery running round the courtyard is terraced, and here will be placed a marvellous museum of the brilliant birds and fantastic flowers ot Mexico, making a kind of hanging garden which will enchant all beholders.

Altogether the most attractive feature of the Mexican representation will be the octagon building designed by Sr. de Ybarrola for the mineral display. This will be located near the Main Building, in the most conspicuous part of the grounds; and will be a specimen of the purest Saracenic architecture of the third epoch, Each face of the octagon will be thirty-two feet in extent, thus making an area of seventy-eight feet diameter, the whole supporting a wonderfully exquisite dome thirty feet high. It is to be built entirely of iron ; a combination of columns and arches, with details of the most elaborate and delicate tracery. Viewed at a distance it will give the impression of being made of the finest and rarest point lace, and the dome, owing to a skillful arrangement of tints beneath the iron filagree, will be made so light, so buoyant, so intangible, that it will seem not to r£st upon but to be poised above the sub-structure. The architect has arranged to close the spaces between the supporting columns with panels of hard «rood elaborately carved in Moorish designs, thus enabling him to close the building or to convert it into an open-air pavilion at will.

In order to convey an adequate notion of the vast area covered by the Main Building at New Orleans, the following figures, representing the superficial square feet contained in a number of the largest exposition buildings heretofore erected in this and other countries are here

inserted for the convenience of comparison :

Feet.

Crystal Palace, London (1862) 1,400,000

London Exhibition (1851) 989,884

Paris Exposition (1855) 545,934

Paris Exposition (1867) 456,923

Vienna Exposition (1873) 430,500

Philadelphia Main Building (1876) 872,320

Atlanta Exposition (1881) 107,520

Louisville Exposition (1883) 677,400

New Orleans World's Exposition, Main Building alone 1,656,030*

The Main Building, the Government and State Exhibits Building, and nearly all of the other buildings, except those of the Mexican exhibit, were planned and constructed by G. M. Torgen-son, Chief Supervising Architect. Mr. Torgenson is a native of Sweden, who came over to this country some fifteen years ago and settled in Mississippi, where in time his brilliant genius caused him to be recognized as one of the leading architects of the country. Mr. Torgenson is still a young man, having just celebrated his forty-second birthday.

At 3.10 p.m., Tuesday, December 16th, President Arthur surrounded by his cabinet and members of the diplomatic corps, the President of the Senate, Speaker of the House and many other distinguished people, formally opened the Exposition and started its ponderous engine and machinery. This was done by pressing a button, and the electric current passing over 1,200 miles of wire became the means by which the chief of our government put into operation the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition. Its officers are:

President Hon. Edmund Richardson.

Director-General E. A. Burke.

Commissioner-General P. C. Morehead.

Chief of Installation Samuel Mullen.

PAGE

Antoine, Pere, the Inquisition—. .. Ill

Antoine, Pere, his Date Palm . 114

Asylums and Convents . 127

Asylums and Convents, Directory of 132

All Saints' Day, Tomb Decoration 223

Alligator Hunting 245

Angling for Trout 251

Algiers 287

Battle of New Orleans 174

Brick and Mortar 280

Baroness Pontalba 300

Burke, E. A., Director-General 315

Coffee Houses 81

Olubs, Social 92

Cathedral, St. Louis 103

Churches, Catholic 114

Churches, Protestant 116

Churches, Greek 121

Churches, Colored 122

Churches, Directory of 122

Convents and Asylums 127

Creole Quarter 149

Creoles of Louisiana 150

Creole Bride 152

Creole Songs and Patois 153

Creoles, their Origin 165

Capture of New Orleans by Farragut 178

Carnival and Pageants of Mardi Gras. ... 210

Comus, Mistick Krewe of 212

Cafe au Lait and Cafe Noir 263

Cotton, How Handled 271

Consuls and Consular Agents 286

Cafe des Exiles 293

Creole Cottage 293

Caldwell, James H 307

Directory of Steamboat and Ship Landings 40

Directory of Streets 43

Distances in the City 70

Directory of Churches 122

Discalced Carmelites - 128

PAGE

Directory of Asylums and Convents 132

Drama and the Opera 132

Duelling, " Under the Oaks " 181

Directory of Public Buildings, Squares, etc 283

Dock Yards 287

Delpit, Albert, the Journalist 311

Edifices, Historic and Romantic 63

Executions, Private and Public 207

Exposition, its Dimensions, etc 319

Free Lunches, Menu of 88

Father Dagobert, the Capuchin 109

Fortifications of Early Days 172

Filibustering Expeditions to Cuba 196

Flatboating on the Mississippi 200

Fast Time of Steamboats 238

Fishing, When and Where to Go .. 245

Flora, The 252

Flower Gardens and Squares 253

French Market, Scenes around 258

French Market Coffee Stands 262

Floods and Overflows 277

Gambling Days of " Auld Lang Syne " 201

Gaines, Mrs. Myra Clark 309

Hotel Life and Incidents 71

Hospital, Charity, History of 130

Indians and their Settlements 169

Illustrious Dead, their Tombs 225

Jackson's (Old Hickory) Headquarters... 177

Journalism of New Orleans 268

Knights of Momus 216

Knights of Proteus 219

King of the Carnival (Rex) 218

Louisiana Creoles 150

La Belle Creole 161

Lafitte, the Pirate 188

Lexington and Lecompte 242

Louisiana Jockey Club t >«• 1 • • 28J

INDEX.

PAGE

Marketing in New Orleans, Cost of 90

Maiden, The Creole 151

Mississippi River Causes a Duel 187

Mississippi, Flat-boating on 200

Mississippi, Racing of Steamboats 237

Mississippi, Fast Time upon 238

Mumford, Fate of 207

Mardi Gras, its Origin and Celebration.... 210

Mistick Krewe of Comus 212

Momus, Knights of 216

Mardi Gras Days of the Future 222

McDonogh, his Tomb and Precepts 227

McDonogh, his Love and his Will 303

Moss, Spanish, its Peculiarities 256

Market, French 258

Market Women 259

Market, Preparing for 260

Monuments and Statues 275

Mayors of New Orleans 2 ^5

Madame John's Legacy 293

Madame Delphine's 297

Menken, Adah Isaacs 307

Morphy, Paul, the Chess King 313

Negroes, French and San Domingo 167

New Orleans, History of 1-40

New Orleans, its Creoles 149

New Orleans, its Population 6,165

New Orleans, Battle of 174

New Orleans, Capture by Farragut 178

New Orleans, its Flora and Gardens 252

New Orleans Cotton Exchange 280

New Orleans Sugar Exchange 281

Opera, The, and the Drama 134

Old Place d'Armes 14-„>

Patois (Creole) Songs 153

Pillage and Desolation 179

Pirates of Later Days 190

Proteus, Knigbts of 21f

Parades and Pageants, their Origin 212

PAGE

Personal Recollections 300

Peters, Samuel J., the Autocrat 307

Restaurants and Eating Houses 84

Revolts and Conspiracies 160

Ramparts and Fortifications 172

Revellers, Twelfth Night 215

Rex, King of the Carnival 218

Rowing and Regattas 232

Races on Mississippi, between "Lee" and

" Natchez' 239

Racecourses of Old 241

Rod and Gun 245

Steamboat and Steamship Landings 40

Streets, their Nomenclature and Guide 43

Saints of the " Crescent City " 108

Synagogues (Jewish) 121

Squares and Public Places 142

San Dominguais 161

Spanish People 167

St. John's Eve, Youdouism 229

Spanish Moss, Peculiarities of 256

Statues and Monuments 275

Shot Tower, View from top of 281

Scenes of Cable's Romances 293

Sieur George's 293

The San Dominguais 160

The San Dominguais introduce Sugar 162

The Creoles and Acadians 265

The Spanish Negroes and Indians 169

Twelfth-Night Revelers 215

Tombs of Illustrious Dead 225

Tomb Decoration. All Saints' Day 223

Tomb and Precepts of John McDonogh... 227

Touro, Judab, t'.ie Philanthropist 305

" Under the Oaks," Duelling 181

Universities, Libraries, etc 2b 1

Youdouism 229

Voudou Songs and Dances 231

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