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INTRODUCTION.

Any one who has ever paid a flying visit to New Orleans probably knows something about those various culinary preparations whose generic name is " Gombo " — compounded of many odds and ends, with the okra-plant, or true gombo for a basis, but also comprising occasionally "losé, zepinard, laitie," and the other vegetables sold in bunches in the French market. Atall events any person who has remained in the city for a season must have become familiar with the nature of "gombo filé," gombo févi," and "gombo aux herbes," or as our colored cook calls it, "gombo zhèbes — for she belongs to the older generation of Creole cuisinières, and speaks the patois in its primitive purity, without using a single "r." Her daughter, who has been to school, would pronounce it gombo zhairbes: — the modern patois is becoming more and more Frenchified, and will soon be altogether forgotten, not only throughout Louisiana, but even in the Antilles. It still, however, retains originality enough to be understood with difficulty by persons thoroughly familiar with French ; and even those who know nothing of any language but English, readily recognize it by the peculiarly rapid syllabification and musical intonation. Such English-speaking residents of New Orleans seldom speak of it as,"Creole": they call it gombo, for some mysterious reason which I have never been able to explain satisfactorily. The colored Creoles of the city have themselves begun to use the term to characterize the patois spoken by the survivors of slavery days. Turiault tells us that in the towns of Martinique, where the Creole is gradually changing into French, the Bitacos, or country negroes who still speak the patois nearly pure, are much ridiculed by their municipal brethren: — Ça ou ka palé lá, chè, c'est nèg: — Ça pas Créole! "What you talk is 'nigger,' my dear: — that isn't Creole!") In like manner a young Creole negro or negress of New Orleans might tell an aged member of his race; "Ça qui to parlé ça pa Créole: ça pas Créole: ça c'est gombo!" I have sometimes heard the pure and primitive Creole also called "Congo" by colored folks of tho new generation.

The literature of “gombo” has perhaps even more varieties than there are preparations of the esculents above referred to; — the patois has certainly its gombo févi, its gomo filé, its “gombo zhèbes” — both written and unwritten. A work like Marbot's “Bambous” would deserve to be classed with the pure “févi”; — the treatises of Turiault, Baissac, St. Quentin, Thomas, rather resemble that fully prepared dish, in which crabs seem to struggle with fragments of many well-stewed meats, all strongly seasoned with pepper. The present essay at Creole folklore, can only bo classed as "gombo zhèbea " — {Zhèbes çé feuil-chou cresson, laitie, bettrav, losé, zepinard) ; — the true okra is not the basis of our preparation ; — it is a Creole dish, if you please, but a salmagundi of inferior quality.




For the collection of Louisiana proverbs In this work I am almost wholly indebted to my friend Professor William Henry, Principal of the Jefferson Academy in New Orleans; not a few of the notes, Creole quotations, and examples of the Jocal patois were also contributed bv him. The sources of the other proverbs will be found under the head of Creole

Bibliography. The translations of the proverbs into French will greatly aid in exhibiting thecuriousproccssof transformation to which the negro slave subjected the language of his masters, and will also serve to show the peculiar simplicity of Creole grammar. My French is not always elegant, orevenstrictlycorrect; — for with the above object in view it has been necessary to make the translation as literal as is possible without adopting the inter-hnear system. Out of nearly five hundred proverbs I selected about three hundred and fifty only for publication — some being rejected because of their naïve indecency, others because they offered mere variations of one and the same maxim. Even after the sifting process, I was partly disappointed with the results; the proportion of true Creole proverbs — proverbs of indubitably negro invention — proved to be much smaller than I had expected. Nevertheless all which I have utilized exhibit the peculiarities of the vernacular sufficiently to justify their presence.

*** ■

While some of these proverbs are witty enough to call a smile to the most serious lips, many others must, no doubt, seem vapid, enigmatic, or even meaningless. But a large majority of negro sayings depend altogether upon application for their color or their effectiveness; they possess a chameleon power of changing hue according to the manner in which they are placed. (See for examples: Prov. 161, 251, or 308.) Every saying of this kind is susceptible of numerous applications; and the art of applying one proverb to many different situations is one in which the negro has no rival — not even among the Arabs themselves, whose use of such folklore has been so admirably illustrated by Carlo Landberg.

* ** ■

No two authors spell the Creole in the same way ; and three writers whom I have borrowed largely from — Thomas, Baissac, and Turiault — actually vary the orthography of the same word in quite an arbitrary manner. At first I thought of remodeling all my proverbs according to the phonetic system of spelling; but I soon fonnd that this would not only disguise the Creole etymology almost beyond recognition, but would further interfere with my plan of arrangement. Finally I concluded to publish the Creole text almostprecisely as Ihadfound it, with the various spellings and peculiarities of accentuation. The reader will find cabrit, for example, written in four or five different ways. Where the final t — never pronounced in our own patois — is fully sounded, the several authorities upon Creole grammar have indicated the fact in various fashions : one spelling It cahritt ; another cahrite, etc.

♦ **

The grammatical peculiarities and the pronounciation of the several Creole dialects are matters which could not be satisfactorily treated within the compass of a small pamphlet. Some few general rules might. Indeed, be mentioned as applying to most Creole dialects. It is tolerably paf e to say that in no one of the West Indian dialects was the French " r " pronounced in former days ; it was either totally suppressed, as in the word " f ôce " {force), or exchanged for a vowel sound, as in houanche (for branche). The delicate and dilficult French Eoundofuwas changed Into ou ; the sound «n was simplified into é; the clear European o became a nasal au ; and Into many French words containing the sound of am, such as amour^ i the negro wedged the true African n, making the singular Creole pronounciation lanmou, ' canmarade, janmain. But the black slaves from the Ivory and Gold Coasts, from Congo or Angola, pronounced differently. The Eboes and Mandingoes spoke the patois with varying accentuations; — it were therefore very difficult to define rules of pronounciation applicable to the patois spoken in all parts of one island like Guadaloupo, or one colonial province like Guyana. Not bo in regard to grammar. In all forms of the patois (whether the musical and peculiarly picturesque Creole of Martinique, or the more fantastic Creole of Mauritius,

adulterated with Malgache and Chinese words) — the true article is either suppressed or trans-tormed into a prefix or affix of the noun, as in femme-la '* the woman," or yon lagrimacc, a grimace; — there is no true gender, no true singular and plural; verbs have rarely more than six tenses — sometimes less — and the tense is not indicated by the termination of the verb ; there is a remarkable paucity of auxiliaries, and in some dialects none whatever; participles are unknown, and prepositions few. A very fair knowledge of comparative Creole grammar and pronunciation may be acquired, by any one familiar with French, from the authors cited at the beginning of this volume. I would also recommend those interested In such folklore to peruse the Creole novel of Dr. Alfred Mercier — I/es Saint-Ybars, which contains excellent examples of the Louisiana dialect ; and Baissac's beautiful little stories, "Recit8Créole8,"richinpicture8of the old French colonial life. The foreign philological reviewsandperiodicals, especially those of Paris, have published quite a variety of animal fables, proverbs, stories in various Creole dialects ; and among the recent contributions of French ethnologists to science will be also discovered some remarkable observations upon the actual formation of various patoi» — strongly resembling our own Creole — in the French African colonies.

***

Needless to say this collection Is far from perfect ; — the most I can hope for is that it may constitute the nucleus of a more exhaustive publication to appear in course of time. No one person could hope to make a really complete collection of Creole proverbs — even with all the advantages of linguistic knowledge, leisure, wealth, and travel. Only a society of folklorists might bring such an undertaking to a successful issue; but as no systematic effort is being made in this direction, I have had no hesitation in attempting — not indeed to fill a want — but to S9t an example. Oouïe passé, difil sivrê: — \et the needle but pass, the thread will follow. L. H.

CREOLE BIBLIOGRAPHY.

^^ The selection of Haytian proverbs in this collection was made by kindly permission of Messrs. Harper Bros., from the four articles contributed by Hon. John Bigelow, to Harper's Magazine, 1875. The foliowingr list includes only those works consulted or quoted from in the preparation of this dictionary, and comprises but a small portion of all the curious books, essays, poems, etc., written upon, or in the Creole patois of the Antilles and of Louisiana. — L. H.

Bruyère (Loys) — " Proverbes Créoles de la Guyane Française." (In l'Almanach des Traditions Populaires, 1883. Prfris : Maisonneuve et Cie.)

Baissag (M. C.) — " Étude sur le Patois Créole Mauricien." Nancy: Imprimerie Berger-Levrault & Cie., 1880.

Marbot — " Les Bambous." Fables de La Fontaine travesties en Patois Créole par un Vieux Commandeur. Fort-de-France, Martinique: Librairie de Frederic Thomas, 1869. (Second Edition. Both editions of this admirable work are now unfortunately out of print.)

Thomas (J. J.) — "The Theory and Practice of Creole Grammar." Port of Spain, Trinidad : The Chronicle Publishing Office, 1869.

TuRiAULT (J.) — " Étude sur le Langage Créole de la Martinique." (Extrait du Bulletin de la Société Académique.) Brest : Lefournier, 1869.

De St.-Quentin (Auguste) — Introduction à l'Histoire de Cayenne, suivie d'un Recueil de Contes, Fables, et Chansons en Créole. Notes et Commentaires par Alfred de St.-Quentin. Étude sur la Grammaire Créole par Auguste de St.-Quentin. Antibes : J. Marchand,

1873.

BiQELOW (Hon. John) — "The Wlt and Wisdom of the Haytians." Being four articlps upon the Creole Proverbs of Hayti, respectively published in the June, July, August aud September numbers of Harper's Magazine, 1870.

[Most of the proverbs quoted in Martinique are current also in Ouadalmpe, only 90 miles distant. AU proverbs recognized in Louisiana are marked by an asterisk (*). The indications', Mauhitius, Guyana, Mabtinique, Hayti, etc., do not necessarily imply origin ; they refer only to the dialects in which the proverbs are written, and to the works from which they are selected.\

1. Acoma tombé toutt mounn di : C'est bois pourri. (Quand l'Acoma est tombé, tout le

monde dit : C'est du bois pourri.) " When the Acoma has fallen everybody says : ' It's only rotten wood.' "i — [Afarf.]

2. A foce macaque caressé yche li ka touffe li. (À force de caresser son petit le macaque

l'étouffé.) " The monkey smothers its young one by hugging it too much." — [3fari.l

3. Aspère2iéve dans marmite avant causé. (Attendez que le lièvre soit dans la marmite

avant de parler.)

" Walt till the hare's in the pot before you talk." — Don't count your chickens before they're hatched — [Afauritius.]

4. Avant boisa d'Inde té pùté graine, macaque té nouri yche yo. (Avant que l'arbre d'Inde

portait des graines, les macaques nourisaaient leurs petits.)

" Before the Indian tree (?) bore seed the monkeys were able to nourish their young." — \_Marixn\qm.'\

6. Avant zabocat macaque ka nouri yche 11. (Avant qu'il y eût des avocados, les macaques nourissaient leurs petits.) "The monkey could nourish it young, before there were any avocadoes."'* —

Llfartiniquc]

1 The Acoma, says Turiault, is one of the grandest trees in the forests of the Antilles. The meaning of the proverb appears to be, that a powerful or wealthy person who meets with misfortune is at once treated with contempt by those who formerly sought his favor or affected to admire his qualities.

a Evidently a creolization of the Spanish espera/r.

3 The word bois (wood) is frequently used m Creole for the tree itself ; and pié-bois (" foot of the wood ") for the trunk or stump. "Yon gouôs pié-bois plis facile déraciné qu'mauvais l'habitude" (A big stump is easier to uproot than a bad habit), is a Martinique Creole dictum, evidently borrowed from the language of the white masters. I am sorry that 1 do not know which of the various trees to which the name bois d'Inde has been given by the Creoles, is referred to in the proverb — whether the mango, or China-berry. No tree is generally recognized bv that name in Louisiana.

4 The Avocado was the name given by the Spanish conquistadores to the Persea gratissima, whose fruit is the "alligator pear." But M. Turiault again traces the Spanish word back to the Carib word Aouacate.

6. Azourdi casse en fin; dimain tape lanjrouti. (Aujourd'hui bien mis: demain en langouti.)

" Well dressed to-day; only a langoutii tomorrow.'" — [Mauritiiw.]

7. Azourdi soûle bon temps, dimain pagayé. (Aujourd'hui soûl de plaisir, demain la

pagraye.)

" To-day drunk with fun, to-morrow the paddle." Allusion to slavery discipline. — IMauritius.l

8. Azourdi tout marmites dibout làhaut difé. (Aujourd'hui toutes les marmites sont

debout sur le feu.)

" Ail the cooking-pots are on the fire now." One man is now as good as another : — this proverb evidently refers to the abolition of Bl&verj. — [Mauriiius'\.

9. Azourdi tout femmes aile confesse, mes Ihére zautes tourne léglise dîabe zétte encore

pécé av zautes. (Aujourd'hui toutes lea femmes vont à confesse; mais quand elles reviennent de l'église le diable leur jette encore des péchés.)

"AU the women go to confession now-a-days; but they no sooner return from church, than the devil piles more sins upon them." — IMauriiiuif.l

10. Babe canmarade ou pris difé, rouse ta ou, (Quand la barbe de ton camarade brille, arrose

la tienne.) "If you see your neighbor's beard on fire, water your own."2 — [ilfartini<jtt«.]

11. Bablez mouche, babiez viande. (Grondez les mouches, grondez la viande.)

" Scold the flies, scold the meat." — [tfayti.]

12. Badnèn bien épis macaque; main pouèngâde manyèn lakhé 11. (Badinez bien avec le

macaque ; mais prenez garde de ne pas manier sa queue.)

" Joke with the monkey as much as you please ; but take good care not to handle his tail." — [Trinidad.]

13. Baggie qui fair ziex fair nez. (Les choses qui font [mal aux] yeux, font [mal au] nez.)

" What troubles the eyes affects the nose."3 — [ rrïnidod.]

14. Bagasse boucoup, flangourin piti morceau. (Beaucoup de bagasse, peu d ' j as)

" Much bagaHse and little juice." (The bagasse is the refuse of the caue, after the sap has been extracted.)-[Afauritiws.]

15. Baignèn iches moune ; main pas lavez dêïer zoreîes yeau-jt. (Baignez les enfants des

autres [lit : du monde] ; mais ne les lavez pas derrière les oreilles.)

" Bathe other people's children ; but don't wash behind their ear8." — That is to say: Do not be servile in obsequiousness to others. — [Trinidad],

16. Balié nef, balié prope. (Un balai neuf, un balai propre.)

"A new broom's a clean broora." — This is a Creolization of our household phrase: " A new broom sweeps clean." — [Jfauritit/s. J

1 The langoutl was the garment worn about the loins by male slaves in Mauritius — who were wont to labor otherwise naked. lu Creole both caxer and taper signify "to put on,'' with the diirerence tiiaicoKer generally refers to good clothes, lu colloquial French tapé means "fitylisiily dressed," " well-rigged-out," etc.

3 " Take example by the misfortune of others." I much doubt the Creole origin of any

f>roverb relating to the/j''a?-d. This one. like many others in the collection, has probably •een borrowed from a European source; but it furnishes a flno sample of patois. In Loulsian* Creole we would say to qwAine instead of ta ou. The Spanish origin of the Creole qxieniie h obvious.

3 I believe there Is an omission in Thomas' version, and that the Creole ought to read : Bafjgaie qui fair mal ziex fair mal nez." liauuaie has a hundred meanings: "thing," *'affair," "buainesd," "nonsense," "stuff," etc.

17. Bardeauxi couvert tout. (Lps bardeaux couvrent tout.)

" ShiDKles cover everything." — Family roofs oiten cover a multitude of sins. IMauritixis.]

18. Baton pas fo passez sabe. (Le bâton n'est pas plus fort que le sabre.)

*' The stick is not stronger than the sabre." — [Martinique].

19. Batte rende zamés fére mal. (L-:8 coups rendus ne font jamais de mal.)

" Blows returned never hurt." — Vengeance is Bweet. — lMauritius.l

20. Bef pas bousoin lakhe li yon sel fois pou chassé mouche. (Le bœuf n'a pas besoin de sa

queue une fois seulement pour chasser les mouches,)

" It isn't one time only that the ox needs his tail to drive the flies away." — Ironical expression for " you will have need of me again."3 — [jfartinique.]

21. Bef pas jamain ka die savane, '* Meçi ! " (Le bœuf ne dit jamais à la savane, " Merci ! ")

"Ox never says * Thank you,' to the pa8ture."4 — [Trinidad.]

22. Béfs laquée en 1ère, mauves temps napas loin. (Les bœufs ont la queue en l'air, le

mauvais temps n'est pas loin.) "When the oxen lift their tails in the air, lookout for bad weather." — [Jfaurititw.

23. ♦ Bel tignons pas fait bel négresse. (Le beau tignon ne fait pas la belle négresse.)

"Itisn't the fine head-dress that makes the fine negress."- ILouisiajia.]

24. Bénéfice ratt, c'est pou sèpent. (Le bénéfice du rat, c'est pour le serpent.)

'* The rat's gains are for the serpent." — [Afartinique.]

25. Bon bagout çappe la vie. (Bon bagou sauve la vie.)

" Good gab saves one's life." — [Afauritiiw,]

26. Bon blanc mouri; mauvais rêté. (Le bon blanc meurt ; le mauvais [méchant] reste.)

" The good white man dies ; the bad remains." — [ffayti.]

27. Bon-bouche ka gagnin chouvals à crédit. (La bonne bouche* obtient des chevaux à

credit.) *' Fair words buy horses on credit."-[TVinitZad.]

1 The sarcasm of this proverb appears to be especially levelled at the rich. In other Mauritian proverbs the house of the rich man is always spoken of as the house covered with shingles, in contradistinction to the humble slave cabins, thatched wiih straw.

2 Pows^iit :" past" — therefore synonymous with "beyond." Word for word the translation would be: — "The stick isnottJtroug beyond the sword." But the Creole generally uses"pli8 — passé" instead of the French plus — que ("more than"). "Victorine li plis zolie passé Alphonsine " — Victorine is more pretty than Alphonsine. The Creole passe is really adverbial: bearing some semblance to the old English use of the word "passing," as In "pas«ina strange," "paxsiny fair."

3 This proverb may be found in all the Creole dialects of the West Indies. We have in the South a proverb to the same effect in English : FlytUne wUl come cujain^ and the ox will want his tail.

* A proverb current In Martinique, Ix)uisiana, etc., with slight variations. Favors or services done through selfish policy, or compelled by necessity, do not merit acknowledgment.

5 The Louisiana rij/on or fi(7"on [ti;/on is the true Creole word] isthe famously picturesque handkerchief which in old days all slave women twisted about their heads. It is yet worn by the older colored folk ; and there are several styles of arranging it — tfj/on chinoise, tiyon Créole, etc. An old New Orleans ditty is still sung, of which the refrain is : —

Madame Caba !

Tiyon vous tombé I Madame Caba, Tivon vous tombé I " Madame Caba, your tiyon's falling off ! "

6 That ia to say : la bonne langue ; — " the good tongue gets horses on credit.

28. * Bon chien pas janmain trappe bon zo. (Jamais un bon chien n'obtient un bon os.)

" A good dog never gets a good bone." — Creole adaptation of an old French proverb. — [Martinique.]

28. Bon coq chanté dans toutt pouleillé. (Un bon coq chante dans tout [n'importe quel] poulailler.)

"A good cock crows in any henhouse." — Meaning that force of character shows Itself under all circumstances. — [3/artinigitf'.]

30. Bondié baille nouè^ett pou ça qui pas ni dent. (Le Bon Dieu donne des noisettes à

celui qui n'a pas de dents.)

" God gives nuts to people who have no teeth." Oritrinally an Oriental proverb ; adopted into Creole from the French. As we say : " A fool for luck." — [J/aWmig-we].

31. Bon-Guèka bailie ti zouèseau dans bois mangé, jigé si li pas ké baille chritien mangé.

(Le Bon Dieu donne à manger aux petits oiseaux qui sont dans les bois; jugez s'il ne donnera pas à manger à un chrétien.)i

" God gives the little birds in the wood something to eat ; judge for yourself, then, whether he will not give a Christian something to out." — [Martinique.]

32. Bon lilit, bon ménaze. (Bon lit, bon ménage.)

" Where there's a good bed, there's good housekeeping." — [Jfat/n^iw*.]

33. Bon pie sauvé mauvais cô. (Un bon pied sauve un mauvais corps.)

"A good (swift) foot saves a bad (weakly) body." — Like our proverbial refrain : " He that fights and runs away," etc.2 — [Martinique.]

34. * Bon-temps fait crapaud manqué bounda. (Le bon temps fait manquer de derrière au

crapaud.) " Idleness leaves the frogs without buttocks." — [Xawi^iana].

35. * Bon-temps pas bosoo. (Le bon temps n'est pas bossu.)

" Good fortune is never hunch-backed." (Same proverb in Martinique dialect, and In that of Louisiana.)» — L7Wn{(?a(?.]

36. Bon valett ni lakhé coupé. (Le bon valet a la queue coupée.)

" The good servant's tail is cut off." — Reference to the condition of a dog whoso tail is cut off : he can't wag his tail, because he has no tail to wag U — [Martinique.]

37. * Bouche li pas ni dimanche. (Sa bouche n'a pas de dimanche.)

" His mouth never keeps Sunday" — lit: ''has no Sunday"-no day ot reat. — [Mart.]

1 Such a conversation as the following may not unfrequeutly bo heard among the old colored folk in New Orleans : —

— " Eh 1 Marie I to pape travaï jordi ? — " Moin ? — non I "

— " Eh, ben ! comment to fé pou vive, alors? — " Ah I — ti zozo U ka iMi, li ka mangé, li pom travaï tovnou ! " [*' Hey, Marie 1 — Ain't you going to work to-day ?" "I ? — no I " " Well then, how do you manage to live ? " ''Ah!... .little bird drinks, little bird eats, little bird does'rit work all the same I "

3 Or like the Old Country saying " Better a good run than a bad stand."

• In Creole b<m femj*» most generally signifies "idleness," and is not always used in a pleasant sense. Prov. '.l.'y is Kuscoptible of several different applications.

* "The good servant does not lawn, does not flatter, does not atfect to oe pleased with everything his master does — ho may emulate the dog in constant faithfulness, not in fawnlDff.

38. Boucoup disic dans cannes, mes domaze marmites napas nous. (Beaucoup de sucre dans

les cannes, mais par malheur noua ne sommes pas les marmites.)

"Plenty of sugar in the canes; but unfortunately we are not the boilers." — Said when dishonesty is discovered in the management of aSa.irs. — iMaurititis.^

39. Boudin pas tini zoreles. (Le ventre n'a pas d'oreilles.)

"The belly hasno e&ra." — [Trinidad.']

40. * Bouki fait gombo, lapin mangé li. (Le bouc fait le gorabo, le lapin le mange.)

" He-goat makes the gombo ; but Rabbit oata it."i — [Louisiana.]

41. Ça ou jeté jôdi épis piè, ou ramassé li dimain épis lanmain. (Ce que vous rejetez.

aujourd'hui avec le pied, vous le ramasserez demain avec la main.)

'* What you push away from you to-day with your foot, you will pick up to-morrow with your hand."2 — [Martinique.]

42. Ça ou pédi nen f è ou va trouvé nen sann. (Cîe que vous perdez dans le feu, vous le retrou-

verez dans la cendre.)

" What you lose in the fire, you will find in the ashes." — Meaning that a good deed is never lost. " Cast your bread upon the waters," etc. — [Afartinique.]

43. * Ça qui bon pou zoie, bon pou canard. (Ce qui est bon pour l'oie, est bon pour le canard.).

" What is good for the goose is good for the duck." — Martini^e.

44. Ça qui boudé manze boudin. (Celui qui boude mange du boudin.)

" He who sulks eats his own belly." That is to say, spites himself. The pun is un-tran8latable."3 — [Mauritius.]

45. Ça qui dourmi napas pensé manzé. (Qui dort ne pense pas à manger.)

" When one sleeps, one doesn't think about eating."-» — Li/a^^rirti**.]

46. Ça qui fine goûté larac zamés perdi son goût, (Celui qui a goûté I'arac n'en oublie

jamais le goût.) " He who has once tasted arrack never forgets the taste." — [Mauritius.']

47. Ça qui gagné pitl mil dehors, veillé laplie. (Celui qui a un peu de mil dehors veille-

la pluie.) " He who has [would raise] a little millet out of doors, watches for r&in." — [Hayii.]

48. Ça qui gagne zoli fille gagne coudeçapeau. (Celui qui a une jolie fille reçoit des coups

de chapeau.) " He who has a pretty daughter receives plenty of salutes."-[JfawrirtM*.]

49. Ça qui mangé zé pas save si bonda poule fait li mal. (Ceux qui mangent ne savent pas si

le derrière de la poule lui fait mal.) " Those who eat eggs don't know whether the chicken suSered."^ — [Martinique.]

50. Ça qui ni bon piè prend douvant. (Celui qui a bon pied prend le devant.

" He who is swift of foot takes the lead." Force of character always brings its possessor to the front. — [Mart.]

1 This proverb is founded upon one of the many amusing Creole animal-fables, all bearing the title: Compè Bouki épis Compè Lapin) "Daddy Goat and.Daddy Babbit".) The rabbit always comes out victorious, as in the stories of Uncle Kemus.

2" Waste not, want not."

3 Boudin in French signifies a pudding, in Creole it also signifies the belly. Thus there is a double pun in the patois.

4 " Qui dort, dine, is an old French proverb.

6 A little too vulgar for literd translation. Those who profit by the misfortunes of others,, never ooncern themselves about the suffering which they take advautage of.

61. Ça qui pas bon pou sac pas boa pour maconte. (Ce qui n'est pas bon pour le sac, n'est pas pour le maconte. " What is not fit for the bag, is not fit for the maconte."^ — lllayti.l

52. Ça qui prend zassocié prend maite. (Celui qui prend un associé prend (se donne) un

maître. " He who takes a partner takes a master." — [itfaWiwig-ue.]

53. Ça qui'tl bien fére, zamés ti mal fére. (Ce qui est bien fait, n'est jamais mal fait.

" What's rightly done is never wrongly done." — That is to say : Never regret anything done fora good motive. — I Mauritius.'\

64. Ça qui tine poêlon qui cone so prix lagresse. (C'est celui qui tient le poêlon qui connaît

le prix de la grasse.) " It's the one who holds the skillet that knows the cost of lard." — IMauritius.}

65. Ça qui touyé son lecorps travaille pour levéres. (Celui qui tue son propre corps, tra-

vaille pour les vers.)

" He who kills his own body, works for the worms." Applicable to those who injure their health by excesses. — [Jfawr itius.]

56. Ça qui vie couvé, couvé su zè yo. (Ceux qui veulent couver, qu'elles couvent leurs propres

œufs.)

" Let those who want to hatch hatch their own eggs." — That is, let everybody mind his or her own hnBiueas. — lMartinique.'\

57. ♦ Ça va rivé dans semaine quatte zheudis. (Cela va arriver dans la semaine de quatre

j«-idis.) "That will happen in the week of four Thur8day8."2-[iowmafia.]

58. Ça ziè pas voué khè pas fè mal. (Ce que les yeux ne voient pas, ne fait pas de mal au

cœur.) " What the eyes don't see never hurts the heart.^ — IMartinique.l

59. Cabritt4 boue, mouton sou. (Quand la chèvre boit, c'est le mouton qui est soûl.)

" When the goat drinks, they say the sheep is drunk." — Meaning that the innocent are made to suffer for the guilty. — IMartinigue.']

60. Cabritt li ka monié roche, li descende. (Chèvre qui a monté un rocher doit en descendre.)

"The goat that climbs up the rocks must climb down ag&in. — lGuyana.}

61. Cabritt pas connaitt gouraé,"- mais cui li batte la charge. (La chèvre ne sait pas le battre;

mais son cuir [sa peau] bat la charge.) " The godt does not know how to fight ; but his hide beats the charge." — [flay^L]

1 Waid in Trinidad Creole. Maconte is probably from the Spanish macôna, a basket without handles. The Haj tian maconte is a sort of basket made of woveu grass, and used lor carrying all kinds of articles. It is strapped to the shoulders.

-i Ironically said to those who make promises which there is no reason to believe will ever bd fulfilled.

8 Ce que yex ne voit, cuer ne deut, is a French proverb of the 13th century, from which was probai»! V derived our own saying : " What the eye doesn't see, the heart doesn't grieve after."

* Cabri in French signifies a kid ; in Creole it signifies either a kid or a goat — more generally the latter. The word was originally spelled with a final t; and the Creoles of the Antilles have generally preserved the letter, even in pronunciation. I have purposely retained the various spellings given by various authors.

6 Ooumé, or In some dialects, govmein, is said by Turianlt to be a verb of African origin — Jhtude »ur la langage Creole, page 14:i. Still we have the French word gourmer^ signifying to curb a horse, also, to box, to give cuffs.

<«3. Cabritt qui pas malin pas gms. (La chèvre qui n'est pas malig-ne n'est pas grasse.) " The goat that isn't cunning never gets tsit." — lMartinigtie. ]

63. Cabrite qui pas malin mangé nen pie mome. (La chèvre qui n'est pas maligne, mange au pied du morne.) "The foolish goat eats at the foot of the hilV' — lHayti.\

64 Canari vie rie chôdier. (Le canari [le pot] veut rire de la chaudière [la marmite!.) " The clay-pot wishes to laugh at the iron vot."i — [ Trinidad.^

65. Cancrelat sourti dans lafarine. (Le cancrelat [ravet] sort de la farine.)

" The roach has come out of the Hour-barrel." — èaiù to women of color who whiten their faces with rice-powder. — [ifawri^i^.]

«6. Canna pa ni d'leau pou li baingnein i le trouvé pou li nagé. (Le canard n'a pas de l'eau pour se laver, et il veut trouver assez pour nager.)

"The dyek hasn't enough water to wash with, and he wants enough to swim in." — Refers to those who live beyond their mesins. — lMartinique.\

67. ♦ Capon vive longtemps. (Le capon vit longtemps.)

"The coward lives a long time."2 — [ZoMma/ja.]

68. ♦ Çaquéne senti so doulére. (Chacun sent sa douleur.)

" Everybody has his own troubles." — [J/aMriiiiw.]

69. Carbon zamés va done la farine. (Le charbon jamais ne donnera de farine.)

" Coal will never make flour." — You can" t wash a negro wtiite. — [Mauritiii8.

70. (^atte boire dilhouile enbas latabo. (Le chat boit l'huile sous la table.)

" Cat's drinking the oil under the table." — People are making fun at your expense, though you don't know it. — [Mauritius.]

7L Çatte noir apéle larzent.s (Un chat noir présage [appelle] de l'argent.) "A black cat brings money (good luck.) " — [Maujitius.]

73. Çatte qui éna matou fére lembarras. (La chatte qui a un matou fait ses embarras,) "The t^he-cat who has a tom-cat, puts on a.ir9."~-[Ma>tnii7/s.]

1 " Pot calls the kettle black." The clay pot {canari) has almost disappeared irom Creole kitchens in Louisiana; but the term survives in a song of which the burthen is: " Canari cassé dans difé."

2 The word capon is variously applied by Creoles as a term of reproach. It may refer rather to stinginess, hypocrisy, or untruthfulness, than to cowardice. We have in New Orleaxia an uucient Creole ballad of wbich the refrain is:

Alcée Leblanc

Mo di toi, chère,

To trop cajx)n

Pou payé menage!

C'est, qui di yrt, —

Ça (jue di toi chère,

Alcee Leblanc! In this case tho wnrd evidently refers t ) the niggardliness of AUée, who did not relish the idea of settlinjf SJIJU or peruap6 $1,000 ol" furniture upoa his fa v^ori te quadroon girl. The song itself coiumemorutus customs of slavery daj's. Those who took to Lhemselves colored mitj-tresses frequently settled much property upon them — the arrangement being usually made by the mother of the girl. Housekeeping outfits of this character, constituting a sort of dowry, ranged in value from $500 to even $2.500 ; and such dowries formed thef undation of many celebrated private lodging houses in New Orleans kept by colored women. The quadroon housekeepers have now almost all disappeared.

3 This Is certainly o£ £n£iiaU ori£iu.

73. Çatte qui fine bourle av difé père lacende, (Le chat qui s'est brûlé avec le feu, a peur de

la cendre.) " When a cat has been once burned by fire, It is even afraid of cinderB." — [Mauritius.}j

74. Causer ce manger zoreîes. (Causer, c'est le manger des oreilles.)

" Conversation is the food of the ears." — ITrinidad.']

75. C'est bon khé crabe qui lacause li pas tini tête. (C'est à cause de son bon cœur que le

crabe n'a pas de tête.) •'It is because of his good heart that the crab has no head." i — l3farUnique.]

76. *C'e8t couteau qui connaite ça qui dans cœur geomon. (C'est le couteau qui sait ce qu'il

y a dans le cœur du giromon.) "It's the knife that knows what's in the heart of the pumpkin.",2 — [^ar^miçt^.]

77. C'est cuiller qui allé lacails gamelle ; gamelle pas j amain allé lacail cuiller. (C'est la cuille

qui va à la maison de la gamelle ; jamais la gamelle ne va à la maison de ia cuiller.) '' Spoon goes to bowl's house ; bowl never goes to spoon's house." — [.Sizy^i.]

78. C'est douvant tambou nion connaitt Zamba. (C'est devant le tambour qu'on reconnaît

Zamba.) " It's before the drum one learns to know Za,xD.ha.." — [Raj/ii.']

79. C'est langue crapaud-t qui ka trahi crapaud. (C'est la langue du crapaud qui le trahit.)

"It's the frog's own tongue that betrays hira" — [Trinidad.']

80. C'est Ihé vent ka venté, moun ka ouer lapeau poule. (C'est quand le vent vente qu'on

peut voir la peau de la poule — lit.: que le monde peut voir.)

" It's when the wind is blowing that folks can see the skin of a fowl." — True character Is revealed under adverse circumstances.-[TriwecZac?.]

81. C'est nans temps laplîe béf bisoèn lakhé lî. (C'est dans le temps de pluie que le bœuf a

besoin de sa queue.)

" It's in the rainy season that the ox needs his tail. — (See Martinique proverb No. 30.) [Trinidad.]

82. C'est pas toutt les-jou guiabe n'empote you pauve nhomme. (Ce n'est pas tous les jours

q\il le diable emporte un homme pauvre.) "It isn't every day that the devil carries off a poor m.a,n." — [Martiniqve.]

83. Ce souliers tout-sel qui save si bas tinî tous. (Ce sont les souliers seuls qui savent si les

bas ont des trous.) "It'8 only the shoes that know if the stockings have holes." — [Trinidad.]

1 Implies that excessive good nature is usually indicative of feeble reasoning-pow r.

2 This proverb exists in five Creole dialects. In the Guyana patois it is slightly diu*erent : Couteau miriso connain quior iniam (le couteau seul connaît le cœur de l'igname.) "It's only the knife knows what's in the heart of the yam."

3 Caïe or Caille, as sometimes written, is a Creole word of Carib origin. In the cities of the Antilles case is generally substituted — probably derived from the Spanish casa, " house."

4 In some of the West Indies the French word crapaud seems to have been adopted by the Creoles to signify either a toad or a frog, as it is much more easily pronounced by Creole lips than grenouille, which they make sound like "gwoonouïlle." But in Louisiana there is a word used lor frog, a delightful and absolutely perfect onomatopœia : Ocaouabon (wah-wahron).

I think the prettiest collection of Creole onomatopœia made by any folklorist is that in Bedasac'a Efude sur le Patois Créole Mauricien, pp. 92-95. The delightful little Creole nursery-narrative, in which the cries of all kinds of domestic animals are imitated by patois phrases,. deserves special attention.

84. Chaque bêtè-à-fè claire pou nânme yo, (Chaque mouche-à-feu éclaire pour son âme.

" Every flre-fly makes light for its own soul;" that is to say, "Every one for himself ." — [ifar^i/iiç'W. ]

85. Chatt pas là, ratt ka bailU bal. (Absent le chat, les rats donnent un bal.)

" When the cat's away the rats give a hsdl." — [Martinique.]

86. * Chatte brilé pair di feu. (Le chat brûlé a peur du feu.)

'* A burnt cat dreads the fire." — [Louisiana.]

87. Chien connaitt comment li fait pou manger zos. (Le chien sait comment il fait pour

manger les os.) '• The dog knows how he manages to eat bones." — [ffayrt.]

88. Chien jamain morde petite li jusque non zos. (La chienne ne mord jamais ses petits

jusqu'à l'os.) " The bitch never bites her pups to the bone." — [fiay^i.]

89. * Chien jappô li pas morde. (Le chien qui jappe ne mord pas.)

" The dog that yelps doesn't hite." — [Louisiana.]

90. Chien pas mangé chien. (Les chiens ne mangent pas les chiens.)

" Dogs do not eat dogB." — [Louisiana.]

91. Chien qui fé caca dans chimin li blié, mais ça qui tiré pas blié. (Le chien qui fa.t caca sur

le chemin, oublie ; mais celui qui l'en ôte, n'oublie pas.)

" The dog that dungs in the road forgets all about it, but the person who has to remove it does not forget." — [Martiniçrue.]

92. Chien tlni guiole fote à caïc maitô li. (Le chien a la gueule forte dans la maison de son

maître.) *' The dog is loud-mouthed in the house of his master." — [i/arttntywe,]

93. Chien tlni quate patte, mais li pas capabe prend quate chimin. (Le chien a quatre pattes

mt.is il ne peut pas [n'est pas capable dej prendre quatre chemins.)

"The dog has four paws but is not able to go four different ways [at one time]," — [Martinique.]

94. Chouval rété nen zécurie, milett nen savane. (Le cheval reste dans l'écurie, le mulet

dans la savane.) *' The horse remains In the stable, the mule in the ûeld." 2 — [Martinique.]

95. ♦Cila qui rit vendredi va pleuré dimanche. (Celui qui rit le vendredi va pleurer le

dimanche.)

" He who laughs on Friday will cry on Sunday." There is an English proverb, " Sing at your breakfast and you'll cry at your dinner." — [Louisiana.]

96. Ciramons pas donne ealabasse. (Le giraumon ne donne pas la calebasse.)

" The pumpkin doesn't yield the calabash."-i7ay<i.

1 Batll {to give) affords example of a quaint French verb preserved in the Creole dialect, — bailler. It can be found in Molière. Formerly a Frenchman would have said, ''BaUler sa foi, bailler sa parole. It is now little used in France, except in such colloquialisms as, " Vous me la baillez belle ! "

- Each one must be content with his own station. Here the mule seems to represent the slave ; the horse, the mspter or overseer.

3 I Kive the spellm^' Ciramon as I And it in Mr. Bigelow's contributions to Earper^s Magazine, 1875. (See Ribliograi'uy.) NevertbelessT suspect the spelling is wrong. In Louisiana AJreole we say Gironwn. The French word is Giraumon.

97. ♦Cochon conné sir qui bois l'apé frotté. (Le cochon sait bien pur quel arbre [bois] il va

se frotter.) " The hog knows well what sort of tree to rub himself against."^ — [Lovisiana.']

98. Coment to tale to natte faut to dourmi. (Comment tu étends ta natte il faut que tu te

couches.) " As you spread your mat, so must you lie." — IMauritius.]

99. ♦Compé Torti va doucement ; mais li rivé coté bite pendant Compé Chivreil apé dormi.

(Compère Tortue va doucement ; mais il arrive au bût pendant que Compère Chevreuil dort.

" Daddy Tortoise goes slow ; but he gets to the goal while Daddy Deer is a8leep."2 ^ILouisiana.']

1(X). Complot plis fort passé ouanga.i- (Le complot est plus fort que l'ouanga.) 2 " Conspiracy is stronger than witchcreif t." — [HaytL]

101. Conseillère napas payére. (Le donneur de conseil n'est pas le payeur.)

" The adviser is not the payer." That is to say, the one who gives advice has nothing to lose. — IMauritiiis.']

103. Coq çanté divant la porte, doumounde vini. (Quand le coq chante devant la porto quelqu'un vient.) " Whea the cock crows before the door, somebody is coming."* — IMauriiius.']

1 In most of the Creole dialects several different versions of a popular proverb are current. A friend gives me this one of proverb 97 : Cochon-marron conné enhaut gui bois H frotté. ("■ The wild hog knows what tree to rub himself upon.") Marron is applied in all forms of the Creole patois to wild things ; zhibes marrons signifies " wild plants." The term, couri-marron, ovnegtie-marron formerly designated a runaway slave in Louisiana as it did in the Antilles. There is an old New Orleans saying :

" Après yé tiré canon Negue sans passe c'est nègue-marron,.^^ This referred to the old custom in New Orleans of firing a cannon at eight p. M. in winter, and nine p. M. in summer, as a warning to all slaves to retire. It was a species of modern curfew-signal. Any slave found abroad after those hours, without a pass, was liable to arrest and a whipping of twenty-flve lashes. Marron, from which the English w<ird "Maroon" is derived, has a Spanish origin. "It is," says Skeats, "a dipt form of the Spanish cimarron, wild, unruly; literally, "living in the mountain-tops." Cimarron, jr^^va Span. Cima, a mountain-summit. The original term for "Maroon" was negro-ci?narr6n, as It still is in some parts of Cuba.

2 Based upon the Creole fable of Compère Tortue and Compere ChevreuU^ rather different from the primitive story of the Hare and the Tortoise.

3 Di moin si to gagnin nhomme I

Mo va fé ouanga pou li ; Mo fé li tourné fantôme Si to vlé mo to mari — " Tell me If thou hast a man [a lover] : I will make a ouanga for him — I will change him Into a a ghost if thou wilt have me for thy husband." — This word, of African ori;rin, is applied to all things connected with the voudooistn of the negroes. In the song, Lipi mo Wuè,touè Adèle, from vfhictk the above lines are taken, the wooer threatens to get rid ol a rival byowa«j7a — lo "turn him into a ghost." The victims of voudooism are said to have gradually witnered away, probably through the influence of secret poison. The word gri-oH, also of African origin, simply refers to a charm, which may be used for an innocent or Innocuous purpose. Thus, in a Louisiana Creole song, we find a quadroon raothnr promising hJT drtughU.T a charm to prevent the white lover from forsaking her ; Pou tckombé li na fé grlari--'' We shall make a grigri to keep him."

* This is also a proverb of European origin. The character of Creole folklore Is very different from European folklore in the matter of superstition.

103. Cououi pas laide, temps lafôce pas là. (Ce n'est pas laid de courir, quand on n'a pas de

force.) " It isn't ugly to run, when one isn't strong enough to stay." — [TVin..]

104. Coup de lan?ue pis mauvais piqû sèpent. (Un coup de langue est plus mauvais qu'une

piqûre de serpent. " A tougue-thrust is worse than a serpent's 8tiug." — [Martiniqtie.'\

105. Coudepied napas empéçe coudecorne. (Les coups de pied n'empêchent pas les coups

de corne.

"Kicking doesn't hinder butting." There is more than one way to revenge oneself. — [ ilfowri^ii^.]

106. Coupé son nenez, volor so flguire. C^ouper son nez, c'est voler sa figure.)

" Cutting off one's nose is robbing one's f&ce." — lMauritius.'\

107. * Coupé zoré milet fait pas choual. (Couper les oreilles au mulet, n'en fait pas un cheval.

" Cutting off a mule's ears won't make him a horse."i — [Zowmana.]

108. Couroupas dansé, zaco rié. (Le couroupas [colimaçon] danse le singe rit.)

" Monkey laughs when the snail dances."2 — [J/awri^iw*.]

109. (;ouval napas marce av bourique. (Le cheval ne marche pas avec l'âae.

"The horse doesn't walk with the ass." — Let each keep his proper place. — [ATauridua.]

110. Couyenade c'est pas limonade. (Couillonade n'est pas limonade.)

"Nonsense is not sugar-water" (lemonade), says Thomas. The vulgarity of the French word partly loses its grossness in the Creole. — [Trirddad.]

111. Crabe pas mâché, H pas gras; — li mâche touop, et li tombé nans chôdiér. (Le crabe ne

marche pas, 11 n'est pas gras ; il marche trop, et il tombe dans la chaudière).

" The crab doesn't walk, he isn't fat; he walks too much, and fails into the pot." — ITrinidad.^

112. * Craché nen laire, li va tombé enhaut vou nez. (Crachez dans l'air, il vous en tombera

sur le nez). " If you spit in the air, it will fall back on your own nose.^^ — lLouisiana.l

113. Crapaud pas tini chimise, ous vie li pôte caneçon. (Le crapaud n'a pas de chemise, et

vous voulez (ju'il porte caleçon). " The frog has no shirt, and you want him to wear drawers r' — [7>inicîad.l

114. Cresson content boire dileau. (Le cresson aime d boire l'eau).

" The water cross loves to drink water." Used interrogatively, this is equivalent to the old saw : " Does a duck like water ?" " Will a duck Bwim?" — lMauriHus.'\

115. Croquez maconte ou oueti « main ou ka rivé. (Accrochez votre maconte où vous pouvez

1 .atteindre avec la main [lit. où vôtre main peut arriver].) " Hang up your maconte where you can reach it with your hand." — [flizyrt.]

1 This seems to me much wittier than our old proverb: "You can't make a silk purse out of a sow's ear."

2 Probably had its origin in a Creole conte. Same applications as Proverbs 3?6, 263, 315.

3 Like our proverO about chickens coming home to roost. If you talk scandal at random, the rai>ohief done will sooner or later recoil upon yourself. I find the same proverb in the Mauritian dialect. ,

■i The Martinique dirtloct gives both o^ia?i6?OM<i for "ou": "where." Mr. Biprelow give» the curious f-peilinKcro^f/tS. Tlie word is certainly derived from the French, accrocher. In Louisiana Creole we always say ^croche for "hang up." I doubt the correctness of the Havtian sF»c'llinu; ashpro given ; for the French word croquer ("to devour," "gobble up," "])iller," etc.) has its Creole counterpart ; and the soft ch is never, so far as I can learn, changed into the k or g sound in the patois.

116. D'abord vous gruetté poux de bois mangé bouteille, croquez calabasse vous haut. (Quand

vous voyez les poux-de-bois mang-er les bouteilles, accrochez vos calabasses [en] haut). " When you see the woodlice eatintf the bottles, hang your calabashes out of their reach." i — [Hayti.'[

117. D'abord vous guetté poux de bois mangé can iri, calebasse pas capabe prend pied. (Quand

que vous voyez les poux-de-bois manger les marmites, les calebasses ne peuvent pas leur résister).

" When you see the wood-lice eating the pots, the calabashes can't be expected to resist. " 2 — [floy^i. ]

118. Dans mariaze liciens, témoins gagne batte. (Aux noces des chiens, les témoins ont les

coups.) " At a dog's wedding it's the witnesses who get hurt." — IMauritim.']

11». Dêïèr chein, ce " chein "; douvant chein, ce " Missier Chein." (Derrière le chien, c'est " chien," mais devant le chien, c'est " Monsieur le Chien.") " Behind the dog's back it is ' dog;' but before the dog it is 'Mr. Dog.' " — ITrinidad.']

120. Dent morde langue. (Les dents mordent la langue.) "The teeth bite the tongue." — [//ai/^i.]

12L Dents pas ka pôté dëî. (Les dents ne portent pas le deuil.)

"Teeth do not wear mourning." — meaning that, even when unhappy, people may show their teeth in laughter or smiles. — [TV-imcia^.]

122. Dent pas khé (" Dents pas cœur " — Les dents ne sont pas le cœur).

" The teeth are not the heart." A curious proverb, referring to the exposure of the teeth by laughter."^ — lMartinigu€.'\

123. * Di moin qui vous laimein, ma di vous qui vous yé. (Dites moi qui vous aimez, et je

vous dirai qui vous êtes.) *' Tell me whom you love, and I'll tell you who you axe." — lLoui8iana.]

IZi. Dileau dourmi touyé dimounde. (L'eau qui dort tue les gens.) " The water that sleeps kills people."^ — [^awn^iw*.]

125. Dimoundo qui fére larzent, napas larzent qui fére dimounde. (Ce sont les hommes qui font l'argent, ce n'est pas l'argent qui fait les hommes.)

*' It's the men who make the money ; 'tisn't the money that makes the men." — IMauriiius.']

128. Dlvant camrades capabe largué quilotte. (Devant des camarades on peut lâcher sa culotte.) " Before friends one can even take off one's breeches." — [itfawn^iw*.]

1 Mr. Rigelow is certainly wrong in his definition of the origin of the word which he »pe\lH quêté. It is a Creolo adoption of the French guetter, " to watch:" and is used by the Creoles m the sense of *' observe," perceive," " see." Other authorities spell it guette, as all verbs ending in "ter" in French make their Creole termination in "té." This verb is one of many to which slightly different meanings from those belonging to the original French words, are attached by the Creoles. Thus çappe, from échapper, is used as an equivalent for sauver.

a The saliva of the tropical woodlouse is said to be powerful enough to affect iron.

» The laugh or smile that shows the teeth does not always prove that the heart is merry.

< "Still waters run deep." The proverb is susceptible of various applications. Everyone who has sojourned in tropical, or even semi-tropical latitudes knows the deadly nature of Btagaant water in the feverish summer season.

1^. Divant tranzés faut boutonné canneçon. (Devant des étrangers il faut boutonner son caleçon.) " Before strangers one must keep one's drawers buttoned. — [ifawri^iw.l

128. Eizéf 8 canard pli gros qui dizéfs poule. (Les œufs de cane sont plus gros que les œufs de poule.

" Ducks' eggb are bigger than bens' eggs." — Quantity is no guarantee of quality. — IMauritius.l

139. Dizéfs coq, poule qui fére. (Les œufs de'coq, c'est la poule qui les fait.) "It's the hen that makes the cock's egga." — \Mauritiu8.'\

130, ♦ Dolo toujou couri larivière. (L'eau va toujours â la rivière.) " Water always runs to the river." — [Lmiisiana.]

13L Doucement napas empéce arriver. (Aller doucement n'empêche pas d'arriver. *' Going gently about a thing won't prevent its bemg done."^ — [Mauritius.]

132. Fair pou fair pas mal. (Faire pour faire n'est pas [mauvais] difficile.)

" It is not hard to do a thing for the sake of doing it." — [Trinidad.]

133. Faut janmain mett racounn» dans loge poule. (Il ne faut jamais mettre un raton dans

la loge des poules. " One must never put a 'coon into a henhouBe." — [Martinique.]

134. Faut jamais porté déil avant détint dans cerkeil. (Il ne faut jamais porterie deuil

avant que le défunt soit dans le cercueil.)

"Never wear mourning before the dead man's in his coffiu."» — [Louisiana.]

135. Faut pdoûoles mor pou moune pè vivre. (Il faut que les paroles meurent, afin que le

monde puisse vivre.)

" Words must die that people may live." — Ironical ; this is said to those who are oversensitive regarding what is said about them." — [Trinidad.]

136. Faut pas cassé so male avant li fine mir. (II ne faut pas casser son mais avant qu'il soit

mûr.) " Musn't pluck one's corn before it's ripe." — [Mauritius.]

137. * Faut pas marré tayau^ avec saucisse. (Il ne faut pas attacher le chien-courant

(taïaut) avec des saucisses.) " Musn't tie up the hound with a string of sausages."-[Zowf^ana.]

138. Fere éne tourou pour boucé laute. (II fait un trou pour en boucher un autre.)

" Make one hole to stop another." " Borrow money to pay a debt." — [Mauritius.]

139. Gambette ous trouvé gan chemin, nen gan chemin ous va pède li. (Le gambette que vous

trouvez sur le grand chemin, sur le grand chemin vous le perdrea. "Every jack-knife found on the high-road, will be lost on the high-road."6 — [JBTayrt.]

1 Literally: "Gently doesn't prevent arriving." One can reach his destination as well by walking slowly, aa by making frantic haste.

2 A Creole friend assures me that in Louisiana patois, the word for coon, is chaoui. This bears so singular a resemblance in sound to a French word of very different meaning — cAa^AMa«< (screech-owl) that it seems possible the negroes have in this, as in other cases, given the name of one creature to another.

'Don't anticipate trouble: "Never bid the devil good morrow till you meet him." 'Don't cro.ss a bridge until vou come to it." ^ ^-^ , ^ ^ ».• ,. j

< Adopted from old French " talaut" (tally-ho !) the cry of the huntsman to his hounds. The Creoles have thus curiously, but forcibly, named the hound itsclt. km

r-T cannot discover the etymology of this word, nccordinor to the meaning given oy Mr. Bigelow. The ordinary French signification of gambette is "red-shank " — Totanuscaledris.

140. Gens bon-temps kâllé dîe gouvênér bon-jou. (Les gens [qui ont du] bon-temps vont

dire bon-jour au gouverneur.) " Folks who have nothing to do (lit. : whx) have a fine time) go to bid the Governor good-day." Gem bon-temps ; " flne-time folks." — [ÎWnidûwT.l

141. ♦ Gens fégnants ka mandé travâï épîs bouche ; main khèrs yeaux ka pouier Bondié pou

yeaux pas touver. (Les gens fainéants demandent avec leurs bouches pour du travail , mais leurs cœurs prient le Bon Dieu Lpour] qu'ils n'en trouvent point.)

" Lazy folks ask for work with their lips : but their hearts pray God that they may not find it." — lTrinidad.'\

142. Grens qui ka ba ous conseî gagnen chouval gouous-boudin nans Ihouvênaïe, nana carêmo

pas ka rider ous nouri li. (Les gens qui nous donnent conseil d'acheter un cheval à gros-ventre pendant l'hivernage, ne veulent point vous aider à le nourrir pendant le carême.)

" Folks who advise 'you to buy a big-bellied horse in a rainy season (when grass is plenty),won't help you to feed him in the dry season when grass is scarce."i — [TWnic^ad.}

143. Gouïe passé difll sivré. (Où l'aiguille passe, le fil suivra.)

" Where the needle passes thread will follow."* — [.Mauritius.']

144. Graisse pas tini sentiment. (La graisse n'a pas de sentiment.)

" Fat hasno feeling."^ — [Trinidad.]

145. Haillons mié passé tout nu. (Les haillons sont mieux que de rester tout nu.)

" Rags are better than nakedness." Half-a-loaf 's better than no bread." — [flaytt.]

146. Haï moune ; main pas bai^eaux paûèn pou chaïer dleau. (Hais les gens ; mais ne leur

donne pas des paniers pour charrier de l'eau.)

"Hate people; but don't give them baskets to carry water in." — that is to say: Don't tell lies about them that no one can believe — stories that "won't hold water." — [Trinidad.]

147. *Jadin loin, gombo gate. (Jardin loin, gombo gâté.)

" When the garden is far, the gombo is spoiled."* — [Martinique.]

148. *Jamais di : Fontaine, mo va jamais boi to dolo. (Ne dis jamais — Fontaine, je ne

boirai jamais de ton eau.) "Never say — 'Spring, I will never drink joui water.*"J^ — [Louisiana.] ■

149. Janmain guiabe ka dômi. (Jamais le diable ne s'endort.)

"The devil never Bleeps. — [Martinique.]

1 This is J. J. Thomas' translation, as given in his " Theory and Practice of Creole Grammar." Lhouvênale is a word which does not exist in our Louisiana patois. Does it cotne from theSpaniati Hover — ''' to rain "? or is it only a Creole form of the French hivernage.^ Carême, of course means Lent ; whether the dry season in Trinidad is concomitant with the Leuten epoch, or whether the Creoles of the Island use the word to signify any season of scarcity, I am unable to decide.

'When a strong man has opened the way, feebler folks may safely follow.

'There may be gome physiolosrical truth in this proverb as applied to the inhabitants of the Antilles, where stoutness is the exception. Generally speaking phlegmatic persons are inclined to fleehlnees.

* This appears to be a universal Creole proverb. If you want anything to be well done, you must look after it yourself: to absent oneself from one's business is unwise, etc.

6 The loftiest pride is liable to fall ; and we know not how soon we may be glad to seek the aid of the most bumble.

150. Janmain nous ne pas doué ladans quiou poule compté zè. (Il ne faut jamais [nous

ne devons jamaie] compter les œufs dans la derrière de la poule.) '* We should never count the eg-gs in the body of the hen." — (The '. >ceole proverb is, • however, less delic&te.) — [Martinique.]

151. Joué epis chatt ou trappe coup d'patte. (Jouez avec le chat, et vous attrapperez ua

coup de patte.) " Play with the cat, and you'll get scratched." -IMariiniqite.]

152. *Joué épis chien ou trappe pice. (Jouez avec les chiens, vous aurez des puces.)

" Play with the dogs, and you will get fleas." i — [Martinique.]

153. ♦Joudui pou ous, demain pou moin. (Aujourd'hui pour vous, demain pour moi.)

"To-day for you ; to-morrow for me."2 — [ZTayii.]

154. La oti zouèseau ka fé niche yo, c'est la yo ka couché. (Où les oiseaux font leur nids»

là ils se couchent.) " Where the birds build their nests, there they sleep.''^ — [Martinique.]

155. Labouo moque lamare. (La boue se moque de la mare.)

" The mud laughs at the puddle." — Like our : " Pot calls kettle black." — [Jfa«Httt«.]

156. Lacase bardeaux napas guette la case vitivére. (La maison [couverte de] bardeaux ne

regarde point la case couverte de vétiver.)

" Th« house roofed with shingles doesn't look at the hut covered with vétiver."-[Mau7'itivs.]

157. ♦ Lagniappe c'est bitin qui bon. (Lagniappe c'est du bon butin.)

" Lagniappe is lawful booty. "'i — [Louisiana.]

158. Laguer vôti pas ka pouend vléx négues nans cabarets. (La guerre avertie ne prend

pas de vieux nègres dans les cabarets.) '• Threatened war doesn't surprise old negroes in the grog-shops."*-[TW/iic^ac?.]

159. * Laguerre vertie paa tchué beaucoup soldats. (La guerre avertie ne tue pas beaucoup

de soldats.) "Threatened war doesn't kill many Boldlers." — [Louisiana.]

160. Lakhé bef dit : Temps allé, temps vini. (La queue du bœuf dit: Le temps s'en va, 1&

temps revient.) ''The ox's tail says : Time goes, time comes."^ — [Martinique.]

161. Lalangue napas lézos. (La langue n'a pas d'os).

" The tongue has no bones." This proverb has various applications. One of the best alludes to promises or engagements made with the secret determination not to keep

them.. — [Mauritius.]

1 This seems to be a universal proverb. In Louisiana we say : Jmie evec Vi chien, etc.

2 Current also in Louisiana : Jordi pou vou, etc.: "Your turn to-day; perhaps it may be mine to-morrow."

3 Lagniappe, a word familiar to every child in New Orleans, signifies the little present given to purchasers of groceries, provisions, fruit, or other goods 8okl at retail stores. Groceri»«8, especially, seek to rival eacti other in the attractire qualities of their lagniappe; con'^istinjî of candies, fruits, biscuits, little fancy cakes, etc. The chief purpose is to attract children. The little one pent for a pound of butter, or "a dime's worth" of sugar, never t&i\Qto A^kfor itii lagniappe

4 Proverbs 158-9 are .-(juivalent to our " Forewarned is forearmed."

s See Proverb 22. Whether the swing of the tail suggested the irlea of a pendulum to the deviser of this saying is doubtful. The meaninsr seems to me that the motiou of the ox's tail indicates a change not of time, but of weather {temps).

'22 LITTLE DICTIONARY OF CREOLE PROVERBS.

162. * Lamisère à deux, Misère et Compagnie. (La misère à deux, c'est Misère et Compagnie.)

"Misery for two, is Misery & Co." i — [Louisiana.]

163. Lapauveté napaséne vis, mes li éne bien gros coulou. (La pauvreté n'est pas une vis

[un vice] ; mais c'est un bien gros clou.)

" Poverty isn't a screw; but it's a very big nail." The pun will be obvious to a French reader; but vice is not a true Creole word, according to Ba,is8&c." — [Mauritius.]

164. Lapin dit: Boue toutt, mangé toutt, pas dit toutt. (Le lapin dit: Buvez tout, mangez

tout, ne dites pas tout.)

" Rabbit says: Drink everything, eat everything, but don't tell everything." i — [Martinique.]

165. Laplie tombé, couroupas va sourti. (La pluie tombe, les colimaçons vent sortir.)

" It is raining ; snails will be out preaeatly." — [Mauritiui.]

166. * Laplie tombé, ouaouaron chanté. (Quand la pluie va tomber, les grenouilles

chantent.) " When the rain is coming, the bull-frogs sing." — [Louisiana.]

167. Laquée bourique napas laquée couvai. ( CJne queue d'âne n'est pas une queue de cheval.)

" A donkey's tail is not a horse's tail." Can't make a silk purse out of a sow's ear. — [Mauritiuf.]

168. Larzan bon, mes li trop cere. (L'argent est bon, mais il est trop cher.)

" Money's good ; but it's too ûesLr." — [Mauritius.]

169. Larzan napas trouvé dans lipied milet. (L'argent ne se trouve pas dans le pied d'un

mulet.) " Money isn't to be found in a mule's hoot.'^ — [Mauritius.]

170. Larzan napas éna famille. (L'argent n'a pas de famille.)

" Money has no blood relations." — There is no friendship in husineBS. — [Mauritius.]

171. * La-tché chatte poussé avec temps. (La queue du chat pousse avec le temps.)

" The cat's tail takes time to grow." — [Louisiana.]

172. Lepé dit aimé ous pendant li rouge doighte ous. (La lèpre dit qu'elle vous aime pendant

qu'elle vous ronge les doigts.) " The leprosy says it loves you, while it is eating your ûngers." — [Hayti.]

173. L'hére coq çanté, li bon pour marié. (Quand le coq chante, il est bon à marier.)

" When the cock begins to crow, he is old eaou/h to get msLvcied.'' — [Mauritius.]

174. Lhére lamontagne bourlé, tout dimounde cone ; Ihére léquére bourlé, qui cone ? (Quand

la montagne brûle, tout le monde le sait; quand le cœur brûle qui lésait?)

•* When the mountain burns, everybody knows it; when the heart burns, who knows it?"-[Mauriiius.]

175. LI allé l'école cabritt, li ritouné mouton. (Il est allé il l'école [comme un] cabri ; 11 est

revenu mouton.) " He went to school a kid, and came back a sheep."^ — [Martinique.]

1 Refers especially to a man who marries without having made proper provision for the future. The Creole does not believe in our recklf^H proverb : "What will keep one, will keep two." Non, non, cher, tainisered deux. Misère & de..'

a Founded upon a celebrated Creole fable: see Prov. 40 {note).

* The allusion to the overgrown and shy schoolboy, who has lost the mischievous play-fulneflsof bis childhood, is easily recognizable. Creole planters of the Antilles generally oent their sons to Europe to be ecmcated.

176. Li fine vende so cocon. (Il a vendu son cochon.)

" He has sold his pig "^ — [Mauritius.]

177. Li laçasse zozos pariaca. (Il chasse aux oiseaux à paliaca.)

" He's huntinjç paliaca-bird3."2 — [il/o«rifi««.]

178. Li manque lagale pour gratté. (Il [ne] manque [que] de gale pour se gratter. [Lit. In

good French : Il ne lui manque que la gale, etc.])

" He only wants the itch so that he may scratch himself." Said of a man who has all that his heart can wish for.3 — [Mauritius.]

179. Li pour marié; mes quiquefois bague mariaze glisse dans lédoight. (Il doit se marier;

mais quelquefois la bague de mariage glisse du doigt.)

" He is to be married, they say ; but sometimes the marriage-ring slips from one's finger."-* — [-l/awri^iM*. ]

180. Li soule bontemps. (II se soûle de bon temps.)

" He is drunk with doing nothing." — [Mauritius.]

181. Liane yame ka marré yame. (La liane du yam lie [lit. amarre] le yam.)

" The yam-vine ties the y a.m.'' — [Trinidad.]

182. Lilit pour do napas lilet pour trois. (Un lit pour deux n'est pas un lit pour trois.)

" A bed for two isn't a bed for three. — [Mauritius.]

183. Lizié napas 6na balizaze. (Les yeux n'ont pas de f rontière.)6

" Eyes have no boundary." Equivalent to the English saying : •' A cat may look at a king." — [Mauritius.]

184. Macaque caresser iche li touop, li fourrer doègt nans ziex li. (Le macaque, en caressant

trop son petit, lui a fourré le doigt dans l'œil.)

" By petting her young one too much, the monkey ends by poking her finger into its eye." — [Trinidad.] IST). * Macaque dan calebasse. (Le macaque dans la calebasse.)

"Monkey in the c&l&bash."''-[Louisiana.] 186 * Macaque dit si so croupion plimé cas pas gàdé leziutt. (Le macaque dit que si son croupion est plumé, ça ne régarde pas les autres.) "Monkey says if his rump is bare, it's nobody's huBineBS.» — [Louisiana.]

1 Said of one who unexpectedly disburses a considerable sum, or who spends more money than his visible resources admit of.

2 Faliaca is the Mauritian term for the brightly-colored kerchief there worn by all young negressediu lieu of hatsor bonnets, like the old time Louisiana tiyon. " He is hunting for 1)«iliaca-birds " therefore means, " He is running after the colored girls."

3 We have a singular expression in Louisiana: "Xi mette mantec dans so faillots. (He puts lard in his beans.") Tbat is to say, "He is well off." Mantec is a Creolised form of the Spanish mantecc, used in Spanish-A m erica to signify lard.

* " There's many a slip twixt tbe cup and the lip." ^ ^

6 In Martinique Croole the proverb is: Code gname marré gname. "Code" (cordé) signifying the same smtiane, the long cord-like stalk of the creeper. Folks are sometimes caught; fast in the snares they set for others, just as the yam is tied with its own stalk.

6 The Mauritian Creoles have adopted a inarino word in lieu of the French term frontière. "Balizaze" is the Creole form of the French balisage, from balise, a sea mark, buoy — word adopted in our own nautical technology. The term completely changes its meaning as well as its spelling In Creole. ^ . ,. , ^ ., • ^

1 Allusion to tne old fable about the monkey, who after putting his hand easily into the orifice of a jrourd, could not withdraw it without letting go what he sought to steal from within, and so got taught. In tne flururarive Creole speech one who allows his passions to ruin or d\»ara.ce him. \m macaque dans calebasse. , ^ „ ^ ^ ^.

8 Allusion to the callosities ot (he monkey. Plimé literally means "plucked ; but the Creole negroes use It to signify "bare" from any cause. A neerro in rags might use the above proverb as a hint to those who wish to joke him about his personal appearance.

187. * Macaque pas jamaln ka die îche li laide. (Le macaque ne dit jamais que son petit est

laid.) "Monkey never says its young is ugly."i — [2Hnê(?ac?.]

188. Macaque save qui bois li monté ; li pas monté zaurang-é. (Le macaque sait sur quel

arbre il doit monter; il ne monte pas sur l'oranjfer.)

" The monkey well knows what tree to climb ; he doesn't climb an orange tree."2 — [Martinique.']

189. Magré sèpent ni ti ziè li ka voué clé bien. (Bien que le serpent ait de petits yeux, il

voit très-clair.) " Though the serpent has little eyes, he sees very well." — [Martinique.]

190. Maite cabrite mandé li ; ous pas eapabe di li plainda. (Le maître du cabrit le demande,

vous ne pouvez pas vous en plaindre . ) " The kid's owner asks for it ; you can't blame him."^ — [IIayti.]

191. Maladie vine làhaut lève; li aile làhaut tourtie. (La maladie vient sur le lièvre ; elle

part [s'en va] sur la tortue.)

*' Sickness comes riding upon a hare ; but goes away riding upon a tortoise." — [Mauritivs.] 193. Mai hé pas ka châger con lapliè. (Lit : Le malheur ne se charge pas comme la pluie.) "Misfortune doesn't threaten likerain."^ — [7Wmc?ac?.]

193. Mamans ka fair iches, main pas khèrs yeaux. (Les mères font les enfants, mais non pas

leurs cœurs.) "Mothers make children ; but not children's hea.rtB." — [7Yinidad.]

194. Manger yon fois pas ka riser dents. (Manger une fois n'use pas les dents.)

"Eating once doesn't wear out the teeth.^' — [Trinidad.]

195. Marl napas trouvé dans vétivére. (Un mari ne se trouve pas dans le vétiver.)

"You won't find a husband in the vétiver. '^^ -[Mauritius.]

196. Mariaze napas pariaze ; ménaze napas badinaze. (Le mariage n'est pas un pari ; le

ménage n'est ptis un badinage.) " Marriage is no trifling wager, and housekeeping is no sport." — [Maurititis.]

197. Marié éne boutéye vide. (Epouser une bouteille vide.)

" Marry an empty bottle." — Meaning to marry a girl without a do^wry. — [Mauritius.]

198. * Maringouin perdi so temps quand li piqué caïman. (Le marlngoin perd son tenys

quand il pifjuele caïman.) "The mosquito loses his time when he tries testing the alWg&tor." 6 — [Louisiana.]

1 A widely-spread proverb. In Louisiana we say piti li or so piti. instead of "yche" or "Iche li." In Martinique Creole: Macaque lyas janmain trouve yche li laide.

2 Because the oramro tr^'o is thnr-iv.

3 Mr. Blgelow, in Harper''» Magazine^ explains the use of this proverb by a creditor to a debtor.

• 4 Le temps se charge, in French signifies that it is clouding up, threatening rain — lit: "loadmK up." Misturtune does not th eaten before it falls.

r> The delightfullv fragrant grass, well-known to pharmaceutists as the Andropogon muri-catus or Vetiverla odorata is used in Mauritius to thatch cabins with. A broad border of thi» graps is usually planted around each square of sugar-cane. It grows tall enough to conceal a man, or a couple of lovers holding a rendezvous. Hence the wholesome warning.

8 UipoPt to a threat — as we would say : " All that has as little effect on me as water on a duck's back I "

199. Marré conm yon paqué crabe. (Amarré comme un paquet de crabes.)

" Tangled up, or tied up, Uke a bundle of crabs." — Said of people notoriously clumsy .1 — [Mariiniqtie.]

200. Mégue coment çatte qui manze lérats-misqué. (Maigre comme un chat qui mange des

rats musqués.) " Thin as a cat that lives on musk-rats." — [ilTawri^ii^*.]

201. Même baton qui batte chein nouèr-là, pé batte chein blanc-là. (Le même bâton qui bat

le chien noir peut battre le chien blanc.) " The same stick that beats the black dog can beat the yrhite:'2 — [Trinidad.]

202. Menti ça pas si mal conm paie mal moun. (Le mensonge n'est pas si mauvais que de

parler mal des autres.)

"Lying isn't as bad as speaking badly about people." — Lying is less wicked than calumny. — [Martinique.']

203. ♦ Merci pas coûté arien. (" Merci " ne coûte rien.)

" Thanks cost nothing.'■' — [Louisiana.]

204. * Mette milâte enhaut choual, 11 va dî négresse pas so maman. (Mettez un mulâtre [en

haut] sur un cheval — il [va dire] dira qu'une négresse n'est pas sa maman.)

" Just put a mulatto on horseback, and he'll tell you his mother was'nt a negress."» — [Louisiana.]

206. Mié vaut mangé lamori ou, qu'codoinne leszautt. (Il vaut mieux de manger [de] la morue [qui est] à vous que le coq-d'Inde aux autres.) " Better to eat one's own codfish than another person's turkey-cock.' — [J/ar«ni(?Mg.]

206. Milatt ka batt, cabritt ka m(^. (Lea mulâtres se battent, ce sont les cabrits qui

meurent.) " When the mulattoes get to fighting, the goats get 'kXWeô.."* — [Martinique.]

207. Misé fè macaque mangé piment. rLa misère force le macaque tl manger du piment.)

" Misery makes the monkey eat red pepper." — [ifariinigwe.]

208. * " Mo bien comra mo yô," parole rare. ("Jo me trouve bien comme je suis" — ces sont

des paroles rares.) " ' I'm well enough as I am,' are words one doesn't often hear." — [ZoMirfana.]

209. * Mo va pas pre ré vous bâton pou cas.«é mo latête. (Je ne vais vous prêter un bâton pour

me casser la tête.) ♦ " I'm not going to lend you a stick to break my head with..'''' — [Louisiana.]

1 Anyone who has ever seen a heap of live crabs In a basket, will comprehend the fun of this saying — intimating that the sinews of the gawkish person are tangled up as hopelessly as crabs in a market-basket.

a As one should observe : " I've whipped better men than you."

3 I usually give but one example of a proverb when it occurs in several dialects ; but the Martiniciuo form of this proverb ia too amusing to omit. See Prov. 267.

4 Tho tooling of the black to the mulatto is likewise revealed in the following dicton: — NtVuo poté maïs dans so iapoche pou volé poule ; — railatt pôté cordon dans so lapoche

pou volé choual ; — uhomme blanc pôte larzan dans so lapoche pou trompé fille. (Le nègre porte du maïs dans sa poche pour voler des poules; — le mulâtre porte un cordon dans sa poche pour voler des chevaux ; — l'homme blanc porte de l'argent dans sa poche pour tromper les lilles.)

" The negro carries corn in his pocket to [help him to] steal chickens ; the mulatto carries a rope in his pooket to steal horses ; the white man carries money in his pocket to deceive giri^." — [Louisiana.]

210. Moin ainmein plis yon balaou jodi là qu'taza dimain. (J'aime mieux un balaou-

aujourd'hui qu'un tazard demain.) "I'd rather have horn-fish to-day, than mackerel to-morrow."i^ — lMariinique.}

211. Moin pas ka prend dithé pou flève li. (Je ne veux pas prendre du thé pour sa fièvre.)

" I don't propose to drink tea for his feyeT."2 — [MartiniQiie.']

213. Montag-nes zamés zoinde, domounde zoinde. (Les montagrnes ne se rencontrent jamais,, les hommes se rencontrent.)

*' Mountains, only, never meet ; men meet." — We are certain to encounter friends and enemies under the most unlikely circumstances." — [Mauriiius.]

213. Mounn one défaut les-zautt, y o pas ni zié pou tayo. (Les gens voient les défauts des

autres, ils n'ont pas d'yeux pour les leurs.) " Folks see the faults of others ; they have no eyes for their own.'^s — [Martinique.]

214. Moustique pitit ; mes Ihéreli çanté vous zoréye plein. (Le moustique est petit; mais

quand il chante, votre oreille en est pleine. "The mosquito is little ; but when he sings, your ears are full of him." — IMauritius.]

215. Napas éna fromaze qui napas trouve so macathia. (II n'y a pas de fromage qui ne trouve

son pain bis.) "There's no cheese but what can find brown hrea-d.^'i — [Mauritius.]

216. Napas rémié flmié sec. (Ne remuez pas le fumier sec.)

'* Don't stir up dry manure." — Said to those who desire to resurrect forgotten scandal. — [Mauritius.]

217. Napas vous sangsie qui a monté làhaut moi. (Ce n'est pas votre sangsue qui montera

sur moi.)

" Your leech isn't going to climb on me." That is : you shan't take advantage of me. — [Mauritiiis.]

218. Napas vous laliane darzent qui a monté làhaut mo tonelle. (Ce n'est pas votre liane

d'argent qui montera sur ma tonnelle.)

"It isn't your silver creeper that is going to climb over my summer house.""» — IMauritius.]

i"Abirdinthe hand is worth two in the bush." The translation is not literal. TJ^e tazard or thazard. although belonging to the scomber family, is not a true mackerel. Balaou Is one Creole name for VaiguUlette de mer, hornflsh [2-].

2 Or better still: I don't intend to drink tea just because he has the fever." In other words, "I don't intend to bother myself with other people's troubles." — The tea referred to Is one of those old Creole preparations taken during fevers — the tisanes of the black nurses : perhaps the cooling sassafras, or orange-leaf tea administered to sufferers from dengue in New Orleans.

3 This proverb, not being of true Creole origin, receives a place here as an illustration of effective patois. In Louisiana we never say/a yo. but so quenne — Were all proverbs used by the Creole-speaking people included In this collection, it would be considerably longer. Nearly ail familiar English proverbs have received Creole adoption, with slight modifications; for example, instead of " putting the cart before the horse," the Mauritian negro mette çarette divant mUét, puts the cart before the mule — an animal with which he is more familiar.

* That is to say, whoever has a bit of cheese can always find a bit of brown bread to eat with it. There never was a girl so ugly that she could not find a husband.

iSaid by young girls to those whose advances are disagreeable. Khe lanmou pas ka saute (" heart-of-lovedoes not yet leap ") would be the more polite response of a Martinique girl.

219. *Napa8 zoué av difé ; wou a boulé vous çimise. (Ne jouez pas avec le feu ; vous vous . brûlerez la chemise.)

" Play with the fire and you'll bum your shirt." This proverb appears to be current wherever any form of the patois prevails." — [i/aMri^îM*,]

230. Nîon doightpas jamain mangé calalou. (Avec un seul doigt on ne peut jamais manger du calalou.) " You can't eat calalou with one flnger."i — [flay<i.]

22L Nhomme mort, zhèbeska lever douvantlapôte 11. ([Quand] un homme Lest] morte, l'herbe pousse [lit. : s'élève] devant sa porte.) " When a man is dead, the grass grows tall before his door." — ITrinidad.l

222. Nououi chouval pou baille zofflcié monté. (Nourir des chevaux pour les donner à monter

aux officiers.)

" Feed horses for officers to ride." To be the victim of one's own foolish liberality." — \_Mariinique.']

223. * Oîmso soulié save si bas tini trou. (Le soulier seul sait si le bas a un trou.)

"The shoe only knows whether the stockings have ho\es."'i — [_Guyane.'\

224. Oti tini zos tini chien. (Où il y a des os il y a des chiens.)

" Wherever there are bones, there are dogs." Meaning that when one is rich, one has plenty of îrlenûa" — [Martinique.]

225. Ou fâché avec gan chemin, que côté ou va passé ? (Vous vous fâchez avec le grand

chemin, de quel côté irez-vouz?) '* If you get angry with the high road, what way will you go ?" — [ffayii,]

22C). Ou fait semblant mourir, moin fait semblant enterrer ou. (Faites semblant de mourir,, et moi je ferai semblant de vous enterrer.) " You pretend to die ; and I'll pretend to bury you." ^ — [nayti.]

227. Ou sauté, ou tombé la menme. (Vous sautez, vouz tombez tout de môme.)

" You jump, but you come down all the s&me." * — [Martinique.]

228. ♦Où y'en a charogne, y'en a carencro. (Où il a charogne, il y a des busards.)

'* Wherever there's carrion, there are buzzards" s — [Louisiana.']

22^. Ous pôncor travesser lâivïèr: — pas jirez maman caïman. (Vous n'avez pas encore traversé la rivière — ne jurez [maudissez] pas la maman du caïman.)

"You haven't crossed the river yet; don't curse at the crocodile's mother." e — [Tnnidad.]

1 The West Indian calalou is made almost precisely like our aombo-Boup. The word is of African origin according to Turiault.

2 In the Murf ini<iuo dialect it is : C'est soucié qui save si bos tini trou. In the Tnnidad patois : Ce soulier tout-sel qui save si bas tini trou (Thoma*»). In Louisiana Creole: Cést soulier nek connin si bos gagnin Irou. " Nek," compound from French ne ... que — '"' only."

3 Said to those who relate improbable stories of woe."

4 Just so high as' you jump, so great the fall. The higher our ambition, the greater the peril of failure.

sThis is one of several instances of the Creole adoption of English words. The name " carrion-crow " has been applied to the buzzard in Louisiana from an early period of its American history.

6 *' Don't halloo till you're out of the wood 1 "

230. Padon pas ka guéri bosse. (" Pardon " ne guérit pas la bosse.)

"Asking pardon doesn't cure the bump." i — lMartinigue.}

231. Pâlér pas rimède. (Parler n'est pas un remède.)

" Talking is no remedy." In Creole the word signifies medicine as well as remedy. — ITrinidad.]

232. Paler touop ka lever chein nans dômi. (Trop parler [c'est ce qui] éveille le chien en

dormi.) " Talking too much arouses the dog from sleep." 2 — [TWnicZacJ.]

233. Pâoûoles pas liai couler. (Les paroles n'ont pas de couleur.)

" Words have no color." — This is generally said to people who stare a speaker out of countenance. — [Trinidad.]

234. Pâoûoles pas coûté cher. (Les paroles ne coûtent pa=! cher.)

" Words are cheap." In Martinique the phrase is Pâoûoles pas châge: (" Words are no weight to caxTY.") — [.Trinidad.']

235. *Parole trop fort, machoir gonflé. (Par la parole trop forte, la machoir est gonflée.)

" By talking too loud the jaw becomes swelled." ^ — [Louisiana.]

236. Pas fôte langue qui fair bef pas ?a paler. (Ce n'est pas à faute de langue que le bœuf ne

sait pas parler.) " It isn't for want of tongue that the ox can't talk." — [TWwi^ac?.] I

237. Pas jou' moin bien changé, moin ka rencontré, nénneine moins. (Ce n'est pas le jour que

je suis bien changé que je vais rencontrer ma marraine.)

" It isn't on the day I am greatly changed " [when I am most unfortunate] '♦ that I am going to meet my goùnxotheT.'''' — [Martinique.]

238. Pas menme jou ou mangé tè ou vini enflé. (Ce n'est pas le même jour que vous mangez

que vous vous trouvez enflé). •'It isn't the same day you eat that you flnd yourself puffed up." i — lMartiniq'ue.]

239. Pauve moune bail déjeuner nans quior. (Les pauvres gens vous donnent à déjeuner

dans leurs cœurs). " Poor folks give breakfast with their hearts." — [i^ayft.]

240. ♦ Pis faibe toujou tini to. (Le plus faible a toujours tort).

" The weakest is always in the wrong." — [Martiniqm.]

241. * Piti à piti, zozo fait son nid. (Petit à petit, l'oiseau fait son nid.)

"* Little by little the bird builds its nest."- [Louisiana ]

1 In the Creole of Guyana this proverb exiets în a very curious form : Ago pa guéri maXeng, — '•the excuse doesn't cuie the hurt." M. Alfred de Saint-Quentin in his work upon tbis remarkably fantastic and melodious Creole dialect, says that Ago is the only word of purely African origin ho has been able to flnd in the Guyana patois. On the Gold coast ago! \% a warning cry : " Take care I — clear the way I " The Guvana slaves retained the word in a different pense. The nogro who accidentally jostles anybody, still exclaims ^g-o,^ — but it now means " IJog pardon," or " Excuse me ! "

2 Talkintr fo.i freeiv about our projects helps our enemies to thwart our bones.

3 Literally : " Word too strong, jaw swelled up." Seems to imply the indirect rather than thedirect consequence of usinsf violent language — viz., a severe beating from the person abused.

* That is to say that the worst results of folly do not alwajs manifest themselves when expected.

:242. Piti pas coûté so moman, li ka mori gran sole midi, (Petit qui n'écoute pas sa maman meurt au grand soleil de midi). " Little boy who won't listen to his mother dies under the noonday sun." ^ — [Guyana.]

243. Plis vaut mié vous pitit gagne larhime qui vous arrace son nez. (Il vaut mieux laisser

votre enfant morveux que de lui arracher le nez). " Better let your child be snotty, than pull his nose oft." — [Mauriiim.]

244. Pou man je. tou bon ; pou pâle pas tou parole. (Pour manger, tout est bon ; pour parler,

pas toute parole).

*' Anything is good enough to eat; but every word is not good enough to be spoken." 2 — [Guyane] •345. Poule pas ka vanté bouillon yo. (Les poules ne vantent pas leur [propre] bouillon.)

*' The chickens don't brag about their own soup;" i. e. chicken-80up. — [Mar(iniçpie.']

240. Poule qui çanté ça même qui fine ponde. (La poule qui chante est celle-là même qui a pondu). " It's the cackling hen that has laid the egg." — [Mauriiitis.]

247. Poule qui fére dè^ dizèfs zaméa touyé. (La poule qui fait deux œufs n'est jamais tuée).

" The hen that lays two eggs is never kiUed." — [Mauritius.'\

248. * Pranne garde vaut mlè passé mandé pardon. (Prendre garde vaut mieux que demandre

pardon.) " It ia better to take care beforehand than to ask pardon afterward." — [Zoumana.]

249. Ptit lasoif ptit coco, grand lasoif grand coco. (Petite soif, petit coco ; grande soif, grand

coco.) " Little thirst, a little cocoa-nut; big thirst, a big oocoa.-n\it."* — [MauritiicsJ]

250. Ptit mie tombe, ramassé li ; Chrétien tombe, pas ramassé li. (Quand une petite mie

tombe, on la ramasse ; quand un Chrétien tombe, on ne le ramasse pas [i. e., on ne l'aide pas à se relever].)

" If a little crumb falls, it is picked up ; if a Christian falls, he is not picked up." — [Hayii]

251. * Quand bois tombé, cabri monté. (Quand l'arbre tombe, le cabri monte.)

"When the tree falls, the kid can climb it." — 6[I/>uiHana.]

252. Quand boudin mode, ce pas épi bell plimm^ yo ka plein li. (Quand le ventre crie, ce

n'est pas avec de beaux habits qu'oa le remplit.)

'* When your stomach gnaws you, it isn't with fine clothes that you can fill it." — [Mart'ihi(jv£.]

1 All Creole mothers are careful to keep their children from reckless play In the sun, which is peculiarly treacherous in those latitudes where the dialect is spoken. Hence the proverb, applicat)le to any circumstance ia whic^ good advice is reluctantly received.

2 lu ♦he Martinique dialect: Tou tt mange, toutt paaule pas bon pou di. — [Thiriaîilt.]

8 The sound of the French eu is rarely preserved in Creole. L'heure becomes Ihère; peu, becomes pè. The Creole-speaking negro says, Tonne, *, tots, quate, n^, instead of '* un, deux, trois, quatre, neuf."

4 Like the old-country saying : " Big horse, big feed." The cocoa-nut shell was formerly the slave's drinking cup in Mauritius.

5 This saying has quite a variety of curious applications. The last time I heard it, a Creole negress was informing me that the master of the house in which she worked was lying nt the point of death: "'pauve diabef" I asked after the health of her mistress. ^'Ah/ Madame 86 poi'te bien ; mais . . . quand bois tombé cabri mante," ahe TeT)\ied,ha,\f in French, hait m her own patois ; signifying that after tha husband's death, wife and children would find themselves reduced to destitution.

•■■Literally "feathers" — "j>^i/»w," plumes. Adopted from a Creole version of one of Lafontalne's fables.

253. * Quand boyaux grogné, bel 'évite pas fait yé pé. (Quand les boyaux grognent, un bel-

habit ne leur fait pas se taire ; lit., ne leur fait pas paix.) " When the bowels growl a fine coat won't make them hold their peace."i — [Xowmawa.]

254. Quand cannari pas bouï pou ou, ou done janmain découvri li. (Quand le pôt ne bout

pas pour vous, vous ne devez jamais le découvrir.) " When the pot won't boil for you, you must never take the lid off." 2 — [Martinique.]

255. Quand canon causé, flsil honte. (Quand le canon parle, le fusil a honte.)

" When the cannon speaks, the gun is ashamed." — [Mauritius.]

256. Quand diabe allé lamesse li caciétte so laquée. (Quand le diable va à la messe, il cache

sa queue.) " When the Devil goes to mass he hides his taû." — [Mauritius.]

257. Quand diabe voulé prend vous li cause bondiô av vous. (Quand le diable veut vous

prendre il vous parle de Bon Dieu.)

" When the devil wants to get hold of you, he chats to you about God." Lit.: " He talks Good God to you." — [Mauritius.]

258. Quand done vous bourique vous pas bisoin guette so labride. (Quand on vous donne un

âne, vous ne devez pas regarder sa bride.)

" When somebody gives you a donkey, you musn't examine the bridle." — Never look a gift-horse in the mouth. — [Mauritius.]

259. Quand femme lève so robe diabe guette so lazambe. (Quand une femme relève sa robe

le diable regarde sa jambe.) " When a woman lifts her dress, the devil looks at her leg." — [Mauriti'U8.]

2G0. Quand gagne larmoire napas quétte côffe. (Quand on a l'armoire on ne regarde pas les coffre.) "As soon as one gets a clothes-press, one never looks at the truixk.."» — [Mauritius.]

1 The words pè, pé, in Creole are distinguishable only by their accentuation. Fetir (fear) ; peu (a little) ; paix (peace, or " hush") ; peut (can), all take the form pè orpé in various Creole dialects. Ipas ni pè sépent; "he is not afraid of snakes." Sometimes one can guess the meaning only by the context, as in the Martinique saying: Pè bef pè caca hef. "Few oxen, little ox-dung;" i.e., "little money, little trouble." The use of "jpè" for jiere (father)» reminds us of a curious note in the Creole studies of the brothers Saint-Quentin (See Bibliography). In the forests of Guiana there is a bird whose song much resembles that of ©ur Louisiana mockinc-bird. but which is far more sonorous and solemn. The Creole negroes call it ZOZO MONPÉ {V&iseau mon-pière), lit., "The my-father bird." Now rmrwè is the Creole mame for a priest ; as if we should say " a my-father " instead of " a priest." The bird's song, powerful, solemn, far-echoing through the great aisles of the woods by night, suggested the chant of a monpè, a "ghostly father;" and its name might be freely translated by "the priest-bird."

2 " Watched pot never boils.*' The canari was a clay pot as the following Creole refrain testifies :

Ya pas bouillon pou vous, macommère ; Canari cassé dans difé (bis). Bouillon renversé dans difé Tapas bouillon pou vous, macommère Canari cassé dans difé. ["There's no soup for you, my gossipping friend; the pot's broken In the fire; the soup Is spilled in the flre,^' etc.]

3 A wooden chest or trunk is the first desideratum of the negro'housewife. As soon as the family is able to purchase a clothes-press, or (as we call it in Louisiana) "armoire," it Is considered quite a prosperous household by Mauritian colored folk. The chest, Baissac tells us, is the clothes-press of the poor. "After the bed comes the chest, and next the accordéon 1"

36L Quand lamôrt vini, vous pense vous lavie. (Quand la mort vient, vous pensez à vôtre vie.) " It's when death comes that you think about your lite." — [Mauritim.]

262. Quand lébras trop courte, napas zoinde. (Quand les bras son trop courts, ils ne se

rejoiprnent pas.) *' When one's arms are too short, they won't go TO\md."i — [Mauritius.]

263. Quand lécie tombé, tout mouces va maillé. (Quand le ciel tombera, toutes les mouches

seront prises.) " When the sky falls all the flies will be c&ught."2 — [Mauritius.]

264. * Quand li gagnin kichose dans so latôte, ce pas dans so lapiè. (Quand il a quelque

chose dans sa lête, ce n'est pas dans son pied.) " When he gets something into his head, it isn't in his foot."3 -[Louisiana.]

265. Quand lipièd glissé, restant sivré. (Quand le pied glisse, le reste suit.)

" When the foot slips the rest follows." — [J/awri^iw*.]

266. Quand maite chanté, nôgue dansé ; quand 'conomo sifflé, r.ôguo sauté. (Quand le

maître chante, le nègre danse ; quand l'économe siffle, le nègre saute.)

" When the master sings the negro dances ; but when the overseer only whistles, th& negro jumps." — A relic of the old slave-day Creole folklore. — [i<?Mi*iana.]

267. Quand milatt tini yon vie chou vrai yo dit nègress pas manman yo. (Quand les mulâtres

ont un vieux cheval ils disent que les négresses ne sont pas leurs mères.)

" As soon as a mulatto is able to own an old horse, he will tell you that his mother wasn't a nigger.'* [Martiniqtie.]

268. * Quand napas maman, tété grand-maman. (Quand n'a pas sa mère, on tête sa grand-

mère.) " When one has no mother, one must bo suckled by one's grandmother." —

[I/niislana.]

269. Quand ou tini malhé Eépent mo'e ou pa lakhè. (Quand vous êtes dans le malheur le

serpent vous mord par la queue.) "When you're in ill-luck, a snake can bite you even with Its ta.iX.'''' — [Martinique.]

270. Quand ou mangé eveo guiabe, quimbé cuillè ou longue. (Quand vous mangez arec

le diable, tenez votre cuillère longue.) " When you eat with the devil, see that your spoon is long.'' — [Martinique.]

271. "■ Quand patate tchuite, faut mangé li. (Quand la patate est cuite, il faut la manger.)

" When the sweet potato is cooked. It must be eaten."* — [iOMi^ana.]

273. Quand poul ou tini zé, pas mette li dans canari. (Quand votre poule pond des œufs», ne la mettez pas dans le pot.) " When your hen is laying, don't put her in the ikh.''^ — [Martinique.]

1 It is needless to undertake what we have not ability to carry out.

a Said to those who talk hopefully of impossibilities.

8 Refers to obstinacy. A man may be compelled to move his feet, but not to change his resolve.

■«This differs a little from the spelling adopted by Qottschalk in his-Baniô<Wi/a — " Quand patate-la œuite ma va mangé li." The proverb is used in the sense of our saying : " Strike the. iron while it's hot."

6 Like our saying about killing the goose that laid the golden eggs.

273. Quand prend trop boucoup, li glissé. (Quand on prend trop [lit. : " trop beaucoup '^,

cela glisse. " Grab for too much, and it slips away from you.'' — [Mauriiim.]

274. Quand vente crié zoréyes sourde. (Quand le ventre crie, les oreilles sont sourdes.)

" When the belly cries, the ears are deaî.'' — [Mauritius.']

275. Quand vente faim, siprit vinl. (Quand le ventre a faim, l'esprit vient.)

" An empty stomach brings wit ;" — lit.: When the stomach is empty, wit comes."i — [Mauritius.]

276. Quand vous guette làhaut vous liziés vine pitit. (Quand vous regardez en haut, vos

yeux rapetissent.) " When you look overhead, your eyes become small." — [Mauritim.]

277. Quand yo bailie ou tête bef pou mangé, n'a pas peur zieux li. (Quand on vous donne

une tête de bœuf à manger n'ayez pas peur de ses yeux.) " When you are given an ox's head to eat, don't be afraid of his eyes." — [Hayti ]

278. Quiquefois wou plante zharicots rouze ; zharicots blancs qui poussé. (Quelquefois vous

plantez dea haricots rouges, et ce sont des haricots blancs qui poussent.)

"Sometimes you sow red beans, and white beans grow." "The best-laid plans of mice and men gang aft &-g\ey.''^ — [Mauritius.]

279. Quand yon bâtiment cassé ça pas empêché les zautt navigué. (Quand un bâtiment est

cassé, ça n'empêche pas les autres de naviguer.)

" When a ship is broken (wrecked), the accident does not prevent others from sailing." 2 — [Martinique.]

280. Qui mê'é zefsnans calendaoûoches? (Quia mêlé (mis) des œufs dans la callnda des

roches [pierres.] ?)

" What business have eggs in the calinda — i. e. dance — of stones ?" ( Calinda^ said to be derived from the Spanish que linda ! — '■'■ how beautiful ! " ) i — [Trinidad.]

281. Rann sévice baïll mal dos. (Rendre service donne mal au dos.)

" Doing favors gives one the hdiCk^-SiChe." — [Martinique.]

282. *Ratte mangé canne, zanzoli mouri innocent. (Le rat mange la canne-[à-sucre], le lézard

en meurt.) " 'Tis the rat eats the cane ; but the lizard dies for it." 4 — [Louisiana.]

283. Ravett pas janmain assez fou pou li allé lapôte pouleillé. (Le ravet n'est jamais assez

fou pour aller à la porte du poulailler )

"The cockroach is never silly enough to approach the door of the hen-house." — [ Martinique. ]

1 Wit, that is. " mother-wit " — common-sense.

2There is a Portuguese proverb to the same effect: "Shipwrecks have never deterred navigation."

z The Author of Les Bambous mentions the belt, caMnda, çfuiouba and oigrwiTte, slave-dances of Martinique. Bafisé yon caleinda marré (to dance the calinda or caieinda tied up) meant to receive a whipping.

4ThU proverb is certainly of West Indian origin, though I first obtained it from a Loui-slanian. In consequence of the depredations committed by rats in the West-Indian cane-flelds, it is customary after the crop has been taken off, to fire the dry cane tops and leaves. The blazo, spreading over the fields, destroys many rats, but also a variety of harmleoe lizards and other creatures.

28i. *Ravette pas jamaln tini raison douvant poule. (Le ravet n'a jamais raison devant la poule.)

" Cockroach is never in the right where the fowl is concerned" — (lit.: before the fowl.)x — [Trinidad.li

285. Rasiers tini zoreïes. (Les [rosiers ?] buissons ont des oreilles.)

•' Bushes have ewc9.^ — [Trinidad.']

286. *Rendé service, baille chaurrin. (Rendre service donne du chagrin.)

" Doing favors brings qottovt.'" — [Louisiana.']

287. Roce entêté, mes quand téti cause av li, li lépondé. (La roche est entêtée, mais quand

le têtu lui parle, elle répond.)

" The rock's hard-headed ; but when the stone-hammer speaks to him, he answers" — {THu means an obstinate person, also a stone-hammer.! " — {Mauritixm.]

288. Sac vide pas ka tienne douboutl. (Un sac vide ne peut pas se tenir debout.)

"Anempty sack cannot stand up." One cannot work with an empty stomach. — [Martinique.]

289. Sôpent dit li pas rhaï mounn-la qui cue li ; c'est ça qui dit, "Mi sèpent!" (Le serpent

dit qu'il ne hait pas la personne qui le tue ; que c'est celle qui dit, " Voilà le serpent !") " The snake says he doesn't hate the person who kills him, but the one who calls out, ' Look at the snake !' " — [Martinique.]

290. Serin dérobé ; maille bengali. (Le serin se dérobe ; prenez le bengali.)

" When the canary can't be found, take the bengalee." When you can't find what you like, be content with what you can get." — [Mauritius.]

391. Si coulev oûlé viv, li pas prouminée grand-chlmin. (Si la couleuvre veut vivre, elle ne se promène pas dans le grand chemin). " If the snake cares to live, it doesn't journey upon the high-road." — [G'l/yana.]

293. Si coulève pas té fonté,3 femmes eé pouend li fair ribans jipes. (Si la couleuvre n'était pas eflfronlée, les femmes la prendraient pour en faire des rubans de jupes). "If the snake wasn't spunky, women would use it for petticoat strings." — [IWnwfod.]

293. Si crapaud dîe ous caiman tini mal ziex, coèr-li. (Si le crapaud voua dit que le caïman a

mal aux yeux, croyez-le). " If the frog tells you the alligator has sore eyes, believe him I" * — [Trinidad.]

294. Si jipon ou k'allô bien, pas chaché mette kilott nhomme ou. (Si votre jupon vous va

bien, ne cherchez pas tl mettre la culotte de votre mari.)

"If your petticoat fits you well, don't try to put on your husband's breeches."-[Martinique]

11 find this proverb in every dialect I have been able to study. In Martinique Creole the words vary slightly : '■'■ Douvant poule ravett pas ni raison.''''

«This is another example ot double-puiuiing, of which we have already had a specimen in Prov Iftî.

s Fonte (for effronté) has quite an extensive meaning in Creole. It may refer to the impudence of a badly-brouurht-up child, onto the over-familiarity on the part of an adult ; but it may also refer to hivrh spirit, pluck, independence of rannner. A colored mother once told me I should be surprised to see hovr fonte her son had become since he had been going to school. She meant, of course, that the lad was growing " smart," active, plucky.

•« Similarity of habits and of experience is necessary to guarantee the trustwonhiness of testimony regarding those wo do not know.

395. * Si lamer té bouilli, poissons eré tcliuite. (Si la mer bouillait, les poissons seraient cuits). " If the sea were to boil, the fishes would be cooked" — [Louisiana.]

296. Si lasavane té ka pale nous se connaitt trop désigret. (Si la sa vanne parlait, nous

connaîtrions trop de secrets). "If the fields could talk, we should know too many secrets." i -[Martinique. ]

297. Si léphant pas té save boyaux li gouous, li pas se vale calebasses. (Si l'éléphant n'avait

passu qu'il avait de gros boyaux, il n'aurait pas avalé des calebasses).

"If the elephant didn't know that he had big guts, he wouldn't have swallowed csHsibSishea." — [Trinidad.]

298 * "Si-moin-tè-connaitt pas janmain douvant; li toujou deïè. (Si-je-l'avais-su n'est jamais devant ; il vient toujours derrière.) ^

' ' If-I-had-only-kmwn ' is never before one ; he always comes hehinû." — [Martinique.

299. Si moin tégagnin moussa, moin té mangé^ombo. (Si j'avais du moussa, je mangerais du

gombo).

" If I had some moM55a 21 would eat some gombo." If I had the necessary I could enjoy the Buperûnona." — [Martinique.]

300. Si té pas gagné soupe nens moune, moune ka touffe. (S'il n'y avait pas de soupirs dans

le monde, le monde étoufferait).

"If there were no sighing in the world, the world would stifle."3 — [Quoted by Alphonse Daudet.l

301. Si zannoli té bon viann, li se pas ka drivé lasBOus bale. (Si le lézard était bon à manger

[lit.: bonne viande], il ne se trouverait point sous une baille.) " If the lizard were good to eat, it would never be found under a tnb."^ — [Martinique.}

302. Soleil couché ; malbèr pas jamaîn couché. (Le soleil se couche ; le malheur ne se couche

jamais.) "The sun sets; misfortune never seis." — [Hay ti.]

303. ♦ Soleil levé Jà ; 11 couché là. (Le soleil se lève là ; il se couche là.)

"Sun rises there [pointing to the east] ; he sets there" [pointing to the west]s — [I/niisiana.]

304. Souliers fai'aud, mes domageziutes manze lipieds. (Les souliers sont elegants, mais

c'est dommage qu'ils mangent les pieds.) " Shoes are fine tbinge» ; but it's a pity they bite one's feet."fi — 'Mauritlm ]

1 " If walls bad ears," etc.

2 Mousse is a word used in Martinique for hominy, or a sort of corn-mush which is used to thicken gombo-soup. In Louisiana boiled rice is similarly used.

3 I found this proverb cite i in Daudet's article on Tonrguèneff in the November Century [18831. The accentuation was incorrect. Moun, or nioune, Creole form of French monde, is generally used to signify people in general-/b^/c^ — not the world.

4 Thomis gives us a briefer Trinidad version : Si zandoli té bon viâne, le pas se ka drivé (il ne se trouverait pas) : " If a lizard were good meat, it wouldn't easily be found."

6 A proverb common to all the dialects. In uttering it, with emphatic gesture, the negro slgniftes that there Is no pride which will not be at last brought down, no grandeu» which will not bave an end.

6 M. Ralssac t«'lls up, in a very amusing way, how this proverb originated at the time of the negro emancipation in Mauritiu?, when 30,000 pairs of new shoes were distributed. Anothfîr f^nying-, equally characteristic, was — " Iz/i^'re li entré riaixs. vou» lacaxc, souUerx dans lipieda; Ihcre li dann (frand cimin. soulierx dans movçoirs ": — (When be enters your house, his shoes are on his feet; but once he is on the public road, they are in his handkerchief.)

305. * Tafla toujou dîe la vérité. (Le tafia dit toujours la vérité.

"Tafla always tells the truth." i^ — [Louisiana.]

306. Tambou tini grand train pace endidans li vide. (Le tambour va [lit : tientl grand train

parcequ'il est vide en dedans.) " The drum makes a irreat fuss because it is empty inside."» — [rriwîdad.l

307. Tampée ka gagnen malhèrs ka doublons pas sa gueri. (TJn ' tampée ' achète des mal-

heurs que les doublons ne peuveut pas guérir.) "A penny buys troubles that doubloons cannot cure." — [Trinidad.]

308. * "Tant-pis " n'a pas cabane. ("Tant-pis " n'a pas de cabane.)

"' So-much-the-worse " has no oahin.'"^ — [Louisiana.]

309. Temps moune connaîte l'aûte nans grand jou, nans nouîte yeaux pas bisoAn eViandelle

pou clairér yeaux. (Quand on connaît quelqu'un [lit : un autre] dans Je grana jour, dans la nuit on n'a pas besoin d'une chandelle pour s'éclairer.)

" When one person knows another by broad daylight, he doesn't need a candle to recognize him at night."4 — [ TWnic^aûf]

310. * Temps present gagnin assez comme ça avec so quenne. (Le temps présent en a assez

comme ça avec le sien.) " The present has enough to do to mind its own &fla.iTS."^ — [Louisiana ]

311. * Ti chien, ti cc^don. (Petit chien, petit lien.)

"A little string for a little dog." — [3fartiniqit€.]

313. Ti hache coupé gouaus bois. (Une petite hiche coupe un grand arbre.) "A little axe cuts down a big tree." — [Martinique.]

313. Ti moun cônnaitt couri, yo pas cô.inaittserré. (Les enfants — lit: "le petit monde" —

savent courir ; ils ne savent pas se cacher.) " Children (little folk) know how to run; they do not know how to hide." — [Martinique.]

314. Tig mo, chien ka prend pays. (Quand le tigre est mort, le chien prend le pays.)

" When the tiger is dead, the dog takes [rules] the Qountry." — [Martinique.]

315. Tôtî Eé vole si li tè tini plimm. (Le tortue volerait si elle avait des ailes.)

"The tortoise would fly it it had win'^a."i^ — \Martinique.]

1 Tcifia is the rum extracted from sugar-cane. ** In vino Veritas."

3 In Louisiana Creole, /aire di-train is commonly usnd iu the sense of making a great noiso, a bisr fuss. An old negro-servant might often b.-> hoard reproving the ohildren of the hou^e in some such fashion as this : — " Oa.' — poukl tapé fait tou di-train la ? — Toulé pé ? — pas fait tou di-train inoditoi!'''' (Here, what are you makinjf ail that noise for? — are you going to keep qus3t? -musu't make S'» much noise, I tell you !")

s Tiiia proverb is the retort for the phrase: "So much the worse for you." Sometimes one might hoar a colored servant for example, warning the children of the house to keep out of the kitchen, which in Creole residences ufuallyopens into the great court-yard where the little onus p'ay : Eh, pitis ! faut pas rester là : vous ka casser tout! (" Hey 1 little one», musn't s«av there: you'll break everything 1") If the father or mother should then exclaim " Tant pispour eu-t; /" — so much the worse for them if they do break everything, you would hear the old woin la reply : " Ta/it-pw ?j'a Ticw cahane.'" — " So-mueh-the-worse has no cabin" — i.«., nothinar to lose. She believes in an ounce of prevention rather than a pound of cure.

4 When a person has once given us positive evidence of his true character, we do not need any information as to what that person will do under certain circumstances.

s Literally the proverb is almost untranslateable. It is cited to those who express needless auprehen'sion of future misfortune. " Mo va aoijnin malhé"-^{l am going to have trouble.) " Al-^, aU! chère! — ^eoipi present a^^r^in a^yes oomme ça avec so quénne." (Ah, my -dearl the present has en-mgh trouble of itaowa.)

6 " Pigs might fly," etc.

316. Tout bols ré bols: Main mapou Pas 'cajou. (Tout bois c'est du bois ; Mais ie mapou N'est pas de l'acajou.) "Ail wood is wood; but mapou wood isn't mahogany (cedar) "^ — [Trinidad.]

317 * Tout ça c'est commerce Man Lison. (Tout ça c'est affaire de Maman Lison.) "Ail that's like Mammy Lison's doings,'"i — [Louisiana.]

318. Tout ça qui poté zépron pas maquignon. (Tout homme qui porte éperons n'est paa=

maquignon.)

"Everybody who wears spurs isn't a jockey." All is not gold that glitters. — [Martinique.]

319. Toutt cabinett tini maringouin. (Tout cabinet contient des maringouins.)

" Every bed-chamber has its mosquitoes in it." — Equivalent to our own proverb: A skeleton in every cloBet. — [Martinique.]

330. — * Toutt joué c'est joué ; mais cassé bois dans bonda macaque — ça pas joué. (Tout [faconde] jouer c'est jouer; mais ce n'est pas jouer que de casser du bois dans le derrière du macaque.) ^ — [Martiniqne.]

321. * Toutt jour c'est pas dimanche. (Tous les jours ne sont pas le dimanche.) " Every day isn't Sunday." — Louisiana.

222. Tou jwé sa jwé; me bwa làzôrè sa pa jwé. (Tout [façon de] jouer c'est jouer ; mais enfoncer du bois dans l'oreille n'est pas j ouer.) '• AU play is play ; but poking a piece of wood Into one's car isn't play." — [Guj/ane.]

823. *Tout macaque trouvé so piti joli. (Tout macaque trouve son petit joli.) " Every monkey thinks its young one pretty." — [Loitistana ]

324. Toutt milett ni grand zaureilles. (Tout les mulets ont des grandes oreilles.)

"Ail mules have big ears." — Equivalent to our proverb: "Birds of a leather flock together." — ifartinique.

1 Tnomas iranRiates cajou by " cedar." Acajou in French, signifies mahogany, as It does also in Louisiana Creole. There is an old song, of which the refrain is :

Chir hijou Dicajou, Mo laiwin vous ("My darling mahogany jewel, I love you 1 ")

2 "WTiGiiovor a thing la badly done, this saying is used; — commerce in the Creole Blgnifyiug almost the reverse of vhat it does in French. Who that traditional Man Lison was, X have never been able tc find out.

s This ridiculous observation is un«iuitable for translation. Nevertheless we have an English, or perhips an American, proverb equally vulgar, which may have inspired, or been derive»! from, the Creole one. In the English saying, the words " joking " and " provoking" are used as rhymes. The moral is precisely similar to that of No. 323.

In old days the Creole story-teller would always announce his intention of beginning a tale by the exclamation " lim-tim /" whereupon the audience would shout in reply, " Bois »ec ;" and the story-teller would cry again, " Cassez-li," to which the chorus would add ". . . . danstchu (bonda) macaque." Thus the story-teller intimated that he had no Intention of merely '\joking," but intended to tell the whole truth and nothing else — "a real good-Btory " — toUi fois bonne conUl

825. — *Toutt mounn save ça qui ka boul nens canari yo. (Toute personne sait ce qui bout dans son canari [marmite].)

"Everybody knows what boUs in his own pot" — 1. e., knows his own business hest.i — [Martinique. \

3?6. Travai pas mal ; ce ziex qui capons. [(Le travail ne fait pas du mal ; c'est les yeux qui sont capons llâches].) " Work doesn't hurt ; — 'tis the eyes that are cowards." — [Jfwtritiws.]

327. Trop gratté bourlé. (Trop gratter brûle [cuit].)

" Too much scratching brings smarting."-[il/auritiws.l

328. Trop profl crevé poche. (Trop de profit crève la poche.)

"Toc much profit bursts one's pocketa.'' — ^Martinique.]

329. Tropp bijDa, gàde-mangé vide. (Trop de bijoux, garde-manger vide.)

"Too much Jewelry, empty cupboard." — LifarMniqTxe.]

330. Vente enflé, mouces zaune té pique li. (Le ventre enflé, les mouches jaunes l'ont piqué.)»

— [Mauritius]

331. Vide éne boutéye pour rempli laute, qui li ? ( Vider une bouteille pour eu remplir une

autre, qu'est-ce ?) *' What's the good of emptying one bottle only to fill ajiother V'^ — lMaurifius.]

332. * Vie cannari ka fé bon bouillon. (Les vieux pots font les bonnes soupes.)

" It's the old pot that makes the good &onp.'^ — [Martinique.]

333. Vie coq, zène poule. (Vieux coq, jeune poule.)

" An old cock, a young hea.^' — [Mauritius.]

384. Volé pas ainmcin voué canmarade yo pôtô sac. (Les voleurs n'aiment pas voir leurs camarades portant lo sacs.) " Thieves do not like to see their comrades carrying the haga.^'* — [Martinique.]

33j. Vous napas va montré vie zaco fore grimaces. (Vous ne montrerez pas à un vieux singe à faire des grimaces.) " You can't teach an old monkey how to make t&oeB."^ — [Mauritius.]

336. Voyé chein, chein voyé lakhe li. (Envoyez îe chien, et le chien envoie sa queue.)

" Send dog, and dog sends his tail. " — Refers to those "who obey orders only by proxy. — [TVinidorf ]

1 In Thomas's Trinidad version : " 7^t m/yune connaite ça qui ka bouî nans canari yeaux." In Louisiana Creole : *• Chakin connin ça kapê bouilli dans so chodière." Canari is sometimes used in our Creole, but rarely. I have only heard it in old songs. The iron pot ichodière) or tin utensil has superseded the canari

2This proverb is scarcely suitable for English translation; but the forcible and nict-uresQuo ironv of it will be appreciated in M. Baissac's explanatory note: '■*■ Comtnent se Vexpliquer autrement en dehors du mariage.

3 Sa ne Higuilication as Prov. 138.

* Probably truer to human nature than our questionable statement concerning honor among thieves." Mr. Biarelow, in his contribution to Harper's Magawu, cited a similar proverb in the Haytiaa dialect.

8 '♦Teach your granny to suck eggs."

SS LITTLE DICTIONARY OF CREOLE PROVERBS.

337. Yo ka quimbé^ chritiens pa langue yo, bef pa cône yo. (On prend les Chrétiens par

la langue, les bœufs par les cornes.)

" Christians are known by their tongues, oxen by their horns." (Literally, are taken by or caught X)y.) — [Martiniqtié.]

338. Yon doègt pas sa pouend pice. (Un seul doigt ne peut pas attraper des puces."

*' One finger can't catch fleas." — [i/arrtmçw^.]

339. * Yon lanmain doué lavé laute. (Une main doit laver l'autre.)

" One hand must wash the other." — You must not depend upon others to get you out of trouble. — [Martinique.']

340. Yon mauvais paôle ka blessé plis qu'coupd'roche. (Une mauvaise parole blesse plus

qu'un coup-de-pierre.) " A wicked word hurts more than a blow from a stonQy — [Martinique.'\

341. Zaco malin, li-méme té montré noir cornent voler. (La singe est malin; c'est lui qui a

montré au noir comment on vole.)

" The monkey is sly ; it was he that first taught the black man how to steal." — [Mauritius.l

1 Quimbé is a verb of African origin. It survives in Louisiana Creole as tchombé or thombo :

Carolina, zolie femme, Chombo moin dans collet.

[" Caroline, pretty woman ; put your arm about my neck !" — lit. : " take me by the neck."]

There are other African words used by the older colored women, such as macayé, mean-ng to eat at all hours; and Ouendé, of which the sense is dubious. But the Congo verhfifa, to kiss; and the verbs souyé, to flatter; pougalé, to abuse violently; and such nouns as saff (glutton), ycM or iche (baby), which are preserved in other Creole dialects, are apparently unknown in Louisiana to-day.

In Chas. Jeannest's work. Quatre Années au Congo [Paris: Charpentier, 1883], I find a scantv vocabulary of words in the Fiot dialect, the native dialect of many slaves imported into Louisiana and the West Indies. In this vocabulary the word amendais translated by ** partir pour." I fancy it also signifies " to be absent, and that it is synonymous with our Louisiana African-Creole ouendé, preserved in the song : Ownâé, ou-ndé, macaya ;

Mo pas, 'barassé, macaya ! Oiiende, ouendé, macaya;

Mo bois bon divin, macaya! Ouendé, owin ié, macaya;

Mo mangé bon poule, macaya! Ouendé, ouendé, macaya;..etc. This l8 one of the very few songs with a purely African refrain still sung in New Orleans. The theme seems to be that, the master and mistress of a house being absent, some slave is encouraging a slave-friend to eat excessively, to "stuff himself" with wine, chicken, etc. "They are gone, friend: eat, flU yourself; Pm not a bit ashamed; stuff yourself!-I'm drinking good wine; stuff yourself I — I'm eating good chicken; gorge yourself," etc. Here oweriaé seems to mean " they are out; they are gone away," — therefore there is no danger.

There is another Creole song with the same kind of double refrain, but the meaning of the African words I have not been a Die to discover.

Nicolas, Nicolas, Nicolas, ou dindin ;' Nicolas, Nicolas, Nicolas marché ouaminon: Quand 11 marché

Ouarcusi. onarasa ! Quand 11 marché

Ouarasi, tyuaram! {" Nicholas, etc., you are a turkey-cock 1 Nicholas walks ouaminon: when ho walks, it is (lumsl, ouarcuia.''J The ideals obvious enough; viz.: that Nicholas struts like a turkey-cock ; but the pr ecise signification of the three italicised words I have failed to learn.

342. Zaco napas juétte so laquée; li guette pour son camarade. (Le singe ne regarde pas sa

queue ; il regarde celle de son voisin.) " Monkey never watches his own tail ; he watches his neighbor'a." — [Mauritius.1

343. *Zaffaire ya qui sotte, chien mangé dine yo. (Des choses [qui appartiennent] aux sots

les chiens font leur dîner.) " Dogs make their dinner upon what belongs to foolB." — [Louisiana.}

344. *Z ffé cabri tt pa zaflfé mouton. (L'affaire de la chèvre n'est pas l'affaire du mouton.)

" The goat's business is not the sheep's tLÎÎSiir." ''■ — [Martinique.]

345. Zaffére qui fine passé narien ; laute qui pour vinl qui li I (L'affaire passée n'est rien ;

c'est l'affaire à venir qui est le hic.) " What's past is nothing; it's what's to oome that's the ruh." — [Mauritius.]

346. Zamais béf senti so corne trop lourd. (Jamais le bœuf ne sent ses cornea trop lourdes.)

"The ox never finds his horns too heavy to oskrry." — [Mauritius.]

847. Zaraés disel dire li salé. (Le sel ne dit jamais qu'il est salé.)

" The sait never says that it is salty." True virtue never hoasts. — [Mauritius.]

848. Zaureille pas tini couv éti. (Les oreilles n'ont pas de couverture.)

" There Is no covering for the ea.rs." — [Martinique.i

849. Zié beké brilé zié nèg. (Les yeux du blanc brûle les yeux du nègre.)

*' The white man's eyes burn the negro's eyes." 2 — [Martinique.]

350. Zié rouge pas boulé savann. (Les yeux rouges ne brûlent pas la savane.)

"Red eyes can't burn the savannah." Abetter translation might be: "Red eyes can't start a prairie-fire." The meaning, is that mere anger avails nothing.» — f Afartinique.]

351. Zouro napas ena lentérement. (Les jurons n'ont pas d'enterrement.)

"Curses don't make tuner&la." — [Mauritius.]

852. Zozo paillenqui crié là-haut, coudevent vini. (Le paille-en-cul crie la-haut, le coup de vent vient.) " When the tropic-bird screams overhead, a storm-wind is coming." — [Mauritius.]

1 Seems to be the same in ail Creole dialects, excepting that the rabbit is sometimes substituted for the sheep.

2 Béfcé is translated by blanc in Turiault's work ; but the witty author of Les Barnboits writes : 2feg BQ àXfponv esdave, et bèké pour maître. Therefore perhaps a more correct translation would be : " The master's eyes burn the slave's eyes." The phrase recalls a curious refrain which used to be sung by Louisiana field-hands :

ToiU, tout, ^ys blanc — Danié qui commandé, Dante qui commandé ça / Danié qui commandé. [" AU, ail the country white " (white-man's country) ; "Daniel has so oommanded," etc. I do not know whether the prophet Daniel is referred to.

:' Intho Guyana patois, rhey say: " Ça qui gadé granboiyé kôlé pabrûMyê.'^ {.Celui qui regarde ies grands bois avec des yeux colères ne les brûlepas.i

INDEX TO VARIOUS DIALECTS.

I.-PROVERBS IN THB CREOLE OF FRENCH GUYANA :-60, 233, 242, 244, 391, 322.

II. — IN THE CREOLE OF HAYTI:-11, 36, 47, 51, 61, 63, 77, 78, 87, 88, 96,100, 115, 116, 117,120,. 139,145,153,172,190, 330, 225, 236, 339, 250, 377, 303.

ni. — IN THE CREOLE OF NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA :-23, 34, 40, 57, 67, 86, 89, 90, 95, 97, 99,107,112,133,130,134,137,148,157,159,163, 166, 171, 185,186,198, 303, 304, 308, 209, 228, 235, 241, 348, 251, 253, 264, 367, 368, 371,383, 286, 295, 303, 305, 308, 310, 317, 321, 323, 343.

IV._IN THE CREOLE OF MARTINIQUE : — l, 2, 4, 5,10,18,30, 24, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 36,37, 41,42, 43. 49, 50, 52, 56, 53, 59, 62, 66,75, 76, 83, 84, a5, 91,92, 93, 94,101, 133, 133, 149, 150, 151, 152,154, 160,164, 175,188,189,199, 203, 205, 206, 207, 310, 311, 213, 333, 334, 337, 330,337,238, 340, 345,252, 254, 267, 369, 370, 373,379,381, 283, 388,289, 294, 396, 298, 299, 301, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 318, 319, 330, 334, 335. 328, 332, 334, 337, 338, 339, 340,344, 348, 349, 350.

v. — IN THE CREOLE OF MAURITIUS : — 3, 6, 7, 8, 9,14,16,17,19,22, 35, 33, 38, 44, 45, 46, 48, 53, 54, 55, 65, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 73, 98, 101,103,105, 106,108,109,114, 118,124,125,138, 137,128, 129,131,136,138, 143,155,156,161,163,165,167,168,169,170,173,174, 176,177,178,179,180, 183, 183,191,195,196,197, 300, 312, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 343, 346, 31:7,349, 355, 356, 257, 258, 359, 260, 361, 363, 363,265,273, 274, 275, 276, 278, 287,290, 304, 326, 337, 330, 331, 335, 341, 342, 345, 346, 347, 351, 352.

VI.--IN THE CREOLE OF TRINIDAD :-12,13,15, 31,37, 35, 39, 64, 74, 79,80,81, Sî, 103,110,111, 113,119,131,133, n\ 140, 141,142, 144,146,15S, ISl. ISt, 187. 193, 193,194, 301, 231, 229,231,232, 233, 234, 236, 280, 334, 285, 293, 293,397,306, 307, 309. 316,336.

acoma-trke. — 1.

Advisers. — 101,142.

Alligator (or Crocodile). — 198,229,393.

Arms. -262.

Arrack. — 48, 305.

" Avocado." — 5.

Bag, Sack, " Macontb." — 51,115,288.

Bagasse. — 14.

"Balaou." — 210.

Beans. — 278.

Beard. — 10.

BED.-32,182.

BELLY.-39, 44, 252, 253, 274, 275, 830.

Bengalee. — 2*.K).

Big AND Little. — 249, 311, 3W,

Bird. — 154, 241.

Blows.-19.

" Bonda." -34, 49, 330.

Borrowers. — 138,190, 331.

Broom. — 16.

Boundary. — 183 (note).

Buzzards. — 228.

" Calalou." — 220 (note).

" Calinda." — 280 (note).

CALABASH.-96,116,117, 297.

Canary. — 290.

Cannon. — 2.j6.

CAT.-70,71, 72, 73, 85, 86,151, 171, 200.

Character. — 309.

CHEESE. — 215. CHEST.-260.

Chicken, or Hen. — 80, 125, 150, 245,246,247,

272 283. CHILDRBN.-15, 48,184,187,193, 242, 243, 313. Christian. -250, 337. Clothes-Press. — 260. Coal.-69.

COCK.-29, 102,129,173, 333. Cockroach. — 65,283, 284. Codfish. — 205. COON.-133. Conspiracy. — 100. cont entm ent. — 208. Corn. — 136.

COWARD.--67, 132.

Curses. — 351.

CRAB.-75, HI, 199.

Devil. — 9, 82,149, 256, 257, 259, 270.

DOG.-28, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 118, 119, 137,

152, 201, 314, 336, 343. Donkey. — 167, 258. DUCK.-43, 66, 128. Drawers.- 113,126. DRUM.-61, 78, 306. EARS.-74,107, 285, 348. EATING.-45, 194, 238. EGGS. — 13, 56, 128,129,150, 247, 280. Elephant — 297. Eyes -58,183, 276, 293, 336, 350. Pat People. — 144. Faults.-213. Favors. — 281, 286. Fever. — 211.

Fine Clothes. — 6, 23,252,253. Firefly. — 84. Fishes. — 295. Fleas. — 328. Fly.-11,20,263. Flour. — 65, 69. Foot. — 33, 50, 264, 265. Friends. — 127. Frog. — 34, 79,113,166 293. (;ab.-25, 27. QIFTS.-258, 277.

OOAT.-40. 59. 60, 61,62, 63,175,190, 206, 251,344. God. -30 31,257. Godmother.-237, GoMBO. — 147, 299. Good Actions — 42, 53. Good Fortune. — 35. Goose. — 43. Gun — 255. Hare — 3, 191. HEART.-58,174, 212. Highway. — 139,234,226,291. Horse — 94,107,109,167,204, 206, 823. HOQ.-97,176. Housekeeping. — 32. Husband. — 195, 294. IDLENESS.~34, 35,140,141,180. " If-I-only-Knew." — 298. ITCH.-178.

INDEX TO SUBJECTS OF PROVERBS.

Jewelry.- 329.

Kicks. — 105.

Knife. — 76,139.

Laoniappe. — 157.

" Langouti. " — 6.

Lard. — 53.

Leech. — 217.

Liana. — 218.

Lizard. — 282,301.

"Man Lison." — 317.

Manure. — 216.

Marriage. — 118,179,195.196,197, 215.

Master and Slave. — 366, 349.

MAT.-98.

Meadows. — 21, 396, 350.

Millet. — 47.

Misery. — 162, 207.

Misfortune. — 192, 302.

Money. — 135,168,169,170, 307.

Monkey. — 2. 4, 5, 12,108,184,185,186, 187, 188,

207, 320, 323, 335, 341, 342, 350. Mosquito. — 198, 214, 319. Mothers. — 3, 4, 5, 184,187, 193, 243. Mountains. — 174, 213. Mourning. — 131,134,134. Moussa. — 399 (note). Mud. — 155.

Mulatto. — 204, 206, 267. Mule. — 107,169, 324. Needle and Thread. — 143. OUANGA. — 100.

Ox. — 20, 21, 23, 81,160, 336, 377, 346. Paddle. — 6.

" Paliaca Birds." — 177. Pantaloons. — 393. Partnership. — 52. Petticoat. — 294. Petticoat Strings. — 293. Pot or Kettle. — 3,8,64, 354,325.383. Poverty. — 163, 339. Present and the Future. — 310,344. Puddle. — 155. Pumpkin.-76, 96. Rabbit. — 40,164.

RAGS.-145.

Rain. — 33, 81,165,166,192, 352. Rat. — 86, 387, (musk-rat) 200. Right and Wrong. — 313, 240, 384. Running Away. — 33,103. Sabrk.-18. 8ALr.-347,

Sea. — 395.

Secrets.-396.

Serpent, or Snake. — 24, 189, 269, 289, 291,293^-

Sheep. — 59, 175.

Shingles. — 17, 156.

SHOES.-83, 323, 304.

Sighing. — 300.

Skillet. — 53.

Sleep. — 45, 98.

Slow and Sure. — 131, 241.

Snails. — 108, 165.

" So Much the Worse." — 308,

Spurs.-318.

Spoon. — 77, 270.

Spring. — 148.

Staring. — 235.

Stick. — 18, 201, 209.

Stkangeus.-l;iti.

Sugar. — 38.

Sulking. — 44.

Sun. — 302,303.

Sunday. — 95, 335.

Sweet Potato. — 371.

Tail. — 13, 20, 36, 81,167, 336, 343.

Talking. — 37, 74,104,113, L,0,135,146,161,164,

202, 231, 232, 234, 235,244, 340. Teeth.-30.120,131,133,194. Thanks. — 203. " Tazard." — 310. Tiger. — 314.

TlYON. — 33.

To-Day and To-Morrow. — 41,153, 310.

Tongue. — 79,104,161, 336.

Too Much of a Thing.-338, 339, 373, 337.

Tortoise. — 99,191, 315.

Tropic- Bird. — 353.

Turkey. — 305.

Valet. — 36.

Vetiveria. — 156, 195.

Visiting. — 77.

Want (and Waste). — 41.

War. — 158,159.

WATER.-114,121,130,131,148.

Week of FourThuksdayb.-57.

White Man. — 26, 349.

WOMAN.-9, 23, 48, 65, 259, 294.

woodlice. — 116, 117. Work. — 132,141. YAM.-181. Zamba. — 78.

LA CUISINE CREOLE

A compilation of many original Creole and other valuable recipes obtained from noted Southern housewives, with a number of chefs (Tceuvre from leading che/Sy who have made New Orleans famous for its cuisine.

Published by WILL H. COLEMAN,

70 ASTOR HOUSE, NEW YORK.

picture0

PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY

PN Heam, Lafcadio

6^19 "Gombo zhebes"

C8H4

Notes

  1. Capuchin A Catholic friar.


Text prepared by:

Winter 2016-2017 Group

  • Jada Saucer
  • Jerry Allen
  • Naquilla Gafford
  • Tanner Madden


Source

Cable, George Washington. "Posson Jone'" and Père Raphaël: With a New Word Setting Forth How and Why the Two Tales Are One. Illus. Stanley M. Arthurs. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1909. Google Books. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://books. google.com/books?id=bzhLAAAAIAAJ>.

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