in the day than it loses in the night. Since we [1805 have got below the rapids, the current is much [January more gentle and we make only two of the Pilots leagues p! hour, which does not exceed perhaps 4 english miles, it appears that in nine hours (one day's) rowing down we have made the same distance which we made in 13 hours coming up, the current at the time of our ascent being nothing, and the space passed over 36 miles, it will be found from these data that in each 24 hours we gain upon the Current 6j4 miles; we have therefore reason to conclude that we have got beyond the apex of the tide or wave occasioned by the fresh, & are descending along an inclined plane, but as we always encamp at night, it is not surprising that in the morning we find ourselves in deeper water because the Apex of the tide is constantly endeavouring to overtake us, and in the morning we find ourselves on a more elevated part of the inclined plane, which we had left behind us the evening before.

This morning no condensed vapor was visible on the surface of the river, yesterday it was considerable; hence it appears that 13° difference of temperature (the river being highest) does not condense vapor with sufficient rapidity to render it visible, altho' 20° are more than are necessary; it must not be omitted to be mentioned that this morning the atmosphere was extremely dry, and therefore greedy of moisture,


i8o5 1 and yesterday it was very moist, and consequently January] j^qj. disposed to disolve water rapidly. The day proved cool, tho' not disagreeably so; the wind in the afternoon N.E. and air moist: Made this day by the computed distances about 153^ leagues and encamped about one league below where we found our Latitude to be 3 3° i 3' 16".5 on the 17^^ November, so that we have again completed two days voyage ascending in one descending. Thermometer at 8!^ p.m. 30° Extremes 27°—53°

Monday i4'> Thermometer in air 23°, in river water 40° — river risen ly^ inch. Wind very light at N.W. The atmosphere is dry and the temperature to the human body seems not very cold; there is a thin condensed vapor upon the surface of the river, the difference of temperature between the river water and air being this morning 17°; yesterday the atmosphere being nearly in the same state i 3° were insufficient to render the vapor visible. If our hygrometers were instruments of a less dubious nature, and capable of indicating by a scale the absorbing, disolving or attracting power of the atmosphere for water, without being influenced by heat and cold we should then be able to determine a priori at what difference of temperature between water and air corresponding to a given degree of the hygrometer, ascending vapor will be visibly condensed.

densed. A green moss is found upon the branches f 1805 of trees which are immersed in the waters of the U^"^^''/ inundation, none of the same species appears in a more elevated situation ; when the waters subside vegetation does not seem entirely at a stand in those mosses which are but a foot or two above the surface, they continue to be of a lively green & hang to the length of 5 or 6 inches: the vegetation of this moss must commence under water; it may be of the same nature with the green matter deposited in fresh water conduits which has been examined by Priestly & others, & which here has arrived to a higher state of perfection from its free & open situation ; it is evident this moss must vegetate under the impulse of a considerable current.

In the afternoon passed Latitude 33° and the Island of Mallet noticed in the Journal of the 15'^ of November : made about 19 leagues this day, being about 2^ day's voyage ascending; since we have got into the low alluvial Country the channel is narrower and the velocity of the current greater; we are now encamped where we passed in the afternoon of the 14'!" November. The day continued fine and of an agreeable temperature; at 3!* p.m. the thermometer was at 53°, at 8!" p.m. 32°. An eclipse of the moon will take place this night after midnight, we prepare to observe it; regulated the watch as near as possible to the apparent time at the


[ '74]

i8o5 1 setting of the Sun; to-morrow we shall give an January J account of our observations, the sky is perfectly


Tuesday 15!^ Thermometer in air 30° in river water 40° — no vapor visible on the surface of the river: river risen i yi inch—wind light at S.E. cloudy. Prepared last evening to observe the Eclipse of the Moon, with a very indifferent Spy-glass magnifying about 8 times. The commencement of the Eclipse was not correctly noted, occasioned by the very strong effect of the penumbra in our perfectly serene & clear sky, the moon not being far removed from the Zenith, which induced a belief that the Eclipse had actually commenced at 12^ 32', this circumstance produced some inattention at the instant of the true commencement, which was supposed to have happened at 12*" 40'; but the commencement of total darkness was observed with due attention, and is believed to be as correct as circumstances with our instruments would admit, and took place at 13'' 37'. It is believed that the uncertainty of the moment of observation did not exceed half a minute, I am rather disposed to say a quarter of a minute, for the transparency of the atmosphere was as perfect as can ever be expected in situations not more elevated than ours. We shall ascertain the error of the watch below at some known point, whose


[ '75 ]

latitude & position can be deduced by referrence JiSos to our geographical Journal, & this we shall [January again perform on our arrival at the post of Washita, from which we shall gain the rate of the watch's going & the whole may be referred to the meridian of the Post & will serve to compare with the results of our lunar observations made there on our way up.

This morning the heavens are veiled by clouds; during the night the thermometer was down to 28" with a pure serene sky and the atmosphere so dry that the cold was not very sensible ; this morning with a higher temperature and moist air, it is cold and penetrating. We saw this morning the first long moss (Tilandsia) called generally by the french * barbe espagnole (Spanish beard) on trees growing on the margin of the river about 2}4 leagues (5 miles) above the * Bayou des Butes.' At this time also we emerge from the alluvial country noticed in the former part of this Journal; the banks are now of a good elevation, about 15 to 18 feet above the present level of the river & probably not liable to be inundated, whereas the alluvial lands we have just quitted, are subject to be overflowed from 8 to i 2 feet; we saw none of the green moss along the alluvial tract, which I much regret, having intended to take some specimens for examination, I am in doubt whether any of the same species grows below, as yet


i8o5 1 we do not see it at the * bayou des butes.' The January J Sun at last broke forth and we landed to take his altitude for the correction of the watch, the position was recognized by the mouth of a Creek, so that by a reference to the geographical Journal, we found that the Latitude of this point is 32° 49' 24", being the same which will correspond with N 10° W 8^ 8>^' on the 14*!' nov! ascending; the Sun's dble Alt: lower limb was 66° 36' 45" Ind : err : +12' 20" taken at 10^ 56' 24" a.m. — The day became cloudy in the afternoon and the thermometer rose to 63? which we consider as an indication of rain.

We made this day nearly 15 computed leagues, being the eighth day from Ellis Camp, and are now encamped within five of those leagues from the post of the Washita, being about a mile above the place where we dined on the 12^ November, Latitude then found was 32° 34' 47". The moon and stars shine with a mild lusture, no appearance of change in the weather notwithstanding the increased temperature of the atmosphere. Thermometer at 8^ p.m. 43°.

Wednesday 161'' ... in river water 41° — river risen 1% inch: a . . . proceeding from atmospheric moisture, being very different from what we see arising out of the river under considerable differences of temperature — Arrived at the Post of


Washita about noon — The day proved very j 1805 fine and warm, the thermometer at 3^ p.m. [January being at 65° and at 8!" p.m. it remained at 60° — Found all w^ell at the post — no news of any importance — our people all in good health except one Soldier who has been a good deal incommoded by a dysentery; but he is not in danger. Returned the hired boat.

Thermometer in air 60° in river water 44° — Thursday \f> river risen one inch. Wind at S.W.—very clear during the night but cloudy this morning— made the following observation to correct the watch and ascertain her rate of going. At 8*^ 53' 7" Sun's apparent double altitude of the lower limb 36° 44'45" Ind: err:+ 12' 30".

Employed the people in getting Mast and Oars f Friday iS*.'' for our large boat. Judging it of importance to j ^ Saturday get to Natchez as soon as possible, I determined after being disappointed in procuring horses, to take the Canoe with one Soldier and my own Domestic, and push down to Catahoola, from whence there is a road to Concord about 30 miles across the . . . [page torn].

Set ofFabout day-break, and arrived after night Sunday 20^'' at the lower settlement, about 20 computed leagues from the Post. Called at the house of an old hunter with whom I had conversed on my


[ '78 ]

i8o5 1 way up: This man informs me that at the place January j called the mine on the little Misouri, there is a smoke, which ascends perpetually from a particular place, and that the vapor is sometimes insupportable; the river or a branch of it passes over a bed of mineral, which from the description given is no doubt martial pyrites. In a creek or branch of the Washita called * fourche a Luke'* there is found on the beaches and in the cliiFs a great number of globular bodies, some as large or larger than the head of a man, which when broken, exhibit the appearance of Gold, Silver and precious Stones; this most probably is pyrites with chrystalized spar: also at the * fourche des glaises a Paul',! there is near to the river a cliff full of hexagonal prisms terminated by pyramids, which appear to grow out of the rock, some an inch in diameter & six to eight inches long: there are beds of pyrites found in several small creeks communicating with the river Washita: but it appears that . . . [page torn] indications on the Misouri were most considered, because some of the hunters actually worked upon it & sent a parcel of the ore to New Oreleans as observed above: it is the belief of the people here that the mineral contained precious metal, but that the Spanish Government did not chuse that any mine should

* 3 leagues above Ellis' Camp.

t higher up the river than ' fourche a Luke.'


be opened so near to the British Settlements, for fiSos which reason an express prohibition was issued ^■^ ""^v against any farther work being done upon the mine; since which time it has been no more spoken of. This man procured me some small roots & a few seeds of the patate a chevreuil; he also took me to the next house where I saw a solitary tree of the * bois d'Arc ' (bow-wood) or yellow wood, which was raised from a seed brought from the little Misouri; I requested some large branches, but could only obtain from the Old Lady mistress of the place, two very small ones; the fruit fallen before maturity lay upon the ground, some were of the size of a small orange, with a rind full of tubercles ; the color tho' in appearance faded, still retained a resemblance to pale gold : the tree in its native soil when loaded with its golden fruit (nearly as large as the Egg of an Ostrige), presents I am told the most splendid appearance; its foliage is of the finest deep green greatly resembling the varnished foliage of the orange tree, and upon the whole no forest tree can compare with it in respect . . . ental grandeur. The bark of the young tree which I saw resembled in its texture externally the Dogwood bark; but its color is a reddish or brownish yellow; the appearance of the wood recommends it for trial as an article which may yield a yellow die: I hope to succeed in raising trees


[ '8o J

1805 1 from the cuttings and a small Cion which I January J have procured; the people suppose this tree too young to mature its fruit, as it has always hitherto fallen when of the size of an orange, I am inclined rather to suspect that the failure may be occasioned by its open and exposed situation, as it naturally grows under the shade of the forest, this tree is about six inches in diameter, it is deciduous and appears to be in a sound and healthy state; the branches are numerous and full of short thorns or prickles, it seems to recommend itself as highly proper for hedges or live fences, which are greatly wanted in many parts of the United States : this tree is known to exist near the Nakitosh (perhaps Lat: 32°) and upon the river Arcansa high up (perhaps in Lat: 36°), it is therefore probable it may thrive from Lat: 28° to 40° and will be a great acquisition to a great part of the U. S. should it possess no other merit than that of being ornamental.

On my way down I endeavoured to discover a place said to produce Gypsum, but being without a proper guide I failed in the research; I have no doubt of its existence, and have taken notes of the positions of two places where it has been found; one of which is the first hill or high land which touches the river on the west above the large Creek called Bayou Calumet and the other is the second high land on the same side; as those are two points of the same


[ '8. ]

continued ridge, it is probable that an immense fiSos body of Gypsum will be found in the bowels U^^^aT of the hill connecting those two points and perhaps extending far beyond them ; it has been said that fossil coal is found on the east side of the river opposite to the second hill; it is probably Carbonated wood only : a person who pretends to have been up among the sources of the Washita i oo leagues higher than the hot springs, declares having found true mineral coal, which burns with a strong heat and bright flame without the aid of other fuel, a property which Carbonated wood does not possess. I do not give entire faith to this last report, the person who informed me being fond of the marvellous.

Continue my voyage with contrary winds and f Monday 21^' arrived the evening of the ^^^ at the Catahoola, | ^^^ Tuesday which by computation is fifty leagues from the post of Washita : At this place a french man named Hebrard is settled, who keeps a ferry across the black river: here the road from Natchez forks, one branch of it leading to the settlements on the red river and the other up to the Post of the Washita: The proprietor of this place has been a hunter and great traveller up the Washita & into the western countries; he confirms generally the accounts we have received; it appears from what he and others say, that in the neighbourhood of the hot-springs,


1805 1 higher up among the mountains, and upon the Januaryj little niisouri, during the summer season. Explosions are very frequently heard proceeding from under ground, and not rarely a curious phenomenon is seen which is termed the blowing of the mountains, that is, confined elastic gaz forces a passage thro' the side or top of a hill driving before it a great quantity of earth and mineral matter: it appears that during the winter season the explosions and blowing of the mountains entirely cease, from whence we may conclude that the cause of those phenomena is comparatively superficial, being brought into action by the increased heat of the more direct rays of the summer-sun.

Upon my arrival at the house of M. Hebrard, I enquired for horses to carry me across the low country to Concord opposite to Natchez, the distance by the road is computed 30 miles, but it is probable the direct distance falls short of 25, and it is remarkable that the river Washita preserves a kind of parallelism to the Missisippi until it comes within the influence of the highlands of the arcansa, & thence it is deflected to the North west & probably holds a middle ground between the red river and the arcansa; the inclination of the missisippi is such that the walnut-hills are 30 miles to the*east of the Natchez, the Post of the Washita will be found therefore nearly under the same meridian with


that of Natchez very contrary to the general f 1805 idea. — M. Hebrard very obligingly engaged to \Ja""a''y furnish me with horses, which it was necessary to hunt up in the woods; In the meantime I went to view the Indian mounts spoken of in the beginning of this Journal; I find this to be a very interesting place, it is the point of confluence of three navigable waters viz The Washita river. The tenza and the Catahoola, the second communicates with the missisipi lowlands by the intervention of other creeks and lakes & by one in particular called the Bayou d'argent which enters into the missisippi about 14 miles above Natchez, during high water there is navigation for batteaux of any burthen along those bayoux, a large lake called S* John's lake occupies a considerable part of this passage between the Missisippi and the Tenza ; it is in a horse-shoe form, & has been at some former period the bed of the Missisippi, the nearest part of it is about one mile removed from the river of the present time; this lake possessing elevated banks similar to those of the river has been lately occupied & improved ; many similar possessions and improvements have been made since the first news of the cession of Louisiana by the french to the American Government; I omitted to mention in its proper place that it is understood, that even the hot-springs included within a tract of some hundreds of acres were granted by the


1805 \ late Spanish Commandant of the Washita to January] gQj^g Q^e of his friends, but it is not believed that a regular patent was ever issued for that place, & it cannot be asserted that residence w^ith improvement can be set up as a plea to claim the land upon.

The Catahoola bayou is the third navigable stream ; during the time of the inundation there is an excellent communication by the Lake of that name & from thence by large Creeks to the red river; The Country around the point of union of those three rivers is altogether alluvial ; but the place of M. Hebrard's residence is no longer subject to inundation for reasons which have been already assigned; there is no doubt that as the country augments in population and riches, this place will become the site of a commercial inland town, which will hold pace with the progress and prosperity of the country. On this place are to be found a number of Indian mounts, one of which is of very considerable elevation, with a species of rampart surrounding a very large space which was no doubt the position of a fortified town; having taken some notes respecting this place, the whole will be digested and introduced into an Apendix which will be added to this Journal.

Wednesday 23"? This morning is cloudy and threatens rain, the horses are not found, therefore no prospect


of setting out to day; a little rain fell about 9!" fiSos a.m.—in the afternoon one of the horses only [January is found.

Last night there was much thunder and light- Thursday 24*.'' ning and this morning the rain falls very fast: Having no other employment I endeavoured to collect information, here I met w^ith an American who pretends to have been up the Arcansa river 300 leagues; the navigation of that river he says is good to that distance for boats drawing 3 or 4 feet water: I do not give implicit faith to this man, when he speaks largely of the silver which he pretends to have himself collected upon that river, and even says that on the Washita 30 leagues above the hot springs he has found silver ore so rich that 3 lib of it yielded one of silver, & that this was found in a Cave: he asserts also that the ore of the mine upon the little Misouri was carried to Kentucky by a certain Boon, where it was found to yield largely in silver: This American says he has also been up the red river, that there is a great rapid just below the raft or natural bridge & several others above it: The Cadaux Nation is 50 leagues above the raft, and near to their Village commences the Country of the great Prairies, and extend 4 or 500 miles west to the sand mountains as they are termed; those great planes extend south far beyond the red river; north over the Arcansa river and among


[ "86 ]

i8o5 1 the numerous branches of the Misouri. This man January J confirms the accounts of the beauty and fertility

of the western Country &c.—

This evening the other horse has been found

so that I hope to set out tomorrow morning.

Friday 25I'' The horses being late of fetching up, we set out only at 9 o'clock; the weather was cloudy but not cold; the meeting of three rivers here which form the black river, has given it a considerable width at this place, little short I think of 400 yards. There is no apparent current here and the river is rising very fast, which is attributed to the Missisippi flowing up into the red river. The rain which has fallen these two days past, has rendered the roads extremely wet and muddy; we made only one league in the hour ; arrived at the bayou Crocodile at 2!" p.m. This place is considered half way from the black river to the Missisippi, & is one of those creeks which are extremely numerous in the low grounds & serve to assist in venting the waters of the inundation : the whole of the Country thro' which we have passed to day appears to be subject to the annual inundation; there are some places higher than others upon which Canes are found growing, the margins of water courses are always found more elevated than the lands at some distance, which degenerate into Cypress swamps and lakes.


At this place we found the waters of the Mis- fiSos sisippi had already flowed in so abundantly, that 1 January there was a necessity to prepare a raft for crossing, & having in company three white men who understood the business, the raft was prepared of logs of the driest wood we could procure lashed together with our horse ropes and halters; after two hours delay we got to the other side of the bayou which was about 60 yards wide including the overflowed low margin of the Creek; we had yet 5 leagues to make & it was already 4 o'clock; we pushed on, but the roads were little better than mud and water for several miles together; we were unable to get on fast enough to pass over this bad part of the road before it became extremely dark, and we expected to be obliged to spend the night in the woods without fire, perhaps without a spot of dry land to rest upon: it was diflicult to preserve the path; in this respect we trusted chiefly to the sagacity of our horses, at length they brought us out of the woods & at 9!* p.m. We got to a new settled plantation four miles short of Concord, where we were hospitably entertained with good homely fare, particularly milk, of which I had not seen a drop upon the Washita, not even at their principal settlement; In those new Countries and all over the Opelousa Country, the Horned Cattle are in a semi-savage state, no provision is made or laid up for them during winter; in the fall of


[ '88 ]

i8o5 1 the year it is therefore necessary to turn out the January] Q^if -^ith the Cow, Otherwise she would abandon her young in the hands of its owner where it would infallibly perish; the Cattle move off in search of winter food & the proprietor frequently knows nothing of the situation of his stock, untill the warm weather of the Spring & Summer season calls them out in search of the young tender herbage of the open fields.

Saturday 26*.'' Set Out in the morning with a very cold freezing air; I now think it extremely fortunate that we were not detained last night in the woods, as we certainly should have spent a very disagreeable night. Arrived in an hour at Concord ; the settlement of this place has commenced only since the treaty of limits between the U. S. and Spain, but it has received its most considerable augmentation since the cession of Louisiana to the U. S. by citizens of the Missisippi territory who have either established their residence altogether upon newly acquired lands, or what has perhaps been equally common, have taken up tracts of land under the authority of the Spanish Commandant & have gone to the expense of improvements either in their own names or in the names of others before the 20*!" of December 1803 hoping thereby to hold their new possessions under the Sanction of the law. Exclusive of the few actual residents on the banks of the


[ »89]

Missisippi, there are two very handsome lakes ("1805 in the interior, on the banks of which settle- lJ^""^''y ments of a similar nature have been made.

Crossed the ferry and breakfasted at Natchez and arrived at my own house at ten o'clock where I had the satisfaction to find my family all well.

JOURNAL of a Geometrical Survey commencing at S! Catherine s landing on the East shore of the Missisippi descending to the mouth of the red river, and from thence ascending that river, the black river and river of the Washita as high as the Hot Springs in the proximity of the last named river.


THE distances are taken by time from a portable chronometer, and proportioned by a log-line divided into perches, run out for half a minute: consideration was always had for the velocity of the Current by deducting it immediately from the rate per log, when it merited attention: it is to be understood that the rate per log noted, continues the same untill it is again noted with change.

All meridian or other altitudes of the Sun above the horizon, noted in the following Journal, are to be understood of the lower limb, unless otherwise expressed.

An excellent Circle of reflection with a triple Index, made byTroughton of London graduated to lo'' of a degree, was used for taking altitudes, lunar distances &c; this Circle is supported on a pedestal which gives it a solidity & perfection never to be expected from any instrument held in the hand; the index error was regularly ascertained immediately after taking a meridian altitude, by observing the Sun's contact with his reflected image both above and below: for facility in practice the greater contact was added to the apparent double altitude when the index error was additive ; and the lesser contact was added when the error was sub-tractive; which includes the Sun's semi-diameter and the correction of the index error giving at once the apparent double altitude of the Suns center, being careful to subtract the correction of refraction from the altitude of the lower limb only : altho' this was my

practice, I have agreeably to custom given always the Index error: some small differences will be found in calculating the Latitudes, arising from my practice, of prefering the Suns semidiameter taken from my instrument (generally smaller) to that found in the nautical almanack, Mf. Maskelyne astronomer royal has long since observed that the Sun's diameter as taken from Mayer's tables is 3'' too much, I observe that this error is corrected in the almanac for 1805.

The rate of going of the Chronometer having been frequently changed by being carried in the pocket, it was not proposed to depend upon its keeping the Longitude otherwise than as a good second hand watch to note the instance of astronomical observations, and was always preserved carefully in a horizontal position untill a connected series of observations was completed, during which time it is believed that the rate of going was sufficiently equable.

"Journal of a Geometrical Survey commencing at S^ Catherine's landing on the East shore of the Missisippi descending to the mouth of the red river, and from thence ascending that river, the black river and river of the Washita as high as the Hot Springs in the proximity of the last named river.

THE following courses and distances from S! Catherines landing to the mouth of the red river were taken on the return of the boat at the termination of the voyage, but are now placed with more propriety at the commencement of the survey.

South 2IO perches.

S70 W1212 at 810 Hootsell's plantation on

the right i ^ mile above the Island. S 30 W 120 passed between the Island and right

bank. South 240 S 40 E 210 S 30 E 240 S 20 W 930 S 60 W 240 West 492 S35 W 282 S 20 W 189

S 5 W1470 At 1418 passed Homochilo river on the left.

S 40 E 528

S 20 W 600

S 50 W 540

S 20 W 420

S 60 E 595

S 75 E 925 At 805 Buffalo river on the left; arrived at Fort adams.

S 30 W2250 At 1940 the Line of demarcation on the left 31° North Lat: & 6^ 6'. 42''. Long: West of Greenwich; the last by M. DeFerrer.

S 60 W 40

N 65 W 160

N 15 W 360

N 40 W 312

N 60 W 120

N 85 W 960 to the mouth of Red river.


ARRIVED at the mouth of the Red river the J1804 evening of the 17*!! of October: The Latitude \October and Longitude of this place having been accurately ascertained by Doctor Jose Joakin de Ferrer^ we did not think it necessary to lose any time on that account — Lat 31° 01' 15'' North, and Long: 6-7-1 1" west of Greenwich — proceeded to take the Courses and distances of the Red river as follows, beginning at the mouth of the river on the right margin.

Thursday, 18'?

N 14° E o'123'to a point on the same side: rate

p' Log 4 per: p' half minute, no

opposing Current. River 550 yards

wide. N 8 W -.47 to a point on the left side. N 20 W -.23 to a point, right bank. N 5 E -. 5 alongshore. River 300 yards wide. N 22 E -.22 to a point left side — a Creek to

the right. N 10 W -. 9 along shore. Rate of going 4 per. N 25 W-. 6 . . . d". N 45 W-.ii a lake on the right side. N 80 W -.22 to point right side. N 40 W-. 4 —river 250 yds wide. N 10 W-. 4 —no sensible current. N 32 E -.17 to a p" on the left 200 y-'wide. N 25 W-.ii to a p" on the right.

1804 1 N° 10 W-.16 to a p" on the left. October/ N„i5 W-. 6 to a p?. on the right.

N.. 25 W-.27 to a p" same side, a bend to the

right. N..38 W-. 7 along shore. N„40 E -,10 d?. S 75 E -.42 to a p.'. on the left. N 40 E -. 7 along shore. N 5 E -.41 to a p" on the right. N 40 E -. 6 to a p" on the left — a large Creek

on the right. Ns 80 W -.24 to a p.' on the right. N.. 10 E -.13 along shore. N..75 W-.23 alongshore. S 85W-.i6d?. N 75 W-.19 d.*?

S 50 W -.46 to a point on the right. Made this day 12 Miles 296 perches. Friday 19!^ Thermometer before Sun rise 46°

N 75 Wo'!i9'to a point on the left. Rate 7 perches per yi Minute. Same course 0.27 to do. on the right. N 30 W 0.30 along shore.

Wo.ii . . .d?. N 60 W 0.14 a point on the left: rate of going 7 perches per ]/2 Minute. W 0.23 along shore. Same course 0.26 a point on the right. N 75 W 0.33 along shore. N 50 W 0.26 to a point on the left: at 5' a Creek

on the left. N 70 W 0.22 a point on the right; wind contrary hove the log rate of going 4 perches.

N 35 Wo'!22'along shore. ri8o4

NioWo.ija point on the left, landed to ob-t October

serve and dined. Face of the Doub. ap. alt. O lower limb 97^'-Circle West o" In: er: —13' 11". 5 Lat: found

3iLi5'_48". N 60 W 0.40 a p' on right . . rate 5 perches. N 50 W along shore to the mouth of black

river 150 y?! wide, red river the

same width; entered Black river. N 35 E 0.25 a point on the left. N 10 E 0.31 along shore.


N 40 W oh6' along shore, river 100 yards wide.

S 75 W0.20 to a point on the right: sounded 20 feet, black sand, encamped for the night; made this day 15 miles 102 perches. Saturday 20!^ Thermometer before Sunrise 47°.

W 0.30 along shore — hove the Log, 4 perches per ^ min.

N 45 W 0.45 to a point on the right — temperature of the river 73°.

N 10 W0.28 to a point on the left — Chalybeate spring, temperature 66°.

N 0.16 along shore.

Same course 0.42 to a point on the right 6 J^ perches per log.

N 20 W0.30 along shore rate of going 4 perches per log.

lo Black River

1804 1 N 50 E 0^30'along shore river 80 yards wide — Octoberj Canes on the right.

E to the left shore landed to observe

at noon & dine. Face of the O doub : mer: ap : alt: 95-34'. Circle East 5''. In : er + 13^—32''. 5—Lat found

31" 22'46''. 6. S 75 E 0.58 to a p? on the right & continue to the

left— Log 4^ perch per ^Minute. N 63 E 0.47 to a point on the right and continue

to a point of the left; Thermometer at 3"? 80° N 25 E 0.40 along shore — Canes on the right. N 45 W 0.27 along shore. S 80 W I. 6 . . ditto; encamped for the night.

Soundings 5 fathoms, black sand.

This day's voyage makes 13 miles

40 perches. Sunday 21" last ) Thermometer before sun rise 60° course continued J a little cloudey near the Horizon. S 80 W 0.48 along shore. N 45 W0.51 to an Island; rate per log 4^

perches. N 13 W I. 3 hoist sail, rate per log 8 perches:

cane brake, little settlement. N 20 E 0.25 to a point on the left. Rate per log

4^ perch. N25Wo.i4toa point on the right. N 40 E o. 6 to the left; landed to observe and

dine, clouds came over just at the

moment before the Sun came upon

the meridian, went off in a little

time, he had dipped: the double

In'er : + 13'. 34''which is too small, J1804 the latitude is too far north. '[October

N 75 E ©{'40'along shore. N 40 E 0.22 ditto Thermometer 83? S 30 E 0.23 Same course i. 6 (sent the men to track) along shore, rate per log 5 perches. S 13 E 0.46 continue tracking; cross and go on

to a point on the left. N 75 E 0.35 to the right — encamped for the night. Extremes of the Thermometer 60? to 82° cloudy ; wind S.S.E. made this day 14 Miles 59 perches. Monday 22 — Thermometer before Sun rise 65? Wind S.S.E. cloudy, rain before day. Continued

N 75 E 0.20 to a point on the right. S 65 E 0.35 along shore — by log 5 perches per j4 Minute. E 1.14 to a point on the left, cloudy. N 0.30

Hoist sail

N 40 W o. 18 to a point on the left — by Log 8 perch's per j4 Minute. Wind fails

W 2.12 to a point on the right — by Log 4 perches, long reach, rain at noon, no observation. N 20 W0.35 along shore — Thermometer 79? N 40 E I. 3 to a point on the left — by Log 5

perches. N 10 Wo.19 along shore. N 45 W0.20 to a point along shore — sounded

1804 1 3 J^ fathom, black sand — extremes

October J of the thermometer 65? to 79° made

this day 13 Miles 76 perches. Tuesday 23^ Thermometer 68? before sun rise. Wind N.N.W. the river fell 3 inches in the night. N 65 Wa*! 5'along shore by log 5^ perches. N 10 W 0.50 to a point on the right. N 10 E 0.38 along shore contrary wind — by log 3 ^ perches observed O Doub: alt: 92?58'.45". In: Er: +13'. dinner 45''. 5.


N 10 E 0.50 along shore.


N30 E oh5'to the left shore, wind N.N.W. arrived at the mouth of Catahoola, West course ; thermometer 75°.

N 10 E o. 8 the mouth of Washita : Bayu Tensa forks with Washita bearing N 80° E: log 5§^ perches.

N 65 Wo. 7 along shore on the right: encamped. Extremes of the thermometer 68?-75° took information at the mouth of the Catahoola which detained us iy2 hours; sounded, 6 fathoms; made this day 9 miles 77^ perches. By our reckoning the mouth of Washita is distant from the mouth of Red river 77 miles 57 perches;

Washita - 13

and by the old estimation 32 French [1804

leagues. "[October

Wednesday 24 Thermometer before sunrise 54?

Wind North, cloudy, temperature

of the river 71? no current worth

estimating. N 65 Wo"? 9'continued to the right shore — rate

of going per log 43^ perches. N 35 E 0.23 along shore.

N 0.20 ditto — high land on the right.

W0.12 ditto, by log 5 perches. Bayu Ha-ha on the right coming in f ? East. N 0.12 ditto, oblique strata of clay, some

dipping under y' horizon 30? in the

direction of the river. N 60 E 0.11 to the left shore, breakfast

N 30 E 0.27 along shore by log 5 perches

cloudy. N 45 Wo.13 ditto, river 80 yards wide.

Wo.18 to a point on the right luxuriant

vegitation, grapevines, &c in rich

dark festoons. N 30 Wo. 6 along shore. N 30 E o. 3 clearing up — wind north. N 50 E 0.19 N 0.49 landed on the right to observe O

Doub: alt: 92? 4'. 50'' In: = er: dinner +13'. 45'' land high no appearance

of overflowing, oak forest, white,

red, black, rich shrubbery. Lat:

found 31° 42' 3o'^5. continued

N 0.42 to the right shore.

continue taking all day rate per log 5 perches.

14 Washita

1804 1 ^ SS W 0*131'rich herbage along shore. October J N 40 E o.ii along shore — low and small timber, upon the high bank. N 70 E 0.17 along shore "

E 0.17 ditto N 45 E o. 5 ditto N o. 8 ditto

N 60 W0.83 ditto

Wo. 9 S 72 W0.24 to the left — a large bayu going to

S. W. called Barchelet. N 15 W0.39 made this day 14 miles 48 perches. Thursday 25 Thermometer 49? temperature of the

river 68? Wind North, cloudy, contin**

N 15 W0.20 at 12'. pine point on the left, and Villemont's prairie on the right, per Log 4 perches. N 45 E o. 3 to a point on the right — high land.

E 0.43 at 3'. bayu on the left. N 20 E 0.29 to Bayu Louis on the right, here commences the rapids. Breakfast.

N I mile so many shoals in this course

that no time or log could be kept — by estimation we went one mile and then were completely embayed, being enclosed by a bar of gravel and sand with only 8 to 12 inches of water; cloudy, no observation; This day we made only 3 miles 120 perches. Friday 26 Thermometer 40? Wind N.W. light clouds took

At loH*'- A. M. O ap, dblc alt: 82? /.lo'' In : er : + 1%'.^%" to regulate r - Oq .

the watch. I „ ^,

At II .40.45 Do 88. lo. 5 Magnetic Azim: [ ^CtODCr

S zoX E. At noon took the 0 mer : alt: (doub) 90? y/. l^' In : er : + 13^. ifl". Lat. 31? 48'. Si"•^- ^'"• mometer at 3 o'clock 70?

Saturday 27- Thermometer 32° temperature of the river 64? wind North, clear above — a fog on the river, no observation all our efforts being employed Course ^ to get through a gravelly bar un-

continued I^mile till i o'clock; the rapids continu-North J ing occasioned frequent stops so

that we could only estimate the remainder of this course at ^ of a mile; the rockey pass which completed the rapids being 200 yards from the end of this last course.

Woh5' to a point on the right—per log

4/^ perches.

N 0.38 at II a bayu on the left — a point

on the left: encamp: extremes of the thermometer 32°—73" : this day made 2 miles 77 perches. Sunday 28. Thermometer 40? temperature of the river water (i'^°. wind N.W. — clear above — fog on the river. N 45 Wo.17 rate by log 4^ perches. N 0.17 at 5'. a prairie or natural meadow

on the left to a point on the left. N 15 W0.13 Bayoo Boeuf on the right at 5'.

Rockey hill on the right. N 45 W0.17 N 15 E 0.18 N 70 W0.20

1804 1 S 55 Woho'on the right—here we made the October J following observations

A. M. O doub : alt: 53° 19^. oc/''. at 9I1- e/-W. —Mag : Az : S 60 El do 58 .14 , 10 at 9I1 zo -%%. d" S 57 EJ

In :Er:+13^58, Apparent distance of the Sun and Moons nearest limbs 53° 24^. 50^^.

In : Er : + 13^ 1%''. at 9b 47/. 1%%".

Same course 0.6 on the right, tracking the boat; by log 5 perches. Wo.14 ditto. N 10 E 0.14 N 10 W0.17 Wo. 17 S 10 Wo.II To the right, landed to observe, dinner O ap : doub : alt: 88? 58^.45''. In :

er: +13'. 58". Lat: found 31? 53'.


S 10 Wo. 8

S 78 Wo. 8

S 80W0.10

N 30 W I. 8 a large prairie or savannah on the right — thermometer 78? at 3*! the plane is named " Prairie noyee."

S 45 W0.32

N 45 W 0.13 to the left.

N 80 W0.31

S 45 W0.15

S 30 E 0.16 rate by log 5^ perches.

S 82 Wo.12 to the encampment. Sounded, 3 fathom, mud and sand, made this day 12 miles 116 perches.

Note the rate of going of the watch to be ascertained from the



morning altitudes of the Sun of this day and the 26*-

In future I have determined to take down the distances by the hour and minute as first placed upon the slate or blotter, being less liable to error; the differences as above stated may be taken afterwards at leisure. Monday 29'- Thermometer 41° temperature of the river water 62? wind N.W. fog on the river. Set out at 6^22' rate per Log 5^ perches. S 32 W6.31 N 3 5 W 6.40 N 65 W7. 8

W 7.20 to the right bank. N 45 W 7.30 to the left.

N 55 E 7.48 a Creek on the left: landed and made the following observations of the distances between the nearest limbs of the sun and moon. 'At8'!57'.io''dis:4i?58\2o' ' 9. 6 .10 . . . 41.55.40 9.26.18 . . . 41.50.10 A. M. ] Took the following doub: alt: of the Sun and azimuth.

At 9': 47'. 46'' doub: alt: 68? 44^.30'' . Sun's magnetic Az: S 45? E. In: Er: the same +13'. 45''. Set off at lo*! 4'.

N 55 E 10.20 rate per log ^j4 perches. N 30 W10.31 N 15 E 10.43

1804 October

In: Er:

+ ^3'AS'

N 80 W 4.14 N 45 W 4.32 S 55 W 4.55 Wind S.W. Log 5 perches.

W 5.13 N 35 W 5.28

N 55 E 5.35 to the right encamped. Soundings 3 fathom, thermometer 62?

Note. The watch having been suffered to run down last night, the times of the altitudes of this day have consequently no connection with the former. This day made 14 miles 65 perches. Tuesday 30''' Thermometer 47? temperature of the river water 60? fog on the river wind W.N.W. clear. Set off at 6. 5

N 75 E 6M6'rate per log 5 perches. ri8o4

N 20 E 6.34 [October

N 70 W 7.10

S 50 W 7.35 lost 1'. W 7.50 Breakfast 8.47

N 10 W 9.12

N 40 E 9.25

N 82 E 9.47

N 68 W10.25

S 50 W10.55 wind W.

N 50 Wii. 7

N II.14

N 60 E 11.34 landed and took the Suns mer: doub : altitude 87? 16'. 10'' In: er: + i3'.2o''., some uncertainty attended this observation ; the altitude observed may have been a minute too small, which would place the latitude Y^ minute too far north; it is however recorded with this remark latitude found 32°5'.24^ Set off at 1.20

N 50 W 2. 8 rate per log 5 perches.

N 30 E 2.35

N 45 W 2.42 wind W.

W 2.48

S 60 W 3.37 lost 9'.

N 55 W 4. 7 lost 4'. a rapid: river30 yards wide.

N 60 E 4.28

N 4-34

W 5.15 lost 14' creek on the left, perhaps

Bayu Calumet.

1804 1 N 5^5'to the left— encamped extremes

OctoberJ of the thermometer 47?-83? Made

15 miles 150 perches. Wednesday 31 Thermometer 44° river water 62?

Wind N.W. Clear. Set out at 6.30

N 45 E 6.50 strong current, rate per log reduced, 2 perches. N 20 W 6.55 S 65 W 7.46 lost 5'.

N 40 W 8.10 got upon a shoal: breakfasted. Set off 9.58

N 40 W10.44 lost 10' N 10 W11.18

N25 E11.35 per log 41^ perches: landed and took the Suns apparent: mer: double alt: 86? 27'. 10'' In: er: dinner +13'- 40'' latitude found 32? lo".

13'' at seting out got upon a bar which detained us. Set out again

at 2.00 got over the bar. N 25 E 3.00 lost 6\ per log 4 perches. N 74 W 3.10 a small plantation on the right. S 25 W 3.35 Thermometer 84?

W 3.40 .

N 5 W 4. 8

N 35 W 4.45 to a small plantation — another joining below: this day made 6 miles 165 perches. November 1 Thermometer 48? river water 62? calm Thursday i"J clear.

W j4 mile. The first part of this course could only be estimated by

the eye, as a great part of this [1804 morning was employed in getting [November over a rapid, which we effected about 12 (noon) it may be put down at half a mile. Set off after! 1, ,

,. }-2.20

dmner J continu'd W 2.33 rate by log 3 perches against a current. N 40 W 3.12 a cliff 100 feet crowned by pines, lost 14'. this course upon a shoal. N30 E 3.14

E 3.42 lost 2'. N 30 E 3.44 rate per log 4^ perches. N 15 E 3.54 Thermometer 85? N 45 E 4.36 lost 22' upon a shoal. N 25 E 4.40

W 5.24 a sand bar half way across: river 50 yards wide. N 70 W 5.44

W10.00 lost 20' on a shoal.

iih5'stoped by a shoal. ri8o4

S 10 E 11.23 went ashore & prepared to ob-\ November serve. Set out after 1.31 O ap: do: alt: 84? 18'. 40. In: dinner. er : +13'. 30''. Lat: 32? if, if.

Set out at 1.31 after dinner. S 10 E 1.38

S 60 E 1.45 towing the boat rate 5^^ perches. N 60 E 1.55 N 30 E 2. 4

N 2.17

2.32 stop upon a shoal. N 20 W 2.45

N 3. 5 lost 3'. thermometer 86°.

N 45 W 3.25 lost 10'. rate per log 4^ perches.

S 65 W 3.57 lost 14'. upon a shoal.

N 45 W 4. 3

N 20 E 4.20 lost 8'. — towing, rate per log 5J^

perches. N 45 E 4.35 current — rate 4 perches.

N 5. 5 lost 9'.

N 45 E 5.15 encamped on the left, Thermometer at 8!" p. m. 72° made this day II miles 140 perches. Sunday 4'!' Thermometer 54? river water 64? clear. Set off at 9.18 got aground in the morning. N 45 E 9.26 rate per log 4 perches. N 25 E 9.36 N 20 W 9.44

N 45 W10.26 lost 16'' upon a shoal. S 75 W10.50 lost 3'. N 65 Wii.oo

N 50 W11.29 landed and observed the O ap: mer: alt: double 83° t^^' ' AS"-

1804 1 In: er: 13'. 32''. Lat: 32? 21'.

November J 10".

Set out at i!'36'

N 20 W 3.25 lost 57' upon a shoal rate per log 2 perches. Same course

N 20 W 4.00 lost 12' got out the tow line to

track ; per log 5 Yz perches. N 20 E y2 mile this course being over

shoals and rapids could only be estimated by sight made this day 4 miles 233 perches. Monday 5'" Thermometer 52? river water 62? heavy fog, had to unload two turns of our canoe to get over a shoal. Set off at 9.55 Last course

Conf* 10. 4 rate per log 5 perches.

N 20 W11.15 N 45 Wi1.21 lost 3'.

W11.32 dark misty and cloudy.

N 45 W12.00 lost 5'.

N 45 E 12.13 N 25 E 12.42 lost 1'. N 45 E 1.34 lost 10'. N 10 W 1.43 wind N.W. dined. Set off at 3.00

N 75 W 3.12 rate per log 6 perches. S 50 W n^.t^c^ Thermometer 68° Sun shines dimley through a blackish mist.

W 4. 2

N 60 W 4.25 lost 1'. N 30 W 4.39 N 4.55

N35W5':8' ri8o4

N 15 W 5.25 encamped on a sand bar on the [November

right made this day 11 miles 276

perches. Tuesday 6*- Thermometer 45? river water 64? heavy

fog, wind west.

1804 1 made this day 9 miles 257 perches

Novemberj amounting in the whole from the

mouth of Red river 196 miles and 256 perches. Wednesday y'- Took the O ap: mer: doub: alt: 81° 28^.00'' In: er:+13'. 33''.5 latitude found 32? 29'. 52''. 5. The place where the observation was made is about 450 feet to the south of the post where Lieut: Bowman and his garrison are stationed, the latitude of the post is therefore 32? 29'. 57". 8*" & 9'" Both cloudy days remained at the post. 9*•^ Thermometer 42°-72° river 61°. Saturday lo*- Thermometer 40? made the following observations.

by cal.


r loi'o'. I ?''■'. 0 ap. dble ^ found

A M J ^°^*''^"™^'^^'^^3°-5'-5°'^®™^6!AzS 46E I In: er: io°.9^

I 65.56.53 S 43 E r+i3''.47''''.5 10.8

I10.16.12 66.50.34 S 42 eJ 10 .8

O Ap: mer: dble: Alt: 79? 45'. 3" In : er+ 13'. 47'^5 Lat: found 32°

There is a difference of I'j". between the Lat: found this day and on the 7'!" I give the preference to the observation of this day, because on the 7'.'' some interruption from visitants occasioned a moments inattention and it is believed the Sun might have dipped a little before the altitude was taken.

O triple contact as follows J'1804

r ^°^" "'"'»" 3-1-6 -j 0 ,p J D J Alt: 49°. 15/. 30^'. t November

P M. < Center 3-a-5° ^ t _i_ / //

Upper Ibnb 3%_^6rin:er:+i3'.47-.S

Note the center contact was uncertain from intervening branches. Distances between the Sun and moons nearest limb are as follows.

not to be considered as so perfect as similar contacts of the Sun, on account of the pale light of her disk in the presence of the Sun, the illuminated part being also but a small proportion of the whole disk, the following mer : alt: of the moon taken in the evening was very correct . . . C ap : mer : dble : alt: 89?i7'. 2o''In:er: +13'. 47". 5, these were taken, because the (L moon's alt: could not be taken at the same instants with the distances between the Sun and moon's limbs

1804 "1 and may be used or not as a check

Novemberj at the pleasure of the calculator.

Distances of the moons west limb from a arietis

At 7^ 42'.57'" Distance 719 45^.00''''"|

7.51.27 71.42.15 lln:er:-i3'47>^'^

7 .59 -38 71 .38 -55 J

Sunday iV^ Thermometer 24° At the post of Washita took the sun's ap : mer: dble : alt: 79° 12' y" In: er : + 13'. S^^'-S Lat: 32° 29'3o''.5. Set out at 3^54'from the post of Washita.

N 45 W 4.30 lost 2'; per log 8 perches per }i minute.

N 30 W 4.55 to Baron Bastrop's plantation ; encamped, made this afternoon 3 miles. The meridian observations of this day and yesterday for the Lat: being in my opinion both as good as the instrument admits, I take the mean of the two for the truth, and as the distance of the post from the place of observation is 450 feet North, I consider the true latitude of the post as fixed at 32 29' 37". 8. Monday 12^'' Thermometer in air 2^° i" river water

54? clear, calm. Sett off at 8.26 took in some fresh beef &c.

N 55 E 8.35 rate per log 8 perches.

N 8.39

N 60 W 9.15 lost 24' upon shoals.

N 10 W 9.20

N 25 E 9.40

N 9!'46'Bayu Siard on the right computed J'1804

2 leagues from the Fort. ]^ November

N 70 W10.15 river 100 yards wide.

N 30 W10.23 at lol'^o' Bayu d'Arbonne, enter a narrow passage to the left which contains the whole river, being shut up on the right except during freshes: the course of the old river upwards is east: and the new channel with high banks is from 30 to 40 yards wide.

N 30 E 10.25

N 60 E 10.31 E 10.33

S 45 E 10.45 ^^ i*^'39 return to the great river.

N 60 E 10.55

N 30 E 11.20

E 11.50 landed to observe O mer: ap: dble: alt: 78° 28' 52'' In: er: +13' 31'' Latitude 32° 34' 47".

at 2.30 a rapid — 2.45 another

rapid and shoal. S 70 W 3.17 lost 5' upon a shoal. Stoped untill 4.27 upon a shoal.

N 50 W 5.30 lost 25' encamped; thermometer

at 8*" p.m. 54? made this day 16

miles 32 perches.


1804 1 Tuesday 13'? Thermometer in air 23° in river water November J ^^° — fog — calm.

Set off at 6^51'per log 8 perches. Continued

N 50 W 6.55

N 7. 2

E 7.23

N 45 E 7.40

N 45 W 7.44

S 85 W 8.00

S 55 W 8.40 lost 10'. at 8*" 10' an Island; at 8'' 12' a strong rapid landed to breakfast. Set off at 9.42 9 computed leagues from the post: an Island on the right rocks called Roque rau.

N 9.46 rate per log 7 perches.

N 45 E 9.53 wind south.

N 45 W10.31 river 150 yards wide — banks about 25 feet high.

N II.10 lost 17' on shoals — at ii*" 3'

gravelly rapids and a house on the right. Otter Bayou on the left at the end of the course: an Island at the mouth of the Bayou.

S 70 E 11.30 lost 12' the river has a more spacious appearance than below.

N 80 E 11.55 Two settlements at the end of the course on the right called * Ecor aux Noyers' 30 feet bank, 4 feet clear at high water. Some Cypress grows along the bank.

N 30 E 12.10

N 70 E 12.30 at 12'' 26° a house on the right.

N 10 E 12^.26'a. shower of rain — landed to dine. ri8o4 Set off at 3. 3 Thermometer 66°. [November


N 10 E 3.17 rate per log 8 perches. N 35 E 3.30 N 15 E 3.50

N 40 E 4.00 a 3.54 Bayu Bartelemi 12 computed leagues from the post. N 55 W 4.11 rate per log 6j4 perches. S 75 W 4.25 lost 8'. N 45 W 4.27 N 25 E 4.29 N 65 E 4.38 E 4.46

N 30 E 4.51 N 20 W 5.00

N 60 W 5.10 Bayou Pawpa. N 20 W 5.20 encamped on the right, made this day 16 miles 312 perches. At 8'' p.m. Thermometer in air 62°. Wednesday 14^-^ Thermometer in air 44° in river

water 55° clear, calm. Set off at 7. 6 rate per log 554! perches. N 20 W 7.24 Bayu Mercier on the left. N 10 E 7.50 lost 2'. *N 10 W 8.12 landed to repair the rudder irons & to breakfast. Set off 10.24


* On our return we landed 37 perches below the end of this course i. e. at 8^ Sy^' on the 15^'' January 1805 and took the Sun's alt: to correct the time of the watch, at 10^ 56' 24" a.m. ap: alt: O 1.1. 66° 36' 45" In: er: + 12' 20''.

1804 1 N 10 Wiol'35Vmd N.W.

November]' N 40 W11.19 at 11.3 * Bayu Buttes ' (mount

Creek). N II.21

N 65 E 11.25 ^^^^ P^^ ^°g ^ perches. N 11.30

N 70 W11.40 landed to observe O ap : mer :dble : alt: 76° 54' 25" I^= er: + 13' 47'\5. latitude found32° 50' %".S'

S 70 W 4.26 N 60 W 4.28 N 4.29

N50 E 4!'33' ri8o4

N 20 W 4.35 j^ November

N 45 W 4.39

N 4.42

N 45 E 4.44

S 85 E 4.50

N 15 E 4.53

N 60 W 4.55

N 80 W 4.58

N 40 W 5. 2 *N 40 E 5. 6

N 80 E 5.10 Wind west — river ^S to 40 yards wide.

N 5.13

N 30 W 5.17 Encamped on the left, made this day 12 miles 303 perches. Thursday 15^'' Thermometer in air ^3° in river water 55° hoar frost—some clouds. Set off at 9.14 Continued

N 30 W 9.35 rate per log 7^ per:

N 10 W 9.42

N 40 W 9.50

N 10. 3

N 50

S 70 W10.24 lost 8'.

N IO-53 lost 5' a rapid.

N 70 E 11.00 Bank low overflows 20 feet perpendicular.

N 20 E II. 4

N 20 Wii. 7

* On our return down the Washita, on the 14^^ January 1805 we observed an Eclipse of the moon at this place, from whence the longitude was deduced.

1804 1 N45 Wiii-ij'

November J N 30 E 11.24 No more long moss (Tilansia)

seen above this.

N 45 E 11.35 at 11" 33' 'Isle de Mallet' — landed to observe and placed the Instrument on the left shore 90 yards higher than the point of the Island : O ap : dble : mer: alt: 76° 5'28'' In: er: +13'. 30'' Latitude found 32? 59' 27''.5. The division line between the Territory of Orleans and that of Louisiana will traverse the river 321^'' of a degree north of the place of observation, and may be found at any time by following the above remarks respecting the situation of the N.E. end of the Island of Mallet. Set off after dinner at 1.28

N 10 W 1.46

N35 E 1.55

N 25 W 1.58

N 30 W 2.10 rate per log 7 perches.

N 80 W 2.17

N 25 W 2.30

^^ , ,^^ ''^^ '^ sand beaches (* les trois bat-

N 60 w 2.42 y i ,s

^ I tures ). N 10 W 2.51 J

W 3.13

S 45 W 3.24 Thermometer 60°.

W 2-33 rate per log 8 perches * Bayu grand

marais' on the left.

S 80 W 3!'24' ri8o4

S 25 E 3.34 [November

S 60 W 3.39

w 3.54

N 20 E 4.00 N 45 E 4.14

N 20 W 4.23 the 3 pine trees. N 55 W 4.46 lost 8'. N 4.50

W 4.52 S 4.54 encamped: Thermometer at 8*"

p.m. 42° extremes 38! 51? made this day 17 miles 185 perches. Saturday 17- Thermometer in air 40? in river water 54° fog on the river, calm, river rose 1'% inches in the night. Set off at 7.19 Course continued

S 7.23 rate per log 6 perches.

S 75 E 7.27 N 7.40

W 7.42 S 45 W 7.55 N 45 W 8.00 N 20 E 8. 9 N 60 E 8.17 N 30 W 8.18 N 80 W 8.27 N 20 W 8.30 N 5 W 8.56

W 8.58 *marais de Cannes' (cane marsh) on the right. Breakfast 10. 7

S 15 W10.23 rate per log 7 perches.

1804 "1 S 65 Wio^42'long leaf-pine. Novemberj N 45 W 10.49 saw the first swan, shot by one of

the hunters. W10.52 S 45 Wii. I pirsimmons and small black grapes. N 45 Wii. 18 S 75 Wii. 25 small cane — Sun breaks out —


N 55 Wii. 30 no long moss (tilandsia) seen since

we entered the low alluvial lands.

N 11.42 landed to observe. O mer : ap:

dble: altitude 74° 37' 52'' In : er:

33° 13'i6".5-

N 4^4/ ri8o4

N 70 W 4.53 I November

W 5. 7 Thermometer at S^ p.m. 44° extremes 4o°-5i° made this day 15 miles 308 perches. Sunday 18- Thermometer in air 32? in river water 52° serene — calm, — river rises a little. Set out at 7.20 Continued

W 7.23 rate per log j}4 perches. S 20 W 7.34

S 80 W 7.49 lost 3' by the rapid, at 7.41 an Island and passage round to the right, the old channel shut up by a sand bar; the whole river runs through the narrow channel of about 70 feet wide.

1804 1 N 40 Wio^52'

November J N lO Wii. 7


S 25 Wi 1.20 lost 3'by a rapid.

S 60 Wii. 25

N 80 W11.30

N 50 Wii. 41 landed to observe, O ap: mer: dble:alt:74 i'25'' In:er:+i3'. 50'' latitude found 23° 17' 33'^' Dinner 1.33

S 75 W 1.46 rate per log j}4 perches.




5^05'encamped Thermometer at 8''j'i8o4

p.m. 57° in air, cloudy, made this |November day 18 miles 75 perches. Monday 19, Thermometer in air 54? in river water 54? cloudy, calm, river at a stand.

rate per log 'jyi perches.

Bayu de Hachis on the left.

points of high land touch the river at various places — the valley about a league broad on each side.

N47 N


N 70 E 7.58 8.17 8.25 8.26 S 55 W 8.37 N 80 W 8.40 N 50 W 8.45 N 50 E 8.52 N 30 E 8.53 [o. 6



N 30 E 10.15 N 30 W10.28 S 25 W10.42

S 80 W 4^42' ri8o4

N 35 W 4.45 Cabane Champignole. |November

N 60 W 4.52 rain.

N 10 W 4.55 encamped, Thermometer at S"! p.m. made this day 18 miles 120 perches. Tuesday 20*1' Thermometer in air 59° in river water

54° cloudy, calm. Set off at 6.48

North 6.^6 rate per log yj4 perches.

West 6.58

S 40 W 7. 4

S 60 W 7.17

N 55 W 7.30

N 20 W 7.39 a deep creek on the left called Chemin couvert.

N 7.48

N 50 W 7.52

S 75 W 7.56

S 10 W 8. 4

S 75 W 8.13 a rapid, and gravel beach, water 40 yards wide.

N 60 W 8.20

N 20 W 8.37 a narrow passage to the left 60 feet wide a small narrow Island.

N 45 W 8.44

N 25 W 8.50

N 25 E 9. 4

N 30 W 9.20 lost 10'.

N 55 W 9.32 Breakfast 10.50

S 80 W11. 7 rate per log y}i perches.

N 75 W11.14

N 45 W11.23

Wednesday 21" Thermometer in air 43?, in river water J1804

54°, fog, calm. j November

Set off at 7^ y. Course continued.

S 85 W 7.15 rate per log 7 perches. N 35 W 7.17 Fin's hill a cHfF 100 feet perpendicular.

N 45 W 5^ 9'encamped on the right: made 18 ri8o4

miles 2^ perches : thermometer at [November-8 p.m. 58! extremes 43°-72°. Thursday 22- Thermometer in air 40° in river water S3- l^ght clouds — calm, set off at


7.15 rate per log 6j4 perches.

S 80 W10.16

N 85 W10.21

S 70 W10.25

S ^'^•33 ^t 10.28 the Cadaux or Cadodoquis

path crosses the river leading to the Arcansas. W10.48 at 10.43 * Ecor a Fabri' (Fabri's cliffs) 80 to 100 feet high lead said to be buried on the ridge by Fabri in the direction of the french and Spanish line.


1804 1


N 60 W

N40 W N

N45 S 80

N45 N

N 30

N 70

N 25


N 65

N 20

N 10


N75 S 85









N45 W N 10 W N30 W Dinner N

E S S 45 E

E N40 W N 15 W N45 W


S 45 W S 15 E




11. 8 lost 7' — 40 yards wide. 10.20


11.23 11.25 11.31

11.36 11.41

11.43 11.45

11.56 cloudy, no observation.

12. 2

12.17 lost 8^ at 12.15 * petit ecor a Fa-

bri' (small clifF of Fabri) 12.20 12.26 12.31


2.37 2.44

2.45 a rapid.




3. 8 3.10

3.13 river 30 yards wide only here, enclosed by bars &c. 3.16 3.20

s 45 w 3^23' ri8o4

^^ .^27 [November

S 70 W 3.28

N 75 W 3.31

N 20 W 3.34

N 26 E 2.^6 lost 9'.

N 60 E 4. 6

N 20 E 4. 8

N 5 W 4.11

N 50 W 4.15

W 4.18 rapids. S 50 W 4.25 d? ' N 60 W 4.53 lost 18' strong rapids and shoals. N 10 E 5.00 encamped made this day 14 miles

317 perches thermometer at 8

p.m. 54 extremes 40? 68°. Friday 23*^ Thermometer in air 48? in river water 54?

light clouds — calm : river on the

fall. Set off at 7. 4

N 15 W 7. 8 rate per log 6 perches.

W 7.11 N 55 W 7.13 N 25 W 7.15

N 10 W 7.34 lost 5'. rapids. N45 E 7.39

N 7-43

N 60 W 7.47

W 7.53 S 45 W 8. 2 lost 2'. rapids.

W 8. 5 N 60 W 8. 8

N 20 W 8.26 lost 2' on rapids. N 45 W 8.28 lost i'.

JO Washita

1804 1 N 35 Wio^ o' November J N 10-3

N 40 E 10.56 lost 30' long and strong rapids. N 70 E 11.20 lost 18' ditto.

E 11.27 S 45 E 11.30 S 15 E 11.39 lost 1'.

S 45 E 11.48 lost 3'. a deserted corn patch. N 15 E 12. 8 cloudy, no observation. N 41 W12.18 osiers or hoop willows. N 65 W12.25

W12.34 Bayu Tallien on the left.

N 60 E 5h3'encamped — thermometer at 8*! J1804

p.m. 59°. [November

made 11 miles 152 perches. Sunday 25- confined all day to camp by the bad state of the weather, raining great part of the day. Extremes of the thermometer 54° to 70° and at S*" p.m. 61° Monday 26*'' Thermometer in air 50° in river water 57° — clear — calm — river risen 3 ^ inches during the night. Set off at 7. 7

N 40 E 7.52 lost 30' rate per log 6yi perches.

N 8. 5 white maple.

N 45 W 8.13 lost 1'.

N 20 W 8.25 Bear's head camp.

N 60 W 8.30

N 80 W 8.38 cane land.

S 35 W 8.42

S 75 W 8.47

W 8.58 lost i\ N 30 W 9.11 N35 E 9.15 Breakfast 10. 8

E 10.15 lost 8^* N 10.20

W10.24 N 40 W10.39 lost 6'. N 10.50

N 80 E 10.53 lost i'. N 11'03

N 45 Wi 1.24 lost 2'—'Petite-Cote' — anisland. N 11.27

N 22 E 11.33

1804 ]^ N 73 E 11^41^ November J N 35 E 11.46

N 85 E 11.50 landed to observe— O ap: mer: dble: alt: 69° 23' 52'' In: er: + 13' 38'' Latitude found ;i2° 54' 6^5. Dinner 1.47


N 85 E 1.50 N 38 E 1.57 lost 4'. N 20 E 2. 3 N 85 W 2.15 N 70 W 2.20

N 45 W 2.29 many Islands. N 25 W 2.52 lost i6\ N 70 E 3. o N 25 W 3.15 lost 9'. N 65 W 3.28

N 50 W ^.22 at 3.31 * Bayu de Cypre* on the left, birch and osier.

N 340

E 3.46 lost 5'.

N 30 E 3.15 lost 4^

N 55 E 4.40 lost 38\ cut away some logs.

N 20 W 4.47

N 75 W 4.52

S 6s W 4.55

S 5. I Encamped — Thermometer at 8

p.m. 62°—extremes 50°-68° made

12 miles 21 perches. Tuesday 27- Thermometer in air 54°— in riverwater

58°—cloudy — river risen above

a foot. Set off at 7. I



S 80 W

N 70 W N45 W N 10 W N 20 E N 80 E N40 E N30 W N 70 W S 70 W N 50 W N

N30 W Breakfast


S 30 w


N45 w N 10 W N45 W S 70 W S 30 w N 70 W N 40 W N

N45 E N 25 E N 40 E N

N45 E N 25 E N N 36 W

7"? 11'rate per log 6}i perches.

7.17 7.21


7.38 rapids commence.

7.46 lost 6'.


8. o

8. 9 lost 7' Piraugue a Gallien.

8.15 lost 3' left the rapids.


8.33 8.48



1 November

river rises i}i inch during the hour.

lost 2'.

9'S5 10.10











11.29 lost 8' a large Island to the left




11.46 11.52


cloudy — no observation.

at 12'' ' Cache a Ma9on ' and bayu

1804 1 on the right: about ij4 mile

NovemberJ N.N.W. explored the banks of

a creek in search of a coal mine and found only some fragments of carbonated wood; river risen 4 inches in 2 hours. Dinner 2h5'

N 60 W 3. o rate per log 6}4 perches.

W 3.25 lost 17'. N 45 W 3.34 N 3.40

N 45 W 4. o lost 6' river 150 yards wide. N 70 W 4. 9

W 4.23 lost y\ N 70 W 4.32 lost 6\ N 45 W 4.49 N 85 W 4.52

N 70 W 5. o encamped thermometer @ S'^prm. 66° extremes 54°-71° made this day 13 miles 39 perches. Wednesday 28':''Thermometer in air 68° — in river water 60° — river fallen 4 inches in the night — cloudy — calm, p Set off at 7. 5

S 65 W 7.13 rate per log 6^ perches. S 80 W 7.22

S 65 W 7.29 *Ecor aux poux de bois.' N 60 W 7.37


1804 1 57° went to visit a saline, made

November J y miles 28 perches.

December i"

Saturday Thermometer in air 32° — river water 54** — clear — calm — river fallen 18 inches during the night. Set off at 7^ 5' * Isle de roches ' (rocky island) ^ mile long on the right. N 35 E 7.23 lost 10'—rate per log 6 perches. N 75 E 7.31 lost 5'. S 70 E 7.42 lost 6'. N 65 E 7.52 N 45 E 8. o N 32 E 8.10 N 15 E 8.34 lost 13'. Breakfast 10.12 N 55 E 10.18 S 80 E 11.10 lost 20'. N 15 E 11.25 ^ost 11'.

N 10 W12. 5 lost 35' on the rapids: no observation. N 45 E 12.15 *Bayu de I'isle de Mellon' on the right. E 12.27 Dinner 2.29

E 2.44 S 45 E 2.53 lost 4'. N 45 E 2.56

N 2-3^ ^ost 11' at 3*1 30' a saline distant

2 miles to the left, and Isle de mellon on the right. N 10 W 4.37 lost 38' encamped—made 7 miles 148 perches — Thermometer at S^. p.m. 35° extremes 32^-5 8°.

Sunday 2^. Thermometer in air 30" in river water 50° ri8o4

clear — calm — river fallen 4 inch. \ December Set off at 7^35'

N 10 W 7.44 rate per log 3 perches rapids commence.

N 45 E 7.50

N75 E 7.55

S 30 E 8. 4

S 80 E 8.13

N 40 E 8.29

S 80 E 8.32

N 55 E 8.37

N 42 E 8.40 rapids end. Breakfast 10.7

N 42 E 10.35 ^^^^ P^^ ^og 5 perches.

N 28 E 10.51

N 15 E 10.58

N 8 Wii. o

N 12 Wii. 12

N 10 W11.43 lost 15'' rate per log 3 perches.

N 20 E 11.46 rate per log 5 perches. Dinner 2. 3

N 20 E 2.30 at 2*?19' slate quarry on the left and a Creek.

N 55 E 2.23 ^Isle de Chevreuil' (Deer island).

N 40 E 2.39 lost 3' — Free stone and blue slate to the left.

N 5 W 3.11 strong rapids rate per log 3 perches — Bayu de prairie de Cham-pignole on the left.

N 32 E 3.28 Thermometer 59° —

N 45 E 3.46

S 85 E 3.51 lost 11', rate per log ^j4 perches.

N 53 E 4. 7 Encamped: — made 6 miles 118

1804 1 perches—Thermometer at 8^ p.m.

December J 38° extremes 30°-^g°.

Monday 3^ Thermometer in air 38° in river water 48" — clear — calm — river fallen 8 inches. setofFat 7^2'

N 35 W 7.20 rate per log 5 perches. N 20 W 7.31 N 10 E 8. 4 lost 8^

N 30 W 8.26 ' Bayu de I'eau froide' on the left. N 30 E 8.45 lost 3'. breakfast 9.50

S 70 E 10. 8 rapid; rate 3 perches:

N 75 E 10.20

N 10.40

N 10 E II. 4 lost 18'. rate per log 6 perches.

S 15 E 11.28 rapids 3 perches per log.

E 11.40 rate per log 5 perches, landed to

flint, on the right with masses in ^1804 the river. [December

N 30 W 4h8'arrived at the *Chuttes* passed over and encamped, river 200 yards wide, made 7 miles 218 perches — Thermometer at 8'' p.m. 44° extremes 38°-59? Tuesday 4'!" Thermometer in air ^6° in river water 48° clear — calm — river fallen 2 inches, set oflfat 7.21

N 45 W 7.34 rate per log 4 perches.

N25 W 8.15 at 8'' passed a ledge of hard free stone rocks — rocky bottom, high rocky hill in front covered by pines a fine situation 350 feet high.

N 60 W 8.25

W 8.33

Breakfast 9.59

Wio. 9 rate per log 2 perches.

N 45 Wio. 12 rate per log 4 perches.

N 20 W10.15

N 20 E 10.24 at 10.20 bald hill on the left — arrive at the rapids.

N 50 E j4 rnile: a very violent rapid,

landed to observe O ap: mer: dble alt: 65° 47' 4'' In: er: + 13' 44" latitude found 34° 25' 48''. Dinner 1.45 rocky pine hill 300 feet high on

the right.

N 20 W 1,52 rate 5 perches.

N 60 W 1.55

1804 1 N 85 W 2^ 3'rate per log 6 perches: hills of blue DecemberJ slate (or shistus) to the left.

S 80 W 2.17 N 40 W 72 perches — violent rapid, long

detention. S 80 W 112 perches — encamped — * Bayu

de la Saline' on the right, made 4 miles 164 perches—Thermometer at S^ p.m. 2^° extremes 36°-

Wednesday 5\^ Thermometer in air 23? in river water 47°— serene — calm—river fallen 2 inches. Set off at 7.25

S 70 W 8. 2 lost 25'—rocky hills on both sides

— rate per log 5 perches. S 55 W 30 perches — a violent rapid or

cascade 4^ feet fall in 80 yards. Breakfast 10.57

S 70 WI I.I 5 rate per log 6 perches.

W11.20 N 50 W11.29

N 40 W 144 perches, a strong rapid.—

rocky hills on the right — high freshes 25 feet perpendicular above the present level of the river, at the end of this reach on the right a creek, called * Fourche a Tigre ' (Tiger Creek) good land upon this Creek. Set off at 1.45

S 80 W 1.55 rate per log 4 perches. Dinner 3-50


N 70 W 4^23 'rate per log 3 perches. ri8o4

N 45 W % mile. 1 December

Set off at 4.54

N 45 W 4.59 rate per log 3 perches.

S 45 W 5. I Encamped made only 3 miles 128 perches. Thermometer at 8^ p.m. 38? extremes 23°-56? Thursday 6*? Thermometer in air 45? in river water 48? cloudy — wind S.W. light— river fallen 2 inches. Set off at 7.40

S 45 W 7.52 rate 4 perches.

S 30 W 8. 7 hills to the left, good land to the right.

S 55 W 8.20 lost 4'.

N 80 W 8.37 lost 12'.

N 30 W 8.52 lost 1'. Breakfast

N 20 W ^ a Mile : a great rapid, very pre-

cipitous : 3 hours in getting over. Set off at 1.8

S 75 W 1.16 rate per log 5 perches, arrived at Ellis' camp a little below the * Fourche a Calfat', encamped made 2 miles and 32 perches, thermometer at 8*" p.m. 56? extremes 45°-67°.

S 25 W the course up the river, Calfat's

mouth yi a mile upon the left.


Friday 7- Thermometer in air 38? in river water 47? cloudy, wind N.W. river risen 4

Hot Springs

1804 1


inches. Took the Suns ap : mer: dblealt: 64° 59' 47'' Inter: + 14' 5'^ latitude found 34° 27' 31''

Thermometer at 3' p.m. 24?

p.m. 50? at 8'

Saturday 8*'' At Ellis' Camp. Thermometer before sunrise 10° — river water 43° — very serene — light wind N.W. river risen 4 inches. Took the Sun's meridian ap : dble alt 64° 46'58'' In:er:+i4' 19'' latitude found 34° 27' 27'' being a difference of 4'' from the result of yesterday : if we should not make any more observations here for the latitude it may be considered as fixed at34° 27'29''. Thermometer at 3^ p.m. 47? at 8^ 26?


Having determined to ascertain the latitude and longitude of this place with all due care and attention, the following series of observations was Instituted for the latitude, using alternately the face of the Circle of reflection to the east and to the west, and reading off the angle from the three arms of the Index; but finding the Index error lyable to change daily, I found it preferable to calculate each days latitude independently by itself, to that of taking the means of several days altitudes, more especially as we were approaching the Solstice; but I have preserved the results of the same face of the Instrument as one series, and taken the mean of the two series for the true Latitude.

Hot Springs


Face of the Circle to the East.

DecL IS*** : Ap : mer :

dble alt: O lower limb. 1" Index 63-35'- <:/' In : er : +15^-48'''' xd D?. 63-34-30 . . . 16-13


ri8o4 1 December

Means 63-34 -45

16- o.5-34°3o-s6.''8




3d Index under the handle could not apply the Microscope. l« Index 63-25-10 . . . 15-48

ad Do 63-24 -40 Means 63-24-55

ist Index 63-23 -50 2 d Do 20

Means 63-23 -35

1 St Index 63-34 -50

2 d Do 20

Means 63-34 -35

16 -13

16 - 0.5 34-30 -58. X

15 -26.6 15 -51.6

15-39-1 34-30-58-75

13-33.6 H- 3-6 13-48.6 34-30-54

Mean Latitude of the above 34-30 -56.94

Face of the Circle to the West.

Cabin at the hot springs true Latitude

34-30 -59.82

Note the Index error was every day taken from a double contact of the Sun with his image immediately after the observation: When the error was additive

1804 \ it was found by subtracting the O diameter from the December J greater contact and when subtractive the lesser contact was subtracted from the diameter, but in practize the greater or lesser contact was added to the ap : dole alt : to save trouble, as explained in the beginning.

Courses taken from the hill west of the hot springs on the 13'" of December 1804 with computed distances. i*.^ Station.

N 54 E ^ mile to the Cabin.

S 61 E 6 miles to the river Camp.

S 2^ E6d"to the mouth of Hot spring fork.

S 18 E 6 do to the mouth of Luke fork (west

side of the river Washita. S 10 W 9 do .. to . . do of Mont-cerne (west

side) — S 16^ W 11 do to the top of Mont-cerne. S 76 W"ii/^ mile to the Source of the Hot

spring creek. S 76 E 3 miles to a hill in the fork of Calfat

creek. N 32 E Course of the ridge looking back. S 60 W to 2^ station being about a mile in a direct line making a Cord to the arched form of the ridge.— Courses from 2*^ Station. S II W to Mount-Cerne. N 64 W to the passage of the river between the

hills about 12 miles distant. S3 W to the mouth of Bayu-Mont-cerne: j4 mile S.E. a great rapid or Cascade below the mouth of Bayu Mont cerne.

Hot Springs


S 48 E to the mouth of Hot-spring creek. S 72 E to the River Camp. N 50 miles, ridge of hills of the Arcansa.

S.E. 50 miles a level of great extent, supposed

to be the prairies of the Red-river. Sunday 16 Took the Sun's magnetic azimuth before and after noon with the same altitude.

A.m. at 9''- 50'-!9'' O lower limb dble alt: 47°


mag : az : S 42° 20' E d°. S 2$° 40 W

difference 16- 40 Var. E>^dif-8-20

1804 December

p.m. time missed

Correction for change of declination. + . .7'' Equal altitudes O ap: dble alt: 54° 27' In : er: +

Contact upper limb at 10'' 18^-59' Center 21 -^6 1-A.M.

lower limb 24 -59

lower Hmb at 1-42 -12 Center 1-45 -15 !-P.M.

upper limb 1-48 -12 Took the following distances of the D's east limb from a Arietis.

Times Distances

Index error — 16' 16"

The above may be commodiously divided into 3 Sets or otherwise at the pleasure of the calculator.

A.M. Watch supposed to have gained 45'.

70 Hot Springs

1804 1 Monday 17^^

December/ Equal Altitudes

O ap : dblc alt: 45° 49/. o ''' In : err : + 15' 48'''' f Magnetic az: S 44" 3c/ E

Upper limb at 9b ^'.$6^^^ "1 1 with the Sun's lower limb

Center 9.47.12 }• A.M. La.M.

Lower limb 9 .49 .30 J

Lower limb 2 .27 .57^ "1

Center 2.30.13 >-P.M.

Upper limb 2 .32 .31 J

These equal altitudes together with those of the preceeding day will correct the watch and ascertain her rate of going, from which the apparent times of the Lunar distances will be precisely known.

ay 23 £q^^j Altitudes

Oap : dSle alt: 4.f 4.2^1 s" In : err : + i^'ij''. Upper limb at 10'' 8' 1' Center 10.10.13

Lower limb 10.12.25 The contacts P.M. lost by the intervention of clouds.

Altitudes of the Sun's lower limb with Magnet: azim:

At io''24'i2''Alt: 46°3i' 5'' Azim: S 43°E. 10.28.57 47.35.40 S 42 E.

Ind : err :+ 15.27.

Monday 24'.''

Equal Altitudes

O ap:dble alt: 43*32'47'' Ind : err :+ I5'4i''6

Upper limb at io''i2'33^'

Center 10 14 43

Lower limb 10 16 55

Clouds intervened in the afternoon

Wednesday 26'?'

Set the watch back one hour to correspond nearly

with the present time, no alteration being made in

minutes & seconds.

U. M.

Equal Altitudes J1804

O ap : dble alt: 32*43'.2 5'' Ind : err : + 15'27" |December Upper limb at 8^ 40 . 51^'


Center 8 .41 .^6^4

Lower limb 8 .43 .45

Clouds intervened in the afternoon. The last observations having been made when the Sun was barely clear of the vapor of the hot springs, I give the preference to the following observation made for the Correction of the Chronometer & for ascertaining the magnetic variation.

At 9^ 6' 50" ap : dble alt: O low! limb 39° 16'40'' Magnet: azim : S 49° E Ind : err : + 15'.27''.

Lunar observations on the astronomical 25"" Decem' took the following distances of the O and D's limbs

Times Distances Dble alt Q lowr. limb by Dor. Hunter

At 22h t,'.'Lf)" s8°i4^.c/' In : er :-i5''27^''

22. 8 . 5 58.13 .0

22.11 .10 58.12.0 53057^.30'''Ind : err : -i''22''''. 5

22.19 • ° 58.10 .0 55-2^7 -lo

22.22 .5 58. 9 .0

22.25 .0 58. 8 .0

22.39 -7 5^-4 -o

22.42 . o 58. 3 .0

22.44.35 58. 2 .0 59.12.10

22.48 .40 58. I .0 59-43 -15

22.54 .37 57-59 -o 60.25 -^o

22.57 .47 57.58 .0 60.46 .20

Survey of the hot-spring Hill.

i^t Station or place of Commencement on the west bank of the Creek opposite to the first or highest mass of Calcareous matter; Courses taken at this Station : N 40° E up the Valley adjoining the hot-spring hill; and N 15° W the course of the Creek upwards : Thence

1804 1 S 20° E 18 perches to the bank of the Creek on Decemberj the same side.

At 8 per: opposite to the middle of the Natural hot-bed over the Creek, a small hot-spring at its commencement. At 14 per : a hot-spring N? 3 opposite side of the Creek.

S 25 W 14 per: to the hot-spring N?4 six feet to the left in the side of the bank of the Creek. At 2 per: hot-spring N? i opposite side of the Creek: at 12 per: hot-spring N? 2. over the Creek distant 4 perches.

S 3 E 34 per : nearly parallel to the Creek.

At 7 per: the Center of the Cabin on the right hand, and spring N? 5 in the gravel over the Creek : at 20 per : several small springs over the Creek : at 22 per: the lowest hot-spring N? 6. — All the forgoing Courses have been nearly parallel to the Creek, the continuation of which is S 13° E.

S 42 E 20 per : immediately cross the Creek, and at 4 per: the lowest calcareous mass.

N 60 E 106 per: At 60 per: the valley on the right distant 20 per :

S 66 E 30 per: to the Valley base of the hill: at 20 p. yellowish schistus.

N 60 E 60 per: N.E. corner of the base of the hill.

N 23 E 174 per: — 60 per : to the left the ridge is parallel to the Course.

N 16 E 70 per: to a rocky ridge perpendicular to the course and precipice looking

down into a branch of the Cafatrun- [1804 ning to the right; the Creek above [December winds into the direction of the last course, the ridge to the left divides the Calfat from the hot-spring Creek.

N 44 W "30 per

S 84 W 72 per : to the top of a high ridge very-narrow, connected with the hot-spring hill.

S 45 W 60 per: descending the Valley : The top of the hill west of the Camp is in the direction of the course : at right angles on the left at the end of the course 1^ mile distant is a gap or low place in the ridge contiguous to the hot-spring hill.

S 31 W 80 per : down the valley — veins of the flinty rock nearly in the direction of the course and fissures at right angles: Flint and hard siliceous stone above, Schistus at the base — and from thence to the place of beginning nearly in the course of the Valley.

Courses and distances from Hot-spring Camp to the river Camp, commencing at the Cabin — Thence

S I5°E 788 per: —to the il' Knoll 122 p. —to the I'J branch 162 p. to the 2** branch 282 p.— to 3:^ d° 322 p. — to 4'.'' d? 502 p. — to crossing of hot-spring creek 614 per: and at the end of the course a branch.

N 80 E 70 per : to the top of a ridge.

1804 1 S 69 E 184 per: to the 2"^ branch.

December J S 25 E 160 per:

S 68 E 80 p. to the Big lick.

N 55 E 200 p. to the 2*^ lick — at 160 p. 3*!


N 82 E 534 p. to the 5'.'' branch — at 168 p. the

4^ branch.

S 84 E 122 p. to the main Calfat — at 56 p. cross

the last branch, the course of the

Calfat is S 38° E.

S 74 E 178 p. to the 3" Hck.

S 54 E 304 p. to the river Camp. — at 94 p. a


1805 \ 2620 perches, equal to 8 miles 60 perches.

January! Saturday 5*> At Ellis' Camp.

Equal Altitudes.

ap:d6le Alt: 43° 18'30''.

Upper limb at q*" 4.7' 10'

^'^^ ^- ^^ I iv.ivi. ina: err

Center 9. 45. 12

Lower limb 9. 47. 19

Lower limb at 2. cq. 22

_ ■'^ I r.ivi. ina: err

Center 3. i. 27

Upper limb ^ 3- 3- 33

As the same instrument was to be used for various purposes on the same day, the Index set for equal altitudes could not be screwed up untill the afternoon observation, and as the Index error was liable to change in the course of the day particularly when used much in the sun-shine, it is accordingly noted in the last example ; the slight error it might occasion, would not materially affect the result.

Took the following alt: and azim : to ascertain the magnetic variation :

At to!" 3' 42'' a.m. O ap : dble alt : low.' limb


Hot Springs y^

47° 2i' lo'' Magnet: Azim : 846° Ind : err : + 13' [1805 15''. [January

At noon the ap: dble alt: O lowf limb was 65° 8'40'' Ind: err:+13' g'\

Lat: deduced 34° 27' 28''.8 which is within o''.2 of the mean of the former two observations.

Distances taken between the O and 3) limbs At 2" 22'45'' Distance 54° i' o'' Ind : err: + 13' 5"

2.25.50 . . . 54. 2. o

2.28.45 • • • 54.3-0

Distances taken of the D 's west limb from Alde-baran

At 7b i'. 56'''' Distance 84° 52'. (/■' In : er : + 13' 5'^ Alt: dble ^'s lowf limb

64° if 3c/' 7. 4. o 84. 51. o In: er:— i .20

7. 6. 6 84. 50. o by Do' Hunter

January 14- Monday. At a point which we passed in ascending Novf 14'? — N 40° E 5'' 6'. observed an Eclipse of the Moon.

At i2''4o' p' watch. Beginning of the Eclipse —

uncertain. 13.37 Beginning of total darkness

— good observation.

Took the following altitudes of the Sun to correct the Chronometer and ascertain the apparent time of the Eclipse. 15'? Tuesday

At a point on the river bank which corresponds to the Courses and distances of our voyage upwards viz Nov^ 14"^ N 10° W 8"? 8^'; took the Sun's alt. viz at 10^ 56' 24''. ap : dble alt lowf limb 66° ^6' 45'' Ind: err : + 12' 20". Thursday 17"'

At the Post of Washita, the same station where

1805 1 we observed on our way up, Took the Sun's altitude January/ yi^.

At 8" S3' 1" ap: dble alt: O low. limb 36° 44' 45'' In r er: + \i' 30''.

From the above observations the apparent time of the Eclipse may be found & the whole refered to the Meridian of the Post of the Washita.

tEl)e KitjerstiOe ^tt&& : CambriUge


University of Caiifomia


405 Hllgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1388

Return this material to the library

from which it was borrowed.

l^tLOCTOi; 199?

SEP 2 7 1997




& EiXploration







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