Home Page
Louisiana Anthology

Louise Béate Augustine Friedel.
The French Cook.

TO DO LIST

ADVERTISEMENT.

GASTRONOMY is one of the sciences, and cookery one of the arts, in which the French nation has long excelled every other — the dishes of the French, like their language, having been adopted by every civilised nation, even by those who consider themselves their “natural enemies” — as we might properly call ourselves their natural friends.

There is no fashionable hotel in this country of travellers, where there is not a French cook, or, at least, French dishes in the bill of fare; and though the names of these are unintelligible to nine tenths of those who dine at hotels, their flavor is not the less agreeable. Because comparatively few persons learn the French language, there is no good reason why all should not enjoy French cookery.

The following work will answer more than one useful purpose. As a vocabulary of French dishes it will be well worth its cost to any one who has ever been puzzled by a bill of fare, in a language which might as well have been Arabic or Chinese, for all the idea it gave him of any thing worth eating. Ris de veau, cochon de lait, dindon a la Daube, canard d la bourgeoise, etc., will henceforth have appetising instead of tantalising effects.

But the most important purpose of this work is to introduce into families the various, elegant, and economical preparations so plainly described. It will do away with the sameness of domestic cookery, without increasing its excense. The good housewife, with this little work in hand, can, from the most common materials, serve up a great variety of dishes. For instance, there are herein described no less than nineteen modes of cooking eggs, thirteen varieties of meat pies, fifteen sauces, nine soups, thirteen dishes of veal, and other dishes in proportion. The articles on preserving fruits, meats, etc., in the peculiar French style, cannot but be important.

In truth, a better work, containing more useful matter in a small compass, cannot be found in any language.




LA PETITE

CUISINIÈRE HABILE.

THE CLEVER LITTLE COOK.

POT AU FEU — Principes pour la bien faire.

MEAT-BROTH — LITERALLY, POT TO THE FIRE.

Containing the principles of making what may be termed, a good foundation for a variety of soups.

The pieces of beef the most esteemed for making a good broth (bouillon), are: the rumps (la culotte) the knee (la noir), the edge-bone (la tranche), and the breast (la poiirine). The broth of veal is not very good, except for the sick, as it is weak and colorless. Mutton, especially the pieces of the fore quarter, that is to say, the neck (le cou), the shoulder (l'épaule), and the breast, make an excellent broth. Barn-yard fowls, especially old hens and cocks, sensibly improve the savor and strength of the pot au feu.

Take then the piece, or pieces of meat which you intend for your pot au feu; truss and tie them as you desire, put them in a kettle large enough to contain two quarts (deux litres) of water for each pound of meat; fill up with cold water in this proportion, and place it over a good fire. As fast as the froth rises, you must skim it off carefully. It is only after the scum ceases to rise, that you must salt the broth. At that time diminish the fire, or raise the kettle further from the heat; put in carrots (carottes), turnips (navets), leeks (poireaux), celery (celeri), root of parsley (racine de persil), cloves (clous de giroffle), one or two laurel leaves (fuilles de laurier) and a burnt onion (oignon brûlé), to give ita good color.

Have a care now that your pot boils with a very small fire, but does not stop boiling entirely. It takes ordinarily, five or six hours to make a good pot au feu; and while the meat is well cooked, you have an excellent and very healthy broth.

Delicate persons, and those of refined taste (bons gastronomes), are not fond of broth made with cabbages, nor to have many turnips in their soup, as these vegetables give it a harsh taste, and a windy quality. It is better, if you are fond of these, to boil them in a small pot or saucepan by themselves; then throw away the water in which they are first boiled, and put them afterward in the broth, a short time before it is served.

Be careful, also, that the piece of lard or butter, if you put any in, is not rancid. Some calves' feet or a jowl added to the pot au feu, has a very good effect.

Observe that at the moment of serving you fill not instantly the tureen, in which you have put your slices of bread; put in merely enough broth for the bread to swim, cover the tureen, and about ten minutes after, pour in the rest of the broth which you design to have served.

It is not well to boil the butter with bread, because it changes the taste and quality of the broth.

Some persons put the vegetables upon the bread in the tureen; others prefer to have them upon the plate with the boiled meat. On fashionable tables, the piece of boiled beef is surrounded with green parsley.

POTAGE au Riz, au Vermicelle, au Sagou, aux Herbes, à la Purée, etc.

RICE SOUP, VERMICELLI SOUP, SAGO SOUP, VEGETABLE SOUP, PEA SOUP, ETC.

All these accesories must be cooked and prepared in pots or saucepans apart. At the moment of serving, put them in the soup dish, and pour the broth over them.

CONSOMMÉ.

JELLY BROTH.

A consommé, or jelly broth, is nothing more than an excellent broth, which has been made more strongly succulent, by letting it boil a long time, so as to destroy the meat, which loses all its consistence and savor, to strengthen the broth. Upon these principles, you see it is very easy to reduce to a consommé broths of every description. After your consommé has been well cooked, you pass it through a fine towel or strainer, expressing all the juice, till no more can be squeezed out. If you find that your consommé is muddy, and you would clarify it, put it over the fire again, and when it boils add some whites of eggs, well beaten up, after which, strain again through a napkin, or a sieve of silk, and it will be perfectly clear and limpid.

BOUILLON DE POULE, pour les Malades,

CHICKEN BROTH, FOR THE SICK.

After having picked, singed, and cleaned your chicken, put it in a kettle with three quarts of cold water; add the herbs or seeds prescribed by the physician. Cook the whole over a small fire and well covered. As soon as the broth is reduced one third, put in a little salt, and pass it through a sieve or strainer.

POTAGE à la Minute.

MINUTE SOUP—SOUP TO A MINUTE.

This process, employed by many professional cooks (chefs de cuisine) for the purpose of quickly obtaining a nourishing sauce, may also be useful to many other persons, especially in travelling, hunting, in pleasure parties in the country, etc., etc.

Take one pound of good beef, one of veal, and two ounces of thin lard; begin and chop up these articles; then add a large onion, a turnip, a carrot, a little celery, a small root of parsley, and finish, chopping all these together. Put it in a kettle with three quarts of water, a little salt, two cloves, and a leaf of laurel; place the kettle over the fire, and let it boil half an hour, taking care to skim it, and seeing, at the same time, if it is well seasoned. Then strain it through a sieve or napkin, and serve upon slices of bread, or on rice or vermicelli. If with either of these, you must boil them in a separate pot, turn them into the soup dish, and pour the broth upon them.

You may also use the hash, which remains in the strainer; for this purpose, you make a little gravy with the grease of the pot and a pinch of flour; soften this gravy with a little of the broth, add an onion cut thin, or well chopped up, a pinch of fine herbs (summer savory, etc.); season with salt and spices, that your sauce may have a good flavor; now put in the hash, stir, make it boil over a quick fire, for a few minutes, and serve with some poached eggs over it.

In this way you have in one half hour an excellent soup and a delicate hash.

Note. — The quantities in this and most dishes may be increased, of course, preserving the proportions, and articles left out or substituted at pleasure.

POTAGE à la Julienne*.

JULIAN SOUP.

Cut into very small pieces carrots, turnips, leeks, bottoms of celery, and parsnips; take also sorrel, lettuce, beets; chop fine all these vegetables; about half cook it in butter, and then add thick or thin soup, season with salt, finish the cookmg, and serve the soup with a little bread.

POTAGE à la Jardiniere.

Gardener's soup.

Take carrots, turnips, potatoes, celery, and leeks, cut them in pieces of the length of a cork, cook them with the broth already made, season, dish up and serve.

POTAGE Printannier.

SPRING SOUP.

Having made a Potage à la Julienne, add to it the products of the spring, such as tops of asparagus, green peas, etc.

POTAGE au Vermicelle.

VERMICELLI SOUP.

One can make this soup with thick broth, with water, or with milk; but in either case the vermicelli must be put in the liquid when it is boiling hot, and the cooking finished over a good fire. The proportion is generally three to four ounces of vermicelli for each quart of broth or milk.

Note. — Vermicelli is an Italian manufacture of flour and oil, pressed into small tubes, and when broken up resembling little worms; hence the name. Macaroni is similar, but as large as a goose-quill. Both are sold at the shops of most large towns and cities.

POTAGE à la Semoule.

This is made like vermicelli.

POTAGE au Macaroni.

MACARONI SOUP.

Put the macaroni in thick or thin broth (gras ou maigre), the moment when it boils, and let it cook over a large fire, and on serving sprinkle it over with grated cheese.

RIZ au Gras.

RICH RICE SOUP.

Pick your rice and wash it in cold water, put it in the broth the moment it boils, and let it cook gently until the rice has well burst open.

RIZ au Maigre.

THIN RICE SOUP.

Make the rice open gently — a little in boiling water, and after it has been sufficiently cooked, add to it some butter, salt, a very little pepper, and, if you like it, some thin jelly (coulis en maigre),

RIZ au Lait.

RICE WITH MILK.

Boil the rice in the same manner as above directed but in miLK instead of salt, put in some sugar. Some people put in at the moment of serving, some drops of orange-flower water. The proportion is commonly one ounce of rice for each person, and one quart of broth or milk for each quarter of a pound of rice.

POTAGE au Fromage de Gruière ou ae Parmesan.

CHEESE SOUP.

For this potage, the cheeses made in the province of Gruière or in Parmi, Italy, are most commonly used; but any hard, dry cheese, of good flavor, would answer.

Put in your soup dish a quantity of grated cheese, and over it a layer of slices of bread. Make three or four layers of each, one over the other, moisten them with good broth, rich or thin, but which has very little salt; add a good piece of butter. Let it simmer well over some hot ashes, and at the moment of serving, pour over it a little more broth.

POTAGE aux Poissons, ou Bouille-abaisse.

FISH SOUP OR CHOWDER.

See under the head Poissons — Fish,

POTAGES — SOUPS.

BOUILLON RAFRAICHISSANT.

REFRESHING BROTH.

Put in a kettle a half pound of the neck of mutton, a like quantity of fillet of veal, each cut in small pieces, and four quarts of water. After having skimmed all the scum off put in a handful of chervil, a handful of doucèmre, a little wild chicorèe, and two small lettuces. All these herbs must be cut into thin slices. Let it boil for three hours over a gentle fire, and strain it adding then a little salt.

OUILLON DE MOU DE VEAU.

NECK OF VEAL BROTH.

Cut half of a neck of veal into small pieces, and soak them for one hour in cold water to extract the blood. Then boil it in an earthen pot with three or four quarts of water with a pinch of salt, a handful of chervil (any similar herb will answer), cut in slices, add some roots of garden sauce, and Then cut in slices. Skim it, and let it boil away slowly about one half, and pass it through a strainer.

PANADE.

PANADO.

Cut white bread in small pieces, let them boil in a saucepan or small kettle with water, a little salt, and some fresh butter. Then pass your panado through a cullender, put it back in the saucepan, and see if it is well seasoned. Later let it boil again for five or six minutes, and add a strengthening of yolks of eggs, and serve immediately.

LAIT DE POULE.

HEN'S MILK.

Put in a porringer or small tureen, three or four ounces of powdered sugar, three yolks of eggs, and a half spoonful of flower of orange water. Then beat the mixture until the yolks of eggs turn white, and the longer you beat them the better. Pour little by little over this mixture, a pint of boiling water, stirring it quickly to prevent the eggs hardening; your chicken's milk is made, and it is the most nourishing drink possible.

BCEUF À LA MODE.

ALAMODE BEEF.

Lard your beef with thick lard. Put it in a kettle with some pieces of fat (couennes de lard), a calve's foot, some onions, a carrot, a bunch (bouquet) of fine herbs, laurel, thyme, garlic, cloves, salt and pepper. Then turn over the whole one or two tumblers of water with half as much wine, and make it cook well covered, smothered, until the meat is tender. It takes about six hours to cook beef à la mode; and it must be done over a small fire, and well covered.

ALOYAU DE BCEUF, à la Broche.

SIRLOIN OF BEEF, ROASTED.

Cut your piece properly, split it to hold it firmly, and place it before a hot fire for one hour and a half to two hours at the most, according to the size of the piece. Some people serve it with gravy, others add a dash of vinegar, small cucumbers (gherkins), salt and pepper — served in a sauce-boat.

The sirloin is also sometimes served with sauce piquant, (see sauces), with small cucumbers, cut in thin round slices, laid upon it.

A sirloin is equally excellent, cooked in a stewpan, if you have one sufficiently large, (see further the ar-

tide, Filet à la Braise). In warm countries, the sirloin, or fillet of beef, is often served with tomato sauce, and sometimes with olives.

FILET DE BCEUF, à la Broche.

ROASTED FILLET OF VEAL.

The fillet of beef is the most tender part of the sirloin. Prepare your fillet, and do not leave upon it much fat. Put the lean side with fine lard, and spice. Put it in a tureen with slices of onion, laurel, salt, and pepper-corns. Then pour it a pint of good vinegar, tempered with white wine or water. Leave your fillet in this twenty-four hours, taking care to turn it over from time to time that the pickle may penetrate all sides. Two hours before the meal put it on the spit, and roast before a quick fire. Put the pickle in a dripping pan, through a strainer; baste with this frequently, and when it is done, serve with a sauce made of a little gravy or broth, echallottes, salt and pepper. It is necessary that your sauce be highly seasoned and served in a sauce boat.

FILET DE BCEUF, à la Braise.

BAKED FILLET OF BEEF.

Prepare your fillet of beef as above described, wash the surface, and lard it with thick spiced lard; truss it properly, and having fixed your saucepan, brazier, or bake-kettle, so that the meat will not touch the bottom, put in some slices of lard, and place your fillet over it; some onions, with cloves, two laurel leaves, one carrot cut in slices, a little thyme, a bunch of parsley, and leeks or small onions, some salt, and pepper-corns, and a little broth or water. Cover your stewpan, and make it boil immediately; then finish, by cooking for two hours over a gentle fire. A half hour before serving, it is necessary to put the fire equally over the cover of the stewpan, to give the 2

meat a good color. After it is cooked, untruss it and serve, with the sauce passed through a strainer.

COTE DE BOEUF, à la Bonne Femme.

RIB OF BEEF, À LA GOOD WOMAN.

Have a beautiful rib of beef, trim it, and lard it with spiced lard; put it in a stewpan, with two or three spoonfuls of good pot-grease; make it brown a little over a hot fire, having a care to turn it two or three times. When it has got a little color, season with salt and coarse pepper, and moisten with a spoonful of broth. Place your stewpan over a gentle fire, cover it, and put a little fire over the cover, and so let it cook for an hour and a half. If you find that there is not sufficient sauce, you can add again one or two spoonfuls of broth (bouillon).

COTE DE BCEUF, à la Provencale.

RIB OF BEEF, PROVENCE FASHION.

This is prepared in the same manner as the above, except that it is baked with oil. Afterwards, when it is dressed to be served, you take a plenty of onions, if large slice them, but if small use them whole, and let them brown in the stewpan with the oil; when they have become of a good color, you put in the sauce of your rib, a little broth, a wine-glass of vin-egar, salt and pepper, and heat the whole. Put your rib on a plate, and turn the sauce over it.

ROSBIF, à l' Anglaise.

ENGLISH ROASTBEEF.

Take the second piece of the sirloin (it is necessary that the piece should be large), put it on a spit, baste with butter, and make it turn before a brisk fire, which must be kept up constantly to the same degree. Take care that your meat does not cease dripping, for it must be done to a turn. Take up your rosbif, and serve with potatoes, boiled whole, steamed, or fried.

BIFTEC aux fine Herbes.

BEEFSTEAK WITH FINE HERBS.

Cut a fillet of beef in thin slices, and beat them un-til they are well flattened. Let it soak in a pickle of oil, salt and pepper; broil it over a quick fire, and serve very rare (saignant, bleeding), upon a piece of butter, some parsley, and juice of lemon or verjuice, garnished with small cucumbers.

Some people cook all sorts of beefsteaks in the same manner, but put upon the plate, according to their taste, water-cresses, fried potatoes, anchovy-butter, truffles cut in slices, etc.

BOUILLI RESSERVI, à la Fine.

A DELICATE DISH, FROM COLD BEEF

Cut your cold beef in thin slices, let it pickle a half hour with a little butter, parsley, a bit of garlic, two echallottes, all hashed together, with salt and pepper. Make adhere to each slice, as much of this dressing as possible; sprinkle them well with crumbs of bread, and let them broil over a slow fire, moistened with the rest of the pickle: serve with a little vinegar.

CERVELLES de Boeuf, de Veau, ou de Mouton.

BRAINS OF BEEF, OF VEAL, OR MUTTON.

Clean your brains, remove the coagulated blood, the fibres, and the thin skin which covers them. Put them for some hours in fresh water, to free them entirely from blood. After this, put them in a saucepan of boiling water, to which you have added a wine-glass of vinegar, and some salt. After they have thus soaked a quarter of an hour, put them in cold water. A quarter of an hour after, you can pour off the water, and they are ready to receive any sauce or dressing you may choose to give them.

You can serve them with oil and vinegar, or with sauce piquante, or à la maitre d'hótel, or with tomato sauce;— some persons like them with black butter (buerre noir); they are also excellent fried or in fritters, or cooked à la Bourgeoise.

CERVELLES, à la Bourgeoise.

BRAINS FIT FOR A CITIZEN.

While preparing your brains of beef, veal, or mutton, as described above, place in the bottom of your saucepan with some slices of lard, put in onions, carrots, some cloves, four pepper-corns, a leaf of laurel, half a wine-glass of vinegar, or, if you like better, some slices of lemon, a bunch of parsley, leeks, and salt, and moisten with broth. Stew down this to a sauce, put in your brains for half an hour, and serve.

CERVELLES DE BOEUF, en Matelote.

BEEF BRAINS, SAILOR FASHION.

Roast small onions in a stewpan till they have got a good color, put in a little flour, and moisten with a glass of white wine, or white vinegar and water. As soon as this brown sauce is of a beautiful light yellow, add to it some water or broth; stir it well, and taste, to see if your sauce is well seasoned. Put in your brains which you have properly cleaned and washed, and to them you can add some mushrooms, if you have them after being one quarter of an hour over the fire, dish your brains, pour over them the sauce, and serve.

CERVELLES FRITES, ou en Beignets.

After having dressed and washed your brains, in the manner first mentioned, you must let them drain well; then, when you would prepare them for the table, cut them in small pieces, and soak them for two hours in a pickle composed of vinegar, oil, salt, and pepper, that they may be properly seasoned. Drop them in a frying-pan, and let them have a good frying; prepare a fritter batter, dip in your pieces of brain, and let them fry to a fine yellow color (belle coulour blonde).

CERVELLES, à la Poulette.

BRAINS IN THE STYLE OF CHICKEN.

Free the brains from blood, and wash them as above. Put them in melted butter, with a spoonful of flour, and add some broth, spices, onions, and mushrooms, if you have them, which you have cook-ed separately; thicken the whole with some yolks of eggs, and season with some lemon juice.

LANGUE DE BOEUF, à l' Ecarlate.

TONGUE OF BEEF, SCARLET FASHION.

Take a nice tongue of beef, trim it, and rub it well with two ounces of powdered saltpetre. Put it in an earthen vessel, with thyme, sweet basil, some leaves of laurel, and pepper-corns. Dissolve two handfuls of salt in hot water; when this brine is cold, pour it over the tongue, and let the whole rest three or four days. Before you cook it, you must soak it for one hour in cold water; then put it in a stewpan, with a fourth part of its pickle, carrots, onions, garden herbs, pepper-corns, and cloves; put in sufficient water to cover the whole, and let it cook two hours over a small fire: remove; let it cool in the sauce, and serve.

LANGUE DE BCEUF en Papillotes.

TONGUE OF BEEF IN PAPERS.

Remove the blood and properly wash your beef's tongue, and boil it in water, with salt, pepper in kernels, and onions. Then let it drain, trim it, remove the skin, and cut it in slices. Dip the slices in good

2*

olive oil, and cover them on both sides with crumbs of bread, as directed in the article Côtelettes en Pa-pillotes, making the covering of bread crumbs as thick as possible. Put each slice of tongue in a pre-pared piece of greased paper, between two very thin slices of lard; fold the pieces of paper over the edges as closely as possible, to prevent the escape of the juice, and broil them over a fire so gentle as not to burn the paper. Some make them of a crown shape, or twisted like a shell, and serve them on a plate without sauce.

LANGUE DE BCEUF en Cartouches.

TONGUE OF BEEF IN CARTRIDGES.

This dish is prepared exactly like the tongue in papers, with the exception that they are rolled up in the form of cartridges, enveloved with a thin slice of fat bacon around them, and done up in greased paper, exactly like musket cartridges. This form is very good to prevent the escape of the sauce. Broil them over a gentle fire, and serve on a plate in a heap, or pile up like split wood (en pile ou en buches), without sauce.

LANGUE DE BOEUF, aux fines Herbes.

TONGUE OF BEEF, WITH FINE HERBS.

Cut a cold boiled tongue in very thin slices; take the plate upon which you wish to serve them, and put in the bottom a little broth, a little vinegar, parsley, leeks, a little thyme and garlic, the whole chopped very fine. Add salt, pepper, chippings or raspings of bread; moisten with a little oil; place upon it your slices of tongue, and place a similar dressing over them, seasoning as before, and putting upon the whole the crumbs of bread and the sprinkling of oil. Put the plate on a stove or furnace, to a small fire; make it simmer gently, until it adheres slightly to the bot-tom of the plate. Before serving, pour over the dish a spoonful of broth.

PALAIS DE BOEUF, à la Ménagère.

BEEF'S MOUTH, HOUSEKEEPER FASHION.

Wash well your mouth of beef, and after boiling it in water, remove all the skins and black spots. Then cut it in pieces, brown some onions, put in your pieces of beef mouth moistened with broth; add a bunch of sweet herbs, spices and salt, and some boiled potatoes, cut in slices; moisten again with broth if necessary, and let it cook until the sauce is nearly simmered away.

PALAIS DE BOEUF, à la Lyonnaise.

BEEF'S MOUTH, LYONS FASHION.

After having boiled and cleaned, as above directed, cut in small pieces, and serve in a sauce (purée, a sort of vegetable jelly) of onions.

GRAS-DOUBLE, en fricasée.

THICK TRIPE FRICASEE.

Scrape, clean very carefully, and wash in several boiling waters, the pieces of tripe, fat, and of a good thickness; then let them rinse in fresh water, and boil in water with slices of onions, garlic, cloves, pepper in grains, and laurel; after a while, put in some butter with a little flour, moisten with a little broth, mix the sauces, and serve.

GRAS-DOUBLE, à la Provencale.

THICK TRIPE, PROVENCE FASHION.

After having well cleaned and scraped it, wash in several cold waters, and after it has well drained, cook it with grated lard, two carrots cut in slices; some onions stuck with cloves, a husk of garlic, some allspice, a sprig of thyme, two leaves of laurel, a bunch of parsley; moisten with some spoonfuls of broth or water, and a half wine-glass of vinegar. Cover the vessel well and cook your tripe for six or eight hours over a gentle fire. When it has become sufficiently tender, you must let it cool in its broth; afterwards set it to drain, and cut it in equal slices. Then, put several onions in a saucepan, with oil, and cook them until they have become of a fine blond color; put in some garlic and parsley, chopped fine, and add afterwards your pieces of tripe; moisten with the sauce of the first cooking, passed through a sieve or strainer. Make the whole boil together, and at the moment of serving, sprinkle upon it some raspings of bread.

CARRÈ DE VEAU, à la Brochu, aux fine Herbes.

ROASTED SHOULDER OF VEAL, WITH FINE HERBS.

Properly trim the whole piece of a breast of veal; let it pickle for three hours in a tureen, with leeks, parsley, fenil, mushrooms, leaves of laurel, thyme, sweet basil, and shallots, all chopped very fine, with ground pepper, grated nutmeg, and a little oil; when your breast of veal has been envel-oped in this mixture so as to acquire its flavor. Put it upon the spit, or otherwise prepare it for roasting with all this seasoning upon it. The whole enveloped in two strong sheets of buttered paper so fixed that the fine herbs cannot escape. When sufficiently roasted, remove the paper, take off the fine herbs which have become attached, and put them in a stewpan. With a little of the juice or drippings, two spoonfuls of verjuice, and a little butter and flour worked together, salt, and pepper; mix over the fire to serve with the meat, which, while making the sauce, you have left on the spit after having mixed the above with a little melted butter and yolks of eggs, beaten together, then sprinkle the whole with crumbs of bread, and let it get a good color before a hot fire. A fine color may be given to such dishes by passing over them a red-hot shovel.

ÉTUVÉE DE VEAU.

VEAL RAGOUT.

Cut your veal in pieces suitable for a stew. Put them in a brown sauce, then place them in a stewpan with pieces of lard. Then cut up some onions, carrots, and a bunch of sweet herbs, salt, pepper, leaves of laurel some cloves with a husk of garlic. Add as much cold water as will just cover the meat. Cover over the saucepan, and cook over a gentle fire. When the meat is done to a point you will find that the sauce is too thin, you can thicken it with a little flour. The sauce must be thick and high seasoned. Before serving add to it a little vinegar.

COTELETTES DE VEAU, en Marinade fine.

VEAL CUTLETS, IN A FINE PICKLE.

Properly trim your cutlets, arrange them in a stew-pan, with a little chopped lard, or some butter, if you prefer it; add all sorts of sweet herbs, hashed fine, a little vinegar, salt, and pepper; place the stewpan over a gentle fire, and turn them, from time to time, until the sauce thickens and adheres to the cutlets. When they have become nearly cooked, remove them, let them drain, and rub them over with crumbs of bread; a half hour before serving, put them on the gridiron, and broil them over a gentle fire, that the covering of bread may not get too quick a color. When they are broiled, arrange them on a plate, and spread over them, if you have any left, the rest of the sauce in the stewpan.

VEAU — VEAL.

COTELETTES DE VEAU, en Papillotes

VEAL CUTLETS, IN PAPERS.

Have some beautiful veal cutlets, and prepare them properly. Put them in a stewpan, with butter, salt, and pepper, and make them cook gently for a half hour, turning them from time to time.

Prepare your covering of bread crumbs, mixed w^ith some parsley and shallots, chopped very fine, raspings of bread, salt, and spices. When your cutlets are nearly cooked in the saucepan, remove them, and put them on the plate where you have your bread crumbs, of which you must make as much as possible adhere on both sides. Envelope them in buttered paper, and make them broil over a gentle fire. Serve in the papers which envelope them. Thus prepared, they are very succulent.

FILET DE VEAU, à la Provencale.

FILLET OF VEAL, PROVENCE FASHION.

Cut thin slices from a piece of cold roast veal; make a sauce with a little grease and flour, or a half wine-glass of oil, parsley, leeks, and shallots, all hashed together, with salt and pepper; moisten with water or some broth, and mix the sauce over the fire; put in the pieces of veal, and let them become quite hot, without boiling; squeeze in a little lemon juice, or a dash of vinegar, and serve.

FOIE DE VEAU, à l'Exquise.

CALF'S LIVER, STYLE EXQUISITE.

Put in a saucepan, a good piece of butter, or grated suet, with a calfs liver, cut in slices as thick as your finger; let it fry over the fire until it is well cooked, turning it so that both sides may do, and then remove it immediately; put in the same saucepan a little flour, moistened, little by little, with a glass of red wine (claret or burgundy), put in four or five shallots, parsley, leeks, all chopped fine, with salt and pepper; let it boil up two or three times, until reduced to a thick sauce. Then put back the liver, and let it heat, without boiling, and serve very hot, with some capers and hashed anchovies, if you like it.

FRICASSÉE DE VEAU.

VEAL FRICASEE.

Cut your meat in small pieces, and wash them well; having well drained them, put them in a stewpan, with a piece of fresh butter, with some broth, salt, pepper, laurel, whole onions, and a little thyme; cook over a slow fire and before serving add a strengthening, or binding of yolks of eggs (liaison de jaunes d'oeufs).

BLAUQUETTE DE VEAU, en Entrée.

WHITE FRICASEE OF VEAL.

A "blauquette" is composed, ordinarily, of the remains of a piece of roast veal. Cut it in thin slices and put them in a stewpan, with fresh butter or lard, a little flour, salt, pepper, a small bunch of parsley and leeks, and a little laurel; mix the whole together and moisten with a little broth; boil easily for five minutes; serve with thick sauce, with a binding of yolks of eggs, and a little vinegar.

FRAISE DE VEAU, à la Bourgeoise.

CALF'S PLUCK, CITIZEN FASHION.

Wash from the blood your calfs pluck in cold water for two hours and then wash in boiling water; when it has boiled a half hour, put it again in cold water, and an instant after let it drain.

A calf's pluck is usually served plain (au natural), with oil and vinegar; but if you prefer to have it with sauce, take a little brown sauce, which you must dilute with broth, or water, and to which you add onions, carrots in slices, leeks, parsley, salt, pepper, and cloves; you may add, also, a piece of garlic, if you like. When your sauce is well cooked, and has a good taste, pass it through a cullender into another stewpan. Put in your pluck, let it cook a quarter of an hour, and before serving, add a little vinegar.

FRAISE DE VEAU, a la Sauce piquante.

CALF'S PLUCK, WITH SAUCE PIQUANTE.

After having well cleaned, removed the blood, rinsed, and boiled your pluck, in the manner above described, cut it in slices, or have it entire if you prefer, and serve with "sauce piquante," (see "Sauces").

RIS DE VEAU, à la Marengo.

VEAL SWEETBREADS, MARENGO FASHION.

Clean and wash your sweetbreads. When they are boiled, drain them, and cut them in slices of the thickness of a finger; put them in a stewpan, with a good slice of butter, a handful of mushrooms, or else of truffles, cut very fine, a husk of garlic, and a little finely cut parsley, salt, pepper in kernels, and fine spices; moisten with some spoonfuls of broth, and cook between two fires for a half hour — the fire above and below. In serving, add a little vinegar, or, if you have and like it, some tomato sauce.

ROUELLES DE VEAU.

FILLETS OF VEAL.

Stick the thick fat with spice, put the fillet in a stewpan, with butter or chopped suet, and finish the dressing and cooking as directed in the article, "Boeuf à la mode;" or, it is still better, in a bake-pan, (cloche à la braise); make thick sauce and serve.

TENDONS DE VEAU, à la Poulette.

VEAL TENDONS, LIKE CHICKEN.

Take a breast of veal, and cut the tendons, or muscles, in small round pieces, of two or three ounces each. Put in the bottom of a stewpan a little lard, and place over it the tendons, with thyme, laurel, parsley, leeks, three or four carrots, or else some onions. Make them cook, moistening with broth. When sufficiently done take from the fire, mix the sauce with yolks of eggs and serve.

MOUTON, à la Daube.

MUTTON, WITH THICK SAUCE.

Beat your leg of mutton (gigot de mouton), and remove the skin and the handle; lard it well with slices of salt bacon, and put it in your pot or deep stewpan, with broth, salt, pepper, laurel, thyme, and some slices of lemon; make it cook to a small fire, covered closely smothered (à l'étouffie). When it is partly cooked, put in a pint of wine. Then return your leg of mutton, and cook until the sauce is nearly dried up. Have a care to force the slices of fat bacon well through the meat, so that when it is carved it may be well marbled.

CARRÉ DE MOUTON, à la Bourgeoise

SHOULDER OF MUTTON, FIT FOR A CITIZEN.

Cook in a stewpan with broth, a glass of white wine, a bunch of sweet herbs and spices. When it is cooked, remove the meat and simmer down the sauce, to which add a piece of butter mixed with flour and chopped parsley with a little vinegar or lemon juice.

CARRÉ DE MOUTON, à la Perigord.

SHOULDER OF MUTTON, PERIGORD STYLE.

Put in a stewpan your shoulder, nicely trimmed, with a little oil, parsley, mushrooms and spices; your saucepan first having its bottom covered with some slices of veal and a dozen truffles, cut in small pieces. Cover the whole with lard, add a half lemon in slices, make the whole boil very gently, and moisten from time to time with broth. Finish the cooking over a gentle fire, reduce the sauce a little, strain it, brown your meat, and serve with truffles.

COTELETTES DE MOUTON, panées.

BREADED MUTTON CHOPS.

Contrary to the general usage, you must not batten your mutton chops to have them eat well; but after rubbing them over with salt, pepper, and especially a little powdered cloves, you then dip them in oil, and cover them with a coating of crumbs of bread; put them on the gridiron for ten minutes over a clear fire, and serve au naturel, or with a sauce composed of fresh butter and fine herbs.

COTELETTES DE MOUTON, grillés.

BROILED MUTTON CHOPS.

Prepare as above, except the oil and breading; broil over a quick fire that the juice may not be lost, and serve without any other preparation.

COTELETTES DE MOUTON, sautées.

MUTTON CHOPS, JUMBLED.

Put at the same time in your frying-pan your chops and a piece of fresh butter, and cook over a gentle fire. Take your chops from the frying-pan, and stir in with the grease remaining in the pan, five or six spoonfuls; throw in some spices, fine herbs, shallots, all well hashed, and small cucumbers cut in thin, round slices; put the whole in the sauce, shake up, and serve with a squeeze of lemon juice, or a little vinegar.

ROUELLES DE MOUTON.

FILLETS OF MUTTON.

Prepare for cooking the same as those of veal, but it is necessary to cook them longer, and to put in a wine-glass of white wine, when they are partly done. Some slices of lemon also have a good effect.

GIGOT DE MOUTON, aux Cornichons.

LEG OF MUTTON, WITH CUCUMBERS.

First beat well your leg of mutton, to make it tender, and then put it in your stewpan with some onions, fine herbs, and spices to your taste, some salt, and sufficient water. Cover the stewpan, and let your leg of mutton cook. When it has become pretty tender, you must skim off the grease which swims upon the top, and put it with some butter in another stewpan, in which you roast the meat to a good color. Having done this, you add some of the first broth, to make a good sauce, and afterwards a part of a small cucumber, split in quarters; the whole having been boiled together, mix the sauce, and serve very hot.

GIGOT DE MOUTON, à l'Oseille.

LEG OF MUTTON, WITH SORREL.

Prepare the leg of mutton as above, but in place of cucumbers, take some handfuls of sorrel, chopped fine, and cook with butter in a stewpan well covered. When nearly cooked, put in some spoonfuls of good cream mixed with yolks of eggs, a little flour and the broth of the mutton, after which turn the sorrel sauce (la sauce d'oseille) over the leg of mutton, and serve.

GASCONNADE.

LEG OF MUTTON, IN THE GASCON FASHION.

Lard or stuff a leg of mutton with a dozen husks of garhc and a dozen anchovies, in pieces; roast on a spit, and serve with the following sauce : — Pick a full quarter of a peck of husks of garlic, make them boil in several waters, and when they are nearly cooked, remove them, and pour in some fresh water, and let them drain. Put in a saucepan a glass of good broth, and the drippings of the meat, with some meat jelly, if you have it; put in your garlic, stew down and serve on your meat. The natives of Gascony are very fond of these meats, and we give this recipe, because there are Gascons everywhere.

GIGOT DE MOUTON. — Manière de la préparer pour qu'il ne differe en rien d' une pièce de Chevreuil.

LEG OF MUTTON, COOKED TO RESEMBLE VENISON.

Take a beautiful leg of mutton, remove the fat, as with venison; then lard with fat bacon, season with salt and fine spices, and put it in a tureen sufficiently spacious, with three husks of garlic, some onions, three or four cloves, laurel, sweet herbs and peppercorns, and pour over the whole vinegar enough to nearly cover it. If your vinegar is too strong, temper it with water. Cover the tureen, and let your leg of mutton lay in pickle for two or three days, taking care to turn it every day to the other side. Then put it in a dripping-pan, in which you moisten it on both sides with melted butter, or good fat, a glass of the pickle and two glasses of good red wine. Cook in an oven or bake-pan, or if you prefer, on a spit, and baste in the same manner. You will be satisfied that your leg of mutton has all the delicacy of the best game.

GIGOT DE MOUTON, a la Kretchmer.

LEG OF MUTTON, IN THE STYLE OF KRETCHMER.

Commence by removing, with a well-sharpened knife, the thin skin which covers the leg of mutton, and which forms a sort of parchment; take out the bones, if you have not had it already done by the butcher; take a half pound of fresh butter, or sweet lard, chopped fine, or a quarter may answer, if the leg is small; mix together salt, pepper, parsley, chopped leeks, and a little flour, and make them into a roll, which you introduce into the centre of the leg, in place of the bone; put it on a spit, and secure it properly. Before putting it to the fire, rub it over with salt and pepper, and cover it with crumbs of bread in the following manner. Cover it abundantly with oil, gi'ease, or warm butter, and roll it in very fine crumbs of bread, so as to make as many as possible adhere; sprinkle also with some flour, and put to the fire and turn gently, occasionally sprinkling with flour; but you must not baste this roast like others. The crumbs of bread, the flour and the grease, form a perfect shell, and make a crust of the greatest utility, preserving perfectly all the juices and savor of the meat. When this precious gigot is served, and the carving-knife is followed by torrents of jus, and a most delectable flavor, you will bless the memory of the inventor of a dish so delicious, and be obliged to us for oflfering his name to the admiration of gastronomes, present and future.

HARICOT DE MOUTON.

MUTTON RAGOUT.

Cut a shoulder or breast of mutton in small pieces, and stir them over the fire, with a little butter, for a quarter of an hour; remove the meat, add to the grease which remains in the stewpan a spoonful of flour, and let it do to a light brown, then moisten it with broth, and put in salt, pepper, parsley, leeks, thyme and garlic; put back the meat, and let it do for two hours. Have some turnips which you have fried brown in butter, add them to the ragout, and let them cook a half hour together; scrape out, and serve.

POITRINE DE MOUTON, farcie.

STUFFED BREAST OF MUTTON.

Wash the thin skin, and put between it and the flesh a stuffing of any meat that you wish, and cook with spices, lardings of bacon, broth and herbs. Make a sauce with a little of the juice and some flour. Some people cook it in the pot a feu. If you had rather roast it, it must be well larded. It is generally served with green peas or beans, or with sauce like a ragout.

POITRINE DE MOUTON, sur le GriL.

BROILED BREAST OF MUTTON.

Stew the breast of mutton with broth, salt, pepper, parsley, leeks, thyme and laurel. Afterwards dip it in oil, and cover with crumbs of bread, mixed with parsley and leeks chopped fine, with salt and pepper; broil and serve with sauce piquante. You may first boil the meat in your pot a feu, and then bread and bioil in the same manner.

QUARTIER D'AGNEAU, pané et róti.

QUARTER OF LAMB,BREADED AND ROASTED.

Stick with fine lard the outside, and rub the inside with fresh butter or olive oil; cover it well with crumbs of bread, and envelope with oiled paper; put to the spit. Before it is quite cooked, take it from the fire, and sprinkle a second time with rasped bread, mixed with salt and chopped parsley, the part you have breaded, that is, the inside; roast brown before a very hot fire, baste with vinegar, or serve with a sauce of sorrel.

COCHON DE LAIT, á la Broche.

ROASTED SUCKING PIG.

Scald and truss well; fill it with a stuffing composed of the lights, the liver, with sausage meat, or any other meat, properly spiced and seasoned; generally this is mixed with sage, mushrooms, chestnut, or truffles. Put on the spit, basting first five or six times with water, salted and spiced, and afterwards with oil, by means of a bunch of sage fastened to a stick. The basting with oil renders the skin crisp and crackling. It takes a pig from two hours to two hours and a half to cook; serve hot from the spit.

GRILLADES DELICATES.

DELICATE BROILS.

Take some fillets of veal, or slices of beef, or of a leg of mutton, or of fresh pork, cut them into slices as big as four fingers, and the thickness of thin cutlets. Let them soak in a pickle made of a little oil or butter, salt, pepper, parsley, leeks, shallots, all chopped fine; put them for a little while over the fire, and let them cool. Make as many little cases of paper as you have pieces of meat, oil them all over, put the pieces in them, with their seasoning above and below, and cook them on a gridiron, covered with a sheet of paper. When cooked, sprinkle with lemon-juice or vinegar, and serve in their envelopes.

VOLAILLES — POULTRY.

HACHIS DE VIANDE, au gratin ou en Bouletts.

MEAT HASH, FROM THE PAN OR IN BALLS.

Take such meat as you have, whether butchers' meat, poultry or game, roasted or otherwise, or several sorts mixed together; chop the whole very fine, and season with parsley, leeks and onions, chopped, bread in crumbs, and one or two eggs beaten together. Put your hash in a stewpan, and place it over the fire, with a piece of butter or chopped lard, and a pinch of flour; moisten with broth, and let it stew for a half hour over a gentle fire; then spread it on a plate, on which you intend to serve it; place it on the stove, until it is a little crusted, and serve very hot.

If you like better to make it into balls (boulettes), mix with each pound of hash a quarter of a pound of sausage meat, and some more yolks of eggs. Some persons also add veal, sweet breads, truffles, mushrooms, or anchovies, but that depends upon what taste and facilities you have. Form your balls, and dip them in the white of eggs, flour them, fry them of a beautiful color, and serve, garnished with parsley, or any convenient sauce.

PIGEONS DELICATES.

DELICATE PIGEONS.

Singe and clean pigeons of a middling size, and lard all the fleshy parts with little pieces of truffles; let them remain in a stewpan, with some good oil or fresh butter, a little chopped truffles, sweet herbs, salt, and pepper. Afterwards put them, with all their seasoning, in another stewpan, of which you have covered the bottom with slices of veal and ham; cover the whole with thin slices of fat bacon, and a sheet of paper; let it stew over the hot ashes, with

VOLAILLES — POULTRY.

coals above and below, for a good half hour; put in afterwards a half glass of good white wine, and as much broth. Remove the superfluous grease, and finish the cooking. It is necessary that the sauce should be stewed down, passed through a sieve, and served upon the pigeons with some lemon juice.

PIGEONS en Compote.

PIGEON STEW.

Put your pigeons in a stewpan, with butter and lard or chopped suet, until they take a good color; take them from the stewpan, in which you now put a pinch of flour; when this sauce is of a rich brown color, dilute it with broth, and put in again your pigeons, with salt, pepper, sweet herbs, cloves, a husk of garlic, and some mushrooms, if you have them. Cover your stewpan, and when the pigeons are nearly cooked, put in a proportionate quantity of small onions, whole, that you have already stewed in butter; next add a glass of white wine; finish cooking with the onions, and reduce the sauce to a proper thickness; at the moment of serving, arrange your pigeons on a plate, and pour over them the dressing.

PIGEONS, à la Crapaudiere.

BROILED PIGEONS.

Cut your pigeons open on the back, and flatten them, without breaking the bones; dip them in oil, sprinkle them with raspings of bread, salt, pepper, parsley, leeks, and shallots, chopped fine and mixed together; make as much as possible of this breading adhere. Let them broil over a gentle fire, and serve with a sauce ravigotte (see Sauces).

PIGEONS, aux petits Pois.

PIGEONS, WITH GREEN PEAS.

Clean and split in two your pigeons; put them in a stewpan, with a piece of butter or lard; when they have become well browned, put in your green peas, with some broth, some garnish herbs, and a little flour. Cook over a slow fire, and before serving, throw in a little butter mixed with flour.

POULETS en Fricassée.

You may very much improve this fricasee, if you put in also truffles, small mushrooms (morilles), crawfish tails, sweetbreads of veal, mushrooms, capers etc., according to your taste.

POULARDE Galante.

FAT PULLET.

Dress a nice fat pullet, and cut it in two, and let it pickle for one hour, with a little butter, salt, coarse pepper, fine herbs, truffles, mushrooms, shallots, all hashed fine. Envelope each half of the pullet with two folds of buttered paper, with all this seasoning; Cook slowly by the fire, in a covered bake-dish, with

cinders upon and under it. When done, remove all the fine herbs, which adhere to the paper, and put them with the pullet, and the sauce which has escaped from it, in a stewpan with a little broth, and two spoonfuls of meat jelly or gravy. Let it boil up twice, skim off the fat, and serve the pullet with a squeeze of lemon juice.

POULARDE, à la Duchesse.

PULLET, FIT FOR A DUCHESS.

Singe, draw, and truss the legs into the body, and put over the fire, with butter, parsley, leeks, mushrooms, all chopped fine, with salt and pepper. Put the whole in a stewpan, with the bottom lined with slices of veal, covered with thin slices of fat bacon; moisten with broth, and cook over a slow fire. Take the thickest of the sauce, put in a strengthening of the yolks of eggs, mix over the fire, and pour over the chicken. Serve with a little lemon juice or vinegar.

POULARDE, aux Truffes.

PULLET, WITH TRUFFLES.

Wash and rub well in several waters, two, three, or even four pounds of truffles, according to the size of the pullet. Peel and chop very fine the less beautiful of three beets; the others put in the stewpan, with their skins, all together, with a pound of lard chopped fine, with a good seasoning, such as sweet herbs, salt, pepper, and lemon juice. Cook over a gentle fire for one hour; then remove, and let it nearly cool. You now take three or four fowls' livers, which you mash in a mortar with some chopped truffles, and mix with the rest. With these stuff the pullet, and sew up. In a few days, according to the temperature, it will have acquired the flavor of the truffles, when it is to be roasted in an envelope

of buttered paper. Thus prepared, a pullet cannot be more excellent; but its preparation requires much time and care.

DINDE, aux Truffes.

HEN TURKEY, WITH TRUFFLES.

Prepare in the same manner as in the preceding article, the truffle stuffing. On spitting, lard, and envelope in strong greased paper. It must roast before a small fire for two hours; about this time remove the paper; let it brown for ten minutes, and serve. If you have no truffles, you may prepare a stuffing of all sorts of meat hashed, or of mushrooms, chopped and seasoned with fine herbs, or of chestnuts, boiled and peeled.

DINDON, dans son Jus.

TURKEY COCK, IN ITS SAUCE.

Line the bottom of a stewpan with slices of veal and small pieces of lard. On these lay the turkey cock, breast downward; put in spices, salt, pepper, and sweet herbs; cover all with slices of fat bacon or pork; moisten with broth, and let it cook gently over a very small fire; strain the sauce, skim off the grease, and put it on the turkey.

DINDON, en Daube.

TURKEY COCK, IN JELLY, OR THICK SAUCE.

A preference is generally given to a fine old turkey cock, but some prefer an old hen. He is to be cleaned, and trussed with his feet in his body, and larded with large pieces of fat meat, well seasoned with spices and fine herbs, chopped up. Sew up and tie the turkey, and place him in a deeo stewpan.

with slices of fat pork, a knuckle of veal, onions, carrots, thyme, laurel, leeks, a husk of garlic, cloves, salt and pepper, and cover all with broth until he swims in the juice; cover with paper, and put the cover tightly on the pot. Let it cook over a small fire, having care to turn it when half cooked. It requires seven or eight hours. When it is cooked, remove from the fire, dress the turkey on a plate, strain and skim the sauce, and pour it over him.

It is the fashion to serve the turkey cooked in this way, the next day after it is cooked, cold, with its jelly.

CUISSE DE DINDON, réveillantes .

LEG OF A TURKEY, WARMED OVER.

If you have some legs of turkeys, which you wish to warm over in style, put them in a stewpan, with a good glass of white wine, a glass of thick broth, salt, pepper, a bunch of sweet herbs, or half a husk of garlic, and two cloves; let them cook an hour, and simmer down the sauce; then put on a plate, and serve with the following ragout:

Put in a stewpan a sweetbread of veal, scalded and cut in pieces, parsley, chopped leeks, with some good butter, lard, or sweet oil; put them over the fire, sprinkle with flour, moisten with a glass of broth and half a glass of white wine; let it boil over a small fire for a half hour; skim off the grease, and put in some chopped anchovies and capers, and a handful of olives, from which you have taken the stones; let it heat without boiling, and turn it over your turkeys' legs.

In place of anchovies, capers, and olives, you can put in your ragout trufiiles or mushrooms, just as you like best.

OIE, en Daube.

GOOSE, IN JELLY.

Put in the bottom of your pot some slices of ham, in which place your goose, with half a calf's foot, two wine-glasses of broth, as much white wine, carrots, onions, herbs, leaf of laurel, salt, pepper; cover well the pot, and let it cook over a very little fire for three or four hours. This done, dress the goose on the plate, and when it is nearly cold, skim the fat from the sauce, and pour it over the goose through a sieve. Serve cold, when the sauce has become a jelly

CANARD, à la Bourgeoise .

DUCK, CITIZEN FASHION.

Lard the duck, and cook it over a small fire with some slices of ham, a little broth, a glass of wine, a bunch of parsley, leeks, cloves, laurel, salt, pepper; skim the grease from the sauce, and strain it.

CANARD, aux Olives.

DUCK WITH OLIVES.

Cook in a stewpan as before. When it is half done, put in some olives, from which you have cut the stones; finish the cooking, and serve with the olives.

CANARD, aux Navets.

DUCK, WITH TURNIPS.

Begin by frying brown some small turnips in a frying-pan with some butter, and half a spoonful ol brown sugar. Then bake your duck in a bake-pan, with some butter, and when it has got a good color, add the turnips, moisten with broth and put in spices, and garnish with herbs; finish the cooking, and before

GIBIER — GAME.

Add a piece of butter mixed with flour. The ducks may also be served with green peas, ientiles, onions, etc., or with a ragout, or sauce relivé e.

ABATIS DE DINDON OU D'OIE, en Haricot .

STEWED GIBLETS OP TURKEY OR GOOSE.

Cut them in pieces, and put them in a kettle; moisten with broth, and add spices, herbs, and cook for an hour and a half; then put in your turnips or potatoes, which you have browned in a frying-pan, add some more broth, and seasoning if necessary; finish the cooking, and thicken with some flour and butter, worked together.

CAPITOLADE, de Volaille.

A FORTRESS OF POULTRY.

Dress in this way the remains of fowls, which you may have left. Make a white gravy, and mix with it mushrooms, parsley, shallots, hashed, moistened with white wine and broth; cook your pieces gently in this a half hour, free from the fat, and serve them surounded with fine pieces of bread.

LIÈVRE, à la Broche.

ROASTED HARE.

Having properly picked with fat pork or bacon, spit the hare whole. Then you must take of the blood, the liver, and the lights, which you work together in a sufficient quantity of vinegar, and some very finely chopped shallots, all well salted and peppered. This sauce must be cooked with hot coals, placed under the dripping-pan, over which the hare is roasting. Baste the roast with this sauce, and to finish the cooking, take the tongs and pinch a piece

of fat meat, done up in paper, which you set on fire and let the fat drop over the roast. The hare must not be too much done. If you do not wish to roast the whole, let it be the hind part, and save a portion of the blood, liver, lights, etc., for a stew, to be made from the fore quarters.

LIEVRE Marine.

PICKLED HARE.

Before picking, or stuffing with lard, remove from the shoulders and legs the skin, which would prevent the pickle from penetrating. This done, lard well your hare, and let it soak in a pickle, composed of vinegar, salt, pepper, a little water, onions, parsley, thyme, and laurel. It is necessary that the pickle should be lukewarm, and that the hare be left in it for six hours at least. Afterwards put it on the spit, and make it cook, as described in the preceding article; and in making the sauce, as above, add some of the pickle; pass the sauce through a sieve, and serve from a sauce-boat.

LIEVRE en Civet.

STEWED HARE.

Cut the fat of the breast into small pieces; make them stew in a stewpan, with a piece of butter, and a plenty of small onions. When these last have got a good color, take them up, and put in their place your hare, cut in pieces; stew these, and then make the grease which remains to a good gravy. Put in then half a bottle of wine, and as much broth as will make your meat swim; put in the meat, the onions, the fat; add sweet herbs, salt, pepper, laurel, and cloves. Let it cook an hour, or an hour and a quarter. When it is sufficiently tender, put in the blood, Stir the sauce over the fire, and let it reduce to a thick sauce.

LIÈVRE, au Chaudron.

POTTED HARE.

Cut your hare in small pieces, and put it in a kettle, with onions, thyme, laurel, cloves, salt, and pepper, and pour upon it a quart and a half of strong red wine. Make it boil over a clear fire, so that the wine will catch fire at the first boiling; then add half a pound of butter, worked with flour, and the blood, made thin with vinegar, and finish the cooking, which will take a half hour.

LAPIN, en Gibelotte.

RABBIT FRICASEE.

Roast some small onions, and the small pieces of fat from the breast, with a piece of butter. As soon as the onions have got a good color, remove them, and put in their place your rabbit, cut in pieces. Put it over the fire, and add next, herbs, salt, and spices. Moisten with three half pints of water, and one of white wine. Cook over a small fire. Your meat having nearly cooked, add some onions and mushrooms, if you have them, with a small piece of butter, worked with flour. Finish the cooking; and before serving, remove the herbs, skim the sauce, and serve very hot.

PERDRIX, aux Choux.

PARTRIDGE, WITH CABBAGE.

Truss two partridges, and make them brown beforehand in a stewpan, with some butter and a little flour; moisten with three glasses of broth; put in a bunch of sweet herbs, and a quarter of a pound of lard, or fat pork. Cook apart one or more beautiful cabbages, with one pound of salt pork; when your cabbages are nearly cooked, take them up, let them drain, and put them in the stewpan, to finish with the partridges.

ANGUILLE des Gourmands.

EEL FOR GOURMANDS.

Put in a stewpan the pieces of a beautiful eel, between slices of veal and ham, with a bunch of fine herbs, a husk of garlic, two cloves, a leaf of laurel, a little salt, coarse pepper, and some white wine; let it cook; take out the eel, when done, and put in the saucepan some spoonfuls of broth; boil down to a nice sauce; skim off the fat, and pass it through a sieve, and then put again the eel in the sauce; make it hot without boiling, and before serving, dash in a little vinegar.

ANGUILLES Grillées,

BROILED EELS.

You cut your eels in pieces, and pul them in a tureen, with salt and pepper, to remove their bad flavor, and let them remain one hour; then, after having well washed them in salt water, you bread them with crumbs of bread, and broil them on a gridiron. When well cooked, serve with a high sauce.

ANGUILLES, à la Tartare.

EELS, TARTAR FASHION.

Put in a stewpan a piece of butter, onions, parsley, thyme, laurel, salt, and pepper; moisten with white wine, and let it stew a half hour : put in this sauce your eel, skinned, and cut in pieces; make it cook; remove, cover with crumbs of bread well seasoned, and dip the pieces in yolks of eggs, beaten up; roll them again in the crumbs of bread, and broil them to a good color over a gentle fire, and serve under sauce à la Tartare, (see Sauces).

ANGUILLES Fricassèe.

FRICASEED EELS.

Cut your eels in round slices, and after leaving them an hour in an earthen dish, with salt and pepper, wash them well, wipe them dry, and let them fry in a frying-pan, half brown; and when they have become quite tender, put in salt, pepper, sHces of onions, cloves, wine, a little broth, and let it stew in a saucepan; when you are ready to serve, put in hah a cup of capers, and a binding of yolks of eggs.

LAMPROIE.

LAMPREY.

This fish is prepared like the eel, which it closely resembles. When large, it may be roasted, on the spit, enveloped in well-buttered paper, and served with a sauce blanche aux cápres (white sauce with capers).

BLEU OU COURT-BOUILLON, pour toutes sortes de Poissons.

A BOILING FOF ALL SORTS OF FISH.

Fill your kettle with boiling water, with wine, vinegar, onions, salt, pepper-corns, and leaves of laurel, and cook the fish in it over a good fire.

BROCKET, au Bleu.

BOILED PIKE (or PICKEREL).

Cook as above, and serve hot, with white sauce (sauce blanche), or cold, with oil and vinegar.

BARBOTS ET BARBILLONS.

ROACH AND BARBELS — SMALL FRESH WATER FISH.

These fishes are cooked in the style of "Carpe"

BROCHETS Frits.

FRIED PIKE.

Scale your pike or pickerel, and split them on the back, and in the place of the entrails put a bunch of parsley in each fish, and powder over them salt and pepper. When your frying-pan is quite hot, flour the fish and fry them; serve hot from the frying-pan. Small pike are generally fried; but the larger are better stewed (au court-bouillon). They may also be prepared in the two manners following, in which they are very delicate.

BROCHET AU PLAT, Mets délicieux.

PIKE ON A PLATE — A DELICIOUS DISH.

Clean and wash well a pike of the medium size; cut in convenient pieces, then place them on a pewter or silver plate, over a chafing dish, filled with burning charcoal. Put in two spoonfuls of good butter, some shallots, two or three anchovies, fine herbs, all hashed very fine, leaves of laurel, cloves, and pepper-corns. Arrange over these the pieces of pike, salt them, and let them cook in the plate, well covered, for a quarter of an hour; then turn over the pieces, put in some more butter, a glass of white wine, and some slices of lemon. Cover again the plate, and finish the cooking in a second quarter of an hour; then put in some spoonfuls of small capers, as much hot water, and a few raspings of bread; let it take now two boilings, and serve in the same plate.

BROCHET GOURMAND.

PIKE FOR A GOURMAND.

Put in a stewpan some parsley, some pepper-corns, as much cloves, some shallots, small onions, some leaves of laurel, and some salt; arrange your pieces of fish upon them, and pour over them as much boiling water as will just cover them; make them boil over a very quick fire, taking care to skim it well; after a quarter of an hour, put in some butter and some slices of citron; boil another quarter of an hour; then make a strengthening (une liaison) of yolks of eggs, flour, and a glass of white wine; mix with the sauce of the fish, and after some more boilings, serve.

ALOSE.

SHAD.

This fish can be cooked as a stew, (au court-boillon) or broiled on a gridiron, and served with oil and vinegar, or with any other sauce. [Shad, so plentiful in our rivers, are usually broiled or fried, and eaten with a plenty of butter. They are salted and smoked, hke mackerel and salmon, and cooked in the same manner.]

CARPE, au Vin.

CARP, WITH WINE.

After having scaled and cleaned, put in their in-sides a piece of butter, worked in with parsley, leeks, shallots, all hashed, salt and spice; fasten up your carp, and cook with a bottle of wine, as much broth, a piece of butter, onions, thyme, laurel, cloves, and some slices of lemon. Boil over a quick fire, and when the carp are well cooked, dress them on a plate, remove the fastenings, pass the sauce through a sieve, boil it down, and pour over the fish. [Other fish, of a similar character, may, of course, be cooked in the same styles, as are here described.]

CARPES Frites.

FRIED CARPS.

Scale your carp, split them in two parts, remove the smelt or spawn, flour them and put them in a hot frying-pan; when the fish is half done, flour the smelts or spawn, and put them in also, and serve, garnished with fine parsley.

Carp may also be broiled on a gridiron, and served with sauce blanche aux cápres, (see Sauces).

CARPE, à la Provençale.

CARP, PROVENCE FASHION.

Cut them in pieces, and cook them in a bottle of wine, with" oil, parsley, leeks, shallots, mushrooms, all chopped, salt, and spices. A moment before the cooking is done, put in a piece of garlic-butter (beurre d'ail) worked with flour, (see the article (Beurre de Provence), or, not having this, a husk of garlic pounded, and a pinch of flour: reduce to a thick sauce.

TANCHES, aux fine Herbes.

TENCH (A FRESH WATER FISH), WITH FINE HERBS.

Wash for several minutes your tench in boiling water, then scale them, without taking off the skin, and clean them. Let them soak for some hours in oil, seasoned with spices and fine herbs. Let them cook on a gridiron, in their pickle, the whole enveloped in paper. Dress them on a plate, remove the paper, and serve with any sauce you find convenient.

TANCHES Fricassée

FRICASEE OF TENCH.

Plunge your tench for several moments in boiling water; take them out, and scale and clean them well; wash them thoroughly in fresh water; having cleaned them well, cut them in round pieces, and fry them to a light brown; turn them, and afterwards put with them wine and water, some small onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, grains of pepper, cloves, and salt. Cook over a good fire. Dress your fish on a plate; remove the laurel and bunch of herbs; mix the sauce with yolks of eggs, and pour it over the fish.

SAUMON au Bleu.

BOILED SALMON.

Cook your salmon by boiling, as before directed in the article " Bleu ou Court-bouillon" and serve with oil and vinegar.

SAUMON Grillé.

BROILED SALMON.

Cook on a gridiron, entire, or cut in slices, with or without a pickle, and serve with such sauce as you find to your taste. The most usual are the white sauce with capers (sauce blanche aux cápres), and a sauce of oil, vinegar, and pepper, with or without fine herbs. You may, also, after the fish is cooked au bleu, serve with sauce à la mattre d'hotel, (see Sauces).

SAUMON, à la Broche.

ROASTED SALMON.

Cut the salmon in slices, either crosswise or lengthwise, and stick the back with nice fat pork or bacon. Let it pickle for six hours, in oil, well seasoned with spices and fine herbs. Attach to a wooden spit your slices of salmon, separated from each other by a slice of bread, as large as the salmon, and thick as your thumb. Fasten this wooden spit to your iron one, or otherwise arrange it, and cook before a gentle fire, basting with oil or butter, and serve with sauce remoulade, or sauce poivrade (see Sauces), or it is very good without sauce, with a little vinegar or lemon juice.

THON FRAIS.

FRESH TUNNY.

The most usual manner of preparing this fish is to cut it in slices, and cook it on a gridiron, and serve in oil and vinegar. If you carefully soak them in good oil, some hours before they are broiled, they will be all the more succulent.

THON FRAIS, en Caisses ou Papillotes.

FRESH TUNNY, IN CASES OR PAPERS.

Soak your slices in oil, cover them with crumbs of bread, mixed with fine herbs and shallots, hashed; put them, surrounded with their breading, in little cases of greased paper, and broil them on a gridiron over a gentle fire, so that the papers will not burn. Take care to turn them in their cases. Serve with hot or cold sauce.

THON, à la Daube.

TUNNY, IN JELLY.

Stuff your round pieces of tunny fish with large slices of fat pork and bacon, well spiced, and let it cook in a thick stew, exactly like boeuf à la mode, and with the same seasoning. It is a succulent and delicious dish.

TRUITE, à la Genevoise.

TROUT, GENEVA FASHION.

Cook your trout au bleu, ou court-bouillon, (see article tinder this head). Make, in a saucepan, a little light brown gravy, with some butter and a little flour. Pass your fish broth (court-bouillon) through a sieve, add mushrooms and parsley, chopped; and gently simmer down to a thick sauce. Arrange your fish on a plate, and pour this dressing over them.

You may also serve trout with un sauce blanche aux câpres, (see Sauces).

Some, also, like them with tomato sauce. In these two last cases, water is generally used in the court-bouillon, instead of wine.

You may also broil them on the gridiron, and serve with hot or cold sauce.

TURBOT.

TURBOT.

Boil as directed in the article " au bleu," etc., and serve with sauce blanche, or with oil and vinegar.

SOLES, LIMANDES, CARRELETTES, PLIES, ET LOTTES.

SOLES, FLAT-FISH, FLOUNDERS, PLAICE, AND POUTS.

All these fish are cooked in the same manner. After being well cleaned, and washed, they are to be floured, and put in a very hot frying-pan, over a clear quick fire.

MAQUEREAU, á la Maitre d'Hótel

MACKEREL, IN THE STYLE OF THE MASTER OF THE HOUSE (LITERALLY).

After having cleaned and washed your mackerel (of course, a fresh one), split it on the back, and let it soak for some hours in oil, peppered and salted; then broil it, basting with this pickle. Put in the bottom of the plate a piece of butter, worked with parsley, salt, and pepper; place your mackerel upon it and serve.

Some people also serve a broiled mackerel with oil and vinegar.

MAQUEREAU, au Beurre Noir,

MACKEREL, WITH BLACK BUTTER.

After having broiled the mackerel, split as before, or boiled it in salt water; heat very hot a piece of butter in a frying-pan; fry in it some parsley, and pour it over the mackerel; then rinse the frying-pan with half a wine-glass of vinegar, which you also turn over the plate, and serve immediately.

MERLANS Frits.

FRIED WHITINGS.

Whitings are generally cooked by broiling or fiy-ing in a frying-pan. Clean and scrape, and wipe with a napkin; leave in their livers; make five or six incisions on each side; flour, and make them fry over a quick fire, and serve with green parsley around them. [Our porgies and flat-fish are dressed in a similar manner.]

MERLANS Grillés.

BROILED WHITINGS.

Clean, wash, and make incisions as above directed. Let them soak in a pickle of oil, fine herbs and spices. Broil over a hot fire, and baste with the pickle; serve with sauce blanche aux cápres, (see Sauces).

MERLANS, Delicates.

DELICATE WHITINGS.

After you have scraped and cleansed them, cut them in pieces, which you place in a stewpan, with butter, slices of onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, pepper-corns, cloves and salt. Pour in water enough to make the fish swim; boil over a good fire for a half hour; taste your sauce, and when you find it of a good flavor, arrange the pieces of fish on a plate, and pour the sauce over them.

MERLANS, au Gratin.

BREADED WHITINGS.

Choose for this style of cooking, small whitings; clean, wash and wipe them. Put half the butter you design to use in cooking them, in a deep plate, with parsley, leeks, and mushrooms, chopped fine, some gratings of bread, salt and pepper; arrange your fish over them, with more of the same seasoning, and then put in the other moiety of butter; add half a glass of white wine, and a spoonful of gravy or broth; cover the plate well, and cook over a chafing dish for a half hour.

VIVE.

SEA DRAGON.

Clean, remove the horns, pickle in oil, salt and pepper, broil, and serve with sauce a la ravigotte, or any other, (see Sauces.)

RAIE, à la Sauce Blanche.

THORNBACK, OR SKATE WITH WHITE SAUCE.

Open and clean well, and cook in boiling water, with salt and vinegar. It takes but little cooking. Take it from the water, pick, and properly arrange it. Put it in the plate on w^hich you serve it, and pour over it some white sauce with capers, (sauce blanche aux càpres).

RAIE, au Beurre Noir.

SKATE, WITH BLACK BUTTER.

Cook as in the last, and at serving, pour over it the black butter, as described in "Maquereau au beurre noir."

RAIE, au Beurre Blanc.

SKATE, WITH WHITE BUTTER.

Put in the bottom of the plate on which you wish to serve your skate, some fresh butter, with salt, pepper, and a httle verjuice. Put over this your skate, cook as before, and serve hot.

ROUGETS.

ROACH.

Cook them au bleu (see article "au bleu," etc.), scale, without touching the head, and serve hot or cold. with oil and vinegar, or any other sauce.

ROUGETS, Grillés.

BROILED ROACH.

Put off the head, open and clean; put them in a sauce of butter, parsley, leeks and shallots, hashed, and salt and pepper. Cover them with crumbs of bread, and broil them. They are also cooked au gratin, or with sauce blanche; and are equally good en matelotte.

MORUE.

SALT CODFISH.

Soak in fresh water for twenty-four hours; then take off the scales, wash well, and put in a kettle filled with soft fresh water; skim off with care, and remove from the fire when it begins to boil. Cover the kettle, and after a quarter of an hour, take it out and let it drain. Pick over and remove the bones, fins, etc., when it will be fit to dress in any manner you desire.

To cook salt codfish in a fricasee, after preparing as above, you put in a saucepan a piece of butter, a little flour, a very little salt and some pepper. Moisten with a little water or milk, put in your picked codfish, let it boil up, and serve.

It may be served with sauce blanche (see Sauces), with some capers over it, and some chopped anchovies, if vou like.

With sauce àla maitre de hótel, it is equally good.

In some southern countries, after having boiled and picked the codfish, they fry it with oil, and serve with a little vinegar.

MORUE, grave; la Proven¸ale.

SALT CODFISH, IN PROVENCE FASHION.

After having soaked, cleaned, scalded, and picked your codfish, cut it in very fine pieces with forks; then put in a stewpan a glass of good oil, and when it bas become hot, but not boiling, put in your fish, stir it well, and keep it over gentle fire for one minute. Remove the stewpan, and put in another half glass of oil, shake the saucepan for two or three minutes, and put it again over the fire; put in more oil, and shake again; continue these operations alternately, until your codfish resembles a very thick porridge (très-épaisse purée). This operation requires from a good half hour to an entire hour, according to the bigness of the stewpan. Some people moisten alternately with cream and oil, but each time in a very small quantity. The purée thus made is very white and delicate. At the moment of serving, you put in a strengthening of yolks of eggs, mixed with half a glass of capers, shaking up to have them well mixed, and serve. If you have no capers, you can put in at the beginning some garlic, chopped very fine: serve hot.

MOULES.

MUSCLES.

Take care to have the muscles fresh, and free from crabs. Wash them well, let them drain, and put them without water in a stewpan, over a good fire, until they have sufficiently opened. Take them from the fire, and remove the shell from each. Put them then in another stewpan, with butter, herbs chopped fine, and spices. Scatter a little flour over them, moisten with water, and stir frequently, and if you wish, thicken the same with cream or yolks of eggs, at the moment of serving.

GRENOUILLES, Frites.

FRIED FROGS.

Only the hind quarters of frogs are cooked. Let them soak, while raw, for an hour in vinegar, with fine herbs, spices and salt; let them drain, flour them, and fry. Serve with fine parsley.

GRENOUILLES, en Fricassée de PouLets.

CHICKEN FRICASEE OF FROGS.

Put your frogs in a stewpan, with butter; shake them, sprinkle lightly with flour, moistened with equal parts of white wine and broth (bouillon); put in a liaison of yolks of eggs, with a little very finely chopped parsley.

ESCARGOTS.

SNAILS.

Put a good handful of ashes in a kettle of soft water; when it begins to boil, put in your snails; in about a quarter of an hour you can take them easily from their shells. Then wash them in several waters, put them in a new water, in which you let them boil a moment. Then drain them, put them in a stew-pan, with a piece of butter, and finish the same as with the grenouilles en fricassée de poulets.

ECREVISSES, HOMARDS, et CRABES, de Mer.

CRAWFISH, LOBSTERS, AND SEA-CRABS.

These are all prepared in the same fashion. Cook them for a half hour, more or less, in boiling water and vinegar, with plenty of salt; they must not be removed until they are quite red. Let them cool, and arrange in a plate, covered with sprigs of green parsley. Lobster is eaten with oil and vinegar.

MATELOTTE, à la Mariniere.

FISH STEW, OR HOTCH POTCH.

The fish which are preferred to compose a good matelotte are, the carp, the barbel, the tench, the eel-pout, and the eel. Scale, open, and clean them well, and cut them in pieces. Make in your stewpan a gravy, with butter, in which you have stewed some lat meat, cut in small slices; and when this is done brown, take it out, and in its place put some small onions and mushrooms, which you remove as soon as well browned. Then mix your gravy with flour, and pour in wine enough to cook the fish; add salt, pepper, cloves, a bunch of parsley, thyme, laurel, a husk of garlic; increase your fire, and when the wine boils, put in your fish, the largest and coarsest pieces below, and the smaller above, and cover the whole with thin pieces of fat meat, onions and mushrooms. Cook over a large fire about ten minutes; taste the sauce, to increase the seasoning, if it requires it. Finish the cooking by putting in a piece of butter, worked with flour, or some slices of toasted bread, and a small wine-glass of brandy. In arranging on the platter, put on the slices of bread first, the most beautiful pieces of fish on top, and ornament the whole with a dozen of crawfish, cooked in advance.

Some persons, at the moment when the wine be-f gins to boil with the fish, put fire in the stewpan,

BOUILLABAISE, à la Marseillaise.

MARSEILLES FISH-STEW.

These dishes are composed of whitings, roach, tench, pouts, eels, or any other fish you have. The seasoning is much varied, but it is a sort of pottage; very much esteemed in Provence, where it is made in this manner. Scale, clean and wash well your fish, and cut them in pieces. Put a large handful of slices of onions in a stewpan, with some oil; let them simmer, without becoming brown; then put in your fish, with a bunch of herbs, cloves, pepper-corns and salt, a husk of garlic, nearly, but not more, and several tomatoes cut in small pieces, which you scatter between the layers of fish. Moisten again with oil, and fill your stewpan with water. It is not necessary that the fish should swim, but that there should be enough liquid to form the stew. Cover the stewpan and make it boil one hour. Taste the broth, and season if necessary, and see if the fish is all tender alike. The cooking finished, garnish the bottom of the soup-dish with slices of bread; on these pour some broth, and arrange the fish above, put slices of bread over it, and over all pour the rest of the broth, and serve.

ARTICHAUTS.

ARTICHOKES.

Trim off the ends of the leaves with shears. Cook them in boiling water with salt, and when the leaves are easily detached, they are cooked enough. Take them out of the water, and cut off the choke. They are served very hot, and well dried, with a sauce blanche. They are eaten raw, or cooked with oil and vinegar.

ARTICHAUTS Frits.

FRIED ARTICHOKES.

Choose those which are small and tender. Cut them in quarters, and dip in pate a frire, (see the word). Fry in a frying-pan, until they are nicely browned, and serve with fine parsley.

ARTICHAUTS, à la Barigoule.

ARTICHOKES, BARIGOULE FASHION.

Take small and tender artichokes, and half cook them in boiling water; remove the choke, dry, put them in a very hot frying-pan, and brown them. Chop some suet fine, with mushrooms, parsley, shallots, salt and pepper, and a quarter of a pound of butter or oil; mix all these together, fill the artichokes with this stuffing, taking care to tie them, and put them on a basting dish, well buttered; moisten with a little broth and white wine; finish cooking, and serve with a sauce composed of the same ingredients with which you have stuffed your artichokes.

Another Style. — Cut them in quarters, and cook them in a stewpan, with a good piece of butter or oil; shake them well, and make them take a good color. Add then parsley, leeks and shallots, hashed; salt, pepper, a little gratings of bread, and moisten with a little broth. Finish cooking, stew down the sauce until it is quite thick, and put on the plate like a pyramid.

ARTICHAUTS, à la Proven¸ale.

ARTICHOKES, PROVENCE FASHION.

After having cleaned your artichokes, boil them half an hour in water; remove the choke, and put them in a stewpan, with oil, salt, pepper, and husks of garlic; cook over hot ashes, fire above and below. When they are done brown, remove the husks of garlic, and serve your artichokes, leaves downwards in the oil in which they were cooked; squeeze over them the juice of a lemon.

ASPERGES.

ASPARAGUS.

Scrape and wash your asparagus, and tie them in small bunches, and cook them in boiling water with salt. Take care that it is not boiled too much. It must also be a little crisp. It is generally eaten with a sauce blanche (see Sauces), or with oil and vinegar, served apart in a sauce-boat. It is also served with a sauce made of gravy broth, butter, salt, and pepper, mixed and poured over the asparagus. It is also dressed like green peas. For this, cut them in very small pieces; cook an instant in boiling water, drain them, and dress like green peas, (see petits pois).

AUBERGINES.

MAD-APPLE —A PLANT LIKE A CUCUMBER.

Cut your aubergines in half, lengthwise; remove the insides, but do not scrape them much, as there must be some pulp left; let them pickle in oil, with salt and pepper, and broil them, basting with their pickle.

AUBERGINES Farcis

STUFFED AUBERGINES.

Put in a stewpan a half pound of grated suet, three or four spoonfuls of oil or good butter, some shallots, parsley, and some mushrooms, if you have them, all hashed fine; add salt, pepper, and spices. Cook the whole a quarter of an hour, then let them cool; then mix a little chopped meat, some crumbs of bread, and a chopped anchovy. Mix the whole thoroughly together, and fill with this stuffing your halves of aubergines; sprinkle a thick coating of crumbs of bread, place them on a plate, moisten each aubergine with a spoonful of oil or melted butter, and cook them, in an oven or bakepan, between two fires, and serve very hot.

POMMES D'AMOUR, OU TOMATES, Farcis.

LOVE APPLES, OR TOMATOES, STUFFED.

Choose tomatoes which are sound and quite ripe; cut them in two, scoop out the seeds with a small spoon, and squeeze them a little to express some of the juice; place the upper sides upon a metal plate, with the other parts, when you have in the same manner removed their seeds, and cut off their stems.

Now put the seeds and the expressed juice in a saucepan, with a little wine, a piece of butter, or some spoonfuls of oil, and a little ham or suet, chopped fine, some salt, pepper, parsley, shallots, and garlic; place your stewpan over a gentle fire, and cook until it is of the consistence of thick broth. Then add a little grated bread, and see if it is well seasoned. Fill the halves of tomatoes with this purée, put some crumbs of bread over them, moisten them with some good olive oil; bake them in a hot oven, and serve.

BETTERAVES, en Epinards.

BEETS, SERVED AS SPINNAGE.

Spinnage becomes acrid in summer, when it can be replaced with young beet leaves, which you must free from their stems and dead parts. Cook them in boiling water; remove them, and wash in fresh water, and express this; chop them up, and put them in a stewpan, with butter, salt, sugar, and a little flour. Let them boil gently during a half hour, after having moistened them with milk or cream, if you would have it not very rich (en maigre), or with good meat broth, if you would have it rich (au gras).

CARROTTES, à la Maítre d'Hótel

CARROTS, IN THE STYLE OF THE MASTER OF THE HOUSE.

Scrape them; cut them, either in long slices or round pieces; put them in a stewpan, with butter or lard, chopped parsley and leeks, salt, and spices; moisten with water or broth. Finish the cooking, and simmer down the sauce.

CHOUX, à l'Allemande.

CABBAGES, GERMAN FASHION.

Cook them with a little lard or small piece ot salt pork. They are generally served with sausages.

CHOUX, à la Créme.

CABBAGES, WITH CREAM.

Boil them with water well salted; take them out, press them, cut them coarsely, and put them in a stewpan, with butter, spices, and a spoonful of flour. Moisten with cream, and serve, surrounded with sausages, if you please.

CHOUX Farcis.

STUFFED CABBAGES.

Choose the largest and best headed cabbages; cut out the heart, and replace it with a stuffing, composed of the white meat of fowls, or veal with lard, and sausage meat, chopped very fine, and highly seasoned; mix this hash with some yolks of eggs, tie up your cabbage, and cook it in a covered kettle, with meat broth.

CONCOMBRES.

CUCUMBERS.

Peel them, split them through the middle, cut in convenient slices, and boil them in salted water; then let them drain, and prepare them in the following styles.

CONCOMBRES, à la Maítre d'Hótel.

CUCUMBERS, ETC.

Shake them up in a saucepan with butter, parsley, and leeks, chopped fine, and well seasoned.

CONCOMBRES, à la Poulette.

CUCUMBERS, LIKE CHICKEN.

Shake them in a stewpan, with butter, a pinch of flour; moisten with broth and cream, and mix the sauce with yolks of eggs, and a little vinegar.

They are also eaten raw, as a salad, cut in very thin slices, and soaked in vinegar, salt and pepper.

CONCOMBRES Farcis.

STUFFED CUCUMBERS.

Peel them, cut a small piece from the top, and dig out the middle with a small teaspoon. Fill them with a stuffing of meat or fish; stop the end with a piece of carrot cut like a stopple; and cook it in a stew-pan, with good broth, well spiced and seasoned. Serve on tomato sauce, or any other sauce you like.

They may also be served, stuffed or not, with a sauce à la créme, or aux béchamel maigre.

CROQUETTES DE POMMES DE TERRE.

spice cakes, of potatoes.

Your potatoes having been boiled and peeled, you mash them in a morter, then mix with them an equal quantity of hashed meat; add some butter or lard, salt, pepper, parsley and shallots chopped, one or two eggs; work the whole well together, and make it into balls; moisten them with whites of eggs, and after being thinly coated with flour, fry them in a hot frying-pan. Serve them garnished with fine parsley, or with a high-seasoned sauce, (une sauce relivée.)

HARICOTS VERTS, à la Maître d'Hôtel.

green beans, etc.

Have the beans small and tender; pick them, wash them, make them cook in boiling water, with some salt, and drain them. Put in a stewpan some fresh butter; add some parsley chopped very fine, salt, pepper; put in your beans, shake them, and serve with a sprinkle of verjuice or vinegar.

HARICOTS VERTS, au Gras.

rich green beans.

Cook and drain, as before. Put in a stewpan some parsley and an onion cut thin, with some good grease; put in your beans, let them stew for ten minutes; moisten with gravy and broth, and leave to cook a quarter of an hour over a slow fire; stew down the sauce, with a thickening of yolks of eggs.

HARICOTS VERTS, au Maigre.

green beans, meager.

Cook as before, and put them in a stewpan, with fresh butter, a pinch of flour, parsley and leeks chopped very fine, salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and a glass of milk, or, if you have not milk, of water; boil a short quarter of an hour, and serve with a strengthening of yolks of eggs. If you have not used milk, you can add a little vinegar.

HARICOTS VERTS, au Beurre Nair.

green beans, with black butter.

When cooked as before, season with salt and pepper, and dress upon the plate. Then make some brown grave of butter, in a frying-pan, and pour over the beans; heat also in the same frying-pan a spoonful of vinegar, stirring it about, and pour this also over the beans, and serve very hot.

PETITS POIS, à la Francaise.

green peas, french style.

For each quart of green peas, it takes two ounces of very fresh butter; put them together in a stewpan, with a bunch of parsley, some small onions and a heart of lettuce, and a little salt and sugar. Shake them, make them boil over a small fire a half hour; take out the bunch of parsley, and serve.

PETITS POIS, à l'Anglaise.

green peas, english style.

Half an hour before serving, boil water in a saucepan; add some salt, and put in your peas. Let them boil until the moment they are to be served; then drain them in a cullender, and serve on a plate, on good fresh butter, which has been melted in its bottom, like à la maître d'hôtel.

SALSIFIS, ou Scorsonnères.

goat's beard, or snake-weed.

These roots are generally eaten either with sauce blanche, or fried. Scrape them, remove all the black spots, and put them, as fast as you prepare them, in a vessel in which you have mixed some water and vinegar. Take them out, and put them in boiling water; add a glass of vinegar, and cook until they are sufficiently tender, but not too much. After this, drain them, and a moment before serving, roll them in a frying-paste (pâte à frire); fry them to a good color, and serve.

Or you may, after they have been cooked and drained, serve them with sauce blanche. These roots are also good with roasted duck.

ŒUFS, à la Tripe.

eggs, prepared like tripe.

Cut in slices a handful of onions, and put them with some butter and a spoonful of flour, to stew. Moisten, with broth, or milk, or water; make a thick sauce, and well seasoned; put in your hard-boiled eggs, cut in slices; shake them together, make them boil up; put in a little vinegar, and serve with a thick sauce, and very hot.

ŒUFS, à la Crême.

eggs, with cream.

Make a sauce à la crême (see Sauces), and at the moment of serving, put in your hard-boiled eggs, cut in round slices.

ŒUFS, au Lait.

eggs, with milk.

Boil a pint of milk with some sugar, a little pinch of salt, some lemon-peel, or vanilla, or orange flower, or milk of laurel, according to which of these aromatics you prefer. When the milk boils, you turn up into a dish, where you have well beaten six eggs; stir quick, and mix all together. Cook by putting this plate in a vessel of boiling water (bain-marie) with a cover, with fire upon it. When done, remove, let it cool, powder with sugar, and pass a red hot shovel over it.

ŒUFS AU PAIN, à la Romaine.

eggs with bread, roman style.

Soak crumbs of white bread in milk for two or three hours, and press the whole afterwards through a fine cullender; add sugar and flower of orange-water; break the yolks of eight or ten eggs; the whole having been well mixed with crumbs of bread, beat up the whites very white; after having mixed the whole together, put this paste in a saucepan well greased, and cook it with fire above and below. When cooked, reverse the same pan over a plate, and serve. You may also put grated cheese in this paste, before it is cooked.

ŒUFS MOLLETS, en Sauce.

soft-boiled eggs, with sauce.

Let your water boil, put in the number of eggs that you would serve, and let them remain five minutes; take them out quickly, and plunge them in cold water; remove carefully the skins, so as not to break the whites; by this means you have the eggs soft and flexible to the finger. You serve them whole, with sauce blanche, sauce verte, sauce Robert, sauce piquante, or any other sauce (see Sauces), ragout, or gravy, which you judge to be proper.

ŒUFS, au Miroir.

eggs, in mirror style.

Spread butter over a plate warmed by the fire, break your eggs into it, without breaking the yolks; sprinkle them with salt and pepper, and put over, from place to place, small pieces of butter, with a spoonful of cream, and grated nutmeg. Cook over a small fire, pass a red hot shovel over the eggs, and serve.

ŒUFS BROUILLES, au Naturel.

eggs jumbled, or poached.

Melt a piece of butter in a stewpan; break in as many eggs as you wish to serve, season them, and let them cook over a furnace, or coal fire, stirring constantly. They are soon cooked, and must be served immediately.

CEUFS BROUILLÉS, aux Truffes, aux Champignons, aux Points d'Asperges, aux Petits Pois, etc.

jumbled eggs, with truffles, mushrooms, tops op asparagus, green peas, etc.

Whichever of these you may choose, must be prepared just as if to serve in any other manner; a small quantity, one or two large soup-spoonfuls. Hash fine such as require it, and put them in the eggs, and cook the same as above directed.

ŒUFS, au Beurre Noir.

eggs, with black butter.

Melt a piece of butter in a frying-pan; when it is done sputtering, put in your eggs, which have been opened in advance in a plate, without breaking, and season with salt and pepper. Do not let the yolks harden, but pass the hot fire-shovel over them, to make them crust a little, and serve with a little vinegar.

ŒUFS, à la Neige.

eggs, like snow.

Boil in a saucepan a pint of milk, two spoonfuls of flower of orange-water, and two ounces of powdered white sugar; at the moment the milk boils hardest, put in with a spoon six whites of eggs, beaten with powdered sugar as white as snow, and turn them over with a skimmer, so that it may cook on both sides. Arrange them upon the plate, away from the fire; afterwards mix the milk, over the fire, with the yolks of the eggs, stirred together, and turn them over the plate; serve cold.

OMELETTES, de différentes Façons.

omelets, of different fashions.

All the world knows how to make omelettes au naturel; I shall not speak but of some of the most distinguished kind.

[For fear that there may be those who do not even know how to make a plain omelet, the translator gives the following method:]

Take six eggs, leaving out the whites of two; beat very light, and strain through a sieve; add pepper and salt to your taste. Divide two ounces of fresh butter into small pieces, and put into the egg. Have a quarter of a pound of butter in a frying-pan, or flat stewpan; put it over a clear fire, and when the butter boils, put in the eggs. Fry gently, till of a light brown on the under side, and when done take it on a dish, and double it over, like a "turnover." It is usually served with parsley.

ŒUFS D'ANGERS, OU OMELETTES au Fromage.

cheese omelets.

Grate some Gruyère cheese, or any other, the strong and dry kinds are best; beat it up with the eggs in an earthen dish. Season with salt and pepper, in proportion as the cheese you use is more or less salt; pour the whole in a frying-pan, and finish the omelet in the accustomed manner. It must be served all smoking hot.

You may also make it m the following manner: Make first a plain omelet, and when it is cooked, powder the grated cheese, glaze it, by passing over it a hot shovel, and serve immediately.

OMELETTE, au Rognon.

kidney omelet.

Prepare the same as for a plain omelet. At the moment of serving, spread over it a hash of veal kidneys, seasoned with its grease, and fine herbs, and turn the omelet.

For Truffle Omelets (Omelettes aux Truffes) Suet Omelets (au Lard), Mushroom Omelets (au Champignon), Oyster Omelets (aux Haîtres), Herring Omelets (aux Harengs), Ham Omelet (au Jambon), etc., employ the same proceedings, having care to cook beforehand whatever you would put in your omelet. Some persons in making these, beat up the kidneys, etc., with the eggs, instead of spreading them over.

OMELETTE Sucrée.

sugar omelet.

This is a plain omelet, on which you powder sugar, inside, before it is turned, and over it afterwards.

OMELETTES, aux Confitures.

sweetmeat omelets.

Make first a plain omelet, but with very little salt, and spread upon its inner surface a layer of sweetmeats, and also spread them over the omelet when it has been turned.

You may make this kind of omelet with all sorts of sweetmeats (confitures), marmelades, and stewed fruits (compotes).

OMELETTE Soufflée.

smothered omelet.

Break open six eggs; put the whites apart; add to your yolks a good spoonful of white powdered sugar, and a little flower of orange water; stir well with a wooden spoon; then whip very fast the six whites of the eggs, as white as snow, and mix them gently, but exactly, with the yolks. Put in the frying-pan a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, and when it is very hot, but not burning, pour your paste into the frying-pan, and cook your omelet over a very hot fire. It being cooked, you turn it out, bottom up (en chausson), upon a plate. Put this plate over hot ashes, and over it the cover of a bake-kettle (four de campaigne), with fire upon it. Leave your omelet there for four or five minutes, time enough for the omelet to rise; powder with sugar, glaze with a red hot fire-shovel, and serve immediately.

OMELETTE Rouge.

red omelet.

Put in an earthen dish a glass of the blood of poultry; of a chicken, hen, or a lamb, with eight or ten eggs, a half-glass of cream, some sweet herbs, hashed very fine, and a pinch of salt and pepper; add some spoonfuls of melted butter, and beat the whole together. Finish the omelet in the ordinary way, and serve very hot. Some persons put in some ham cut in very small pieces, which renders it more succulent.

MACARONI, à la Gobert.

macaroni, style of gobert.

Take half a pound of macaroni, put it in a sauce-pan, with so much water that it will swim inside; boil until the water disappears, then grate a half pound of Gruyère, or Parmesan cheese, or any other; and put it in the macaroni, with two ounces of fresh butter; shake them all together over the fire, until the cheese is well melted. Have now another stewpan; grease well the sides and bottom, and cover them with a coat two lines, or one-sixth of an inch thick, with pâte à foncer, (see Pátes). Put inside your macaroni, and cover with a plate of the paste, of the same thickness; cook over a very gentle fire, cover the stewpan, and put fire over it. Let it cook for three quarters of an hour. When the cooking is finished, reverse upon the plate on which you intend to serve, and you will find it to have the shape of a kettle drum, and an exquisite flavor, (goût exquis).

GATEAU AU RIZ Chaud.

hot rice cake.

Make a good and very thick rice broth, by boiling together half a pound of rice and a quart of good milk. Let it cool; then put in a dish a half pound of good fresh butter, which you have washed well with a wooden spoon, until it is reduced to a cream; to this add then seven yolks of eggs, the boiled rice, a little flower of orange-water, a quarter of a pound of powdered sugar, a half ounce of bitter almonds, shelled and powdered, and a pinch of salt; mix the whole well together, and add afterwards the seven whites of eggs, whipped to snow. The composition thus finished, pour it in a deep stewpan, well buttered, and covered over its whole inside with grated bread; cook this preparation in a baking-pan, fire above and below, or in an oven. When it has acquired a fine browm color, turn the saucepan over a plate, and serve hot. It is customary to powder this dish before-hand, with sugar and cinnamon, or to accompany it with a good sauce of the cream of almonds (see "Sauce à la Créme Amandée").

CHARLOTTE de Pommes.

apple charlotte.

This may be made in two manners. Peel your apples; the finer they are the better; remove their cores, and cut them in pieces. Stew them in a sauce-pan, with a glass of wine, some lemon-peel, and sugar. Stir them often, to prevent their burning. Then make a páte à foncer (see Pátes). Spread it of the thickness of your little finger, over the bottom and sides of a stewpan that has previously been well buttered or oiled. Place your apple marmelade on this paste in beds, and put alternately between each layer of apples, one of marmelade of apricots, if you have them; cover the whole with a layer of the paste, and cook in an oven, or bake-pan.

The second plan consists in having some slices of soft bread, cut very thin, which you dip in warm butter or good oil, and with which you symmetrically line the bottom and sides of your dish; put your marmelade of apples within them, and alternately, as before, a layer of apricots, if you have them; cover with slices of bread, prepared as before, and bake in the same manner.

Some persons, in place of reducing the apples to a marmelade, cut them in thin round slices, and steam them in a stewpan, with sugar and cinnamon, and let them cool; then prepare and cook as before.

CRÊME, à la Fleur d'Orange.

cream, flavored with orange-flowers.

Boil a quart of good milk, with four or five ounces of sugar, and three spoonfuls of flower of orange water; after boiling a quarter of an hour, remove the milk from the fire, and let it cool. Beat well together eight yolks of eggs, and three whites; put them little by little in the milk, mix well together, pass this composition through a strainer, and pour it on a plate, or in little pots, like custard cups. Put the cups in a large saucepan, in which you pour just as much boiling water as will three-quarters cover them; cover over the saucepan, and put the fire under, so as to cook them gently in this water bath. In about a quarter of an hour, your creams will be done; when take out your pots, and serve cold.

If you prefer to serve your cream on a plate, you may put your plate in the boiling water, in the same manner. When the cream is done, remove and let it cool. A moment before serving, powder it with sugar, and pass a hot shovel over to glaze it.

CRÊME, à la Vanille.

vanilla cream.

This is made like the preceding, with one quart of milk, six ounces of sugar, one large vanilla bean grated, eight yolks, and three whites of eggs.

In place of vanilla, or flower of orange, you may make a cream of the flavor of almond cakes, by boiling in the milk one or two leaves of the almond laurel. In other respects it is prepared like the preceding.

CRÊME, aux Pistaches, ou Créme Verte.

pistachoe cream, or green cream.

Pick and pound very fine four ounces of pistachoe nuts; boil a quart of milk, with six ounces of sugar; when the milk boils, add the pistachoe nuts; let it take one or two boilings, and then cool the milk; mix with it eight yolks of eggs, and two whites; add also one spoonful of the juice of spinnage, to give a beautiful green color to the cream; mix well this preparation, pass it several times through a strainer, pour it in little plates or pots, and cook in hot water, as before.

ANOTHER MANNER OF MAKING CREAMS, WITHOUT THE HOT-WATER PROCESS.

Take a quart of milk, six ounces of sugar; add any ingredients or aromatics you prefer, either orange-flower, vanilla, almond, pistachoe, chocolate, etc.; mix up six yolks of eggs; put your saucepan over a gentle fire, and boil the whole, stirring with a wooden spoon, without cessation. As soon as the moisture adheres to the spoon, it is done. Pass it now through a sieve, pour in a plate or in little pots, let it cool, powder with sugar, pass over it the red hot shovel, and serve.

Note. — It is to be observed that Ice Creams, of all descrip-tions, are made in the same manner, except that they are frozen, in forms or otherwise, by being surrounded with pounded ice and a little salt, instead of being cooked by heat.

CRÊME FOUETTÉE, et Fromage en Neige.

whipped cream, and cheese like snow.

These two side-dishes are made in the same manner. Put in an earthen dish a quart of good cream, with a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar in powder, a pinch of gum tragacanth in powder, and a little flower of orange water; whip well your cream with a willow-rod, and as fast as the froth is formed, remove it with a skimmer, and arrange it in the shape of a pyramid, on a plate; garnish this pyramid with little pieces of preserved lemons, and serve.

If it is the Cheese Snow (Fromage en Neige), that you would serve, you put the froth, or snow, as fast as it is formed, in a cheese-basket, in which is spread a clean towel. Let it drain some instants; turn it into a sweetmeat dish, sprinkle with sugar, and serve.

FROMAGE, à la Crême.

cheese cream.

Warm over the fire a quart of good milk; add a piece of cheese, as large as a hazel-nut, mashed fine, in the milk; stir it well; cover your saucepan, and make it curdle over a little hot ashes. When it is fixed, put your curd in a small willow basket, or one of rushes, covered with fine linen. When it is well drained, put it in a sweetmeat dish, and serve with good cream and powdered sugar.

BEIGNETS de Pommes.

apple fritters.

Peel your apples, and cut them in slices, removing the cores, and dip them in a frying paste, (see Pâte à Frire). Put your apples, well covered with this paste, in a hot frying-pan, and take them out when fried of a light brown. Let them drain a moment in a cullender, powder with sugar, and serve very hot. The fritters of apricots, of peaches, and oranges, are made in the same manner, but cut in quarters, and freed from their stones and seeds.

PÂTE Á FRIRE, pour Beignets, Artichauts, Salsifis, et autres Fritures.

FRYING PASTE, FOR FRITTERS, ARTICHOKES, SALSIFIS, ETC.

Take a half pound of flour, two spoonfuls of olive oil (or butter will answer), a little salt, four yolks of eggs, a spoonful of flower of orange water, a half-glass of water and milk; stir and mix well together; then whip the whites of two eggs, which you incorporate with your paste, by stirring it in lightly. This paste is made in a moment, but it will not keep for any time.

STOPPED HERE

CRÊPES.

PANCAKES.

Take a quart of flour, mix it with six eggs, a spoonful of brandy, a good pinch of salt, a glass of milk, and some water, if you find it necessary to make it of the proper consistence, that of paste. Light a fire, clear and hot, of fine wood; grease the bottom of a frying-pan with a lump of butter, or of hogs' lard, or sweet oil. Dip a spoon in fat, and put it in the frying-pan, and spread it very thin over the bottom. Let it fry on one side, and then turn it neatly, so that it may take a good color on both, and eat them hot.

PETS DE NONNE.

NUNS' CAKES.

Put in a saucepan a pint of water, or if you would have them more delicate, a pint of cream or milk, a piece of butter, as large as an egg, a little flower of orange water, if you prefer it, some grated lemon-peel, a little sugar, and a pinch of salt; at this moment put in handful by handful, as much nice wheat flour as will absorb the water or milk, having care to stir continually with a wooden spoon, to prevent its forming lumps, or burning on the bottom. When the paste is so thick as to be detached from the bottom of the saucepan, remove it from the fire, and break in an egg, which you mix well with the paste before you put in a second, and so on until the paste shall be neither too stiflf, nor too thin, and stir constantly.

When the paste will retain its shape in a spoon, it is sufficiently thick. This paste made, have it near you, and drop it in little balls, as large as a nut, in a frying-pan, with lard or oil, a very little warm — they will swell very much; finish frying them to a good color, by putting your frying-pan over a hot fire; take them out with a skimmer, and after they have drained in a cullender, place them on a plate, and serve with powdered sugar.

PETITS CHOUX, au Gáteaux à la Duchesse.

LITTLE PUFF PASTES, OR DUCHESS CAKES.

Make a paste the same as for the Nuns' Cakes (Pets de Nonne); but in place of putting them in a fry, arrange your balls a little separated from each other, on thin iron plates (or tins), which you have carefully greased. Wash over your puffs with yolks of eggs, and cook them in a moderately hot oven. A moment before they are perfectly cooked, take them out, and sprinkle them with powdered sugar, then put them back, and they will be beautifully glazed. Some put over them some powdered pistachoe nuts, or crisp orange flowers; but this depends upon your taste, and what you may have handy.

GATEAUX, à la Magdelaine.

MAGDELEN CAKES.

Take half a pound of butter, and let it soften in steam; stir it with a wooden spoon, for a good quarter of an hour, until it is reduced to the consistence of cream; incorporate with it, then, one by one, six eggs, add a half pound of grated sugar, a little orange flower, or grated lemon-peel, and after all, mix with it a pound of flour. Work well your paste, so that you can roll it out with a rolling-pin. Make your cakes of any convenient size, and arrange them upon iron (or tin) plates, about half the thickness of your thumb; wash them with yolks of eggs, and bake them in a very moderate heat, so that they may remain in the oven half an hour.

SAUCE BLANCHE.

WHITE SAUCE.

Put in a saucepan a quarter of a pound of butter, a spoonful of flour, a glass of water, salt, and pepper; stir until it has become well mixed and is ready to boil; then take it from the fire, and add some drops of verjuice or a little vinegar.

SAUCE AUX CAPRESL

CAPER SAUCE.

In the white sauce {sauce blanche), instead of verjuice or vinegar, put in half a glass of capers.

SAUCE AUX ANCHOIX.

ANCHOVY SAUCE.

Make a gravy with a quarter of a pound of butter, and a spoonful of flour; moisten with good broth or with water; add a handful of parsley and of shallots, hashed very fine, and five or six anchovies, which you have previously washed, freed from the bones, and chopped fine. Stir well over the fire, add as much broth or water as is necessary to make it sufficiently thin, and make it take five or six boilings; put in a pinch of pepper, no salt, and serve in a sauce-boat.

SAUCE, à la Creme Amandee.

CREAM OF ALMOND SAUCE.

Boil with a pint of cream, one ounce of sugar, and one ounce of bitter almond cakes in powder. After some boiling, thicken with the yolks of eggs, and serve in a sauce-boat.

[This is the sauce to accompany la Gateau au Riz, already described.]

SAUCE, à Pauvre Homme.

POOR man's sauce.

Put in a saucepan .chopped parsley and shallots, with broth, salt, pepper, and a little vinegar; boil until the shallots are cooked. Thicken, if you have it, with some grated bread. This sauce is generally served with the remains of roast meats, warmed over.

SAUCE, à l'Huile et au Vinaigre, convenable pour les Arti-chauts crus et cuits, les Asperges, les Sardines Grillees, etc.

CONVENIENT SAUCE OF OIL AND VINEGAR, FOR RAW OR COOKED ARTICHOKES, ASPARAGUS, BROILED SARDINES, ETC.

' Take two hard-boiled yolks of eggs, and mix them with two spoonfuls of vinegar, salt, pepper, the articles for a sallad, chopped very fine, or a shallot, also chopped fine; add four or five spoonfuls of oil, and serve.

SAUCE à Piquante.

SHARP OR PIQUANT SAUCE.

Put some finely chopped shallots in a brown gravy, made of butter and flour; moisten with broth, add a half glass of vinegar, allspice, thyme, laurel, a little bread raspings, seasoned with salt and pepper; let it simmer down a little, and at the moment of serving your sauce, add some small cucumbers, cut in small pieces.

SAUCE Poivrade.

PEPPER SAUCE.

Put in a saucepan a quarter of a pound of butter, five small onions, chopped up, six shallots, a husk of garlic, thyme, sweet basil, all chopped fine, a leaf of laurel, four or five cloves, carrots in slices; put the whole over the fire until they are of a good color; then put in a pinch of flour, moisten with wine and water, a glass of each, and a spoonful of vinegar; make it boil a half hour, strain, and add salt and pepper. This sauce may be used whenever a high seasoned one is required.

SAUCE Ravigotte.

CHIVES SAUCE.

Put in a saucepan a handful of water-cresses, chervil, chives, and tarragon, all chopped fine; add a full ladle of broth, a half glass of vinegar, salt, and pepper; boil a quarter of an hour; remove from the fire, melt in your sauce a piece of butter, worked with flour, and stir till they are mixed.

SAUCE, à la Remoulade.

SAUCE PIQUANT, OF MUSTARD.

Put in a porringer some shallots, parsley, leeks, a garlic, capers, and anchovies, the whole chopped fine, a spoonful of mustard, salt, a little pepper,; thin with a half glass of vinegar, and three glasses of oil; mix well, and serve in a sauce-boat.

SAUCE Robert.

ROBERT'S SAUCE.

Make a gravy of a fine color, with butter and flour; put in a handful of onions, chopped very fine; add another piece of butter, salt, and pepper; when your onions have become cooked, moisten with a little broth, and boil a quarter of an hour; add a spoonful of vinegar, and as much mustard; mix the whole over the fire. This sauce is usually served with broiled sardines or herrings; also for fresh pork, and cold roast turkey.

SAUCE à la Tartare.

TARTAR SAUCE.

Put in a porringer of crockery a half dozen shallots, chervil, and tarragon, all chopped very fine; add mustard, salt, and pepper; thin it, little by little, with a half glass of vinegar, and two or three glasses of oil, stirring all the while, to mix the sauce perfectly. Taste it, as it must not be either too salt or too sour. This sauce is particularly intended for roasted eels.

SAUCE Tomate.

TOMATO SAUCE.

Cook six or eight tomatoes, with a glass of water, some pepper and salt. When they are done to a jelly (en purée), pass them through a cullender, and put them back in the saucepan, and add to them some broth, or tomato juice, or water, as much as is necessary to make the sauce sufficiently thin; let it boil a moment, and when ready to serve, put in a piece of butter or a glass of oil, which will not mix with the sauce.

SAUCE Béchamal au Gras.

RICH BECHAMAL SAUCE.

Put in a saucepan a piece of butter and two spoonfuls of flour; stir quickly, so that this gravy may thicken without becoming brown; moisten with gra broth, and boil down over a hot fire. Aa soon as your sauce commences to get thick, add to it some boiling cream, turned in little by little, stirring continually. Put in salt, and spices, and add or not, such accessories as mushrooms, etc. This sauce is served particularly for les vols-au-vent.

BÉCHAMAL Maigre.

THIN BECHAMAL.

Make a white gravy, with a piece of butter and two spoonfuls of flour, and moisten, little by little, with a pint of cream; boil down, and stir constantly, and when it begins to thicken, add another pint of boiling cream, but little by little, stirring without cessation; add salt and spices to your taste. This sauce is excellent for turbots, whitings, and many other fishes; also for asparagus, cauliflower, and divers other vegetables.

AYOLI, ou Beurre de Provence.

PROVENCE BUTTER.

The inhabitants of Provence, and people who love the taste of garhc, make great account of this preparation. They serve it especially with many kinds of white fish, and it is prepared in the following manner. Take, according as you wish, six to twelve husks of garlic, more or less, pick them well and put them in a stone or iron mortar, moisten them with a little olive oil, and crush them with a wooden pestle. When the garlics are well crushed, stir them with the pestle, always on the same side, and add, from time to time, some oil, and some drops of lemon juice, but always a little at a time, and stir without ceasing. When this preparation has in this way become of the thickness of a very thick broth, and of a beautiful whiteness, your Provence butter is made. Put it in a preserve-jar, and keep it in a cool place until it is served.

BEURRE DE MONTPELIER.

MONTPELIER BUTTER.

Put in a stone mortar a husk of garHc, well picked, four heaping spoonfuls of fine capers, five or six anchovies, washed and picked, the yolks of eight eggs, a spoonful of chopped spinnage, two pinches of salt, and one of pepper. Mash and bruise all these together, and add, little by little, a pound and a half to two pounds of olive oil; continue grinding, always the same side, until the whole is formed into a paste of the consistence of fresh butter; squeeze from time to time the juice of a lemon, or a little white vinegar. Having it placed conveniently, put it through a strainer of silk or bombazine, with a wooden spoon. This sauce is usually served with lobsters or the largest shell-fish, and also with boiled fish of various kinds.

BEURRE D'ANCHOIS.

ANCHOVY BUTTER.

Pick and wash well your anchovies, and pound their meat in a stone mortar, and mix them with double their quantity of fresh butter.

BEURRE DE NOISETTE.

HAZELNUT BUTTER.

This is made like the garlic butter, except that the hazelnuts, well picked, are in place of the garlic, to which you add parsley, terragon, and leeks, chopped fine. It is served, as well as the anchovy butter, for hors d'oeuvres (by-dishes), aux déjeûnes à la four-chette (meat breakfasts.)

PATE À DRESSER.

STIFF PASTE.

Put upon a table a quantity of fine flour, more or less, according to the quantity you wish to make. Make a hole in the middle, and for each pound of flour, add a half ounce of fine salt, a half pound of butter, three eggs, and a glass of water. Knead all this together with the flour, little by little, and moisten again with water, if necessary, but not much, for it is necessary that your paste should have a firm consistence. Knead and work with the fists, as quickly as possible, especially in summer; cover it with a napkin, and let it be for two hours before it is used.

This paste serves for the thick bottoms of pies, cold and hot; also to form figures and ornaments, which are placed on the upper crusts of meat pies.

To form these upper crusts, you must make a Páte Brisée, or paste in layers. To make this, at the moment of making the pie, you take a part of your paste, which you work over, and roll it out with-a roller, of half the thickness of your finger; on this place at short distances small pieces of butter, then fold up the paste like a towel, roll out as before, and repeat the operation three times. Take care to flour the table and the rolling-pin, so that the paste may not adhere to them.

PATÉ FROID; Manière de le dresser.

COLD PIE, HOW PREPARED.

You must have prepared in advance, that is to say, you must stew beforehand, the pieces of meat, fowl, game, etc., of which you intend to make your pie. Leave them to cool in their seasoning, and then let them drain. Observe that your meat must be freed from all bones, picked in with fat meat, and well seasoned. Afterwards make a stuffing of chopped suet, with the parings of your meat, season again; have near you a plenty of slices of fat meat, cut very thin, and all being thus ready, you proceed to build your pie in the following manner. Make, with your stiff paste (páte à dresser), a bottom of a convenient size, and put this on an iron plate (or tin) well greased, give it the shape that your pie is to have; raise up the borders, so as to form a band around it. Garnish the bottom with the sUces of fat meat or suet, spread over these a layer of the stuffing, and upon this arrange a layer of meat; fill up the empty spaces with stuffing and with pieces of butter, then another layer of meat, and so build it up, in any form you choose; cover the whole with the staffing; lay over more slices of suet or fat, and finish with a crust of páte brisée (see preceding article); fasten well the edges to each other, by moistening them with water. Wash over the pie with yolks of eggs; decorate, if you please, with figures or ornaments, made with the stiflf paste (páte à dresser), which also wash over with the yolks. Make a chimney, that is to say, an opening, in the middle of the cover, in which you introduce a card, rolled up, so as to prevent the hole being filled up. Put the pie in an oven sufficiently hot, and leave it two or three hours, according to its size. If you see that your pie is doing too brown, you may cover it with a sheet of paper. When it is nearly done, pour through the chimney, two spoonfuls of brandy, which has a good flavor; shake it, and finish the baking. When it is nearly cold, stop up the chimney with a little paste, and turn it over, so that the juices may be spread through it equally, when cold.

PATÉ DE LIÉVRE, en Terrine.

HARE PIE, IN AN EARTHEN DISH.

Free from its bones a fresh hare; put with it a pound of fresh pork, and a pound of fillets of veal; cut the meats in pieces as for a fricasee. Then chop up very fine a half pound of lard, a quarter of a pound of beef suet, leeks, parsley, a husk of garlic, and a little thyme. Cover the bottom of your earthen dish with slices of fat meat, put the hash over, and arrange upon this the meats, well intermixed; season well with salt, pepper, and cloves. Put in one or two leaves of laurel, cover with hash and slices of fat; pour over the whole a glass of brandy; put the cover on the dish, and cement it well with paste, and cook for four hours with a gentle fire, above and below, or for the same time in an oven.

PATÉ CHAUD.

HOT PIE.

Make the bottom and sides with the stiff paste (páte à dresser), and the top with the paste in layers (páte brisée). There are two ways of preparing this pie. In the first, you arrange the meats, fowl, etc., of which you intend to make it, and which has been first cooked and seasoned; otherwise, you may cook your crust alone, and not fill it up until the moment you are ready to serve it. In this case, fill the inside with floured paper, put on the cover, wash it over with the yolk of an egg, and bake it. Then open the crust, remove the paper which you find inside, and fill the crust with the ragoût or the fricassée, which you have provided. Add the sauce and convenient accessories, put on the upper crust, and serve immediately.

TIMBALE.

DRUM PIE.

This is an economical kind of pie, which can be made in a stewpan over a furnace or other fire. Grease well the inside of yom' stewpan, and cover the whole inside from a third to half an inch thick with the light paste (páte brisée); fill it up with any ragoût or fricassée, either meat, fowl, game, or fish, which you have convenient. Cover it over with a thickness of paste, which you stick fast to the edges of the sides; put over a cover, and cook upon hot ashes, and with fire upon the stewpan. When the pie has been cooked, reverse the stewpan over a plate, so that your timbale will drop out. Then make in the middle a round opening, through which you introduce any sauce proper for your pie; put the piece of paste in the opening, and serve hot.

PATÉ DE VOLAILLE, aux Truffes.

POULTRY PIE, WITH TRUFFLES.

Make a good hash, with the fivers of fowls, plenty of chopped truffles, chopped suet, and fine herbs, but do not season too high. Put one-third of this stuffing in a layer in the pie, and put the rest in the inside of the fowls; or, if it is a turkey-pie you are making, employ the other portion of the stuffing to fill the spaces between the pieces of turkey, which must be freed from its bones. Whatever kind of poultry is used, must first be well larded, seasoned with fine spices, stewed and cooked; they must then be arranged upon the paste, with plenty of truffles and other articles, and supply it with hashed suet. Cover the whole with slices of fat meat, and finish as before directed (see Páte froid), and make it cook in an oven, or in a bake-kettle, well attended to.

PATÉ DE GODIVEAU.

HOT VEAL PIE.

Take a pound of fillet of veal, a half pound of fresh pork, or of sausage meat, a half pound of beefs' marrow, chopped all together very fine, w^ith parsley, shallots, salt, and fine spices; mix this hash with some yolks of eggs, and form it into balls, which you roll in wheat flour. It is with these balls that you garnish your under crust of páte á dresser; fill the spaces with tops of asparagus, veal sweetbreads, bottoms of artichokes, mushrooms, tails of crawfish, in short, of whatever you have, that is suitable for this purpose. Observe that all these accessories must be cooked and seasoned beforehand; when you have thus arranged your pie to your liking, cover with thin slices of fat, and afterwards with an upper crust of light paste (páte brisée). Fasten well the edges, wash over with the yolk of an egg and cook in an oven. When about to serve, open your pie, put in any proper sauce, and serve very hot.

PATÉ D'ANGUILLES.

EEL PIE.

Skin a fine eel, remove the bones of the sides, and leave him suspended for some hours in the air; afterwards cut him in pieces, and season well. Then chop very fine the flesh of carp, and other fish, which you have seasoned with salt, pepper, suet, fine spices and and parsley; then arrange your paste, and spread over it part of this hash; place upon it the pieces of eel, fill up the spaces between with tops of asparagus, bottoms of artichokes, mushrooms, crawfish tails, etc., and finish by covering your pie with the remainder of the hash; put upon it plenty of butter or slices of fat meat, and cover with a crust of paste. The light paste (páte brisée) is used for this pie; cook in an oven and serve hot, with any suitable sauce.

PATÉ DE TRUITES.

TROUT PIE.

Wash and clean a large trout, remove the fins and the head, and lard the meat with pieces of anchovies, and pieces of truffles, and season with fine spices and salt. Put inside the trout plenty of good butter, or chopped lard, worked in with chopped truffles, and all sorts of fine herbs; arrange the trout upon the paste, with or without such accessories as artichokes, mushrooms, etc., and cover it with the hash and slices of fat meat, or butter. Finish the pie as usual, and bake for two hours, in an oven.

PATÉ DE SAUMOUS FRAIS.

FRESH SALMON PIE.

Prepare the salmon in the same manner as directed for the trout, except that it is not usual to put in truffles, and that, as the salmon takes up much fat, it must not be used sparingly. For the rest, the paste and the manner of dressing are the same. It takes two hours to bake. If it is served hot, it must have some sauce, but if prepared cold, it can be served without.

PATÉ AUX HUITRES.

OYSTER PIE.

Shell the oysters, and scald them in their own water, as for a stew; then chop up a part of them, and mix with the others, and put in fine herbs, shallots, mushrooms, parsley, salt, pepper, nutmeg, and a good piece of butter or some spoonfuls of oil. Knead all these well together, and put this mixture together in a high pile in the crust of a pie, and finish as we have said in regard to other pies. It will not take more than an hour in cooking. Before serving, open the pie, and turn in a sauce of Champagne wine, or a bechamal à la créme, (see Sauces).

PATÉ FEUILLETÉE, pour petits Pátés, Tourtes, etc.

PASTE IN SHEETS, OR PUFF PASTE FOR LITTLE PIES, ETC.

Take, according to the quantity of paste that you would make, one or two pounds of butter, more or less, wash it well in cold water: cut it in very thin and broad slices, and leave them over night in fresh water. The next day, when you would make your paste, you take for each pound of butter, a pound and a half of fine flour, which you put in a heap on a table. Make a hole in the middle, in which put a half ounce of salt, two entire eggs, and a little water; mix and knead them with the flour, working it well with the whole strength of your arms and fists; then, with a rolling-pin. roll it out as thin as possible, then fold it up like a towel, and roll it out again: fold up in the same manner, and again roll out, taking care to cover the paste from time to time with flour, so that it may not adhere, either to the table or the roller. Fold and roll out in this way, alternately your paste four times, neither more nor less, when it will be ready for use. This paste is for little pies, vols-au-vent, etc.

FEUILLETAGE, à la Provencale.

PASTRY OF PROVENCE.

It is known that the people of Provence, and it is the same with a portion of the inhabitants of Languedoc, do not employ butter in any of their alimentary preparations, neither do they use it in their pastry; they use lard or sweet oil in its place, according as they would have their ragoúts, pátés, etc., thick or thin (en gras, ou en maigre.)

Let us see how they prepare the páte feuilletée (paste in sheets), with grease. Take the good fat from the kidneys of beef, or from the inside of veal; free it from all its fibres, etc., and pound it in a mortar until it is of the consistence of butter; squeeze it through a hair sieve, work it well in fresh water, and dry it in a proper towel. Then use it in the preparation of the pátes brisées or feuilletages, in the same proportions and manner as before described.

To make a paste (feuilletage) with oil, put on the table a cup of flour; suppose that you would have a pound; you make a hole in the middle, put in two eggs, a half pound of oil of olives, a half ounce of salt, and as much water as will mix all the flour, and make the paste of the proper consistence; knead it well, and let it rest. Two hours after, you roll it out as thin as possible; have a second half pound (or half pint) of oil, sprinkle it over the paste, and then fold it together, like a napkin, and roll out again; oil, fold up, and roll again, repeating the operation four or five times, taking care to use the whole of your second half pound of oil, and take equal care to flour the table and roller, so that the paste may not adhere. The paste thus made is excellent, and may be served for all pátisseries en maigre .

PETITS PATÉS, aux Truffes.

LITTLE PIES, WITH TRUFFLES.

Take, for each pound of truffles, a half pound of fillets of veal, a quarter of a pound of sausage meat, and a quarter of the marrow of beef. Chop all together, or, still better, pound them in a mortar; add salt, pepper, one or more eggs, and as many small spoonfuls of brandy as eggs. Put this preparation on an under crust of páte feuilletée of the size and thickness of a silver dollar. Cover with a paste of the same size, stick the edges together, wash over with yolk of egg, bake in an oven, and serve very hot.

PETITS PATÉS, aux Foies Gras.

LITTLE PIES, OF LIVER.

Mash your livers of poultry or of veal (those or geese are most esteemed), in a mortar, with grated suet, salt, fine herbs and spices in powder; mix with them one or two eggs, a little grated bread, and a small glass of brandy; and dress the pies as above directed.

PETITS PATÉS, aux Anchois.

LITTLE ANCHOVY PIES.

Cut new anchovies in pieces, and soak them well to free them from salt; afterwards, when they have been dried with a towel, let them soak for two or three hours, in a pickle composed of oil, pepper-corns, parsley, and shallots, chopped up; then take out part of the anchovies and put them aside, chop up the rest, very fine, mix them with soft bread grated, some lemon peel, and one or two eggs. Put this hash, by small heaps, in under crusts of páte feuilletée; put over them, in the form of a cross (en croix), two of the pieces of anchovy that you have laid aside; cover your pies with crusts of the same size, wash over with yolk of egg. Before serving, open the pies, and squeeze into them a little lemon juice; replace the crust, and serve very hot.

PETITS PATÉS, aux Anchois, Truffes.

LITTLE PIES, OF ANCHOVIES AND TRUFFLES.

In place of hashing a part of the anchovies, as above directed, make the hash with truffles; put a httle in the bottom of each crust, of a httle pie, and the httle pieces of anchovy over it, in the form of a cross (en croix), and finish as above directed, serving with lemon juice, and very hot.

VOL-AU-VENT, à la Financière.

Make, with the páte de feuilletage, the crusts of twice the size and thickness of the common pátés pdtcs; and cook these crusts in advance. Open them, and fill them with boulettes de godiveau (balls described in the article "Páté de Godiveau"), with brains, sweetbreads of veal, mushrooms, truffles, etc. All these things must be well seasoned, and mixed with the sauce in which they have been fricaseed, or with a good béchamel au gras, (see Sauces)

TOURTE de Fruits.

FRUIT PIE.

Cover the bottom of a pie-dish, well buttered, with a thickness of light paste (páte feuilletée); make a border of three or four thicknesses of the same paste, and place upon this crust your fruits, in the follow-ing manner. The apples having been pared, cored, and cut in slices; the apricots or peaches in halves or quarters, and freed from their stones; the prunes or cherries, without stones, but otherwise entire; the pears remaining entire, arranged upon the pie, with their stems upward; the grains of verjuice, muscat raisins, and raspberries, remaining whole; — according as you would make your pie with either, you proceed to submit your fruits to the following operation. Boil in a saucepan a glass of wine with a quarter of a pound of sugar; put in your fruit for five minutes, and add a small glass of brandy. Let them drain; place on the paste, and put the pie in the oven. When it is baked, you pour over it the syrup in which you have boiled the fruit. This is the manner in which you must make pies with all sorts of fruits, marmelades and preserves.

TOURTES d'Epinards

SPINNAGE PIE.

Prepare the paste and the sauce as for a fruit pie, described above; bake it, and fill it up, at the moment it is served, with a stufling or filling of spinnage, with cream and sugar (épinards à la créme et an sucre); glaze with a red-hot shovel, and serve.

TOURTE de Créme.

CREAM PIE.

Prepare your pie dish with a crust, and high border of light pastry, as for a fruit pie; fill it with a cream made beforehand, in the manner described in the preceding pages (see Creams). Observe that it is necessary that your cream should be cold, before it is turned upon the pastry. Wash the border crust with yolk of egg, and bake in an oven. Before serving, powder with sugar and glaze with a hot shovel.

GATEAU DE SAVOYE.

SAVOY CAKE.

Take eight eggs, separate the whites from the yolks, which latter you put in an earthen dish, with three-quarters of a pound of white sugar in powder, and the grated yellow or entire skin of a lemon. Stir the yolks of eggs with the sugar, until they have well amalgamated. Whip your whites of eggs to a very thick snow; then mix your yolks gently, and add, through a sieve, a half pound of fine flour. Mix well the whole, turn your paste in the tinned moulds or forms, which you have beforehand carefully greased. Do not fill the moulds more than two-thirds full, and bake in an oven moderately hot.

BISCUIT FIN.

FINE BISCUIT DELICATE CAKE.

Take twelve eggs, put the whites in a confectioner's basin, and whip them with a large willow stick, until they have risen to a very thick froth; then put in the yolks, which you have taken care to beat up well in a bowl apart, with a half pound of sugar in powder, and the grated outside of a lemon. After having well mixed the yolks of eggs with the frothed whites, put the basin on an empty cask, in which you have placed a brazier of coals or lighted chafing-dish, and constantly whip or beat up the paste, until it is of such a consistence as to form globules, which will remain. Then retire the basin from the fire, and continue to stir it until the paste is cold; when this takes place, you add a half pound of fine flour, and another half pound of powdered sugar, which you put together in a sieve, and so mix gently with the paste by shaking the sieve over it. These having been perfectly incorporated, you put your paste in well greased moulds or paper cases; powder the last with fine sugar, and cook in an oven moderately hot.

GATEAU DE MILAN, ou Biscuit au Beurre.

MILAN CAKE, OR BUTTER BISCUIT.

It is made in the same manner as the preceding, except that before putting the paste in the moulds, you add half a pound of good melted butter, clarified, but not very hot. After it is perfectly mixed, you put it in the moulds well greased, which you must not fill more than half full, for this cake rises very much, and bake in a moderately hot oven.

GATEAU DE LISBONNE.

LISBON CAKE.

Melt half a pound of good butter, having care to skim and draw it clear in a bowl. When it has become cool, stir it with a wooden spoon until it is of the consistence of cream. Then add half a pound of white sugar in powder, stirring the whole continually,and beating in from one to six eggs, a half pound of flour through a sieve, and some grated lemon peel, or nutmeg, or crisped and powdered orange flowers, according to your taste. After it is thoroughly mixed, turn the composition into one or more moulds well greased, and bake in a very moderate heat. It must remain three-quarters of an hour in the oven.

BRIOCHES.

BUNS.

You take two pounds of flour, from which you separate a pint, which you mix with a half ounce of good yeast, and afterwards wdth water, a little more than lukewarm, until you make a very soft paste; heap it upon a plate, and put it in a warm place. When you perceive that the leaven has taken effect, and that the dough is well expanded, put in a bowl the remainder of the flour make a hole in the middle, and put in a pound of butter, six eggs, and half an ounce of salt dissolved in half a glass of warm water. Knead well the paste; it is necessary that it should be rather soft; if it is too hard you must put in more eggs. When it is of the proper consistence roll it out, and place upon it that which you have risen with yeast, mix, and knead again the whole. It is essential that it should be thoroughly kneaded together, rolled, and worked on all sides. Press it down also, two or three times. Sprinkle with flour a white napkin, and in it put this dough, cover it carefully, and let it remain seven or eight hours. After this, uncover your paste, turn and knead it two or three times on a table powdered with flour, and let it rest again for an hour, and then, while the oven is heating, take off this paste pieces of the size of which you would make your buns, flatten them, work them well with the hand, give them the form of a ball flattened in the middle, on which you place another ball of dough, half as large, to give them the proper form; place them upon buttered paper, wash with the yolk of an egg, and bake in the oven.

You may give to these cakes any fanciful shape you please, or if you prefer to bake them in forms on a dish, you may make the dough of a less firm consistence.

GALETTE á la Bourgeaise.

FLAT PASTE CAKE.

Put in a bowl three pounds of flour, make a hole in the middle, in which put one pound of fresh butter, four eggs, one ounce of salt (if the butter be salt, a less quantity will be sufficient), and enough water to mix the paste so that it can be worked. Knead well, make it into balls that you flatten with a rolling pin, on a floured table, that the dough may not adhere. Make your flat cakes as thick as your thumb, wash them over with the yolk of an egg, powder with sugar and chopped almonds, put them in an oven and bake them of a good color.

This paste will equally serve to cover the bottom of a saucepan, in which you would make a timbale or páte en casserole, and as a common paste for any other sort of pies and cakes. To make it light, in leaves, it is only necessary to roll it out several times as directed in the article Páte feuilletée.

COMPOTES de Pommes.

APPLE SAUCE, OR, STEWED APPLES.

Peel some fine apples; cut them in halves, cut out the cores, and stew them with a good glass of water, a little sugar, some lemon juice, and some pieces of cinnamon. When they are done, seve them in a preserve dish (compotier), and pour over them the syrup in which they were cooked.

COMPOTES de Poires.

STEWED PEARS.

Peel your pears; if they are large, cut them in quarters; if small, leave them entire; cook and serve them as with the apples, in the preceding article.

COMPOTES de Poires au Vin.

PEARS STEWED WITH WINE.

Peel them, and leave them whole, and stew the sauce as in the Compotes de Pommes. When they are about half cooked, moisten them with a glass of red wine. Finish cooking over a small fire, and when they are thoroughly done, arrange them in a preserve dish, stew down the syrup, and pour it hot over the pears.

COMPOTE de Coings.

STEWED QUINCES.

You must first partly cook them in boiling water; take them out and put them in cold water, and then peel them, cut in quarters, and remove their cores. Afterwards, put them in a saucepan, with a quarter of a pound of sugar, and some little pieces of cinnamon, a large glass of water, and some lemon juice. Finish the cooking, and serve with the syrup boiled down and poured over them.

COMPOTES de Prunes.

STEWED PRUNES.

Cook a pound of prunes with a half pint of water, a half glass of wine, a quarter of a pound of sugar, and some little pieces of cinnamon, until you can crush them in your fingers; arrange them in a preserve dish, and when your syrup is stewed to a proper consistence, pour it over them and serve the prunes.

COMPOTES de Cerises, de Fraises, de Framboises, de Gro-seilles, de Raisins, etc.

STEWED CHERRIES, STRAWBERRIES, RASPBERRIES, GOOSEBERRIES, RAISINS, ETC.

These are all done the same as prunes; the proportions being always a quarter of a pound of sugar, and a half pint of wrater, for each pound of fruit.

COMPOTES d'Abricots, ou de Péches.

STEWED APRICOTS OR PEACHES.

These are done in the same way as the apples and pears, with the same proportions of water and sugar. The apricots must be peeled and divided, and the peaches deprived of their skins and stones.

SALADE D'ORANGES, pour Dessert.

SALAD OF ORANGES, FOR DESSERT.

Cut them in slices with the peel, powder them with sugar, and moisten them with wine or brandy.

SALADE DE PÊCHES, pour Dessert.

PEACH SALAD, FOR DESSERT.

Take beautiful peaches which have arrived at the true point of maturity; peel them, cut them in slices, powder with sugar, moisten with excellent brandy, and serve in a preserve dish.

GROSEILLES PERLÉES, pour Dessert.

PEARLED GOOSEBERRIES, FOR DESSERT.

Take a fine bunch of gooseberries, quite ripe; put them in a liquid composed of one glass of water and two whites of eggs beaten together. Let them drain for two minutes; roll them in powdered sugar, and put them on paper to dry. The sugar crystallizes around each berry, and they form a dessert dish of brilliant effect.

INSTRUCTION POUR CONFIRE LES FRUITS.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR PRESERVING FRUIT.

Before preserving fruit in sugar, it is necessary that the sugar should be well clarified. The following is the best method : put your sugar in a brass kettle, or pan, such as is used by confectioners, with one pint of water to each pound of sugar. Have in p. porringer beside you the whites of eggs whipped with water. As soon as your sugar boils, you turn a portion of this frothed water in the syrup, and stir it in with a spoon, and then as the froth rises, skim it off; put in more of the white of egg, and skim again, and continue this operation until your syrup is well clarified. Then cook your fruits as much as is necessary for each particular kind.

POUR CONFIRE LES ABRICOTS.

HOW TO PRESERVE APRICOTS.

Choose such apricots as are of a fine color, but not too much ripened. Make, with the point of a knife, a little notch in the top; then, pushing the knife into the end by the stem, you push out the stone on the opposite side; put them in a proper proportion of fresh water, and make them scald over the fire. As soon as the water commences to simmer, take them out with a skimmer, as soon as they feel soft to the finger; cool them in fresh water, and let them drain. Afterwards, clarify a quantity of sugar proportioned to the number of apricots; that is to say, one pound of sugar for twenty-five apricots, and when your syrup is clear and almost boiling, put in the apricots. Let them boil a few moments, then take them off, and pour them into an earthen or stone jar until the next day, that the fruit may take up the sugar. On the morrow, turn off the syrup, which you must boil down very strong, and then turn it boiling hot over the apricots. The day after that pour off the syrup, and boil down again, and still again the day after. Each time the sugar will be deposited upon the apricots. The fruit may then be drained, and after they have dried on a metal plate, they must be powdered with sugar, turning them so as to cover both sides, and when they have become dry, arrange them in a box in layers, with a paper between each layer.

Prunes, little pears, and other plums may be canned died in the same manner.

Stopped Editing Here - Spring

MARMELADE D'ABRICOTS.

MARMELADE OF APRICOTS.

Take apricots which are fully ripe, remove their skins and stones, cut them in pieces and weigh them; then take three-quarters of a pound of sugar for each pound of fruit; melt the sugar in a brass basin or kettle, with a pint of water for each pound of sugar, over a very gentle fire; and after it has boiled a good half hour, put in your apricots, and continue boiling over a gentle fire for an hour or an hour and a half, taking care to continually stir your marmelade that it may not burn upon the bottom of the kettle. To ascertain if it is sufficiently cooked, take a little upon your fingers, press your thumb upon it, and if it is glutinous, and when the thumb is removed forms a little string, it is done enough; when it must be removed from the fire and turned into pots.

There are some persons who like the marmelade to be flavored with the meats of the stones. In this case, crack half the stones, and scald the meats in boiling water to enable you to remove their skins; put them in the marmelade a short time before it is done, and stir well the whole so that each pot may have its equal share. Do not cover the pots until the marmelade is entirely cooled. This marmelade is an excellent and very nourishing food.

La marmelade de peches (marmelade of peaches), and those of prunes, and of other plums, are made in precisely the same manner, except the addition of the seeds, which, however, may be done with the peaches if you like.

FRUITS À L'EAU-DE-VIE.

BRANDIED FRUITS.

Take a certain quantity of apncots, which have

FRUITS A L'EAU-DE-VIE — BRANDIED FRUITS.

not ripened to their perfect maturity; wipe off the down with a towel, prick them to the stone with a large pin, put them in fresh water, and let them boil over a gentle fire; but they must not boil much, but be kept merely simmering. When you find that the fruits are soft between your fingers, take them out with a skimmer, and put them in cold water; take care not to crush them or tear off their skins, and let them drain and dry.

During this time, you should have clarified a pound of sugar in a pint of water, for each twenty-six apricots, or peaches; put in your fruit to take a boiling, and then leave them in the syrup until the next day, then take them out and let them drain. While they are draining, put your sugar again over the fire, and let it boil for some time, and then put in your apricots for a moment, to take a little boiling more. Take them out, and when they are cold, arrange them in a glass or stone jar. Boil still more your syrup, but take care that it does not turn yellow, or glaze over; and after having added a double quantity of high proof brandy (eau-de-vie à 22 degrés) mix well the brandy with the syrup, and turn over the apricots previously arranged in the jar. Put in the stopple, cover over and tie it down, and put away for use.

If you are obliged to use apricots which are ripe, you can dispense with scalding them in boiling water.

Les Péches à Veau-de-vie (brandied peaches), are prepared exactly like apricots; the proportions of sugar and of brandy are also the same.

REINE-CLAUDES à Eau-de-vie.

BRANDIED GREEN-GAGES.

They must be chosen of such as are handsome, of an equal size, and which are not colored nor fully ripe. Cut off a part of their stems, prick them with

FRUITS Á L'EAU-DE-VIE — BRANDIED FRUITS.

a pin, and to preserve their beautiful green, put in the water in which you scald them, a glass of vinegar, and a handful of spinnage. As for the rest, proceed in the same manner as with the apricots or peaches, employing for two hundred green-gages, the same quantity of sugar and brandy, as for one hundred of the former.

Note. — All other plums may be preseiTed in the same manner, varying the proportions according to their size; that is, for plums of which five would make one apricot, five times as many may be done in the same quantities of sugar and brandy.

ORANGES FINES à l' Eau-de-vie.

FINE BRANDIED ORANGES.

Choose fine oranges, of a good color and an even size; stick a pin in their centres, and put them into a proper quantity of fresh water, and as soon as they are softened by scalding, remove them into cold water. Clarify the sugar in the same proportions as for apricots, and when the syrup is not boiling, but yet is very hot, and give to the whole five or six boilings, covered. Take the kettle from the fire, and leave the oranges in the syrup till the next day. Repeat the same operation on the two days following, commencing each time by boiling down the sugar separately, so that it will crystallize on the oranges, after which put in the oranges and give them one or two boilings, covered as before. The third dav after all these operations have been concluded, draw the oranges, and arrange them in jars (the glass ones are prettiest), and when the syrup is cold, mix with it an equal quantity of brandy, turn the mixture over the fruit, and cover it with care.

CERISES à l'Eau-de-vie.

BRANDIED CHERRIES.

Take some fine cherries sound and not too ripe

FRUITS A L'EAU-DE-VIE — BRANDIED FRUITS.

cut half the stems off, and put the cherries in a jar, or a bottle with a large neck, with some cloves and some pieces of cinnamon. Mash in a bowl a quarter of a pound of ripe cherries, for each pound of the others; put in some raspberries, and squeeze out the juice by putting them in a cloth. Take then a quarter of a pound of sugar for each pound of cherries, clarify with a glass of water, and boil it down to the point of crystallization; then put in the juice of the cherries, give a dozen boilings, and then, when the syrup is cooled, put in a pint of brandy for each pound of cherries; pour the mixture into the jars and fasten them well.

AUTRE MANIÈRE DE METTRE LES CERISES Á L'EAU-DE-VIE, Beaucoup plus Délicate.

ANOTHER MANNER OF BRANDYING CHERRIES, MUCH MORE

DELICATE.

Making brandied cherries in the common method, is no more than to soak the cherries in brandy in the sun, adding some aromatics; but all fruits, either cherries, prunes, peaches or apricots, merely soaked in brandy, without being previously candied and preserved with sugar, lose much of their juice and flavor. The fruit must not be merely a piece of sponge, for the liquor to penetrate, while the brandy itself will not be stronger than wine, by mixing the juices of the fruit. That the ladies may have bran-died cherries (and similar fruits) of the most delicate flavor, M. Cadet de Vaux gives the following recipe:

Take some cherries which have early ripened, remove their stems, squeeze them in the hands, jam out the stones, and put them in a brass basin or kettle, with some sugar. Boil down one third, and turn this syrup, all boiling, into some brandy, to which you have added your aromatics, and let this prepa-i^ation infuse in the sun. When the season for rasp-

berries has arrived, you can add some of these, if you think proper, to the infusion. Prepared in this way your Uquor will retain its strength, but will acquire the aroma of the cherries, etc., to which it is joined. The cherries preserve their size and color, are very agreeable to eat, and digest more easily than those which are full of brandy.

The proper proportions are, six pounds of early ripe cherries, one pound of raspberries, three pounds of sugar, six quarts of good brandy. You can flavor with cloves, cinnamon, or vanilla, according to your taste. It is well to pulverize these aromatics before, putting them into the infusion.

CONFITURES DE CERISES.

CHERRY PRESERVES.

Remove the stones and stems of the cherries, wipe them, and put an equal quantity of sugar over the fire; melt it with a glass of water, a glass of the juice of gooseberries, and a half glass of raspberry juice; when the sugar has sufficiently boiled, put in your cherries, cook them a short hour over a gentle fire, taking care to remove the scum, and when they have cooked a little in the kettle, put them in jars, and do not cover them until entirely cold.

The cherries to preserve are those which have short stems, and are last ripe, about a month after those which are first ripe. When you have turned off, expressed, and filtered this infusion, you have now an excellent ratafia of cherries and raspberries, and it is in this you put your cherries.

GELÉE DE GROSEILLES FRAMBOISÉES.

GOOSEBERRY AND RASPBERRY JELLY.

Take any quantity of fine red gooseberries, a quarter as many white ones and half a quarter as many

raspberries; pick the fruits and put them in a kettle for preserves, with as many pounds of sugar in pieces, as you have pounds of fruit. Boil over a quick fire, skimming carefully, and continue boiling until your jelly, turned upon a napkin, fixes or congeals in a moment. This is a proof that your jelly is sufficiently cooked. Remove it from the fire, and turn it through a hair sieve. Let it drain without squeezing, and turn the first results into your pots. This will be a jelly of the first quality, of a beautiful ruby tint, and perfectly transparent.

Afterwards squeeze and express the remainder into another vase. This second part is as good as the first, but it has not its transparency, a quality much esteemed by gourmands and connoisseurs.

You may also make a good use of what still remains in the sieve; put it in a pitcher, and pour upon it two or three pints of white wine. This wine, expressed afterwards, may be used to make a fruit ratafia, by adding to it a pint of brandy and some pieces of cinnamon or other aromatic; and after you have filtered this infusion, your have four pints of a very agreeable cordial.

GELÉE DE GOINGS.

QUINCE JELLY.

Take some sound, yellow quinces, which are not over ripe; peel them, cut them in quarters, and boil them in as much water as will cover them. When they have been well boiled, squeeze them through a linen cloth, clarify the juice in a filtering bag, weigh it, and put it with three-quarters of its weight of sugar in a brass kettle. Do not forget to put in a piece of cinnamon. Cook the whole together until it has become a jelly, to ascertain which, try as in the preceding article. Take it from the fire, and tic up in pots, when it is cold.

MANIÈRE DE FAIRE LE RAISINÉ:.

MANNER OF MAKING CONFECTION OF GRAPES.

Gather ripe grapes in dry weather, leave them for some days in their bunches, until they soften; then pick them, squeeze out the juice, and boil it gently, stirring all the while with a wooden stick, and diminish the fire as the liquor evaporates, continuing to siaimer it down, until it is three-quarters boiled away. Then, when it has got to the proper consistence, put it in pots, where you let it stand, without being covered, until next day, in a lukewarm oven. Then dip round pieces of paper, cut so as to closely fit in the pots, in brandy, and lay them upon the confection; cover with another paper, tie down, and set the pots in a dry place.

If you choose to put fruits in this confection (rai-siné), it is necessary, whether quinces, pears, orange peel, or whatever, that they should previously be scalded in boiling water, until soft to the fingers; then drain dry, and join to the grape confection, when it is about half boiled down; boiling over a small fire, and as before, stirring without cessation. When you suppose that your confection is sufficiently boiled away, put a little on a napkin, and if it fixes at once, quickly remove the kettle from the fire, arrange the fruits in the pots, and turn the confection over them; put them for eight or ten hours in a warm oven, and then cover as before.

OBSERVATIONS ESSENTIELLES POUR LA CONSERVATION DES GELÉES ET CONFITURES DE TOUT ESPÉCE.

ESSENTIAL OBSERVATIONS IN REGARD TO THE PRESERVATION OF ALL KINDS OF JELLIES.

You must never cover the pots until the jellies are

CONFITURES — CONFECTIONS.

perfectly cool. The best way is not to do it till some days after; and then take care to dip the first round piece of paper, that which rests immediately upon the jelly, in brandy. This will preserve them much better than without it, and it will keep them from becoming mouldy.

I observe also, that it is absolutely essential that the basins, kettles, etc., in which syrups or jellies are made, if of earthern or iron ware, are subject to burn them, and give them a bad taste. Those who have not a kettle adapted for the purpose, and are compelled to use any other, should be careful to scour them perfectly clean.

It is not well to leave any confection in a brass kettle, on account of the formation of verdigris, which is poisonous; on this account it is important to turn the confections in the pots as soon as their cooking is finished; or it may be turned into an earthern pot to cool a little, before being put in the jelly pots.

A wood fire is not so good as one of charcoal, well sustained.

You must never leave your confections while they are over the fire, but stir them, remove the scum, and watch that they do not burn to the kettle.

SUPPLÉMENT.

MEANS OF PRESERVING MEATS, ETC., IN SUMMER.

I believe that I shall render an important service to my readers, by letting them know the means of preserving meats during the heats of summer. This knowledge is important on the double grounds of health and economy, and is especially essential to those who live in the country, and are obliged to keep their provision for several days, being exposed to the double inconvenience of first eating it when it is too fresh, and consequently tough, and afterwards when it is too far advanced towards putrefaction.

POUR CONSERVER LE GIBIER, LE BCEUF, ET AUTRES VIANDES.

TO PRESERVE GAME, BEEF, AND OTHER MEATS.

Envelope in a white napkin the pieces of meat, poultry, or game, which you would preserve, while it is quite fresh, and place it in the coal-hole, well covered with the dust of charcoal, or with coals and cinders of the wood fire. In this manner meats may be kept for three weeks, without alteration, in spite of both heat and dampness.

AUTRE MOYEN.

ANOTHER MEANS.

Cover your pieces of meat, etc., with milk curd; a very advantageous method, as the curdled milk does not in the least alter the savor of the meat, and will preserve it perfectly well for eight or ten days.

SUPPLEMENT — SUPPEMENT. HI

MOYEN D'ATTENDRIR LES VIANDES.

METHOD OF MAKING MEATS TENDER.

Before putting upon the spit, or in the pot, a piece of butcher's meat, it should be beaten vigorously with a wooden roller, at least for one or two minutes. This is the grand secret for rendering meats tender and delicate; but in most households they are ignorant of this simple proceeding.

maniI:re de preparer la volaille avant de le faire guire.

MANNER OP PREPARING POULTRY BEFORE IT IS COOKED.

When we put a fowl to the fire as soon as it is dead, or even within a few hours, unless some precautions are taken, it is impossible to serve it tender and delicate. The fowl you would serve for dinner should be killed the night before, and that which you would serve in the evening should be killed early in the morning, if not at night before you retire to bed. As soon as the fowl is dead, and has ceased bleeding, it must, before picking, be plunged in a bucket of cold water, so as to cover it entirely. Leave it in this water over night, or if killed in the morning till evening, at any rate until you are ready to cook it. On taking it out of the cold water, plunge it in boiling water, and the feathers will come off easily; then prepare it according to the way you intend to cook it. By these means your fowl will be tender, white, and of an exquisite flavor.

MOYEN DE PRESERVER LE POISSON DE LA CORRUPTION, suivant Mme. Gacon-Dufour.

MEANS OF PRESERVING FISH FROM CORRUPTION, ACCORDING TO MME. GACON-DUFOUR.

To keep fish, you must give it a slight boiling in a

small quantity of water, with a little salt. You may leave it in this water two or three days without spoiling, if it is kept at the bottom of the dish and the water entirely covers it.

If you are compelled to keep it longer than three days, put the dish again over the fire, add a little more salt, and a leaf of laurel. The fish may now sustain three boilings — that is, let the water three times come to the boiling point, as a greater number would destroy its quality.

You may employ for this operation an earthen vase, but must avoid iron, and especially brass or copper. A thoroughly tinned vessel, however, may be used with safety.

The same lady has given us a method of treating frozen fish, meats, and vegetables, before cooking. It is merely to plunge them in cold water; the frost will form a coating of ice around the fish or mea,t. This must be removed, and the operation repeated until the fish, meat, egg, or fruit, is brought to the same temperature as the water. Frozen articles, even potatoes, treated in this manner, retain their natural qualities.

MOYEN DE CONSERVER LES GEUFS PENDANT TOUT L'HIVER DANS UN £TAT PARE AIT.

MEANS OF PRESERVING EGGS ALL WINTER IN A PERFECT STATE.

According to the quantity of eggs you wish to preserve, take large, well-glazed earthen pots, and put them in, and cover them with any kind of oil, to a finger's depth above the eggs. You must be careful not to touch them with the hands, or with iron, so as to hurt the oil, and prevent in consequence the preservation of the eggs. By means of this precaution, the oil will be preserved good and pure, and the eggs will be as fresh as when they were put in

the pots. If you wish to take out any eggs, take them out very carefully with a silver spoon.

AUTRE MANIèRE PLUS SIMPLE DE CONSER-VER LES 0EUFS.

ANOTHER AND MORE SIMPLE MANNER OF PRESERVING

EGGS.

Put some ashes in a coarse sieve or an old strainer; put these ashes in a small cask, or in some pots, and as fast as you collect your eggs, you put them in these ashes, taking care that they are entirely covered, and that they do not touch each other.

Eggs are said to keep better if placed the small end downwards.

MOYEN D'AVOIR DES OEUFS FRAIS PENDANT LES PLUS GRAND FROIDS, ET LES HIVERS LES PLUS LONGS, Suivant Mme. Gacon-Dufour.

MEANS OF HAVING FRESH EGGS IN THE COLDEST AND LONGEST WINTER, ACCORDING TO MME. GACON-DUFOUR.

About the last of October, take a dozen hens and put them in the cow-stable, behind a paling or network, so high that they cannot get over it. Give them for their food buckwheat and in the morning a paste of pounded hemp-seed, in which you put a very little barley, and about a sixteenth part of brick, pounded and passed through a sieve. This feeding will make them lay eggs every day; but by spring, the hens are spoiled for laying, and are good for nothing but to fatten and kill.

FIN DE LA PETITE CUISINÈRE.

END OF THE LITTE COOK.

PAR ORDRE ALPHABÉTIQUE.

ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Notes

  1. Capuchin A Catholic friar.


Text prepared by:



Fall 2016 Group:



Winter 2016-2017 Group:



Spring 2017 Group:



Source

Friedel, Louise Béate Augustine. The French Cook: A Full and Literal Translation of La Petite Cuisiniere Habile; Giving Plain Directions for Making the Most Celebrated and Delicious Potages, Entreés, Entremets, Crêmes, Fritures; Sauces, Patés, Patisserie, Confitures, Gelées, &c. with Delicacy and Economy; with Full Directions for Preserving Fruits, Meats, Fish, and Vegetables. New York: Wm. H. Graham, 1846. Internet Archive. Web. 17 Feb. 2017. <https:// archive.org/ details/ frenchcook fullli00 frie>.

Home Page
L’Anthologie  Louisianaise