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Louisiana Anthology

The Picayune Creole Cook Book

TO DO for Groups

PUBLISHED BY

THE TIMES-PICAYUNE PUBLISHING CO.

PUBLISHERS OF THE SOUTHS GREATEST NEWSPAPER

NEW ORLEANS, LA. 1916

THE PICAYUNE CREOLE COOK BOOK



INTRODUCTION

Not often is there romance and a golden glamour about a cook book.

A mere cook book! Something that you take into the kitchen with you and lay on the kitchen table, while you turn the leaves and hunt down an elusive recipe that escapes your memory, often you have used it. And when you find it at last and lay the rolling-pin across the open page, what an assembling there is of "the", and what a stirring and mixing! And how certain you are of the result. It is the old, old recipe which your mother used, and her mother, and her grandmother, and the grandmother caught it from the old-time "Mammy," who could work all kinds of magic in that black-raftered kitchen of the long ago.

There are no rafters in your kitchen nowadays, and you are immensely proud of your tiled walls and your rows of aluminum and granite-ware; but it is the same old recipe you are working out, in just the same old way!

It was such cookery as this that won the hearts of beruffled gentlemen and crinolined ladies in the early nineteenth century, and made them declare that never were there such cooks as in New Orleans. Those wonder workers of the old kitchens, what magic they wrought, and how proud they were of it! And it was never allowed to become a lost art — no, indeed. Rosy girls learned it of the old colored women, and stately ladies taught the art and the wondrous secrets to their own rosy girls, and so the magic has come down through the generations, until —

Why, until it has been given to the printed page, and so it is preserved here in this most wonderful of all cook books.

Other cook books have lived and had their day, and possessed merit, perhaps, but what one of them was it that was ever the embodiment of a time filled with romance?

All through these pages one will catch the glimpses of long-gone festivals, and of the graces and courtesies that made them charming; of the wit and the wisdom that flashed back and forth across the mahogany; of the bright eyes, now asleep for this many a year; of the gallant hearts that have long since ceased to beat.

Here they are, in this old Creole Cook Book, which is going through its fifth edition, in response to an outcry that arose when the fourth edition was exhausted. Thousands of homes demand it, because it is the epitome of good cheer that belonged to old New Orleans. Mothers must needs give it to their daughters when they cross the home threshold to journey away into homes of their own. Strangers in New Orleans, having once become familiar with the delightful and distinctive cookery of this city, would fain learn how the thing is done, and so begin to ask for the recipes. Here they are — the time-tested, the incomparable! Nowhere is there anything like it. Study it, madame, and follow the path laid down, and you cannot fail to arrive.

How it came about? From France came the chefs of that day to make their fortunes in the new world — and established themselves here with the young colony. From Spain came the best cooks of that sunny clime — and settled down beside the French artists. After awhile they borrowed ideas from one another. After a still longer while the people of the new world, who learned from them, adapted what they learned to their needs and to the materials they had at hand.

The result was beyond speech.

Chefs?

Perhaps there are still living many of the older generation who haunted the old French restaurants, they of the sanded floor and the incomparable cuisine. The names of the great chefs which, became identified with New Orleans in those long-gone years may be still unforgotten. What of that delightful "Mme. Eugene," who presided at Moreau's, when it was near the French Market? All of the gourmets of that time used to eat there, and many a visit was paid to New Orleans simply that one might sit at the table where Mme. Eugene's famous dishes could be set before them. Alex Hause, Arthur Gary — as one remembers, they were at the old Boudreaux House at Milneburg, when that resort was in its glory, and the elite used to make it their meal-time rendezvous. As for "Miguel," there must be many who remember Miguel, also at Milneburg, one of the most noted of the great chefs of his time. There was John Straner, too — his place was on the site now occupied by the Cosmopolitan Hotel, in Bourbon street. Charles Rhodes will be remembered by every man who ever dined at Moreau's, when it was in. Canal street — when that restaurant was one of the most noted, not only in New Orleans, but in the world. Victor Bero — who of the old-timers will ever forget him or his magic cookery? Micas, at old Spanish Fort — alas, that he should be only a memory I Andre Camors, who established one of the great restaurants of the city, in St. Charles street, succeeded by his nephew, Leon Lamothe — this became one of the best-known houses in the United States.

As for the name of Begue — who will ever forget the quaint dining room near the French Market, and the little kitchen looking into it, with Madame Begue, she of the skilled touch, compounding such fare as never mortal dreamed of before. And there are the Alciatores, grandfather and father and sons — still do they work their ancient magic in places known as "Antoine's" and "The Louisiane" — with all the art of the brave old days brought down and modernized to fit the brave new times.

In this name alone one may find the charm of the French cookery which belongs especially to New Orleans. There was one of the name, born in Marseilles, set at his life work at 12 years old, and becoming so proficient that at 17 he was assistant chef in a great hotel at Marseilles. There is another of the name who for the past ten years has spent months out of every year in Paris, learning new things — as the efficient teacher spends the summer in the great Eastern universities; and who has brought back a diploma from Paris — an honor of which to be proud.

He is a great chef!

He belongs to New Orleans!

It is the lore of such men as this which has made the Creole Cook Book possible.

Men who have begun to learn how to cook at 10 or 12 years of age have grown up, and have passed their knowledge on to their sons. The art of the noted restaurants has spread outward into the homes; and so the city has acquired its wondrous reputation as a creator of splendid culinary triumphs.

But there has been another adaptation. After the tidal wave of war had swept over the land and left it wrecked, the housewives of the Creole city had to learn such rigid economy as they had never known.

Behold!

The recipes must be made to fit slender purses!

And it was done!

Therefore it is that the Creole Cook Book may be taken into the humblest kitchen and made to produce delightful dishes "out of nothing."

That is the magic of the Creole Cook Book, which The Times-Picayune is sending out upon its fifth journey to meet its old friends, and to make new ones along the road.

CONTENTS

Paok

CHAPTER I Creole Coffee — 1

CHAPTER II Soups — 2

CHAPTER III Meat Soups — 4

CHAPTER IV Fish Soups — 8

CHAPTER V Lenten Soups — 11

CHAPTER VI The Bouilli — 15

CHAPTER VII Creole Gumbo — 18

CHAPTER VIII Fish — 20

CHAPTER IX Shell Fish — 33

CHAPTER X Shell Fish (Continued) — 39

CHAPTER XI Salt and Canned Fish — 44

CHAPTER XII Meats — Beef — 46

CHAPTER XIII Veal — Sweetbreads — 53

CHAPTER XIV Mutton — 63

CHAPTER XV Pork — 68

CHAPTER XVI Poultry — 73

CHAPTER XVII Pigeons — 82

CHAPTER XVIII Game — 83

CHAPTER XIX Birds — 90

CHAPTER XX Stuffings and Dressings for Poultry, Game and Fish, Etc. — 98

CHAPTER XXI Sauces for Fish, Meats, Game, Poultry, Etc. — 100

CHAPTER XXII Salads — 109

CHAPTER XXIII Eggs—113

CHAPTER XXIV Louisiana Rice — 116

CHAPTER XXV Cereals — 121

CHAPTER XXVI Macaroni — 124

CHAPTER XXVII Cheese — 126

CHAPTER XXVIII Canapes — 128

CHAPTER XXIX Vegetables — 131

CHAPTER XXX Hors d'Oeuvres (Relishes) — 160

CHAPTER XXXI Sweet Entremets — 163

CHAPTER XXXII Desserts — 169

CHAPTER XXXIII Pastries and Pies — 172

CHAPTER XXXIV Puddings — 179

CHAPTER XXXV Custards, Creams and Other Desserts — 184

CHAPTER XXXVI Pudding Sauces — 192

CHAPTER XXXVII Cakes — 195

CHAPTER XXXVIII Layer Cakes — 206

CHAPTER XXXIX Dessert Cake — 208

CHAPTER XL Icings for Cakes — 216

CHAPTER XLI Ice Creams, Biscuits, Sherbets — 217

CHAPTER XLII Fruits, Syrups, Cordials, Etc. — 226

CHAPTER XLIII Domestic Wines, Cordials and Drinks — 229

CHAPTER XLIV Jellies, Marmalades, Preserves — 241

CHAPTER XLV Creole Candies — 246

CHAPTER XLVI Canning and Pickling — 255

CHAPTER XLVII Creole Bread — 259

CHAPTER XLVIII Suggestions to Housekeepers — 272

CHAPTER XLIX Varieties of Seasonable Foods — 277

The picapune Creole Cook Book.

(Fifth Edition)

CHAPTER I.

CREOLE COFFEE.

Cafe a la Creole.

Travelers the world over unite in praise of Creole Coffee, or "Cafe a la Creole," as they are fond of putting it. The Creole cuisinieres succeeded far beyond even the famous chefs of France in discovering the secret of good coffee-making, and they have never yielded the palm of victory. There is no place in the world in which the use of coffee is more general than in the old Creole city of New Orleans, where, from the famous French Market, with its world-renowned coffee stands, to the olden homes on the Bayou St. John, from Lake Pontchartrain to the verge of Southport, the cup of "Cafe Noir," or "Cafe au Lait," at morning, at noon and at night, has become a necessary and delightful part of the life of the people, and the wonder and the joy of visitors.

The morning cup of Cafe Noir is an integral part of the life of a Creole household. The Creoles hold as a physiological fact that this custom contributes to longevity, and point, day after day, to examples of old men and women of fourscore, and over, who attest to the powerful aid they have received through life from a good, fragrant cup of coffee in the early morning. The ancient residents hold, too, that, after a hearty meal, a cup of "Cafe Noir," or black coffee, will relieve the sense of oppression so apt to be experienced, and enables the stomach to perform its functions with greater facility. Cafe Noir is known, too, as one of the best preventives of infectious diseases, and the ancient Creole physicians never used any other deodorizer than passing a chafing dish with burning grains of coffee through the room. As an antidote for poison the uses of coffee are too well known to be dilated upon.

Coffee is also the greatest brain food and stimulant known. Men of science, poets and scholars and journalists have testified to its beneficial effects. Coffee supported the old age of Voltaire, and enabled Pontenelle to reach his one hundredth birthday. Charles Gayarre, the illustrious Louisiana historian, at the advanced age of 80, paid tribute to the Creole cup of "Cafe Noir."

How important, then, is the art of making good coffee, entering, as it does, so largely into the daily life of the American people. There is no reason why the secret should be confined to any section or city; but, with a little care and attention, every household in the land may enjoy its morning or after-dinner cup of coffee with as much real pleasure as the Creoles of New Orleans, and the thousands of visitors who yearly migrate to this old Franco-Spanish city.

The Best Ingredients and the Proper Making.

The best ingredients are those delightful coffees grown on well-watered mountain slopes, such as the famous Java and Mocha coffees. It must be of the best quality, the Mocha and Java mixed producing a concoction of a most delightful aroma and stimulating effect. One of the first essentials is to "Parch the Coffee Grains Just Before Making the Coffee," because coffee that has been long parched and left standing loses its flavor and strength. The coffee grains should "Be Roasted to a Rich Brown," and never allowed to scorch or burn, otherwise the flavor of the coffee is at once affected or destroyed. Bear this in mind, that the GOOD CREOLE COOK NEVER BOILS COFFEE, but insists on dripping it, in a covered strainer, slowly — DRIP, DRIP, DRIP — till all the flavor is extracted.

To reach this desired end, immediately after the coffee has been roasted and allowed to cool in a covered dish, so that none of the flavor will escape, the coffee is ground — neither too fine, for that will make the coffee dreggy; nor too coarse, for that prevents the escape of the full strength of the coffee juice — but a careful medium proportion, which will not allow the hot water pouring to run rapidly through, but which will admit of the water percolating slowly through the grounds, extracting every bit of the strength and aroma, and falling speedily with "a drip! drip!" into the coffee pot.

To make good coffee, the water must be "freshly boiled," and must never be poured upon the grounds until it has reached the good boiling point, otherwise the flavor is destroyed and subsequent pourings of boiling water can never quite succeed in extracting the superb strength and aroma which distinguish the good cup of coffee.

It is of the greatest importance that "The Coffee Pot Be Kept Perfectly Clean," and the good cook will bear in mind that absolute cleanliness is as necessary for the "interior" of the coffee pot as for the shining "exterior." This tact is one too commonly overlooked, and yet the coffee pot requires more than ordinary care, for the reason that the chemical action of the coffee upon the tin or agate tends to create a substance which collects and clings to every crevice and seam, and, naturally, in the course of time, will affect the flavor of the coffee most peculiarly and unpleasantly. Very often the fact that the coffee tastes bitter or muddy arises from this fact. The "inside" of the coffee pot should, therefore, be washed as carefully "every day" as the outside.

Having observed these conditions, proceed to make the coffee according to the following unfailing

Creole Rule.

Have the water heated to a good boil. Set the coffee pot in front of the stove; never on top, as the coffee will boil, and then the taste is destroyed.

Allow one cup, or the ordinary mill, of coffee to make four good cups of the liquid, ground and put in the strainer, being careful to keep both the strainer and the spout of the coffee pot covered to prevent the flavor from escaping. Pour, first, about two tablespoonfuls of the boiling water on the coffee ground's, or, according to the. quantity of coffee used, just sufficient to settle the grounds. Wait about five minutes; then pour a little more water, and allow it to drip slowly through, but never pour water the second time until the grounds have ceased to puff or bubble, as this is an indication that the grounds have settled. Keep pouring slowly, at intervals, a little boiling water at a time, until the delightful aroma of the coffee begins to escape from the closed spout of the coffee pot. If the coffee dyes the cup it is a little too strong, but do not go far beyond this, or the coffee will be too weak. When you have produced a rich, fragrant concoction, whose delightful aroma, filling the room, is a constant, tempting invitation to taste it, serve in fine china cups, using in preference loaf sugar for sweetening. You have then a real cup of the famous Creole Cafe Noir, so extensively used at morning dawn, at breakfast, and as the "after-dinner cup."

If the coffee appears muddy, or not clear, some of the old Creoles drop a piece of charcoal an inch thick into the water, which settles it and at once makes it clear. Demonstrations prove that strength remains in the coffee grounds. A matter of economy in making coffee is to save the grounds from the meal or day before and boil these in a half gallon of water. Settle the grounds by dropping two or three drops of cold water in, and pour the water over the fresh grounds. This is a suggestion that rich and poor might heed with profit.

CAFE AU LAIT.

Proceed in the same manner as in the making of "Cafe Noir," allowing the usual quantity of boiling water to the amount of coffee used. When made, pour the cofee into delicate china cups, allowing a half cup of coffee to each cup. Serve, at the same time, a small pitcher of very sweet and fresh cream, allowing a half cup of cream to a half cup of coffee. The milk should always be boiled, and the cream very hot. If the cream is not fresh and sweet, it will curdle the coffee, by reason of the heat. Cafe au Lait is a great breakfast drink in New Orleans, while Cafe Noir Is more generally the early morning and the afternoon drink.

Having thus bid its readers "Good morning," and drank "with them a cup of Cafe Noir, The Times-Picayune will proceed to discuss Creole Cookery in all its forms, from soup "a la Creole," to "pa candes amandes" and "pralines."

CHAPTER II.

SOUPS.

General Directions for Making Soup — The Pot-au-Feu, the Bouillon and the Consomme.

Uncooked meat is the base of all soups, except such as the Creoles call "Maigre," or fast-day soups. These delightful Cream Soups, or Purees, will be specially treated later. They enter largely into the domestic life of New Orleans, as also more particularly the Pot-au-Feu, the Bouillon and the Consomme. These three are the "mother-soups," for upon their careful preparation depend taste, flavor and the entire problem of good soup-making.

The ancient Creole preserved with few modifications many of the customs of their French ancestors. Among these was the daily plate of soup.

In France, soup enters far more largely into the life of the people than in this old French city of New Orleans. The morning cup of bouillon is served in the most exclusive homes. A cup of claret and a plate of good soup is the essential morning portion of the peasantry. The Creoles relegated the morning cup of bouillon, but retained the daily serving of soup at dinner, in time introducing as a frequent substitute that exclusive Creole concoction Gumbo. No dinner is considered complete without either. The custom has been sustained and adopted by American residents of New Orleans, The Creole housewife lays the greatest stress upon two great essentials in the making of good soup; in the first place, the soup must never stop boiling one instant until done; secondly, once tha soup is started, water must never be added. Neither, on the other band, must the soup be allowed to boil rapidly, or it will be muddy and lose much of its flavor and strength by evaporation. The "soup bone," or "bouilli," as we call U down here in New Orleans, must be put on in cold water, without salt, and must heat slowly. The pot must be kept well covered, and no salt must be added until the meat is thoroughly cooked, as the addition of salt tends to harden the fibers of the meat and prevents the free flow of the Juices. At no stage of the proceeding must the soup be allowed to boil fast. If the bone has been fractured every inch of its length, the soup will be all the stronger and more nutritious. The beef should be selected for Its quality, as freshly killed as possible, and preferably of the cut known by butchers as "The Horseshoe." To be most nutritious the soup should boil a long time. The Creoles never serve soup

that has been cooking less than five or seven hours, according to the quantity to be served. In a well-regulated household the soup is put on at brealcfast time, in the rear of the stove, and allowed to cook slowly for four or five hours, until the time comes for puttins on the dinner proper. In the meantime, the fire has been replenished slowly from time to time, so that when the moment for adding the vegetables or other ingredients arrives, the strength of the meat has been nearly or quite extracted.

The two suggestions, "Never allow the soup to cease boiling when once it has begun, and never to add water after the ingredients are once put together and begin to boil," have been called the "Golden Rule" of soup-making. The housekeeper should take them to heart, for -upon their strict observance depends that boon to poor, suffering humanity — a good plate of soup. If these rules are learned and reliably followed, the first step has been taken towards setting a good dinner.

Rice flour, arrowroot or corn-starch mixed with a little water are often used to thicken soups; but every good Creole cook knows that the soup that is properly made needs no thickening. Salt should be used sparingly, as also spices, which should always be used whole.

To be palatable, soup must be served very hot.

It is generally estimated that in preparing soups a pound of meat should be allowed for every quart of water. In the following recipes the ingredients must be increased proportionately, according to the number of persons to be served. The intelligent housekeeper can readily determine the exact measurements needed In her family, increasing proportion; when guests are expected at the family table.

The Every-Day Pot-au-Feu, or Simple Bouillon.

The Pot-au-Peu, or Bouillon, is mad? by boiling a good soup bone which h.an been carefully selected for its nutritive qualities in water a certain length of time, by means of which the nutriment is extracted. Bouillon of the best quality can only be made from good meat, which should be chosen from the fleshy, juicy part of the thigh. Meat from the breast or lower ribs makes good Pot-au-Feu, but of a lighter quality, and is preferred by some Creole cuisinieres.

The vegetables used are found in the "soup bunch," which comprises pieces of cabbage, a turnip or two, carrots, parsley, celery and onion. Many Creole cooks add garlic and cloves, thyme, bay leaf and allspice. But this is a matter of taste. The every-day Bouillon is made by boiling the soup bone for four or five hours, skimming carefully as the scum rises, and adding, as it starts boiling well, the vegetables contained in the "soup bunch." If vermicelli, macaroni or other soup is desired, such as can be made from the simple Bouillon, or Pot-au-Feu, these ingredients are added in the proportions mentioned in the special recipe for these soups, and the soup is boiled an hour or so longer.

The Herb Bouqnet.

Every good Creole cook keeps on hand an "herb bouquet," made of a spray of parsley, a sprig of thyme, celery and bay leaf. These are tied together, and constitute the "bouquet." It will flavor a gallon of soup, if cooked for an hour.


Pot-au-Feu a la Creole.


This Pot-au-Feu, properly made, is truly delicious, savory and delicately odorous. The best cut for this is from the round lower end of the beef. Many of the Creoles add the beef spleen or brisket to the soup. This is rich and juicy, and gives nutritive value to the dish. If delicacy is preferred to richness in the soup, the marrow bone is omitted. Put the meat into cold water, heating by slow degrees in order that It may gradually penetrate the meat, softening it and dissolving the non-nutritive portion, which rises to the top of the liquid as a scum. As the scum becomes thicker remove it. After having skimmed well, set the soup back where it can be kept on a gentle but steady boil; when the soup is well skimmed, add the vegetables, which have been cut to proper fineness, and a little salt to suit the taste, and let the soup continue to boil from five to six hours, remembering strictly the two essential rules given. By following this recipe you will have an excellent soup.

The Creoles often serve the Pot-au-Feu with small squares of dry or toasted bread, put into the tureen, and the hot soup is poured over them at the moment of serving.

Should the flavor of the garlic, allspice, cloves or bay leaf be disagreeable, they may be omitted. But they are essential ingredients of the Creole Pot-au-Feu.

A particularly delicate flavor is often obtained by adding to the beef some pieces of raw fowl, or the remains of a cooked fowl, more especially the carcass. But never add remains of mutton, pork or veal, as these meats impart an acrid odor, detracting from the perfection of the Pot-au-Feu.


Bouillon.


To make a good Bouillon is an art in itself. It is the soup that most frequently, after the Pot-au-Feu, enters into the economy of the Creole household. It is not only used in the daily menu, but on occasions of family reunions and soirees, is served cold or warm in soups. It is always prepared in a concentrated form for the use of invalids. In illness, where the quantity administered is required to be as nutritious as possible, the round steak should always be chosen for the Bouillon, and it is decidedly better not to clear the soup, as the process of clearing not only destroys a great deal of the delicate flavor, but also of the nutriment contained in the Bouillon.

Select good fresh beef, and where intended for an invalid allow two pounds of beef to every quart of water. The Bouillon should always boil from six to seven hours. For dinners, luncheons, etc., the following proportions may be used:

Put these ingredients into the soup kettle, after the Bouillon has been brought to a boil. Then set aside and let it simmer gently, but never allow the soup to rack. After two and a half hours add

Replace the cover and let the Bouillon boil gently for two and one-half hours more, making five hours of actual boiling, when not intended for invalid use. At this stage, from the quantity of ingredients used in the above recipe, the Bouillon will measure about three quarts for family use. If you decide not to clarify the soup, set it aside and let it settle then carefully pour off the upper portion, but do not shake the bowl or disturb the sediment. The Creoles then add about a tablespoonful of celery and a little cayenne. This soup requires no artificial coloring, its own strength and long boiling producing a beautiful tint. Should a greater quantity be required, the housekeeper will guide herself according to the proportions given in this recipe.


To Clarify Bouillon.


To clarify Bouillon, remove the fat and pour the broth into a clear kettle. Add Set it on the fire, and from the moment the crushed shells of two eggs. Stir this into the cold soup until well mixed. it begins to boil let it cook steadily ten minutes longer. Set it back on the stove or hearth for four or five minutes to settle. Then strain it through a towel. Allow the Bouillon to drip, remembering never to squeeze the bag. A very clear soup is never a very nutritious one.


Consomme.


Select six pounds of lean beef, rump of beef and some bones, and cut the meat into small pieces, the bones also being mashed. Put this on in about six quarts of cold water, and. when it comes to a boil, skim well. Add a teaspoonful of salt to help the scum rise more thoroughly and skim as it rises. Take two large-sized onions, two carrots, a piece of cabbage and two pieces of celery; chop fine and add to the soup, and let it boil six hours, or until the broth is reduced about one-half the quantity. By this time the meat should be cooked into rags. Pass all through a colander and then strain through a coarse flannel cloth. Season highly with Cayenne pepper and salt to the taste. If the meat is good, the soup will be perfectly clear. If it is cloudy or muddy before straining, crush the shells or two eggs and put them into the soup and let it come to a good boil. Set it back about ten minutes and then strain. Add vermicelli, or macaroni, or pates, according to taste. This soup will require no artificial coloring.


Colorings for Soup.


Having given the recipes for the “mother soups,” which are the bases of all soups, a word must be said about colorings for soup. While colorings have been extensively used in New Orleans, the good old Creoles long ago found out that coloring matter, whether in liquid form or in balls or tablets, detracted from the good flavor of the soup, and that a properly made soup needed no coloring. The good Bouillon has a color peculiar to itself — a reddish yellow, which comes from the juice of the meat. The absence of natural color in the soup indicates that too small an amount of meat has been used in proportion to the water, a poor quality of meat, or there has been a too rapid process of boiling. Still, if colorings are desired, the following recipe, which is free from the deleterious compounds sold in stores, has long been used by the Creoles for coloring gravies, and may be used with good effect in soups. It is called by the Creoles;


Caramel.


Take about a half pint of brown sugar, put it in a pan, on a slow fire, and lei it burn or parch, slowly stirring all the time. When it turns a dark brown, add two pints of water and stir well, and then bottle. Put it away and use a few drops at a time to color and thicken gravies and soup broths. Or, take a large raw onion, skin and all, and thrust into the burning coals. "When it begins to brown well, take out of the coals, dust off all the ashes and throw into the soup or gravy. This will give all the coloring that is needed.

More simple or satisfactory recipes cannot be found. Nevertheless, the Creoles maintain and demonstrate that the best coloring for soups is that produced by good material and long boiling.


CHAPTER III. MEAT SOUPS.


Julienne Soup.


Potage a la Julienne.


The shin of the beef is the best to make a good Julienne soup. Set the beef and water in a close vessel where they will heat gradually. After boiling five or six hours add the vegetables. Cut the vegetables into long, thin shreds. Take a tablespoonful of lard, heat and add the vegetables, letting them fry or smother until a golden brown. Then add to the boiling broth. If fresh peas are used they must be boiled apart. If canned peas, simply add to the broth, after throwing in the vegetables. Let them cook in the broth one hour longer and. serve hot with the vegetables.

Vermicelli Soup.


Prepare a good Bouillon, or Pot-au -Feu, or Consomme, according to the taste of the household, the simple Pot-au-Feu being most generally used. A half hour before serving add the vermicelli to the broth, and serve hot.

Macaroni Soup.


Potage au Macaroni.


Prepare a good Pot-au-Feu, or Bouillon, according to directions given, and allowing a quarter of a pound of macaroni to two quarts of broth. Break the macaroni into two-inch length pieces and add to the boiling broth about a half hour before serving. Some housekeepers cook the macaroni separately in salted boiling water about ten or fifteen minutes, draining thoroughly, and dropping into the boiling broth about fifteen minutes before serving. The soup is often served with Parmesan cheese, grated.


Tapioca Soup.
Potage au Tapioca.

To three quarts of broth add, about forty minutes before serving, four ounces of tapioca. The tapioca should be pre-, viously soaked a few hours. Stir frequently in the broth while boiling, and serve hot.

Sago Soup.


Potage au Sago.


The sago should always be soaked overnight. Allow two ounces to every three pints of broth or Consomme. Boil for one hour before serving, stirring occasionally.

Rice Soup,


Potage au Riz.


Prepare the clear Pot-au-Feu or Consomme. When nearly done add one-half cupful of rice, which has been thoroughly washed and dried. Cook for about twenty-five, minutes longer, or until done, and serve.

Barley soup is prepared after the same style, using a clear Bouillon or Consomme.

Okra Soup.


Potage au Fevi.


Cut the beef into small pieces, and season well with butter, pepper and salt. Fry it in the soup kettle with the onion and butter until very brown. Then add the cold water and let it simmer for an hour and a half. Add the okra and let it simmer gently for three or four hours longer.

Ox-Tail Soup.


Soupe de Queue de Boeuf.


Cut the tail in pieces from the joint, and cut again into pieces one inch and a half in length. Chop the onions very fine. Put the onion and a tablespoonful of lard into a frying pan and add the ox tail. Cook slowly until it begins to brown, then add the carrot, cut in pieces about the size of a green pea, and about a square inch of ham, chopped very fine. Let this brown, and when it begins to brown nicely, add the thyme, bay leaf, three cloves, one clove of garlic, all chopped very fine. Let this continue to brown, being careful not to burn, and then add one tablespoonful of flour, dredged in lightly and stirred, and when all is nicely browned, add about five quarts of Consomme, if you have it; if not, five quarts of boiling water and three tablespoonfuls of barley. Let it cook together about four hours, simmering gently, seasoning with salt, pepper and cayenne to taste, and when ready to serve, add two tablespoonfuls of sherry wine. Wine may be omitted. Noodle Soup. Potage au Nouilles. 3 Quarts of Good Bouillon or Consomme. The Yolks of 3 Eggs. The Whites of 2 Eggs. 1 Cup of Flour. 1-2 Tablespoonful of Salt.

Prepare a good Bouillon or Consomme. To a quart of the soup, add noodles made as follows: Beat the yolks of three eggs, and the whites of two together until very light; add one cup of flour, one-half teaspoon of salt, and mix with cold water; making a stiff paste; roll very thin; then roll each strip to form a tube; cut in strips, grease and simmer a few at a time in boiling salt water for about twenty minutes. Simmer the noodles in the soup about fifteen minutes.

Mushroom Soup.


Potage au Champignones.


Break the macaroni into pieces of about three inches; wash and put into a stew-pan, with two quarts of boiling water;, add three teaspoonfuls of salt. Let the macaroni boil half an hour, and meanwhile make a sauce. Put .the butter and flour in a small stewpan "and beat to a cream. Then add the chopped onion, carrot and pepper, and remaining salt and broth, and heat slowly. When the sauce begins to boil, set it back, where it will only simmer, for about twenty minutes. At the end of that time add the cream and then strain the sauce. Pour the water from the macaroni, and in its place put the sauce and mushrooms; cook for five minutes, and serve hot.

The Creole housekeeper never uses any but a silver spoon in cooking fresh, mushrooms. If the spoon is darkened, the mushrooms are not good. This is an infallible test in using fresh mushrooms. The canned French mushrooms are not only the best, but the safest.

Potage Croute-au-Pot.


Croute-au-Pot is one of the most popular and excellent Creole soups. Prepare a good consomme. In the meantime, parboil the vegetables in salted boiling water. When tender, drain off the water, and add to them about two and one-half quarts of the boiling consomme. Let them simmer until they are very tender. Prepare the toasts and put them into a saucepan with enough consomme to cover them. Simmer gently until the toasts have absorbed all the consomme and show signs of drying up. Then add a little hot consomme, detach them from the saucepan, lay them in the tureen and pour the soup with the vegetables very gently over them. Serve immediately.

Savory Soup.


Potage a la Bonne Menagere.


Put the meat in four quarts of cold water and let it simmer for three hours. One hour before serving, add one-half cup of rice, which has been soaked in water until soft, and three tablespoonfuls of oatmeal, one tablespoonful of salt and one-fourth teaspoonful of pepper. Add parsley, sprig of thyme and one onion, chopped fine. Boil an hour longer and serve, very hot. This makes a delicious soup.

Corn Soup.


Soup au Mai Tendre.


Corn soup is one of the most popular Creole summer soups, and will be found not only delicious, but highly nutritive.

Put the meat and water into a soup pot, and as soon as the scum begins to rise skim carefully. Then add the tomatoes and corncobs. Cook for four hours or so longer; then take out the corncobs, and add the corn, cut fine, salt and pepper to suit the taste, adding a pod of Cayenne pepper, without the seeds; cook one hour longer and then serve with slices of toast bread.

Tomato Consomme. Consomme de Tomates.


A Chicken may be substituted for the Shin of Veal.

Put the meat and chicken (the latter cut up) into a large soup kettle and let it come slowly to a boil. Then draw it forward, and as it begins to boil more rapidly skim as the scum rises. After another hour add the pepper, salt and vegetables. The soup should boil incessantly, but gently, for about eight hours, requiring in all about nine hours of good cooking. It should, therefore, be put on very early in the morning, and, if required for luncheon, should be made the day before. when the soup has boiled gently for the prescribed time take it off, strain into a large bowl and set it away in the ice box until the next day, if not for immediate use. Then remove the fat from the surface, and pour off all the clear part into a saucepan and boil again for one or two hours. Then remove it from the fire. This will make a stiff jelly, which will keep in winter for several days in the ice box. It also serves to make a beautiful Sauce Espagnole, or Spanish Sauce. The best way to keep it is in earthern pitchers holding from one to two quarts, allowing a certain quantity for each day.

Mock-Turtle Soap.


Soupe a la Tortue.


Select a fine calf's head, not too large. If large, reserve half and the tongue and brains to make another dish. Get the butcher to crack the head well and remove the brains. Wash the head thoroughly in cold water, and then be careful to pour boiling water through nose and throat passages until they are perfectly clean, and scrape out the ears thoroughly, washing very clean. Rinse all well in cold water, and be very sure that the head is very sweet and clean before attempting to cook it. Put the head in a kettle with five quarts of cold water, and set it over a moderate fire. when it begins to boil well skim thoroughly, till every particle of scum has been taken off. Then set it back and let it simmer until the meat is quite tender. This will require about two hours and a half. Then remove the head; take the meat from the bones; skin the tongue, and set away to cool. Return the bones to the kettle, with the vegetables, which have been washed and cut fine; as, also, the spices and the liver. Simmer gently again for two hours, and when cool, strain. Set aside to cool, and when the soup is cold, remove all the fat. Put the butter in a saucepan and melt, adding the flour until nicely browned, but be careful not to burn it. Then add by degrees the boiling soup, stirring constantly. Boil, keeping up a gentle stir, for about five minutes. Then add the meat of the head and the liver, having first cut them into dice.

Bring to a boil at once. Take the saucepan from the fire, and add the oat-sup, salt, pepper and wine. Slice the hard-boiled eggs and the lemon and place them in the tureen, and pour the soup over them and serve.

If force-meat balls are desired for the soup, prepare them as follows:

Chop a half of a pound of beef or veal and chopped chicken about an inch in thickness; add a little of the liver and tongue of the calf, a half dozen small onions, one tablespoonful of sweet marjoram, one grated nutmeg, a teaspoonful each of powdered black pepper and mace, and a half teaspoonful of cloves (powdered), three eggs, three grated crackers (sifted), half a gill of good sherry wine, a tablespoonful of butter and two tea-spoonfuls of salt; chop up and mix thoroughly together. Then roll in balls and fry slowly in lard or butter. Serve with the soup.

Mutton Broth.


Soupe de Mouton.


Wash the neck of the mutton, or wipe it with a damp towel, and put it into the kettle with the cold water. Let it come to a slow boil and skim carefully. Cover well and let it simmer for about four hours. Then remove from the stove and pour into an earthern vessel to cool. When cold, remove all the fat from the surface, or, better still, remove all the fat before boiling. Return to the kettle and add the rice, the sliced turnip and the bay leaf, and season to taste, or prepare as in Oxtail Soup.


Chicken Broth. Bouillon de Volaille.


To make a good chicken broth for invalids, take one good large chicken; clean carefully and cut up, being careful to mash all the bones with an ax. Place in a saucepan of cold water, and let it simmer gently for four or five hours, until it is 'boiled down to about two cups of broth. It will have a rich, strong color, and seasoned with a little salt and pepper, omitting all vegetables, can be taken by the most delicate stomachs. Chicken Consomme. Consomme de Volaille.

Put the chicken Into the salt and water and let it simmer gently until the scum begins to rise; then skim. Add the other ingredients. Boil gently for two hours, and serve with slices of toast,. The chicken left over will serve to make croquettes, or chicken salad.

Gilt-Edged Consomme. Consomme Dore.


Have the fowl thoroughly cleaned, and put the chicken, beef and ham into a kettle of cold water of the quantity mentioned in the above, and boil slowly for five hours, being careful to keep the pot well covered. Chop the onion and vegetables and fry them in a little butter, and add all the seasonings to the soup. Boil two hours longer, and set away overnight in an ice box. The next day remove all the fat; from the top take out the jelly, leaving the thickest part of the sediment, which is good to put into a thick soup. Mix in the shells and the whites of eggs and boil quickly for about ten minutes. Then set it on the hearth to settle. Pour the soup through a thin bag without squeezing; if it does not come out perfectly clear, pass it through again. It should then be a beautiful golden-brown color. Only the brightest and cleanest of kettles should be used, and the sieve should be scalded each time to keep the particles from washing back into the soup. This is a delightful soup for luncheons and Dinner parties. It may be garnished according to taste, serving with "Croutons," or Quenelles.

Consomme With Poached Eggs


Consomme aux Oeufs Poches.


Break the eggs and drop them ono by one into boiling salted water, being careful not to allow the water to boil when once the eggs are in it; but have the frying pan, which is always best for poaching eggs, to one side of the stove, and cook slowly until the eggs are firm. When firm, carefully remove with a spoon or perforated skimmer, the latter being best, and lay in cold water for a moment, until the edges are trimmed evenly. The boiling water tends to make the edges ragged, and eggs served in this slovenly manner are not tempting. Transfer to the tureen and pour the boiling soup very gently into the tureen and serve. One egg and about a half-pint of broth should be allowed to each person.

Queen Soup. Potage a la Heine.


Take a fine large chicken, clean it and put it whole into a pot containing about five quarts of water. Add chopped onion, thyme, bay leaf, one carrot, a small bunch of celery, and one cup of rice. Let the chicken simmer well ror about four hours, and, when well cooked, take out the chicken from the broth. Cut off the white meat and cut it into pieces about the size of dice. Then strain the broth, mashing the rice well. Make a puree by taking another saucepan, putting in one tablespoonful of butter and one of flour, letting it melt together without browning. Moisten this well with the soup and a glass of milk, and season with salt and pepper and one-quarter of a grated nutmeg, and add to the broth. Then add the chicken, which has been cut up. Put in the tureen little dice of croutons of bread fried in butter. Pour the soup over and serve hot. The remainder of the chicken can be used to make Chicken Croquettes, Chicken Salad, etc.

Giblet Soup.

Potage a I'Essenee de Gesier.

The Giblets, Heart, Liver, etc., of Two Turkeys or Four Chickens. Chop the onion tine and put it into the stewpan with the butter; let it hrown, and then add the chopped vegetables, whole giblets, etc.; fry until n'cely brownea, but do not let it burn Then slit the giblets with a knife, that tne juices may run out in boiling, and put all into the soup kettle, with pepper, salt, sage, parsley and the three quarts of consomme or boiling water. Add toones or lean meat, cooked or raw, that are left, preferably the meat of the chicken, and let all simmer for five hours. Then strain. Mash one liver fine and add it to. the broth; season with Cayenne pepper per lemon juice to taste, and two table-spoonfuls of Madeira or Port wine. Bail three minutes, and have in the tureen one hard-boiled yolk of an egg for each person. Pour the soup over it and serve

Rabbit Soup.

Potage de Lapin.

This is a famous Creole soup. The rabbits should be well skinned and singed. Wash thoroughly in warm water; this is very important. Then cut the given. Chop the onion, moderate let it simmer gently until the meat has grown very tender. This will take about two hours or less. Add the salt pepper and rice, and simmer for an hour longer. Pou into the tureen over Croutons and serve. The Creoles add two tablespoonfuls of Sherry or Port wine, thus increasing the delicacy of the flavor.

Squirrel Soup.

Potage d'Ecureil.

When squirrels are used the gray Louisiana squirrel is best. Venison may be substituted for squirrels. Prepare as for Rabbit Soup.

Pepper Pot.

Pot de Poivres.

The knuckle of the veal is best for this. Wash and put into the soup kettle, covering with water, and bring it to a slow boil. Carefully skim off the scum. Let it simmer gently tor three hours. The tripe should be prepared the day before. Wash it thoroughly in cold water and boil for about seven hours. Put away In the ice box till needed. Chop the parsley and herbs fine and one-half of the red pepper pod, and add to the boiling knuckle of veal, and also the potatoes, which have been cut into dice. Cut up the tripe into pieces of about one inch square. Take out the knuckle of veal and cut up meat Into small pieces, and add all, with the tripe, to the soup. At tne boiling point, season with salt and pepper.


CHAPTER IV. FISH SOUPS.


Soupes de Poissons,

Under this heading come some of the most delightful Creole soups, such as Green Turtle Soup, Oyster Soup, Crawfish Bisque, etc. These not only serve as fast-day soups, but are considered elegant introductions to the most recherche feast.


Fish Soup.


Bouillon de Poisson.


Chop the onions and fry them in the salad oil. Cut the tomatoes fine, add onions, and put in all the other ingredients, except the fish, adding the flour to make a good roux. When brc'wn add the water, apd, after it has boiled about a half hour, add the slices of fish. When they are firm remove the herb bouquet, add Cayenne pepper, and salt and pepper to taste, and serve the fish soup, in a tureen, pouring it over crusts of dried toast.


Green Turtle Soup.


Soupe a la Tortue.


Thyme, Bay Leaf. Salt, Pepper and Cayenne to Taste. The Creoles pride themselves upon their famous "Soup a la Tortue," and justly the old saying that only a good Creole cook knows how to make a good Turtle Soup being tesititled to by epicurean visitors from every country.

The following is one of the simplest and best ways of making Turtle Soup — a recipe that may always be relied upon and one that has been used from generation to gene-.'ition in the most aristocratio Creole homes;

In making Turtle Soup, Green Turtle is always the best tor this purpose. Sr cct two pounds of Green Turtle meat, u the turtle is not bought whole. This a.aount will make a soup for six persons

Increase proportionately. If the turtle Is bought whole, first out off the head. To dc this properly, the turtle should be hung with the head downwards, and a very sharp knife should be used to cut off the head ag close as possible. To remote the shells, first separate the upper from the lower shell, always being exceedingly careful to avoid touching the gall bladder, which is very large. If it is penetrated, the contents running over the' turtle meat would render it utterly unfit for use.

Clean the turtle and the entrails by cutting oijen and washing thoroughly in cold water. Then put the meat and entrails ir.to a saucepan and parboil about ten rairules. Be careful to save this stock of water. Chop an onion very fine, and thi3 bam into very fine pieces. Cut the turtiO meat into one-inch pieces, mash the clov-'s aria the allspice very fine and chop tho thyme and bay leaf. Brown the ciiio;i? in a tablespoonful of butter or laril. and add immediately the turtle meat. Blown together slightly, and after minutes add the chopped ham. Let this continue browning and then add two cloves of garlic, chopped fine, and the thyme, bay leaf (minced fine), cloves anJ allspice (ground), all mixed together, and lay on the turtle. Stir this almost constantly to prevent burning, and add two tablespoonfuls of flour that has been well rubbed, stirring constantly all the time. Then dissolve the meat with the water in which the turtle was parboiled, adding gradually until a certain consistency is reached. About three quarts of water will be the required amount. Season this with salt, black pepper and Cayenne to taste, and boil slowly for tvllv an hour, stirring almost constantly. Afcr cooking one hour taste, and If not ata'oned sufficiently, season again and tatte Then chop one-quarter of a small lemon, and put it in the soup. Let it continue to ccok, and when well done — that ia when no blood exudes from the turi'.e afLcr sticking it with a fork — pour into the tureen. Add the whites and yolks o? two hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine and one good class of Sherry wine, aiiJ the soup is ready to serve. This is a dish fit for a king and is most highly recommended as a genuine Creole Turtle Soup.


Turtle Soup No. 2.


Soupe a la Tortue.


Criean the turtle and entrails by cutting open the latter and washing thoroughly in cold water. Then put the meat and entrails into a saucepan and parboil them for ten minutes. Carefully save this stock of water. Chop the onion very fine, and cut the ham into very fine pieces. Cut the turtle meat into one-inch pieces; mash the allspice very fine, and mince the parsley, thyme and bay leaf. Then brown the onions in the lard and butter mixed, and almost immediately add the turtle meat. Brown to-

gether for ten minutes and add the finely chopped ham. As this continues to brown add the cloves of garlic (minced fine), the thyme and bay leaf and the ground allspice. Mix all together, stirring almost constantly to prevent burning. Then add the well-rubbed tablespoonfuls of flour, stirring constantly. Scald and skin the tomatoes and chop them fine, and add to the turtle meat. When well browned, pour over three quarts of the water in which the turtle was parboiled, season with salt and pepper and Cayenne to taste, and let it boil slowly for fully an hour, stirring frequently. After one hour taste the soup, and, if not sufficiently seasoned, add seasoning of salt, pepper and Cayenne again, according to taste. Let it cook for an hour longer and then take off the stove if the turtle is thoroughly done. This may be ascertained by sticking it with a fork. If no blood exudes, the soup is ready to servs. Take oft the stove and strain through a colander into the tureen. Add the whites and yolks ' of two hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine, and one good glass of Sherry or White wine. Slice a lemon fine and add to the soup and serve hot.

How to Serve Turtle Soup.

Great care should be taken in serving the soup. It should be borne in mind that boiling the soup a second time, or warming it over, deprives it of much of its delicious flavor. To avoid this, fill two tureens with boiling water; let them stand a few minutes, then dry the inside thoroughly and place the tureens in a "bainmarie," or a hot-water bath. Fill the tureens with the soup and cover tightly. Bring them to the table as needed, throwing in, just before serving, some dainty slices of lemon. If the meat is served, use only the most delicate portions.

Mock Eggs for Turtle Soup.

Should the turtle possess no eggs, the following method of making mock eggs is often used: Break and beat thoroughly one fresh egg; then take the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs, and rub them into a fine paste with about a teaspoon-ful of butter. Mix this with the raw egg and roll into pelleits of the identical size and shape of the turtle eggs, let them lie in boiling water about two minutes, and then drop into the soup.


Terrapin Soup.


Soupe a la Tortue.

The diamond-back terrapin is the best and the females make the finest and daintiest food, the males being not only of inferior size, but of far less delicate flavor. Terrapins must always be bought alive. They are in season from November till March, ajid, like all other fish, i should not be eaten out of season.

To make the soup, clean the terrapin as you would a turtle. Then place in a kettle and boil till tender. Take out and cut into small pieces, saving the water. Proceed as for Turtle Soup. When it boils up take from the fire, add a grated nutmeg, a glass of Sherry or Madeira wine and serve. Serve with green pickle and delicate slices of fried toast.

Crawfish Bisque.


Potage a la Bisque d'Ecrevisse.

Take about eight dozen fine, large crawfish and wash thoroughly, being careful to cleanse of every particle of dust or sand. Set to boil in about a gallon of water. When boiled, take the fish out of the water; save the water. Pick O'Ut two dozen of the largest crawfish; pick out the inside of the tails and save the heads, cleansing them of every particle of meat. Set this meat to one side with the shells of the head. Pick the meat from the rest of the crawfish, saving all the shells. Take one large onion, a carrot, a bunch of celery, a sprig of thyme, one bay leaf, three sprigs of parsley, six clc-ves and two blades of mace, one clove of garlic; chop all very fine and put into the pot of water in which the crawfish were boiled. Add all the picked meat, except the reserved tails, and all the shells of the bodies and heads, except the reserved heads. Add one cup of rice and let it all boil till the mixture becomes thick and mushy. When it is well cooked, take it off the fire and mash the shells thc-roughly, and the meat also, and strain all through a sieve. Taka about a tablespoonful of butter and two quarts of oyster liquor and add this to the soup, seasoning to taste with Cayenne, salt and black pepper. Set to boil slowly. In the meantime, take the reserved crawfish meat and make a stuffing as fc-llows for the reserve heads, chop an onion very fine and let it brown In a tablespoonful of butter. Squeeze thoroughly a cup of bread wet with water. when well squeezed, mix with a little milk, sufficient to make a paste, season to taste and mix with the well-seasoned crawfish meat. Chop another onion and put in melted butter, and add the crawfish stuffing, letting all fry about ten minutes, adding, in the meantime, a finely-chopped sprig each of thyme and parsley and a bay leaf, and mixing thoroughly. Take off the fire and stuff the reserved head of crawfish. Put on every stuffed head a dot of but ter, and set in the oven and bake ten minutes. Place the stuffed heads in the tureen and pour the soup over. Serve hot with Croutc-ns of buttered toast, passing the latter in a separate dish.

Crawfish Soup.


Potage d'Bcrevisses.

Wash the crawfish thoroughly over and over again to take away every particle of dust. Then boil them in plain water. Save the water. Take out the crawfish and take off all the shells, putting the meat aside. Pound the shells fine; pound one doen almonds fine and mix thoroughly with the meat of the crawfish, and pound this in a mortar. In the meanwhile take one pound and a half of a filet of veal and a slice of ham and cut in small pieces. Cut up the onion, carrots and parsnips. Put one tablespoonful of lard in a kettle, and when it begins to heat add the herb bouquet (sweet basil, parsley, bay leaf), the onions, parsnip, shallots, clove of garlic, chopped fine; as these brown add the veal and ham. Add two tablespoonfuls of flour and butter rubbed, and the mushrooms, chopped finely. Let these simmer for about five minutes and then add the tomatoes, allspice and cloves. After ten minutes, when the mixture is well browned, add the pounded crawfish shells and the pounded meat and almonds. Pour over all the water from the boiled crawfish and set it back on the stove and let it simmer for about two hours. Skim off all the grease when near time for serving. Then strain through a sieve and serve with Croutons of toast, cut in slices, placed in the bottom of the tureen.

On fast days, instead of the veal and ham, substitute butter and lard, making a Roux (see recipe), and moistening a little with the stock of the crawfish. Then proceed as above.

Rice or Crouton Soup is rendered delicious by introducing a small quantity of the broth of a crawfish. The broth is also used extensively by the Creoles in seasoning ragouts on fast days, and hot pies, such as pates de foles gras; also such .entremets as cauliflower, artichokes, etc. The chief essential in making the broth is to have it of the right consistency, and to skim carefully of all the grease before straining. Good judgment must be the guide of the cook in seeking the proper consistency.

Oyster Soup.


Soupe aux Huitres.

Salt and Pepper to Taste. In purchasing the oysters always ba careful to make the vendor add the oyster juice when intended fdr soup. In making good oyster soup the Creoles never use any water, but the liquor from the oysters. Drain the oysters througa a colander and set them over the ice box , to keep fresh and cold. Strain the liquor, and put it into a soup kettle, adding the chopped parsley and the pepper corns. Let it come to a boil. In the meantime boil the milk separately in a saucepan, as boiling the milk and ovster juice together is likely to curdle the milk. "STien the milk comes to a boil, add to the oyster juice and put in the tablespoonful of butter. Stir the soup constantly ai this point, throwing in the ovsters and continuing to stir until it comes to a boil again. Under no circumstances allow the oysters to boil, as that destroys their flavor and makes them tough and indigestible. But one must be also care ful to see that they are steamed through and through, and then they are delightful and palatable. The ruffling of tha edges indicates the right condition; at this point the soup must be served immediately. Serve with sliced lemon and oyster or water crackers. Made according to the above formula, oyster soup is a most delightful dish and can be eaten and relished by the most delicate stomachs.

Oyster Soup Without Milk.


Soupe aux Huitres a la Creole.

The Creoles have another delightful method of preparing oyster soup, a method evolved by the old negro cooks of ante-bellum days, and still in vogue in the ancient families. It is a soup made without milk, and is prepared as follows: Take

Put the tablespoonful of lard into the soup kettle. Have ready one onion, some parsley, chopped very fine. When the lard is hot, stir in two tablespoonfuls of sifted flour, and make a Brown Roux (see recipe), stirring constantly to prevent burning. When the Roux is of a light brown color add the chopped onions and parsley, continuing to stir, being exceedingly careful to avoid the semblance of burning. Strain the oyster juice of about four dozen oysters into the Roux, mixing thoroughly to avoid bits of shell; mix with about a quart of boiling water and pour. When it shows signs of coming to a bo'il, add the oysters and a teaspoonful of butter. At the boiling point remove from the stove and serve with oyster soda crackers or dry toast, the oyster crackers being always preferable.

Crab Soup.


Potage de Crabes.

Cleanse the crabs thoroughly and extract all the meat from the bO'dy and claws; scald and skin the tomatoes, and squeeze the pulp from the seeds and juice; chop very fine. Pour boiling water over the seed and juice and strain. Chop the onion and garlic and stew with the tablespoonful of butter and lard. As they begin to brown add the tomatoes, cover, and, after simmering a few minutes, add the well-seasoned meat of the crab. Sift over this some grated bread or crackers and season with Cayenne, sweet marjoram and thyme. Pour in tomato water and add about a quart or more of water, and let it boil moderately for about an hour. Add the juice of two lemons and serve.

CHAPTER V. LENTEN SOUPS


Potages Malgre.

The Creoles excel in the preparation of soups without meat, or fast-day soups, as they are called. The ingenuity of the cooks from generation to generation has been taxed in the preparation of these soups, which are in great vogue during the Lenten season. But many of them, such as "Cream of Asparagus Soup,'' "Cream of Celery Soup," have entered into the daily life of the city, and, like the famous Creole Gumbos, are held afi dainty and elegant introductions to the most distinguished feasts.

Fast-Day Broth.


Bouillon Maigre.

Peel and cut into fine, thin slices the carrots, turnips and parsnips; cut and chop fine the cabbage, celery and onions, put all in a saucepan and add one glass of water, and a quarter of a pound of butter, using the butter preferably to the lard; add the parsley, chopped very fine. Let all boil till the water has evaporated, and then add one pint of red or white beans or split peas, which have been soaked overnight; add three quarts of water and the pepper pod, and let all simmer well for three hours. Then if the beans are perfectly tender at this point, drain or press through a colander; return to the fire and add the seasonings Let all boil up once and then serve with Croutons. Stale bread may be utilized in preparing the Croutons.

A Summer Fast-Day Soup.


Potage Maigre d'Ete.

Chop the vegetables fine and stew all together, except the young peas. After one hour add the young peas. Press them through a sieve and return all into the water in which they have been boiled. Add to this the vegetables that have been stewed in the butter and simmer about an hour and a half. A sprig of mint is added just before the soup is taken off the fire.

A Winter Fast-Day Soup.


Potage Maigre d'Hiver.

Stew all the vegetables, except the lettuce, together, after having chopped fine, until they are perfectly soft. Then return to the fire with the chopped lettuce, butter and sugar. Boil quickly about twenty minutes, and serve with Croutons.

Vegetable Soup Without Meat.


Puree de Legumes.

Cut the vegetables into dice and boil until thoroughly tender in about three and a half quarts of water; this will require about two hours. Then press the whole through a sieve; add the remaining water and bring to a boil. Then add the butter, rubbed smooth with the flour in a little rich cream, or a little of the hot soup. A gill of cream or milk added just before serving increases the flavor. Boil and stir about two or three minutes more and serve.

Lentil Soup.


Potage Puree de Lentilles.

Wash the lentils, and, if dried, soak them over night. Drain off the water and put them in a saucepan with the cold water. Allow them to come gradually to a boil. Then set them back on the stove and let them simmer gently for about two hours. Melt the butter in the saucepan and fry in it the minced onion, celery, parsley, thyme and bay leaf, and let these brown; then add them to the lentils; boil about an hour longer, and, if particularly tender, press all through a colander. Return to the fire and add the seasonings. Let them boil up once and serve with Croutons.




Red Bean Soup.
Puree a la Conde.

Salt and Pepper. Wash the beans and soak them overnight in lukewarm water. Drain and put them in a saucepan with the cold water. Allow them to come gradually to a boil; then set them back, and let them simmer gently for about two hours. Melt the butter in a saucepan and fry in it the onion, parsley, thyme and bay leaf until brown. Add these to the beans and boil about an hour and a half longer. If the beans are perfectly tender at this point, press the whole through a colander. Return to th fire, and add the seasonings. Let them boil up once and serve with the Croutons. Some think that the flavor is enhanced by beating up an egg in the tureen and pouring the boiling soup gradually over it, stirring constantly. This soup should always be served witii Croutons.




White Bean Soup.
Potage a la Puree d'Haricots.

Wash the beans and soak them overnight in lukewarm water. Pain and put thlm in a saucepan with the cold water Allow them to come gradually to a boil, then set them back and let theni simmer gently for about two hours. Melt the butter in a saucepan and fry in it the onion, parsley, thyme and bay leaf until brown. Add these to the beans and boil about an hour and a half longer. If the beans are perfectly tender at this point, press the whole through a colander. Return to the fire and add the seasonings. Let them boil up once and then serve with the Croutons. As in Red Bean boup, a beaten egg may be added when about to pour into the tureen. First beat up the egg and pour the boiling soup gradually over, stirring all the while.




Dried or Split Pea Soup.
Potage a la Puree de Pois Sees.

Soak the peas overnight, after washing them in cold water and rejecting all that float. In the morning drain off the water and cover the peas again with one quart of boiling water, setting them back on the stove and letting them cook slowly until tender. Cut up the onion and parsley and celery into fine pieces and add to the boiling peas. Wlien perfectly tender remove from the stove and press through a sieve or colander and add the salt and pepper. Then return the soup to the fire and let it boil up once; just before serving add the rich cream or milk, stirring well. The soup should be served with Croutons or Oyster Crackers. White Bean Soup may be made in exactly the same manner. When not intended for fast days, the addition of a ham bone adds greatly to the flavor.




Puree of Green Peas.
Puree de Pois Verts.

Cut the onions and parsley fine, and boil with the peas until all are quite tender, in boiling water, for about a half hour. Then drain. Rub all through a sieve or colander, and add them to the boiling broth or milk. Do not allow this to boil after adding the peas. Season and serve with dainty Croutons. To keep hot, stand the soup on a "bainmarie," or kettle of boiling water.




Sorrel Soup.
Potage a. la "Bonne Femme," ou Soupe a I'Oiselle.

Wash the leaves and stem them, the entire length of the leaf. Then chop them fine until you have a quantity equal to a pint or two teacupfuls. Chop the other vegetables and put these an5 the sorrel into a saucepan with the but-

ter; cover and let them stew gently for ten minutes, and then add the floui, which has been well mixed with a little water. Pour gradually, stirring always, into the three quarts of boiling water. Beat the yolks of the eggs and mix with a little cream or milk in a tureen. Rub the rest of the cream or milk smooth with the mashed potato and put into the soup; add the seasonings. Prepare toast in the form of dice, rubbing them firtit with the raw onion, and pour some of the boiling soup over the eggs in the tureen and mix very carefully. Put in the pieces of toast, and then add the remainder of the soup. Cover and stand five minutes in a warm oven, and serve hot.




Potato Soup.
Potage Parmentier.

After washing and peeling the pota toes, put them into a saucepan with the onions and add about two quarts of cold water. Bring to a boil. After allowing to coo'k about forty minutes, if the vegetables are then very tender, mash and pass all through a sieve, and, returning to the fire, add the seasoning and butter. Bring to a boil, and add the cream and a beaten egg, serving immediately with Croutons.




Carrot Soup.
Potage Crecy.

Wash the vegetables thoroughly, cutting them fine and boiling until tender in three pints of water. When very soft, mash them and press through a sieve. The carrots must be mashed very fine. Then return to the fire, and, adding about two quarts O'f boiling water, cover and simmer gently for a while, adding one teaspoonful of corn starch that has been blended well with a little milk. Add the boiling milk and cook for about two minutes more, and serve with Croutons.




Lettuce Soup.
Potage de Laitues.

Prepare a good broth and cook till it is reduced to three pints; this will serve six persons. Chop the lettuce fine and stew it with a tablespoonful of batter, adding the pinch of sugar and one spoon of French vinegar. Keep stirring constantly, so that it will not burn. Then add the flour (which has been rolled smoothly in butter), the pepper and salt, throw in a dash of Cayenne pepper. Break in the egg and stir tfltoroughly. Then pour on the broth. Place the dice of bread in the tureen, and add the gill of cream to the soup before pouring over the bread.




Okra Soup.
Potage de Fevi.

Wash and stem the okra and then slice it very fine. Chop the tomatoes fine, being careful to preserve the juice. CJhop the onions fine and fry them in the butter. Then add the chopped thyme, bay leaf, parsley and tomatoes and the pepper pod, and, after letting it stew about five minutes, add the okra, stirring constantly, almost, as it burns quickly. When well browned, add the Juice of the tomatoes. Then add the hot water, and set on the back of the stove and let it slm-nier well for about an hour and a half. S'eason to taste and serve hot, with Croutons.

Okra must be cooked in a porcelain-lined pot, as iron or other metal tends to blacken it.




Winter Okra Soup.
Potage Fevi d'Hiver.

Fry the onions in the butter, until reddish brown. Then add the flour ani stir until browned, gently; do not burn. Put the boiling water in gradually, stirring perfectly smooth, and adding the salt and pepper; mix well and boil one minute. Then pour it into the kettle and set back. Before serving, add the mik warmed, and rubbed with mashed potatoes until they are a smooth paste. Simmer a few moments. Have the pieces of toast ready in the tureen and pour n the hot soup. A puree of onions is made by pressing the ingredients through a sieve and returning to the fire for a few moments. Serve hot.




Cream of Onion Soup.
Puree d'Ognons.

Peel the onions and boil in salted water until very tender; then drain and dry well with a cloth; put them on the fire in a saucepan, with one ounce of butter; add the other ingredients, except the remaining ha4f ounce of butter. When the soup comes to a boil, press through the sieve, and return to the fire; add the remainder of the butter and serve.




Cream of Tomato Soap.
Potage aux Tomates.

Stew the tomatoes for about two hours,and then extract the juice. Add the other ingredients, and boil fcr about an hour and a half; then strain. The rice, being creamy, should now make the soup as thick as cream. Serve with Croutons or Quenelles.




Cream of Celery Soup.
Potage a la Creme de Celeri.

Wash the celery and onion and cut into fine pieces. Then place them in a porcelain-lined saucepan and let boil for about a half hour. Take off and mash, and press through a colander. Set the milk to bo-il in a farina boiler, and as !t heats well, add to it the water and celery that have been pressed. Rub smoothly together the flour and butter, and then stir into the boiling soup, stirring constantly till it thickens to a cream of the right consistency. Add salt and pepper to taste and serve hot. It is very de-licic'us served with slices of delicately toasted and buttered Croutons. Serve on a separate dish and garnish with sprigs of parsley and slices of hard-boiled eggs.




Cream of Corn Soup.
Potage a la Creme de Mais.

Slit the corn in two and grate from the cobs. Put the cobs into the boiling water and let them boil slo-wly about an hour, till the water is reduced to three quarts. Then take the cobs out and drain over the kettle. Add the corn and let it boil till very soft. This will require about thirty minutes. Take the soup off and press all through a sieve. Season highly and set back to simmer gently, adding, in the meanwhile, the flour and butter, thoroughly rubbed together. Stir constantly till the soup thickens, and then add the boiling milk. Cook a moment only, take off the fire, stir in the beaten yolks and serve hot, with buttered toast cut in dice shape.




Cream of Asparaegus Soup.
Creme d'Asperges.

Wash the Asparagus, tie it in a bunch and put in a saucepan of boiling water. Let it boil gently for about three-quarters of an hour, or uniil perfectly tender. Take it from the water, cut off the tii>s or points and put them aside unta wanted. Put the milk on to boil m a farina boiler. Press the Asparagus stalks through a colander, and add them to the milk. Rub the butter and corn starch or flour together until perfectly smooth, and add to the boiling milk, stirring constantly till it thickens. Now add the Asparagus tips, salt and pepper, and serve, without Croutons, as the Asparagus tips form a beautiful garnish.




Cream of Spinach Soup.
Potage a. la Creme d'Epinards.

Wash and boil one-half peck, or four pints of Spinach; this quantity will measure about one pint when cooked, chopped and pounded into a fine paste. Then put it into a stew pan with four ounces of fresh butter, the grated nutmeg and a teaspoonful of salt. Let it cook for ten minutes, stirring constantly. Add to this two quarts of oyster juice (on other than fast days consomme may be used, or good bouillon). Let all boil up, and then press through a strainer. Set it over the fire again and just at the boiling noint mix with it a tablespoonful of butter, and a teaspoonful of granulated sugar. Serve hot with Croutons.




Cream of Barley Soup.
Puree d*Orge.

Scald the barley and then put Into a kettle with three quarts of boiling water and let it boil about three hours. Take it off and mash thoroughly, and strain through a sieve. Add the hot milk to the stock of the barley, season with salt and pepper, and let it come to a boil. Take off and add the yolks of two eggs.




Cream of Rice Soup.
Creme de Riz.

Wash the Rice thoroughly, rubbing dry. Put it into a saucepan with one quart of cold water; when swelled add one quart of boiling water, and when it begins to get very tender add the remaining quart of boiling water. Then add the pepper and salt. Take from the fire, mash the rice well and rub all through a sieve. Beat up the yolks of the eggs well with a few tablespoonfuls of cream. when quite smooth stir in carefully a few spoons of the boiling rice water, and then pour the eggs and cream or milk into the saucepan with the rice, which you will have returned to the stove. Mix briskly and then draw aside and stir for two or three minutes, being very careful not to allow the mixture to boil when once the egs will have been added. Serve hot with Croutons or Crackers. On other than fast davs this is most delicious made with Chiclcen Consommp.




Bice Soup, Without Meat,
Kiz au Maigre.

Wash the rice thoroughly, rubbing dry. Put it in a saucepan with, one pint of cold water; when swelled, add one pint of boiling water, and when it begins to get very tender add the remaining pint of boiling water. Add the pepper and salt. Beat up the yolks of the eggs with a few tablespoonfuls of cream. When quite smooth, stir in carefully a few spoonfuls of the boiling rice water, and then pour the eggs and cream into the saucepan, stirring very briskly. Draw aside and stir for two or three minutes, but do not allow the soup to boil when once the eggs are added.




Cocoanut Soup.
Potage de Cocoa.

Scald the calves' feet, and scrape thoroughly without skinning; put them into the soup kettle with a gallon of cold water, and cover the kettle well. Let the feet come to a slow boil and skim carefully. Then add the blades of mace and let the soup boil slowly till the meat Is reduced to rags and has fallen from the bones. Then strain into a white porcelain dish or pan, and set it away to cool. After it has congealed, scrape off fat and sediment, and a beautiful jelly will remain. Cut up this cake of jelly and put it into a thoroughly cleansed, white porcelain soup kettle. In the meantime grate the cocoanut very fine, till about a half pound is on hand. Mix this with the pint of rich cream or milk, and add the butter which has been rolled smoothly in the arrowroot or flour. Mix this carefully and gradually with the calves' feet stock or soup, and season with a grated nutmeg. The soup should then be set back on the fire and allowed to boil slowly for about fifteen minutes, stirring almost constantly. Pour into the tureen and serve with French rolls, or milk biscuit, made very light and thin. On fast days omit the calves' feet, using another ounce of butter instead.




Chestnut Soup.
Potage a la Puree de Marrons.

Make a good broth of the veal or beef; season with the Cayenne pepper and salt. Follow the rule given for making soups, by allowing a pound of meat to each quart of water. Skim and boil till the meat falls into rags; then strain and put in a clean porcelain pot. In the meantime shell the chestnuts and throw them into boiling water until the skin comes off easily. Put them into a saucepan with some of the soup water, and boil about thirty minutes, till quite soft. Press through a colander; add butter, pepper and salt. Then add to the soup. Make dumplings the size of a marble with fresh butter rolled in flour; and add. (See recipe for Dumplings.) Boil the soup about fifteen minutes longer and serve. Some prefer the soup without dumplings, thinking it gives more of the flavor of the chestnuts. On fast days use the oyster water instead of the beef broth, following the recipe in all other particulars, and adding a half tablespoonful of butter to the puree before pressing through the colander.

CHAPTER VI. THE BOUILLI.

"Le Bouilli."

The Creoles long ago discovered, or, rather, brought over with them from the mother country, France, the delightful possibilities for a good entree that lurked within the generally despised and cast aside Bouilli, and these possibilities they improved upon in their own unique and palatable styles of cuisine preparations.

In France the "Bouilli" is always served at the home dinner, and so with the new France, New Orleans. Far from rejecting the "Bouilli" as unpalatable and unfit for food, the Creoles discovered many delightful ways of serving it, and their theories of the nutrition that still remained in the boiled beef have been sustained by medical science. The most eminent scientists have found by experi-mtent that while heat coagulates the nutritious substances of the beef, only a small amount is dissolved when the water is heated gradually, and that the "Bouilli" is still valuable as an article of food.

The pleasant ways that the Creoles have of preparing it restores its flavor and makes it a delightful accompaniment to even the most aristocratic dinners. For breakfast the boiled beef left over is utilized in various ways.

We have selected from among many the following recipes, which need only to be tried to be repeated often, in one form or the other.

The recipes for the sauces mentioned will be found in the chapter especially devoted to "Creole S'auces."




Mirontons.
The Left-Over Bouilli.

This is a favorite way the Creoles have of serving the cold bouilli that has been saved from tlie preceding day:

Slice the onions fine; brown in one tablespoonful of butter. Chop the shallots and add to the onions, then add the garlic, thyme and bay leaf, all chopped very fine, and season with salt, Cayenne and black pepper to taste. When the whole is browning nicely add a tablespoonful of'flour and water, or left-over broth, sufficient to cover. Season this to taste, and then take two pickles, about one finger long, slice very fine and add. Let all boil about fifteen minutes, and then lay the cold bouilli, which has been thickly sliced, in a sauce. Set it to bake in the oven about twenty minutes. Gar-nisli with buttered toast and serve hot.




Boiled Beef Saute a la Lyonnaise.
Bouilli Saute a la Lyonnaise.

Slice the onions and brown them in lard, using about one tablespoonful. Skim the lard off the onions and put the beef in the pan. Stir up and smother. Add the oil, the peel of a lemon, out fine, and the Chili vinegar. Serve hot.




Boiled Beef a la Bordelaise.
Bouilli a la Bordelaise.

Slice the left-over beef. Then hash the shallots into very fine pieces; add a glass of white wine, pepper and salt to taste, and boil to half the quantity over a brisk fire. Then add the mashed beef marrow from the bone and two teaspoonfuls of "Sauce Espagnole" (see Tecipe), first melting the marro'w in a little bouillon. Stir rapidly over the fire, and as soon as it begins to bubble, withdraw it and set it back on the stove, letting it simmer gently for a quarter of an hour. Add the sliced beef for about ten minutes and then serve with Croutons or fried crusts.




Boiled Beef a la Faysanne.
Bouilli a la Paysanne.

Hash the left-over beef, and then chop five large onions very fine and cook them to a golden brown in butter. When nearly done, dust over them, a teaspoonful of flour and moisten with a little red wine. Cook the onions till done and then put In the cold hashed beef, adding a dash of French vinegar and a little mustard, and serve.




Boiled Beef a I'lndlenne.
Bouilli a I'lndlenne.

This is a dinner dish. Crush the pods of two Cayenne peppers and a teaspoonful of powdered saffron and heat and brown in butter. Then moisten with a little bouillon. Boil the sauce down, and when nearly ready to serve, thicken with a little butter. Serve in a gravy dish with the "Bouilli," which has been nicely and tastefully garnished with lettuce leaves on a parsley bed.




Boiled Beet With Tomatoes.
Bouilli aux Tomates.

Take a half dozen fine, ripe tomatoes, and parboil them in butter, being careful not to let them burn. Add a pinch of flour and two good cups of bouillon, a little salt and pepper, a clove of garlic, a sprig of parsley, thyme and bay leaf. After two hours, take out the tomatoes and allow the beef to cook a few inin-utes in the sauce. Then serve on a flat dish, arranging the tomatoes around the beef and under each tomato put a nice piece of buttered toast.




Boiled Beef a la Bruxelloise.
Bouilli a la Bruxelloise.

Take about a dozen Brussels sprouts and blanch them in boiling water. Drain thoroughly and stew in butter with chopped parsley. After they have cooked ten minutes, take them out of the pan and parboil them in fresh butter, which has been melted before the stove. Salt and pepper to taste and garnish nicely around the bouilli and serve.




Boiled Beef en Papillottes.
Bouilli en Papillottes.

This is a nice breakfast dish. Take the left-over bouilli cut in ices and parboil slightly in butter. Make a forcemeat or quenelle of pork sausage, garlic, parsley and moistened bread crumbs, add two eggs, salt and pepper. Put a layer of this "farci" between each layer of sliced beef, and then add the bread crumbs, mixed with chopped parsley. Put the beef in oiled paper, folded as tightly as possible, cook a quarter of an hour in the oven and serve in the papillottes (paper).




Boiled Beef With Carrot Sauce.
Bouilli a la Crecy.

Make a good puree of fine, red carrots (see recipe), and then strain in butter. Add a gill of rich cream and salt and pepper to the taste. Put the bouilli in the platter and pour the sauce around it, serving hot just after the soup.




Boiled Beef With Lettuce.
Bouilli a la Laitue.

Take six fine, firm heads of lettuce, strip off all the green leaves, wash thoroughly and soalc and blanch in boiling water. Then throw them into cold water. When very cold squeeze in a towel till thev are thoroughly dry and cut off the stalks from below without In.iuring the heart. Fill this open place with forcemeat balls, made from the bouilli after the recipe already given in Boiled Beef en Papillottes, that is, fry them in lard, with fresh bread crumbs, soaked in bouillon and worked into the meat Chop up with pepper, salt and garlic, and add one or two hard boiled eggs. Tie the balls up and cook without adding water and fill the heart of the lettuce. This may be served around the body of the bouilli and makes a beautiful garnish.




Boiled Beef a la Lyonnalse.
Bouilli a la Lyonnaise.

Make a sausage meat of the bouilli, adding the pork sausage, garlic, parsley and thyme. Moisten some breau crumbs in water and dissolve over them two eggs, salt and pepper. Chop the whole and tie it tightly in a cabbage leaf. An hour before serving take out the remaining bouilli and the farci or stuffed cabbage leaf. Let them cool and cut them into slices and roll these in beaten eggs, and then in bread crumbs, and fry in butter. Throw over them a dash of powdered parsley and squeeze over all the juice of a lemon.




Boiled Beef With Egg Toast.
Bouilli au "Pain Perdu.

Take left-over or stale bread, slice it thickly and dip in cream or milk. Then dip it in the beaten whites and yolks of egg and fry in butter. Cut the bouilli into slices to match the bread, dip it in the egg and fry also. Serve on a dish with chopped parsley dashed o-ver it and a garnish of parsley or lettuce leaves.




Boiled Beef Saute With Onions.
Bouilli Saute aux Ognons.

Take three fine onions and parboil them in butter over a slow fire. When a rich, creamy brown, add clove garlic and Cayenne pepper. Cut the bouillon in thin slices and add, shaking the pan until browned. Place in the platter and serve with chopped parsley dusted over, and the juice of a lemon squeezed over it.




Boiled Beef a la Marsellaise.
Bouilli it la Marsellaise.

Slice the bouilli into thin, fine slices. Take a dozen onions, the smallest kinds, and dust over with sugar, and bake in the oven. When a good color, put a little of the bouillion in the stewing pan and boil down one-half. Moisten with a cup of red wine and thick meat sauce, allowing half and half in proportion. Then add the beef, the mushrooms, the bouquet garni, salt, pepper and a little nutmeg, and serve very hot.




Boiled Beef Sausage.
Saucisse de Bouilli.

Take the bouilli of the day before, mince and add chopped parsley, a few spices, salt and Cayenne pepper, and a little beef extract saved from the bouillon. Take a round of pork and add, mixing thoroughly. When the whole is well mixed, add a few truffles and a little Madeira. Fill some entrails that have been thoroughly cleansed with this meat and. shape the sausage as one desires. Boil in butter and serve alone. This makes an excellent breakfast dish.




Beef Croquettes.
Croquettes de Boeuf.

Mince the beef with sausage meat and add garlic, parsley, pepper, salt and onions, and bread crumbs soaked in water. Add the whites of two eggs beaten to a froth. Make into balls and roll in the beaten white of an egg, and fry, being careful not to cook too rapidly. Wlien sufficiently browned, pile in a pyramid shape on a dish, garnish with parsley sprigs and serve.




Boiled Beef Gros Sel.
Bouilli Gros Sel.

This is the simplest way of serving the bouilli, and the one most used by the Creoles as a daily dish. Take the bouilli from the bouillon, and serve on a platter, laying the whole on a bed of parsley and lettuce. Serve with salt or French dressing.




A Good Every-Day Hash.
Hachis.

Chop the left-over bouilli fine in dice shapes, and to every quart of the meat allow one onion, a tablespoonful of butter, two hard-boiled eggs, two cold (leftover) potatoes, a half pint of water, and salt and pepper to taste. Chop the potatoes, onions and eggs fine and put them into the stewing pan with the meal, adding by degrees the butter, salt and 1-2 Pod of Red Pepper, Without the pepper with a little dash of Cayenne. Stew very slowly for about fifteen or twenty minutes and serve hot.

CHAPTER VII. CBEOIE GUMBO.

Goxnbo a. la Creole.

Gumbo, of all other products of the New Orleans cuisine, represents a most distinctive type of the evolutiooi of good cookery under the hands of the famous Creole cuisinieres of old New Orleans. Indeed, the word "evolution" fails to apply when speaking of Gumbo, for it is an original conception, a something suigen eris in cooking, peculiar to this ancient Creole city alone, and to the manor born. With equal ability the olden Creole cooks saw the possibilities of exquisite and delicious combinations in making Gumbo, and hence we have many varieties, till the occult science of making a good "Gombo a la Creole" seems too fine an inheritance of gastronomic lore to remain forever hidden away in the cuisines ot this old Southern metroipolis. The following recipes, gathered with care from the best Creole housekeepers of New Orleans, have been handed down from generation to generation. They need only to be tried to prove their perfect claim to the admiration of the many distinguished visitors and epicures who have paid tribute to our Creole Gumbo.

Gumbo File,

First, it will be necessary to explain here, for the benefit of many, that "File" is a powder manufactured by the remaining tribe of Choctaw Indians in Louisiana, from the young and tender leaves of the sassafras. The Indian squaws gather the leaves and spread them out on a stone mortar to dry. When thoroughly dried, they pound them into a fine powder, pass them through a hair sieve, and then bring the File to New Orleans to sell, coining twice a week to the French Market, from the old reservation set aside for their home on Bayou Lacombe, near Mandeville, La. The Indians used sassafras leaves and the sassafras for many medicinal purposes, and still sell bunches of the dried roots in the French Market. The Creoles, quick to discover and apply, found the possibilities of the powdered sassafras, or "File," and originated the well-known dish, "Gumbo File."

To make a good "Gumbo File," use the following ingredients:

Clean and cut up the chicken as for a fricassee. Dredge with salt and blacit pepper, judging according to taste. Cut the ham into dice shapes and chop the onion, parsley and thyme very fine. Put the lard or butter into the soup kettle or deep stewing pot, and when hot, put in the ham and chicken. Cover closely and fry for about five or ten minutes. Then add the onion and parsley and thyme, stirring occasionally to prevent burning. When nicely browned add the boiling water and throw in the oyster stock, which has been thoroughly heated. Add the bay leaf chopped very fine, and the pepper pod, cut in two, and set the Gumbo back to simmer for about an hour longer. when nearly ready to serve dinner, and while the Gumbo is boiling add the fresh oysters. Let the Gumbo remain on the stove for about three minutes longer, and then remove the pot from the fire. Have ready tie tureens, set in a "bainmarie," or hot water bath, for once the File is added the Gumbo must never be warmed over. Take two tablespoonfuls of the File and drop gradually into the pot of boiling hot Gumbo, stirring slowly to mix thoroughly; pour into the tureen, or tureens, if Uiere should be a second demand and serve with boiled rice. (See recipe.) The rice, it should be remarked, must be boiled so that the grains stand quite apart, and brought to the table in a separate dish, covered. Serve about two spoonfuls of rice to one plate of Gumbo.

The above recipe is for a family of six. Increased quantities in proportion as required. Never boil the Gumbo with the rice, and never add the File while the Gumbo is on the fire, as boiling after the File is added tends to make the Gumbo stringy and unfit for use, else the File is precipitated to the bottom of the pot, which is equally to be avoided.

Where families cannot afford a fowl, a good Gumbo may be made by substituting the round of the beef tor the chicken.




Turkey Gnmbo.
Gombo de Dinde.

Nothing is ever lost In a well-regulated Creole kitchen. When turkey is served one day, the remains or "left-over" are saved and made into that most excellent dish — a Turkey Gumbo. It is made In the same manner as Chicken Gumbo, only instead of the chicken, the turkey meat, black and white, that is left over, is stripped from the bones and carcass. Chop fine and add to the hot lard, and then put in the ham, cut fine into dies shapes. Proceed exactly as in the recipe above, only after adding the boiling water, throw in the bones and carcass of the turkey. At the proper time remove the carcass and bones, add the oysters, and then remove the pot and "File" the Gumbo. Serve with boiled rice. Turkev Gumbo, when made from the remains of wild turkey, has a delicious flavor.




Squirrel or Babbit Gumbo.
Gombo d'Ecureil ou de Lapin.

Skin, clean and cut up the squirrel or rabbit, as for a frlcasse. Dredge well with salt and black pepper. Cut the ham into dice shapes, and chop the onion, parsley and thyme very fine. Put the lard or butter into a deep stew pot and, when hot, put in the squirrel or rabbit. Cover closely and fry for about eight or ten minutes. Then proceed in exactly the same manner as for Chicken Gumbo; add the "File" at the time indicated, and serve with boiled Louisiana rice. (Se recipe.)




Okra Gumbo.
Gombo Fevi.

Clean and cut up the chicken. Cut the ham into small squares or dice and chop the onions, parsley and thyme. Skin the tomatoes, and chop fine, saving the juice. Wash and stem the okras and slice into thin layers of one-half inch each. Put the lard or butter into the soup kettle, and when hot add the chicken and the ham. Cover closely and let it simmer for about ten minutes. Then add the chopped onions, parsley, thyme and tomatoes, stirring frequently to prevent scorching. Then add the okras, and, when well-browned, add the juice of the tomatoes, which imparts a superior flavor. The okra is very delicate and is liable to scorch quickly if not stirred frequently. For this reason many Creole cooks fry the okra separately in a frying pan, seasoning with the pepper, Cayenne and salt, and then add to the chicken. But equally good results may be obtained with, less trouble by simply adding the okra to the frying chicken, and watching constantly to prevent scorching. The least taste of a "scorch" spoils the flavor of the gumbo. When well fried and browned, add to the boiling water tabout three quarts) and set on the back of the stove, letting it simmer gently for about an hour longer. Serve hot, with nicely boiled rice. The remains of turkey may be utilized- in the gumbo, instead of using chicken.

In families where it is not possible to procure a fowl, use a round steak of beef or veal, instead of the chicken, and chop fine. But it must always be borne In mind that the Chicken Gumbo has the best flavor. Much, however, depends upon the seasoning, which is always high, and thus cooked, the Meat Gumbo makes a most nutritious and excellent dish.




Crab Gumbo.
Gombo aux Crabes.

This is a great fast-day or "maigre" dish with the Creoles. Hard or soft-shell crabs may be used, though more frequently the former, as they are always procurable and far cheaper than the latter article, which is considered a luxury. Crabs are always sold alive. Scald the hard-shell crabs and clean according to recipe already given, "taking off the dead man's fingers" and the spongy substances, and being careful to see that the sandbags on the under part are removed. Then cut off the claws, crack and cut the body of the crab in quarters. Season nicely with salt and pepper. Put the lard into the pot, and when hot throw in the bodies and claws. Cover closely, and, after five or ten minutes, add the skinned tomatoes, chopped onions, thyme and parsley, stirring occasionally to prevent scorching. After five minutes add the okras, sliced fine, and when well-browned, without the semblance of scorching, add the bay leaf, chopped fine, and the juice of the tomatoes. Pour over about two quarts and a half of boiling water, and set back on the stove and let it simmer well for about an hour, having thrown in the pepper pod. When nearly ready to serve, season according to taste with Cayenne and added salt; pour into a tureen and serve with boiled rice. This quantity will allow two soft-shell crabs or two bodies of hard-shell crabs to each person.




Oyster Gumbo.
Gombo aux Huitres.

Put the lard into a kettle, and when hot add the flour, making a brown roux. When quite brown without burning, add the chopped onions and parsley. Fry these, and when brown, add the chopped bay leaf; pour in the hot oyster liquor and then add the hot water. ,When it comes to a good boil, just before serving, add the oysters which have been well drained, without pouring water over them, however. Cook for about three minutes longer and take off the stove and stir gradually two tablespoonfuls of File into the boiling hot gumbo. Have the tureen ready in a "bain-marie," or hot water bath, and pour in the gumbo and cover. Bring to the table immediately and serve with boiled rice, allowing about six or eight oysters to each person.

Shrimp Gumbo. Gombo aux Chevrettes. Lake shrimp are always used in making this gumbo, the river shrimp being too small and delicate. Purchase always about 100 shrimp, or a small basketful, for there are always smaller shrimp In the pile which, when cooked, amount to little or nothing. In making Shrimp Gumbo, either "Fille" or Okra may be used in the combination, but it must be borne in mind that, while the "File" is frequently used, shrimp are far more delicious for gumbo purposes when used with okra. The shrimp should always be scalded or boiled before putting in the gumbo. (See recipe for "Boiling Shrimp.")




Shrimp Gumbo File.
Gombo, File aux Chevrettes.

Scald and shell the shrimp, seasoning highly with the boiling water. Put the lard into a kettle, and, when hot, add the flour, making a brown roux. When quite brown, without a semblance of burning, add the chopped onion and the parsley. Fry these, and when brown, add the chopped bay leaf; pour in the hot oyster liquor and the hot water, or use the carefully strained liquor in which the shrimp have been boiled. When it comes to a good boil, and about five minutes before serving, add the shrimp to the gumbo and take off the stove. Then add to the boiling hot liquid about two tablespoonfuls of the "File," thickening according to taste. Season again witn salt and pepper to tasie. Serve immediately with boiled rice. (See recipe, "Boiled Rice.")




Green or Herb Gumbo.
Gomho aux Herbes.

Soak and wash the leaves thoroughly, being careful to wash each leaf separately, to be sure there lurk no insects in the folds or ridges. Then trim by taking off all the coarse midrib of the leaves, which will make the gumbo taste coarse and unpalatable. Boil the leaves together for about two hours and then parboil by adding a teaspoonful of cooking soda. Strain and chop very fine, being careful to save the .water in which they were boiled. Cut the brisket of veal and the sliced ham into small pieces and dredge with black pepper and salt, and chop one large white or red onion. Put a heaping teaspoonful of lard into a deep frying pan, and, when hot, add the chopped veal and the ham. Cover and let it simmer for about ten minutes, stirring occasionally to prevent burning. Then add the chopped onion and a little sprig of parsley chopped fine. When it comes to a rich brown, add the greens and when these are boiled add four quarts of the water in which the leaves have been boiled. Throw the finely chopped bay leaf, thyme, sweet marjoram and the red pepper pod and the clove and allspice, mashed fine. Set it hack on the stove and let it boil for about one hour longer, adding the Cayenne or "hot pepper," and you will have a regular Creole gumbo peculiar to New Orleans alone. Serve with boiled rice.




Cabbage Gumbo.
Gombo Choux.

Shred the cabbage and wash each leaf separately and thoroughly to avoid insects. Then chop the entire head very fine, into pieces about half the size of dice. Cut the steak or brisket into small squares, also the ham, and fry in the deepest kettle you have, putting the meat into the pot when the lard is very hot. When it begins to brown, add a chopped onion and the sausage, and then add the chopped cabbage, stirring and pouring in enough water to prevent it from burning. Throw in the red pepper pod and a dash of Cayenne, and salt to taste. Add a litle black pepper. Stir often and allow the ingredients to cook well, gradually adding, if necessary, a little water, and stirring frequently to prevent burning. When thoroughly cooked, make a cream sauce as follows:

Take one pint of new milk and two tablespoonfuls of flour and mix thoroughly, so as not to be lumpy. Stir this into the gumbo while boiling, and continue stirring for five minutes. Serve with boiled rice. If it is not possible to procure milk, almost the same effect may be attained by mixing the flour in cold water of the same measurement and stirring in as already given. The gumbo must not be allowed to stand on the fire after the flour has been boiled on it for five minutes, as it will burn.

CHAPTER VIII. FISH

Du Poisson.

The perfectio'n and variety of the fish found in the New Orleans market are unsurpassed. AVe have here all the fish found in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico contiguous to New Orleans, the Mis-siissippi Sound and our own lake shores. These constitute the famous salt-water varieties, such as the Sheepshead, considered by many the best fish in the Gulf; the famous Pompano and Spanish Mackerel, the dainty Croaker, the toothsome Flounder, the Bluefish, the Silver Trout, Tenderloin Trout, Speckled Trout and the Grouper. Among shell fish we have the Hard-Shell Crab, the Soft-Sh-U Crab, considered a great luxury In other parts, but always to be found in the New Orleans market; the appetizing Lake Shrimp; that delicicus bivalve, the Oyster; the Crawfish, and the famous Green Turtle, so highly prized as a dainty morsel. Again, in the rivers and bayous and small streams of Louisiana

we have many delightful varieties of fresh-water fish, such as fresh-water or Green Trout, the Sacalait and a coarse fish called the Buffalo. The River Shrimp of Louisiana are unique in the United States. They are cf a far more delicate variety than the Lake Shrimp and much prized as an article of food. Both Lake and River Shrimp are abundant in the summer time and are used alike by rich and poor.

In the following recipes the most delightful methods of preparing these fish are given, methods which may be used by all according to the purse, the co-n-ditions of the poorest having been considered as well as the wants of the wealthy. All are equally recommended, being the most perfect preparations of their kind in use among the Creole housekeepers. It might be added hers, for the benefit of any Northern housekeepers into whose hands this book may

fall, that many of the recipes may be modified according to good judgment in preparing the fish found exclusively in the Northern markets. For instance, in making the famous "Courtbouillon," which is in all respects a distinctive Creole conception, any firm fish, such as the Bass, may be used, though, of course, the flavor of the aelicious Red Snapper or Red Fish used by the Creoles to the exclusion of all other fish in making a "Courtbouillon," will be found wanting. With modificatio-ns that wi?] suggest themselves to any intelligent housekeeper, they may be used the world over in preparing fish of other varieties than those which are the delight and pride of the New Orleans J?!isn Market.

How to Tell Good Fish.

Unless perfectly fresh, fish is unfit for use. Care should be taken to see that the gills. are bright and red, the scales shining, the eyes clear and the flesh very firm and free from any unpleasant odor. In the New Orleans Fish Market the ver-dors generally clean and scale the fish, if requested to do so; but this cleaning and scaling is not to be entirely depended upon, because it is rarely thorough, only the heavier scales and entrails being removed. On coming home from the market, the fish should be Inmaediately rescaled and thoroughly cleansed and washed without soaking in water; it is far better to let the water run over the fish, for thus the smallest particle of blood is removed. This is very important in order to have a good, wholesome, savory dish. Then sprinkle the fish on the inside with salt, and set in the ice box. If this is wanting, put it in a very cool place, but it is always best for it to remain on ice until ready to use, especially during the summer.

Methods of Cooking Fish.

Visitors to New Orleans declare that nowhere is fish cooked in such palatable ways as in this old Franco-Spanish city. The experience of generations of fine old cooks has been brought to bear upon the preparation of the fish found in the Louisiana waters, and those of the Mexican Gulf, with the result that a Creole code of rules tor the cooking of even the smallest and less important fish prevails, and it is considered little short of barbarous to depart from it.

The Creole methods of boiling and baking fish are the perfection of culinary art and unlike any methed in vogue elsewhere.

Special recipes are, therefore, given for the boiling and baking of S'heepshead. Redfish, Red Snapper, as, also, for making the world-famous Creole "Co'urt-bouillon" and "Bouillabaise." These rules should be strictly observed in cooking these fish if one would bring out the best flavor of each. But there are other fish, such as Green Trout and Perch which, when simply boiled and served with appropriate sauces, are known to reserve their best flavor for this species of cooking.

The following general rules for boilmg broiling, baking, stewing and trying fish shoulud be carefully followed wherever Indicated in the recipes.




Boiled Fish.
Poisson Bouilli.

General Rules for Boiling Fish.

Clean and wash the fish thoroughly. Make a small letter "S" with knife on the back, pass twine around the body of the fish so as to secure it. Never wrap or tie in a cloth. Have ready a kettle of boiling water and throw in a sprig of onion, thyme and bay leaf, eight or ten cloves, about two dozen allspice, all-mashed tine; a bit of lemon peel and a red pepper pod. When the water has boiled long enough to have extracted the flavor of these ingredients, drop the fish in carefully, so as to avoid breaking. Let it boil about ten minutes and then take out carefully. Put into a strainer and drain quickly. Place on a bed of parsley with garnishes of lemon and serve either a Mayonnaise or Genoise Sause or Sauc-2 Hollandaise. (See recipes.)

The Creoles add a clove of garlic to the boiling water, but this is according to taste.




Broiled Fish.
Poisson Grille.

General Bules for Broiling Fish.

Always use the double broiler, made of wire, as this allows the coo'k to tuin the fish from side to side without disturbing the body during the process of broiling, and possibly breaking the flesh Clean the fish, without cutting off tho head and tail. When the fish is large split down the back; else broil whole. Always serve broiled fish whole. 'Have a clear moderate fire. Expose first the flesh side to the fire, and then the skin, as the latter browns it is liajble to burn quickly. Great care must, therefore, be taken not to burn the skin side.

Before placing on the broiler, rub the fish well with salt and pepper, mixed In a little sweet oil or a little butter oil or butter. If the fish is small, broil on a quick, clear fire; if large, as mentioned above, the fire must be moderate, or the outside of the fish will be charred before the inside is done. When the fish is done through and through, which can quickly be determined by the fish parting easily from the bone, remove the gridiron from the fire, and loosen the fms from the broiler with a knife, being careful not to break the flesh. Then place the hot dish over the fish, and, with a dexterous movement, turn the two back again, thus separating the gridiron from the fish and placing the latter in the dish. Butter well, seasoned with a little pepper and salt, it deemed necessary, and pour over a tablespoonful of chopped parsley and lemon juice. Serve with garnishes of sliced lemon and parsley, or garnishes of delicate green lettuce leaves.




BAKED FISH.
Poisson au Gratin.

General Rules for Baking Fish.

Clean the fish, cutting off the fins. Make the letter "S" on the sides. Rub well inside and out with pepper and salt. Butter a stewpan and put In one large chopped onion ahd a wineglassful of white wine. Place the fish in the pan, put in the oven and let it bake about twenty minutes, having been careful to place lumps of butter over it and basting frequently. When done carefully, lift the fish out of the pan and put it into the dish in which it is to be served. Take the gravy in which the fish has been cooked and add about a cup of oyster water, the juice of one lemon, two tablespoontuls of chopped mushrooms, one tablespoonful of minced parsley, thyme and sweet marjoram, ten allspice, one clove of garlic, a little Cayenne, and salt and pepper to taste. Mix all thoroughly over the stove, adding a little butter if the gravy adheres too much to the pan. Pour o-ver the fish, and garnish with whole mushrooms and slices of lemon laid alternately upon Croutons or dried toast, cut diamond shape.




STEWED FISH.
Poisson en Matelote.

General Rules for Stewing: Fish.

Clean the fish well and slice and pour over one cup of good, boiling vinegar. Make a roux by putting one tablespoon-ful of lard into the stewpan, and when hot add gradually two tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed smoothly. When quite brown, take the fish, which has been previously rubbed with salt and pepper, and place in the pot. Let it simmer gently a few minutes, and then add a large chopped onion, parsley, one clove of garlic, one sprig of thyme, a bay leaf, two blades of mace and eight or ten allspice. Let these brown and cover with water sufficient to prevent burning. Put the fish on a slow fire to stew, and when half done, add a little Cayenne, and, if possible, add a pint or glass of Port wine. When done, place the fish in a dish, pour the gravy over it, and garnish with Croutons, with alternate slices of lemon and prepared horseradish.




FRIED FISH.
Poissons Frits.

General Rules for Frying Fish.

Certain of the fish of the Mexican Gulf are always best when fried. Of these are the toothsome Croakers, the delicate Sacalait and Patassas, and also the Speckled Trout when served in tenderloin steaks.The secret of good frying lies in having the lard heated just to the prO'per point. If the fish is placed in the boiling lard. It is liable to burn quickly without being cooked through and through. If placed simply in the well-heated lard. It absorbs the fat and is delicate and tender and there is no tax upon the digestive organs. Always have sufficient lard in the pan to fry all the fish that is on hand, and never add a lump of cold lard to the heated substance. This checks the cooking of the fish and spoils the taste. If the lard spits and crackles, that is no evidence of boiling. It only means that the lard is throwing off drops of moisture that have crept in. Boiling lard is perfectly still until it begins t smoke, and then it is in danger of burning and must be removed from the fire. To test the lard, drop In a piece of bread. If It begins to color, the lard Is ready for frying. When the fish is fried, skim It out, draining off all the fat. Butter is never used in frying fish, as it burns quickly.




A Short Resume of the Way in Which Fish of the New Orleans Market should Always Be Cooked.

Sheepshead may be boiled, broiled or baked, and is good with any sauce.

Redflsh is principally used in making "Courtboulllon," or It Is boiled and served with an HoUandaise Sauce, or baked.

Red Snapper should always be boilea or baked. It is delightful served a la Chambard, but It Is best a la Creole.

Grouper Is served In the same way as Red Snapper.

Flounder should always be baked a la Nouvelle Orleans, or a la Normande,or with a white wine sauce as in Baked Sheepshead, or in the famous recipe "Sole a la Orly."(See recipe )

Pompano should always be broiled and served with Sauce a la Maitre d Hotel.

Spanish Mackerel should always be broiled in the same manner as Pompano, and served with Sauce a la Maitre d'lHotel.

Bluefish should be cooked and served in the same manner as Pompano and Spanish Mackerel.

Speckled Trout is generally broiled and served in tenderloin, or a Tenderloin Trout, with Sauce a la Tartare.

Green Trout and Perch should be broiled and served with a Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel, or else boiled and served with a Sauce Genoise, or an HoUandaisa or Drawn Butter Sauce.

Croakers are fried and served with garnish of parsley or lemon.

Patassas, Sacalait and other small fish are served in the same manner as Croakers.

Soft-Shell Crabs may be fried in the same manner as Croakers, or broiled and served on toast.

Shrimp are generally boiled, witQ plenty of seasoning. The River Shrimp are always served as boiled, shells and all, but the Lake Shrimp enter into many combinations in cooking.

Hard-Shell Crabs may be stuffed, stewed, fried and ntade into Gumbo.

All left-over broiled, baked or boiled fish should be utilized in making salads, croquettes, etc.

Oysters are served in almost every conceivable way, and enter into the most delightful combinations in cooking.

A fish weighing three pounds, or smail fish in quantity sufficient to make three pounds (uncooked) will serve six persons.




THE SHEEPSHEAD.
Casburgot.

Of all the fish found in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, the Sheepshead is perhaps the most to be commended for frequent household use, being susceptible of a far greater variety of modes of preparation than any other fish, the flesh being of a less richer fiber than the Red-fish, Red Snapper, Pompano and Spanish Mackerel, it may be used from day to day without injury to the stomach. It is good in almost any form and may be boiled, baked or broiled, and served with almost any sauce.




Boiled Sheepshead.
Casburgot Bouilli.

Clean and skin the Frogs; scald well in boiling lemon juice and salt. Dry with a clean towel. Mix thoroughly a little black pepper, salt and olive oil, or butter melted, and rub the Frogs thoroughly, rolling them over and over. Take out and put on a double wire broiler, being careful to turn frequently to prevent scorching. When done, place in platter of delicate lettuce leaves or parsley and garnish with sliced lemons and olives.



Stewed Frogs.
Grenouilles en Fricassee.

Take the legs of one dozen Frogs and prepare the same as for frying. Take a tablespoonful of butter and put in a frying pan. When it begins to melt, add a tablespoonful of flour and stir constantly. When it begins to brown nicely, add a half pint of water and a pint of oyster water. Throw in the Frog legs as it begins to boil, and add salt and pepper, a little Cayenne, a sprig of thyme, bay leaf and sweet marjoram, eight or ten allspice, one clove. Let it simmer about fifteen minutes and take off the fire. (Have ready the yolk of a beaten egg, and add, blending well, and serve immediately with garnishes of Croutons, and fried in a little butter, with oysters laid upon them.



CHAPTER IX. SHELL FISH.

Des Crustaches.

Under this heading are classed the shell fish found in our Louisiana waters and those of the Mississippi Sound adjacent to New Orleans. Oysters, Shrimp, Crabs, and Crawfish and the famous Green Turtle — these are the delightful varieties that are common articles of food among the people and which are to be had for the fishing.

That delicious bivalve, the Oyster, has its home among us. Everyone who has visited New Orleans in winter has noted the exceptionally palatable oysters that are sold in every restaurant and by the numerous small vendors on almost every other corner or so throughout the lower section of the city. In the cafes, the hotels, the oyster saloons, they are served in every conceivable style known to epicures and caterers. The oyster beds adjacent to New Orleans send to our markets the famous Bayou Cook and Barataria Oysters, eagerly sought and highly prized for exquisite flavor and unsurpassed in quality. The Mississippi Sound is well-nigh stocked with oysters from one end to the other, and millions of cans are shipped yearly from Biloxi and other points to every point of the United States. And so with our celebrated Lake and River Shrimp. No oysters are caught in the Mississippi Sound between May and September,- because they are somewhat milky and considered unfit for use, and so strict are the laws governing the uses of dredges in the Sound that a watchman accompanies each dredge-boat to see that no attempt is made to use the dredge in less than fourteen feet of water, the idea being that dredges shall not be used where the water is sufficiently shallow to admit of their being dug of tongs. Thus are preserved, in all their splendid flavor and almost inexhaustible supply, our oyster beds, and while the yearly increase in consumption of this delicious bivalve has tended to alarm scientists and to awaken an interest in the question as to whether the American oyster beds may not likely become depleted, scientists acquainted with the oyster beds on our Gulf coast, say that for domestic purposes there are sufficient oysters to supply the United States. The railroad facilities for handling oysters can hardly; be improved, and fresh and fine and ready to be eaten, they arrive in our markets. The Bayou Cook and Barataria Oysters are with us all summer, and New Orleans is the acknowledged commercial center of the oyster trade on the Gulf coast.

New Orleans opened the eyes of the United States to the possibilities of the oyster in every variety and form of cooking. Her chefs evolved the most dainty and palatable ways of preparing them, and while raw oysters remained practically an unknown quantity in aristocratic centers in other states of the Union, the Creoles, quick to discover and apply, placed the raw oyster on their table as one of the greatest delicacies that could be offered the most fastidious appetite. In the following recipes are given the most delightful manner of serving:

OYSTERS.

Huitres a la Creole.

There has already been given, in the chapter devoted to soups, the several ways that the Creoles have of preparing oysters in this style. (See Oyster Soups.) In a general treatment of oysters, it presents, first, that famous but exceptionally palatable manner in which oysters can be eaten at all hours, day or night, without overloading the stomach or causing the least symptom of indigestion, viz:



Baw Oysters on Half Shell.
Huitres en Coquilles.

Allow six oysters to each person where the bivalve is used to begin the dinner or breakfast. Have the oysters opened in their shell and remove one-half of the shell. Drain the water from the oyster shell, without disturbing the oyster, and place in plates, with cracked ice, sprinkled over with a quarter of a sliced lemon in the center of the plate. Serve with black pepper and Cayenne, if desired, or the famous Maunsell White, sold in all New Orleans oyster saloons. A half cup is given as "lagniappe" by the dealers to their customers.

Dainty rolls of fresh butter and oyster crackers are served with raw oysters.



Oysters Served in a Block of Ice.
Huitres sur la Glace.

j

This is one of the prettiest ways of serving oysters at a dinner or luncheon, as well as one of the most recherche. Have your dealer send a square block of ice of the size desired and make a hollow in the center of the block by placing a flat-iron on the top, scooping out with the iron the shape desired. Then place a folded napkin on a platter and stand the block of ice upon it. Pepper the oysters nicely with Cayenne and black pepper, and place in the ice. Then take sprigs of parsley and decorate the platter, placing between decorated radishes, and alternate slices of lemon, and serve the oysters with lemon cut in quarters. The effect of this decoration is very charming. Smilax may be substituted for the parsley or mixed with it. The cavity should be square and deep, leaving walls of ice about two inches in thickness.



Broiled Oysters.
Huitres sur le Gril.

h

Allow six or eight oysters to each person. The oysters must be large and fat, else they will shrivel to nothing in cooking. Drain the oysters through a colander, lay them on a dish and wipe with a dry, clean towel. Melt butter and dip in the oysters, seasoned well with salt and Cayenne on both sides. Have ready the gridiron (use always the double wire broiler) and test the heat by dropping a little water on it. If the water hisses, the broiler is quite ready. Place the broiler in a warm place — just over the oven will do. Butter and place the oysters on it. Return to moderate coals. As soon as the oysters are browned on one side, turn on the other and brown. Have ready a heated dish and serve the oysters, pouring over melted butter and chopped parsley (chopped very fine). Garnish with sprigs of parsley and sliced lemon and serve immediately.



Broiled Oysters on Toast.
Huitres sur Canapes.

Broil the oysters according to the recipe given above. Have ready a heated dish; sprinkle the oysters with salt and pepper and pour over melted butter. Serve on small pieces of buttered toast, or milk toast. Sprinkle with finely-chopped parsley.



Broiled Oysters With Sauce,
Huitres Grillees a la Sauce Espagnole.

Drain the oysters and allow about one pint of the oyster liquor to over two dozen oysters. Have ready a porcelain-lined saucepan and put the liquor on to boil. As the scum rises skim it carefully. Put one tablespoonful of butter into a frying pan, and when it begins to heat, add gradually two tablespoonfuls of sifted flour. Mix well and browrf. Pour over this the oyster liquor and stir constantly till it begins to boil, seasoning with salt and pepper (Cayenne) and parsley chopped very fine. Stand the sauce in a vessel in hot water (bain-marie) until wanted, and proceed to broil the oysters in the same manner as in the recipe first given. Place squares of buttered toast in a dish, lay the oysters on top, pour over the sauce, and serve immediately.



Oysters en Brochettes.
Huitres en Brochettes.

Have ready a furnace with redhot coals; take fine sliced breakfast bacon and cut into thin slits about the size of the oyster. Drain three dozen large, fat oysters; take a long skewer, of silver or metal that is not dangerous, and string it first with a slit of bacon and then an oyster, alternating this until it is filled, the extreme ends terminating with the bacon. Then hold the oysters over the clear fire and broil until the edges begin to ruffle, when they are done. In the meantime prepare some drawn butter by placing about a tablespoonful In a cup before the fire to melt; place the oysters In a hot dish, alternating with slices of bacon, sprinkle with pepper and salt, and pour over the drawn butter mixed with about one tablespoonful of parsley, chopped fine; garnish with slices of lemons and whole olives, and serve. The oysters and bacon may be served on the skewers, if they are not charred or blackened; but the other Is the far daintier method.



Oysters Broiled In Shells.
Huitres en Coquilles sur le Gril.

Take three dozen fine oysters; blanch in their own water and drain. Chop a tablespoonful of fine parsley, bay leaf and thyme, using a sprig each of the latter and a sprig of sweet basil. Cut up two nice shallots very fine and add. Place a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan; add a little oyster juice saute, or shake the oysters without making a bouillon. When two minutes have passed, take off the stove, place the oysters in the well washed shells, sprinkle over a little bread crumbs, and put on top of each a pinch of butter. Have ready the gridiron or broiler very hot; place the shells between the double broiler, set over the fire to broil for about four or five minutes, and serve with delicate garnishes of asparagus tips and sliced lemon.



Oysters and Bacon.
Huitres Bordees.

Wrap each oyster in a very thin slice of breakfast bacon. Lay on a broiler over a baking pan in a hot oven. Remove when the bacon is brown. Each must be fastened with a wooden toothpick. Serve with minced parsley and pepper sauce, or Sauce Piquante. (See recipe).



Fried Oysters.
Huitres Frites.

Drain the oysters, allowing about six or eight to each person to be served. Salt and pepper and then roll oysters in bread crumbs, grated very fine. Drop in the frying pan of boiling lard, having sufficient lard to allow the oysters to swim in the grease. Remove when a golden brown and place on brown paper and drain. Serve on a platter garnished with parsley or on a bed of fried parsley. (See recipe for Fried Parsley).



Tried Oysters a la Creole.
Huitres Frites a la Creole.

Select the firmest and largest oysters allowing six or eight to each person. Drain in a colander and dry with a soft linen towel. Beat an egg thoroughly and mix with a glass of milk and a half teaspoonful of salt and pepper. Mash bread crumbs or crackers in another dish. Dip the oysters one by one in the milk and roll gently in the bread crumbs, patting softly with the hands, and drop into a deep frying pan, with sufficient lard or butter oil for the oyster to swim in it. In from three to five minutes the oysters will be done. The time given will allow them to fry to a nice golden brown, and it will not be necessary to turn them if the oil in the pan is deep enough. Take them out with a skimmer, being careful not to break, and drain on a piece of soft brown paper. Serve on a bed of fried parsley, with garnishes of sliced lemon and pickle. Bread crumbs are far preferable to crackers. Butter is often used in frying oysters, but the butter oil is found by experience to be better than either lard or butter. Some also use cornmeal instead of the bread crumbs, but there is no comparison as to results.



Stewed Oysters.
Huitres en Fricassee.

Take about four dozen large oysters, drain in a colander. Mix one tablespoonful of flour and one of butter together. Put one pint of oyster liquor on the fire and add the flour and butter blended. Have ready in another saucepan a pint of rich, hot cream. After five minutes, add this to the oyster liquor, stirring constantly to prevent burning. Salt and pepper to taste. Let it boil up once and then add the oysters. After three minutes serve. This is a very delicate dish.



Coddled Oysters.
Huitres Rotie sur Canapes.

Toast five or six slices of bread to a nice brown and butter them on both sides. Drain the liquor from the oysters and put it in a saucepan. When hot, add a large lump of butter. Have ready a baking dish and place the toast within; lay the oysters on the toast, having seasoned well with salt, Cayenne pepper, chopped parsley, bay leaf, mace and cloves. Put the liquor of the oysters over the toast until it is well absorbed. Set it in an oven and bake or five or six minutes with a quick fire.



Deviled Oysters.
Huitres a la Diable.

Take three dozen fine, large oysters, drain and chop them into middling fine pieces. Rub together one tablespoonful of butter and two tablespoonfuls or flour, very smoothly. Place in a saucepan one-half pint of cream, and, when it is coming to a boil, stir in the flour and butter. Have ready the yolks of two eggs well beaten, and, as soon a the milk boils, take from the fire and add the eggs, one tablespoonful of parsley chopped fine, one bay leaf chopped fine, mace, and a sprig of finely-chopped thyme. Add salt and Cayenne to taste, and add the oysters. Take the deep shells of the oysters, which have been washed perfectly clean and fill with this mixture; sprinkle light- -ly with bread crumbs; put a pinch of butter on top, and set in the baking pan , and brown. The oven should be very quick, and only five minutes are needed for the browning. Serve the oysters thus baked in their shells, and garnish the dish with sprigs of parsley or asparagus tips, olives and sliced lemon.



Curried Oysters.
Huitres au Karl.

Take four dozen fine, large oysters and drain the oyster liquor into a saucepan, being careful to extract all pieces of shell, and set it to boil. Wipe the oysters dry with a clean towel. Put in another saucepan one tablespoonful of butter and let it melt; then add two tablespoonfuls of flour, stirring constantly and rubbing smoothly; do not let it brown. Add about one gill of rich cream, or two gills of good milk, to the boiling oyster juice, and stir all this into the flour slowly, avoiding the formation of any lumps, and stirring constantly. Let this boil about two minutes. Take one-half teaspoonful of curry powder and a pinch of cornstarch or flour and rub smoothly with a few drops of cold milk. Stir this into the oyster juice; season a la Creole with Cayenne, salt, chopped thyme, etc., and, as it boils up, drop in the oysters; let them cook about three minutes and serve on a dish with a border of Louisiana rice, boiled so as to appear like snowflakes, the grains standing apart. Sprinkle chopped parsley over the oysters to form a garnish.



Oysters a la Poulette.
Huitres a la Poulette.

Prepare as in the above recipe for Curried Oysters, using a gill of -sherry instead of the milk and cream, and omitting the curry powder. Having dropped the oysters into the boiling oyster juice, remove from the fire after cooking three minutes. Beat well the yolks of two eggs with two tablespoonfuls of rich cream, add to the oysters, and serve with toasted and buttered Croutons, a garnish of sliced lemons and sprigs of parsley.



Minced Oysters.
Huitres a la Poulette.

Scald the oysters in their own water. Drain and mince, but not too fine. Put into the saucepan a tablespoonful of butter, and, when melted, add the parsley (chopped fine), the herbs and the mushrooms. Then add the flour, which has been rubbed smoothly in a gill ot oyster juice, and, after it stews about five minutes, add the white wine; if this is not obtainable, add another gill of oyster juice. Mix thoroughly, and then add the minced oysters, and stew gently until the sauce is absorbed and the mince forms a thick batter. Be very careful not to scorch. Remove from the fire and add in the yolks of the eggs, which have been beaten smoothly in the cream. Set it back on the fire and let it remain about one minute, and serve on large toasted and buttered Croutons, with garnish of lemon and parsley an olives.



Baked Oysters.
Huitres au Gratln.

Boil the oysters about two minutes In their own liquor, dropping them in the, liquor as it comes to- the boiling point Pass them through a "Sauce Piquante, rolling nicely. Mix the melted butter and the chopped parsley, thyme, etc.. the shallots chopped very fine, and moisten well with a little ovster juice; chop the mushrooms fine and add, pouring in the gill of wine. After it is reduced, being careful to stir constantly, select the finest and largest shells of the oysters, which have been cleaned well, and place in each fo-ur or six ovsterg; pour over each shell the sauce, filling nicely. In pyramidal shape; place on each a bit of butter, and set in the stove for about fi'* minutes, or over a gridiron on a slow fire for about ten minutes. Serve in thj shells, with garnish of parsley ana lemons, sliced.



Scalloped Oysters.
Coquilles d'Huitres.

Select about four dozen fine oysters. Have ready a porcelain-lined baking dish, or any good dish that will not darken the oysters. Drain the oysters in a colander, strain the liquor to remove all pieces of shell and save it. Butter the baking dish and place in a layer of oysters, well seasoned, a la Creole, with Cayenne, salt, chopped mace, cloves', thyme, parsley and bay leaf, chopped very fine. Place over a layer of bread crumbs, about a half-inch in thickness. Place here and there little dots of butter and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Add another layer of seasoned oysters, and then another layer of bread crumbs, until the dish is full. Then mix a half cup of rich cream and milk and a half cup of the oyster liquor, and pour over the dish. Sprinkle the last layer with bread crumbs and dot gently with bits of butter. Place in a quick oven and bake about fifteen or twenty minutes, or until a nice brown.



Oysters au Parmesan.
Huitres au Parmesan.

Brown the bread crumbs in a little butter, and butter a shallow dish and stew with bread crumbs. Drain the oysters and dry with a clean towel; season highly a la Creole; place them, one by one, on the bread crumbs; strew chopped parsley over them, and the grated cheese, using good judgment as to quantity. Sprinkle lightly with bread crumbs again, and pour over all a gill of white wine. Place in the oven, which should be very quick; let them remain about fifteen minutes, till quite brown. Take out and pour over a little drawn butter, and serve with lemon garnish.



Roasted Oysters.
Huires Rotis.

Clean the oyster shells thoroughly, set them on the top of the stove or place in a baking pan until the shell is easily removed. Remove the flat outer shell. Butter the oyster in the deep shell and serve very hot with salt and pepper. In old Creole families roasting parties were often given, and there was always a frolic in the kitchen, the belles and beaux vying with one another in roasting the delicious bivalve. As the shells open put in a little butter. The oysters were sent to the table in their shells; by a quick movement the outer shell was removed, and they were eaten with pepper sauce or pepper, salt and vinegar. There were great frolics in the kitchens in those days roasting oysters as at the famous "Crepe" or doughnut parties.



Oyster Pun Roast.
Huitres a, la Poele.

Drain the oysters, heat a deep frying pan, drop in a generous lump of butter. When it melts, add the oysters, covering and shaking the pan constantly over a hot fire. (Have ready a dish well buttered and nicely garnished with parsley and lemon slices. When the oysters are brown, turn quickly into the dish and add salt and pepper and melted butter, into which you have dropped finely-chopped parsley, and serve hot.



Steamed Oysters.
Huitres a la Vapeur.

This is a favorite way of eating oysters in New Orleans. Have ready a pot of boiling water. Drain the oysters in their shells and put them in a shallow tin pan, the bottom being perforated. Cover and put them over the steamer. Let them stand about ten minutes, put into a hot dish, season with pepper and Cayenne, and serve with drawn butter sauce. If one has not the perforated tin, steam the oysters in their shells. Wash the shells thoroughly on the outside, place the oysters in the steamer and cover, letting them remain about fifteen minutes over the boiling water, or until the shells open easily, and serve. A steamer may be improvised by using a colander and a closely-fitting pot lid. The steamed oyster must be eaten when very hot to ibe appreciated in all its flavor.



Oyster Fritters.
Beignets d'Huitres.

Take two dozen large oysters, drain in a colander and remove any pieces of shell or grit that may adhere. Chop the oysters fine. Take two eggs and beat until very light. Then add a cup of milk and rub in smoothly two cupfuls of flour and one teaspoonful of salt. Beat until perfectly smooth. Add one-half teaspoonful of good baking powder. Mix well and then drop in the oysters, which must be dry. Then drop into boiling lard or oil. When browned on one side turn on the other, being careful not to use a fork or to pierce them, as that would render the oysters and fritters heavy. Use a skimmer in removing from the pot, and drain on brown paper. Serve on a dish in which you have placed a folded napkin and garnish with sprigs of parsley and asparagus tips.



Oyster Croquettes.
Croquettes d'Huitres.

Take two dozen oysters and boil them in their own liquor. Stir constantly and boil for about five minutes. Remove from the fire. Take out the oysters and chop very fine. Put them into a saucepan with about one gill each of rich cream and oyster liquor. Rub together two tablespoonfuls of flour and one or butter. Add this and the oysters to the boiling milk and cream. Stir until it thickens and boils. Then add the yolk of two eggs. Stir this over the fue for about one minute, and then take out and add parsley chopped fine,and salt and Cayenne. Mix well and place in a dish to cool. Then roll in a beaten egg to bind and form into cylinders of about a finger in length. Roll in bread crumbs mashed fine, and fry in boiling lard oi oil.



Oyster Croquettes a la Creole.
Croquettes d'Huitres a la Creole.

Boil the oysters about three minutes in their own liquor. Drain and chop the oysters fine. Take a half cup of the liquor in which the oysters have been boiled, set it on the fire and add the chopped oysters. Then add the half cup of cream, the chopped mushrooms, and the minced chicken. Stir thoroughly into this boiling mixture the butter and flour which have been rubbed smoothly. Add the chopped parsley, onion juice, salt and Cayenne, and mix well. Then add the yolks of the eggs, well beaten. Let it cook about two minutes and turn it out into a dish to cool. When cold, roll into cylinders about two Inches in length and one inch in diameter. Pass through bread crumbs and fry in boiling lard. Serve immediately on a bed of fried parsley.



Oyster Balls.
Boulettes d'Huitres.

To every pint of chopped oysters add one pint of chopped sausage meat. Roll in bread crumbs; season highly. Add one egg and roll in bread crumbs. Make into small cakes and fry in boiling lard. Serve hot.



Oyster Patties.
Petites Bouchees d'Huitres.

Prepare a puff paste (see recipe) and lay on the ice to cool. Boil the oysters in their own liquor. Drain, put the butter in the saucepan, and when it is heated, add the grated onion and rub in the flour until smooth. Add a gill of mushroom juice and pepper, salt and Cayenne to taste, and the mushroom; chopped in quarters. Then add the oysters and let all stew about five minutes, adding the lemon juice. A tablespoonful of cream will improve the oysters. If this is used, omit the lemon juice. Line the small tins with the puff paste and put in each three or four oysters according to the size of the paste. Cover with the paste and bake in a quick oven about fifteen minutes.

To make the open pates so much used at luncheon and entertainments in New Orleans, cut the puff paste into round cakes. Those intended for the bottom crust should be about a little less than an eighth of an inch thick. Those intended for the upper layers should be a little thicker. Take a small biscuit cutter and remove a round paste from the center of these latter. This will leave a nice ring. Carefully place this upon the bottom crust, and then a second ring, until the cavity is deep enough to hold several oysters. Lay the pieces that have been extracted into a pan with these and bake to a fine brown in a quick oven. Then take out and fill the cavities with the oysters prepared as above, fit on the top very lightly, and set in the oven a second or two and serve.



Oyster Pie.
Vol-au-Vent d'Huitres.

Take an earthen dish which will hold about three and a half pints and line the sides with rich pie crust. (See recipe for Pie Crust.) Set in the stove and let it bake a few minutes. In the meantime take about one pint and a half of the oyster liquor and put on the fire, after having drained well. Add the seasonings of chopped herbs and cayenne. Rub a tablespoonful of flour into the butter and add to the liquor, stirring constantly. Mash the grated crumbs; add to this, and mix well. Chop the hard-boiled eggs fine. Then pour the oysters into the pan of pie crust, sprinkle some of the chopped eggs and grated bread crumbs over, and put a teaspoonful of butter in small bits here and there over this. Then roll out very fine and thin a layer of the pie crust. Place this over the preparation and ornament here and there, all around, with neat notches or designs, which can be easily formed witli the end of a spoon or the prongs of a folk. Cut a hole in the center in the shape of the letter "X." Set in a moderately quick oven and bake till brown. In the meantime, melt one tablespoonful of butter, add the remaining oyster liquor and season with pepper and salt. When it is about to come to a boil, add one-half cup of rich, hot cream or boiled milk and when the pie is nearly brown, pal a funnel into the opening in the center and pour in as much of the liquor as the pie will hold. Place a delicate garnish of pastry leaves over tlie whole and bake a minute or so longer. If there is any sauce left over, serve it with the pie.

Great care must be taken not to have the oysters over done. For this reason the upper crust is often baked separately, as the bottom of the pie is filled with the ingredients and the upper crust placed on and served. Else the oysters are laid in layers while raw into the crust. But thev are liable to become too dry when used in this way.



Oyster Salad.
Huitres en Salade.

Oyster Salad is a favorite lunch dish. Boil about four dozen large oysters in their own liquor, season with salt and pepper. Drain and set aside to cool. Take two crisp heads of lettuce leaves and arrange nicely in the salad bowl. Turn the oysters into the center of the leaves and pour over them the following dressing: Take the yolks of three raw eggs, half a teaspoonful of mustard, and a little salt; beat these together until they begin to thicken, and add gradually olive oil, as in making Mayonnaise, until it begins to thicken. Add a little vinegar to thin and serve with the oysters.



Pickled Oysters.
Huitres en Marinade.

Boil the oysters in their own liquor until the edges begin to ruffle. Then take a half pint of white wine vinegar and a half pint of the oyster water and set to boil, adding the blades of mace, cloves, allspice, pepper corns and a dash of Cayenne. Salt to taste. As soon as they come to a good boil, pour the oysters into the boiling liquor. Care must be taken to have the oysters very cold, as they will make the pickles slimy otherwise. After adding the oysters to the boiling liquid, set it aside to cool. Put in a very cool ice box and serve cold. This is a delicious Creole luncheon dish.



Oyster Loaf.
La Mediatrice.

Take delicate French loaves of bread and cut off, lengthwise, the upper portion. Dig the crumbs out of the center of each piece, leaving the sides and bottom like a square box. Brush each corner of the box and the bottom with melted butter, and place in a quick oven to brown. Fill with broiled or creamed oysters. Cover with each other and serve.



CHAPTER X.

SHELL FISH — (Continued.).
Des Crustaces.

This chapter embraces methods of cooking Shrimp, Crab, Crawfish and Turtle, according to the most approved rules of the Creole Cuisine.

Shrimp.
Dea Chevrettes.

New Orleans is famous for the exquisite flavor of the River and Lake Shrimp which abound in its markets. The River Shrimp is the more delicate of the two and is always eaten boiled as a preliminary to dinner or breakfast or luncheon. The Lake Shrimp, of larger size and firmer qualities, is used for cooking purposes, and is served in various delightful ways, known only to our Creole cuisinieres. From the Mississippi Sound and the New Orleans shore shrimp are sent deliciously canned to every part of the United States. In our markets they are sold fresh from the waters.



Boiled Shrimp.
Chevrettes Bouillies.

Select fine large River Shrimp for this purpose. Into a pot of water put a great quantity of salt, almost enough to make a brine. Pepper a great bunch of celery and celery tops, chopped fine; two dozen allspice, two blades of mace,one dozen cloves, mashed fine; thyme, parsley, bay leaf, chopped fine; Cayenne and a red pepper pod. When this has boiled so that all the flavor of the herbs have been thoroughly extracted, throw in the Shrimp. Let them boil ten minutes and then set the pot aside and let the Shrimp cool in their own water. Serve in a platter on a bed of cracked ice, and garnish with parsley springs. This dish is always served as a preliminary to a meal. A great deal of salt is required in boiling, as the Shrimp absorb but little, and no after addition can quite give them the same taste as when boiled in the briny water.



Stewed Shrimp.
Cnevrettes a la Creole.

Get about 100 large Lake Shrimp for this recipe. Boil the shrimp first according to the recipe given above, and then pick off the shells, leaving the shrimp whole. Place them in a dish. Chop fine one large onion and brown it with a tablespoonful of butter. Add a can of tomatoes or twelve large, ripe tomatoes, chopped fine, in their own liquor. Stir well and brown lightly. Then add three or four stalks of celery, a clove of garlic, a dash of Cayenne, a spring of thyme, two bay leaves, all chopped finely and seasoned with salt to taste. After this has cooked ten minutes add the Shrimp. Let them cook ten minutes longer and serve. Never pour water into stewed Shrimp, as the tomato juice makes gravy enough.



Fried Shrimp.
Chevrettes Frites.

Use Fine Lake Shrimp for this recipe. Boil first according to the recipe given for Boiled Shrimp. Then take off the fire, pick off shells and season well. Take a pan of milk, season well with salt and pepper. After rolling the Shrimp well in this, roll them in grated bread crumbs or yellow cornmeal (the latter being preferable) and fry in boiling lard. The Shrimp must swim in the lard When they are a nice golden brown skim out with a skimmer and drain on heated brown paper. Serve on a hot dish on a bed of fried parsley and garnish with parsley tips and olives.



Baked Shrimp.
Che-rettes au Gratin.

Prepare the Shrimp according to recipe. Butter a deep dish well and place within a layer of grated bread crumbs or powdered crackers. Pick and clean the Shrimp and season well. Stew about a dozen tomatoes in a little butter and season with pepper and salt. Place a layer of the tomatoes in the dish and then a thin layer of crackers or grated bread and over this a layer of Shrimp. Continue till you have four or five layers, the last being of the grated bread crumbs. Put little dots of butter here and there; place in the oven and bake till quite brown.



Shrimp Pie.
Vol-au-Vent de Chevrettes.

Boil and pick about 100 Shrimp. Take two large slices of stale bread and break off the crusts, grating this fine. Moisten the bread with two glasses of white wine, and season highly with salt, pepper, a dash of Cayenne, ground nutmeg, chopped mace, thyme and parsley. Mix the Shrimp with the bread and bake in a dish. Sprinkle over the grated crusts and dotting with butter. Serve this pie with a sauce of dressed Shrimp. To make this take a pint of Shrimp, boiled and picked, put a tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan. Add the shrimp and four or five tomatoes, chopped fine; a little celery, thyme, one bay leaf, chopped fine-parsley (chopped) and mix thoroughly. Let it cook for about three or four minutes, and add a half pint of oyster stock. This is delicious poured over the sliced pie.



Shrimp in Tomato Catsup.
Chevrettes a la Sauce Tomate.

Boil the Shrimp and pick. Put them into a salad dish, season well with black pepper and salt and a dash of Cayenne. Then add two tablespoonfuls of tomato catsup to every half pint of Shrimp. Garnish with lettuce leaves and hard-boiled egg and serve.



Shrimp Salad.
Mayonnaise de Chevrettes.

Boil and pick the Shrimp, according to the recipe given. If Lake Shrimp ail used, serve whole; if River Shrimp, slice in two, as they will be more dainty, and season well with salt and pepper. Chop celery fine and add a little onion. Place the Shrimp in the salad dish and pour over all fine Mayonnaise Sauce (see recipe) and garnish with sliced hard-boiled eggs, sliced lemon, beets and celery tops, making a beautiful and welcome dish at any luncheon, tea or home affair.



A Shrimp Bush.
Buisson de Chevrettes.

A Shrimp Bush is a famous Creole hors d'oeuvre, and forms a very handsome table decoration also. Boil the Shrimp according to recipe. (See recipe Boiled Shrimp.) Take a glass fruit or cake stand, the fruit stand with several tiers bemg prettier. As Shrimp are small, they cannot be hung gracefully around the stand as in a Crawfish Bush. (See recipe.) They are, therefore, piled, first, into a small deep dish, and a close cover is put on to press them down. They are then turned over and will be found clinging together in one solid mass. If a cake stand is used, set a glass bowl or goblet on it. Place the Shrimp on top of this glass bowl or goblet; then take dainty bits of celer\- tips and asparagus tips, and heap around as for a border. Another row is formed a little lower, and again intermingled with asparagus tips and celery tops, between which the pink bhrimp are gracefully placed and glimmer. The effect is very pretty. The Surimp are served from the bush as aa hors d'oeuvre. The effect of the pink against the green looks for all the world like a bush of green and red.



CRABS.
Des Crabes.

New Orleans points with pride, and lustly, not only to the splendid supply of crabs that are to be found at all seasons in her markets, but to the various delightful ways that the natives have of serving them. The following are recipes that have been handed down by the Creoles from generation to generation, and no modern innovations of cookery have been able to improve upon them.

Hard-Shell Crabs.
Crabes Durs.

There is a science in eating the hardshell Crab cooked in its own shell. The Creoles have reduced this to a fine point and a crab may be eaten without once using the fingers, if one only follows tie following simple direction: "



How to Eat a Hard-Shell Crab Cooked In Its Shell.

The shell and claws should be cracked in the kitchen, very gently, before being brought to the table, if the Crabs are boiled and served whole. By a delicate manipulation of the knife and fork remove the "aprcn" or "tablier," which is the small loose shell running to a point about the middle of the under shell. Then cut the Crab claws off, still using the knife and fork, and finally cut the Crab into parts, and these again in two. Proceed to extract the meat from each Quarter with the fork and eat with salt and pepper. It is considered quite "comme il faut"' to use the fingers, however, in holding the Crabs, extracting the meat with the prongs of the fork.

Boiled Crabs.
Crabes Boullis.

Proceed in the same manner as for boiling shrimp. Buy fine, large Crabs. The livelier they are the better. The Crabs must be alive when put into the pot. Have ready a large pot of waiter. Throw in bunches of celery tops, stalks of celery chopped fine, four or five large sprigs each of thyme, chopped sweet basil, marjoram, chives, two dozen allspice, three blades of mace, three bay leaves, chopped fine; a pod of red pepper, a dash of Cayenne, black pepper and salt enough to make the water briny. When this has boiled long enough to have extracted all the flavor of the herbs throw in the live crabs and let them boil rapidly for about ten minutes, or until the shells are a bright red, but do not let them boil one minute longer than this, as they will become watery. Let them cool a little in their own water and then take out, strip off the "dead man's fingers," crack the claws without breaking open, and pile high in a broad platter and serve with salt and pepper.



Stewed Crabs.
Crabes a la Creole.

Boil a dozen fine large Crabs about five minutes in order to kill them. Take off the fire and place in a dish. When sufficiently cooled cut off the claws and crack, separating the joints. Remove the "apron" or "tablier" of the Crab and the "dead man's fingers," and take off the spongy substance. These are the portions that are uneatable. Remove the shell, cut the body of the Crab into four parts, cutting down the center across. Chop a large onion very tine and brown with butter or lard, using a tablespoon-ful of either. Add a dozen fine, large, fresh tomatoes, chopped fine, m their liquor, and brown nicely. Stir in chopped celery, thyme, parsley, one bay leat. chopped fine; pepper and salt to tast-i, and a dash of Cayenne pepper. Add one clove of garlic, chopped fine. Taste and add more seasoning if necessary. Let the mixture cook ten minutes, then add the Crabs and let them cook ten minutes longer. Never add water to this sauce, as the liquor of the tomatoes is sufficient and makes an excellent sauce. This is a fine fast-day dish. Serve with boiled rice or potatoes boiled whole.

Fried Crabs.
Crabes Frites.

Boil the Crabs according to recipe. Cut off the claws and crack and cut the Crabs into quarters as for stewing. Season well with pepper and salt. Have ready a pint of milk. Mix pepper and salt in proportions of about two tea-spoonfuls each. Have ready a pan of boiling lard and a plate of grated bread crumbs. Dip the Crabs into the milk and then roll in the bread crumbs and drop into the boiling lard, frying about ten minutes or until a golden brown. Serve on a platter with the claws piled in the center, the bodies of the crabs grouped nicely around, and garnish with sprigs of parsley. This is a delicious way of serving Hard-Shell Crabs.



Stuffed Crabs.
Crabes Farcis.

Boil the Crabs according to recipe. Take off the fire and let them cool in their own water. When cool crack the claws and pick out all the meat. In like manner, after having removed the uneatable portions, pick out all the meat from the bodies. Season well with salt and black pepper. Chop the onions and herbs very fine. Put a tablespocnful of butter heaping over into the frying pan. As it melts, add the chopped onion, and when it begins to fry add the crab meat? which has been thoroughly seasoned with the chopped thyme, bay leaf, parsley and a dash of Cayenne to taste. Let this fry and add a small clove of garlic, chopped very fine, and finally add the bread,, which has been wet and thoroughly squeezed of all water. Mix this well with the ingredients in the frying pan and let it fry about five minutes longer. Then take off the fire and let it get cool. Take a dozen of the finest and large'jt crab shells, or as many as this mixture will fill, and wash and stuff with the mixture, forming it into a rolling lump. Sprinkle this with grated bread crumbs and put a dot of butter on top, or, better still, sprinkle with the melted buttsr; place in the oven and bake about five minutes, or until a nice brown. Place on a platter and garnish with sprigs of parsley or celery tops. This is an excellent method of preparing Stuffed Crabs for family use.



Stuffed Crabs Cont. .
Crabes Farcis.

Boil the Crabs according to recipe. Clean and cut and piclc out all the meat. Chop an onion fine; chop the thyme, hav leaf and parsley and hard-boiled eggs, and mix well with the crab meat. Seasjn highly with hot pepper and salt to taste. Put one tablespoonful heaping over with butter into the frying pan. As it melts add the onion and fry, being 'Careful not to burn. Then add the crab meat, and, if desired, the very small clove c-f garlic, chopped very fine. Let this fry about five minutes, stirring constantly. Mix thoroughly, fry three minutes longer, and then take off the stove. Stuff the crab shells, forming a ioUing lump in the middle. Sprinkle lightly with grate 1 T3read crumbs, and put a dot of butter on top. Place in a quick oven and let them bake about five minutes, or until nice brown. The same or even bettor results are obtained by omitting the egg, many claiming that the delicals flavor of the crab meat is more daintilj preserved without this addition. This is a delightful way of serving Crabs for luncheons, or where it is not necessary to make, as the Creoles say, "a long family dish."



Deviled Crabs.
Crabes a le Diable.

Boil the Crabs according to recipe. Take out and drain after they have cooled in their own water. Break off the claws, separate the shells, remove the spongy portions and the "dead man's fingers," and then pick out the meat. Put the cream on to boil, rub the flour and butter together well and add to the boiling cream. Stir and cook for two minutes. Take from the fire and add the crab meat< the yolks of the hard-boiled eggs, mashed very fine; the chopped parsley, grated nutmeg, salt and Cayenne. Clean the upper shells of the Crabs, fill them with the mixture, brush c-ver with a beaten egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs and put in a quick oven to brown; or, better still, if you have a frying basket, plun.ge the Crabs into the boiling fat or lard until a nice brown. But many prefer them baked.



Scalloped Crabs.
Coquilles de Crabes.

Boil and pick the Crabs according to recipe given above. Beat an egg thoroughly and add to the meat, which has been seasoned highly with Cayenne and salt to taste. Take one ciove of garlic, chop fine and add, then sift into this mixture fine grated bread crumbs or cracker crumbs, and mix thoroughly. Beat an egg, roll the Crabs into boulets or graceful meat balls, and then bind by rolling lightly in the egg. Roll in the bread crumbs, grated nicely, and then drop into boiling lard, and fry until a pale golden brown, which will generally require about three minutes. The secret Is to have them cooked just enough, for, as a rule, they are generally overdone.

Wash and clean the shells thoroughly; wipe dry, set a boulet in the center of each and garnish prettily with sprigs of parsley and sliced lemon. This is a dainty dish for breakfast or luncheon. They must be served very hot.



Crab Croquettes.
Crabes en Croquettes.

Boil the Crabs clean and pick. Then season the meat well with salt and pepper. Chop the onion fine, also the herbs. Put a tablespoonful of butter in the fryi ng pan, and as it melts add the chopped onion. When it begins to fry add the crab meat, which has been mixed thoroughly with the chopped thyme, bay leaf, pa]'sley and garlic. Add a dash of Cayeiine and put in the frying pan with the onion. Add the bread, which has been thoroughly squeezed, ami mix all and fry about three minutes. Take off the fire, and when cool form the mixture into cylindrical shapes of about two or three inches in length and o:ie in thickness. Roll in grated bread ciumijs and fry in boiling lard. Serve hot on a dish nicely garnished with parsle? and sliced lemon.



Crab Salad.
Crabes en Salad.

Boil the Crabs according to recipe. Clean and pick out all the meat. Season well with salt and pepper and a dash of Cayenne. Chop the celery fine and mix with the crab meat. Place on a dish In pyramidal shape and pour over niajly a Sauce a la Mayonnaise. (See recipe.) Garnish tastefully with sliced hard-boiled eggs, sliced beets, asparagus or celery tips on top and around with sprig- of parsley and asparagus tips, with sliced lemon and sliced hard-boiled egg a 'e;--nating. This is a delicious salad.



Crab Salad — No. 2.
Crabes en Salad.

Pick the boiled crab carefully, V *ep-ing the pieces as large as possible. Lay in a salad bowl. Mix a dressing of two tablespoonfuls of sweet oil, one o. French vinegar, one saltspoon of salt, black pepper and Cayenne, according to taste, and pour over the crabs, which have been cooled in the ice box. Clean the lettuce well and put a row of crisp leaves around the edge of the salad dish. Garnish nicely with sliced lemon and hard-boiled eggs sliced.



Crab Pie.
Vol-au-Vent de Crabes.

Boil according to recipe one dozen fine, large Crabs and pick out all the meat. Season nicely with salt, Cayenne and chopped thyme and bay leaf. Take stale bread and slice very thin. Lay in a, little milk to moisten. Butter a baking pan and cover the bottom with a layer of bread. Then put in a .ayer of crab meat and lay over at intervals slices of lemon cut very fine and thin. Dot here and there with bits of butter, and then spread over another layer of bread. Then another layer of crabs, and repeat till the meat is used up. Lay on top a thick sprinkling of bread crumbs, dotted with butter. Place in the oven and bake for about twenty minutes. Serve hot.



Soft-Shell Crabs.
Crabes Mous.

The Soft-Shell Crab has always been considered a great luxury in New Orleans, where its possibilites as a most delicate and savory dish were first discovered. Northern epicures, quick to appreciate the toothsome morsel, returned to their homes loud in their praises of this Creole discovery. The Soft-Shell Crab is now being shipped North, and is a popular feature of the Northern markets, though the prices range very high. It is said that the Crab is so delicate that it does not stand shipment very well; sudden stopping of the express car often kills them; a clap of thunder will frighten them to death, while a sunbeam through glass will kill every one it shines upon. The Soft-Shell Crab is found the year round in the New Orleans French Market. This Crab is at its best when prepared according to the following Creole methods:



Fried Soft-Shell Crabs.
Crabes Mous Frites.

The greatest care must be taken in preparing and cleaning the Crab. Wash carefully, remO'Ving all sand, but do not scald or blanch thena, as this destroys the fine flavor completely. Remove the spongy, feathery substances under the side points. These are called the "man-eaters," and are very irritating and indigestible. Remove also the sand bag or "sand pouch" from under the shells just between the eyes; also remove the "tatalier" or "apron." Then wash well in cold water and dry with a clean towel. Take a pint of milk and season well with pepper and salt; season the crabs and crack-them in the milk, rubbing thoroughly, so that the milk may thoroughly impregnate them. Take out and roll in a little sifted flour. Pat lightly with the hand, shake off superfluous flour and fry in boiling grease, being always careful to have sufficient grease In the pan for the crabs to swim in it. When a delicate golden brO'Wn, take out of th3 grease with a skimmer. Drain on a piece of heated brown paper, and serve on a bed of fried parsley, with garnishes of sliced lemon. Serve with "Sauce a la Tartare." (See recipe.)



Broiled Soft-Shell Crabs.
Crabes a la Creole.

It was a celebratnd New Orleans chef who first decided t'? broil the Soft-STicll Crab. His success was great and 'Crabes a la Creole" were in great demand at once at the hotels and restaurants. To broil the Soft-Shell Crab always use the

double wire broiler. Clean the crab according to the method given above and wash in cold watfr. Dry with a clean towel and season T/ell. Season a pint of milk with salt a-id black pepper, and soak the crabs in it so as to thoroughly impregnate them with the milk. Then pat lightly with a little flour and brush over with melted butter. Place between the broiler and broU till a delicate brown over a slow fire. It will generally require about fifteen minutes to cook thoroughly. Serve on a platter, nicely garnished with pars'ey, sprigs and lemon cut in quarters. Pour over the craba a little melted bu'iter and chopped parsley, and yo-u "will have a famous Creola dish.



CRAWFISH.
Des Ecrevisses.

Besides the famous Crawfish Bisque (Bisque d'Ecrevisses. See recipe) the Creoles have dainty ways of serving this typical Louisiana shell fish. Among the most popular are the following:



Boiled Crawfish.
Des Ecrevisses Bouilles.

Put the water on to boil, adding the chopped herb bouquet, one clove of garlic (chopped fine), one dozen allspice and six cloves. When the water has boiled long enough to have extracted all the juices of the herb bouquet, add white wine or the vinegar and salt — enough to make it almost briny, and Cayenne enough to make it hot. Then throw In the crawfish and let them boil about twenty minutes or until a bright red. Set them to cool in their own water and serve on a platter piled high in pyramidal shape, and garnish nicely with sprigs of parsley and sliced lemon. Serve with salt and pepper, oil and Chili vinegar, each person making the dressing as it suits his taste.



Crawfish Baked a la Creole.
Ecrevisses Gratinees a la Creole.

Boil according to recipe fifty large, fine Crawfish. When cooked, allow them to cool in their own water. Clean them, picking off the shells and leaving the craTvfish whole. Take out all the smallest ones, and cut off the tail ends of the largest and place with the small ones; take the remainder of the large crawfish and cut up, and make a dressing with , two chopped livers, parsley, the minced contents of one-half can of mushrooms, the bouquet of fine herbs, consisting of thyme, bay leaf, sweet mar-jorana, etc.; chop a half dozen shallots and add to the dressing, and season highly with Cayenne and salt and black pepper to taste. Cut up the yolks of two eggs and mix with a cup of the soft portion of bread, which has been wet and thoroughly squeezed of all water. Place two tablespoonfuls of butter in a frying pan and add the dressing when it begins to heat; cook about ten minutes and then place in the dish In which the crawfish are to be serve!, making a bed of the dressing. Arrange with symmetry and grace the reserve

crawfish upon this bed; cover lightly with the rest of the stuffing, and dot with small bits of butter, after sprinkling with grated bread crumbs. Poiir over all a Cream Sauce and the juice of a lemon. Place in the oven and let it bake about ten or fifteen minutes, and serve with Cream Sauce, seasoned with lemon juice. fSee recipe Cream Sauce.)

A Crawfish Bush.
Buisson d'Ecrevisses.

This is a celebrated Creole hora ??d'oeuvre, as also a very handsome and graceful table garnish. BO'il the Crawfish ac.ording to recipe. (See recipe.) Take a glass fruit or cake stand and place in the center of the table. Set a goblet upon it. Fit the goblet with celery tips and parsley tips, and hang a number of Crawfish gracefully around the goblet from the rim or outer edges. Continue hanging the dish with celery, asparagu? and parsley tips, and hanging the Crawfish around the edges of the fruit stand, and in and out amid the greenery. The effect of the red amid the green is very pretty, presenting the appearance of a beautiful bush cf red and green. The Crawfish are served from the bush.



TURTLE.
De La Tortue.

In addition to the delicious soups already given, the Creoles serve turtle after the following manner:

Green Turtle Steaks.
Filets de Tortue.

Select the female Turtle, as the meat is best. If bought alive from the market clean according to recipe. (See recipe for cleaning turtle. Otherwise the butcher may prepare it, as is frequently done in the New Orleans market.)

Turtle meat is very irregular, therefore cut the meat into thick slices or .steaks, about the size of a filet of bee', and batter down with the hands tc make smooth and regular. Then fry in butter. Season well with salt and pepper arid garnish with parsley and lemon, and serve with Currant Jelly Sauce or the delightful Sauce Poivrade. (See recipes.)



Stewed Turtle.
Ragout de Tortue a la Bourgeoise.

Cut the meat of the Turtle about .in inch in size. Chop an onion and put all into a saucepan, with a tablespoonful of lard to brown. As it begins to brown, add a tablespoonful of flour, one bay leaf, one clove of garlic and a sprig of thyme, choppe.d very fine. Mix this thoroughly with the turtle meat, then add a wineglassful of Sherry or Madeira, and a cup of water, and eo-ok for half an hour.



CHAPTER XI SALT AND CANNED FISH

Poissons Sales. Halibut, Salmon, Fresh Codfish, Fresh Lobster, Shad and other fish peculier to the Northern and Eastern waters are rarely seen on New Orleans tables, except in the great hotels and restaurants, which import them. With these fish, in their fresh state, this book will not treat. But the Salt Codfish, Salted Mackerel and Canned Salmon are in general fam.-ily use. The Salted Mackerel and Codfish, indeed, enter very largely into the daily household economy of New Orleans, especially on fast days, as also sardines. The following recipes are modeled after Creole methods of preparation: CODFISH. Salted Codfish. De la Morue. T'irsl, and above all, it is necessary to "dessaler la Morue," as the Creoles put it, or to remove every trace and appearance of the salt in which the fish has been put up. Always soak the Codfish at least overnight or twenty-four hours before using in cold water, changing the water as often as possible, to assist in removing the salt; and always boil on a hot fire fifteen or twenty minutes before making into any of the following dishes:

Boiled Codfish.
La Morue Bouillie.

Boil the Codfish about thirty or forty minutes, after soaking overnight; drain and serve with an Oyster Sauce, or Sauce aux Huitres, prepared as follows: Make a Cream Sauce (see recipe), only use, in this case, the strained juice of the oyster to blend the flour and butter, and add the rich cream or milk to make up the desired quantity. Scald the ousters in their own water about three minutes, and then add to the sauce, mixing thoroughly, seasoning with salt, pepper and Cayenne, using preferably celery salt; let it boil up once and serve with the boiled Codfish. Egg Sauce (see recipe) may also be used with Boiled Codfish, but is not to be compared to the Oyster Sauce.



Fried Codfish.
La Morue Frite.

Soak the Codfish overnight, and boil twenty minutes, or until very tender; take out and cut into slices of one-inch thickness, and dry with a clean towel, have ready a pint of milk, and season well with pepper only; season the Codfish, rubbing a little black pepper to taste and a dash of Cayenne over it. S'oak the fish in the milk, and have ready some crushed bread crumbs and a well beaten egg: when the fish is well soaked, take out of the milk and dip each slice first into the egg, and then roll in bread crumbs, patting lightly, and drop in to the boiling lard; the fish must swim in the lard. When fried a golden brown, take out with a skimmer, drain off all fat, and serve hot on a bed of fried parsley, garnished with sliced lemon.



Stewed Codfish.
Morue Sautee a la Lyonnaise.

If the potatoes are not the left-over from the day before, wash and peel, and also the onion; boil the potatoes till tender; soak the fish overnight, and boil for twenty minutes, or until tender. Then cut the fish into pieces of about two or three inches in length. Put a tablespoonful of lard in the stewpan and lay in the potatoes and then the onions, and the Codfish on top; add enough cold water to cover the whole, and let it simmer until the fish is well cooked. Then take out the fish, and allow the potatoes and onions to simmer on. Remove every piece of bone from the fish, and trim edges nicely. Take another saucepan and dissolve in another stewpan the butter and flour, as directed above; let this simmer gently without browning, and then put in the potatoes, onions and fish in the order given above, pour over this the quart of cream or milk; let it simmer for about ten minutes more till the milk comes to a boil, and serve hot.



Creamed Codfish.
Morue a la Creme.

Soak the Codfish overnight, and then let it boil about forty minutes. Then take off, scald again and drain, and again scald and drain, allowing it to stand each time about four or five minutes before changing the water. Put one large tablespoonful of butter in the frying pan; when melted add the flour and blend, without browning; then add the milk, stirring constantly until it boils, and then add the fish, seasoning highly with pepper and Cayenne. Let it boil about ten minutes longer, and take off the fire; then add the yolk of an egg, which has been beaten thoroughly, and serve hot, with plain boiled potatoes buttered.



Codfish Balls.
Croquettes de Morue.

Soak the Codfish overnight and boil until tender. Pour off this water, and scald again with hot water; pick fine, scald again and then drain thoroughly, pressing out all the water. Mash the potatoes, and melt about three tablespoonfuls of butter and mix well in the potatoes. Then add the Codfish and mix thoroughly, seasoning with about a teaspoonful of black pepper, and a dash of Cayenne to taste. Add this to the cream, and again mix. Mold the Codfish into round or oval balls; then roll in the egg, which has been well beaten, and pass through the bread crumbs, patting gently, and lay them In a frying basket, If you have one, and sink into the boiling lard, having tested the heat with a bit of bread. The balls must swim in the lard. Otherwise drop into the boiling lard. When a golden brown, lift out the basket, or skim out the balls with a skimmer; drain well of all the fat by laying on a heated brown paper, and then serve hot on a dish garnished with sprigs of parsley. This quantity will make about a dozen and a half balls or croquettes. There is no difference between the preparation of the Codfish Ball and the Codfish Croquette, the only difference being in the form of molding, the croquette being oval or elongated, in cylindrical shapes, and the ball being molded round and a little flattened on top.



Codfish Bacalao.
Bacalao a la Vizcaina.

Soak the Codfish well overnight, and in the morning boil for about forty-five minutes, until very tender. when you set it to boil, put the fish first in cold water. After it has boiled scald again thoroughly, and pick out all the bones and set away to cool. Then prepare a rich Tomato Sauce, according to the following directions: Take six large fresh tomatoes, or a half can of tomatoes, and add a heaping tablespoonful of butter, four sprigs of parsley, thyme and two bay yeaves, all chopped very fine; add two chopped onions and a clove of garlic, chopped fine, and which has been fried in a little butter. Set the saucepan, with the sauce, into boiling water, and add pepper and Cayenne and a pinch of salt to taste. Stew very gently for about two hours or longer, if necessary. Then strain the sauce and make a roux with one tablespoonful of butter and two of flour; stir and let it brown lightly, and stir in the sauce. Boil about four minutes longer until rich ana thick. Then fry the remaining large onion and clove of garlic, chopped very fine, in a gill of olive oil, or two tablespoonfuls of butter if the taste of the oil is disliked, and when it browns add this to the sauce and a red sweet pepper, finely chopped. Cut about a dozen Croutons in dice or diamond shapes, from the soft part of the bread, and fry in boiling lard. Heat a dish, put the Codfish into it, pour over the Tomato Sauce, border the dish with the fried Croutons, and set in the oven, allowing it to bake ten or fifteen minutes longer. The Spanish red peppers are the best for this sauce. Black pepper may be added if desired.



SALT MACKEREL.
Du Maquereau.

Salt Mackerel is either boiled or broiled, and either method of cooking according to the subjoined recipes makes a noise palatable and delicately toothsome dish.



Boiled Salt Mackerel.
Maquereau Bouilli.

Soak the Mackerel overnight, and in the morning take out of the water, wash thoroughly, taking off every portion of salt, and wash again. Have ready a deep pan of boiling water; place the Mackerel within and let it boil ten or fifteen minutes until done, which can be known by the flesh beginning to part from the bones. Serve whole on a platter garnished with parsley. Pour over the Mackerel melted butter and chopped parsley, and bring to the table very hot.

Mackerel boiled or broiled is a very nice breakfast dish on fast days. Serve with potatoes, boiled whole or made into croquettes.



Broiled Mackerel.
Maquereau Grille.

Soak the Mackerel and wash thoroughly as directed above, only using boiling water. Have ready some milk, seasoned well with black pepper, and soak the Mackerel in the milk until thoroughly impregnated. Take out and wipe dry with a towel. Then dredge the Mackerel with butter, and place between a double broiler, over a slow fire, broiling about fifteen or twenty minutes, the under side being allowed to broil first. when done, take off and pour over melted butter and chopped parsley; garnish the dish with sprigs of parsley, sliced lemons and olives, and serve hot. A Cream Sauce may be also served instead of the butter, and makes a very delicious dish.



SALMON.
Mayonnaise de Saumon.

A Mayonnaise of Salmon Is a very good luncheon dish, and is frequently served in New Orleans. To one can of Salmon allow two good-sized heads of young lettuce. Make a bed of the crisp hearts of the leaves, and tear the other leaves into small pieces with a fork, making very delicate shreds. Drain the oil from the can of Salmon, and separate the fish into flakes. Take a cupful of boiling milk and a tablespoonful of butter and two of flour, and stir over the fire until quite smooth. Add to this a tablespoonful of chopped parsley and the Salmon. Season with pepper and sajt, and let it cook about ten minutes. Set aiway to cool, and then place on the bed of lettuce leaves. Cover with a Sauce a la Mayonnaise (see recipe), and garnish nicely with sliced hard-boiled eggs, celery tips, etc., and serve.



Salmon Salad.
Saumon en Sajade.

Canned Salmon may be made into a delightful salad for luncheon or supper. Flake the Salmon, heap into a salad bowl, and mix with chopped celery, using one-third of the latter in proportion to the quaffitity of Salmon. Add a Plain French Dressing. (See recipe.) When ready to serve turn into a salad dish, on which you have arranged a crisp bed of lettuce. Garnish with sliced lemon, olives and hard-boiled eggs, and with one daintily sliced pickled beet.

HERRINGS.
Des Harengs.

The Salted Herrings, such as come to New Orleans, must first of all be soaked thoroughly overnight, or longer, to take away all salt. Then they are cleaned nicely and broiled and served with a cream sauce or drawn butter sauoe, preferably the former. They are also cut into filets and eaten without further cooking, or "Cru," as we say here, and also as an hors d'oeuvre.



ANCHOVY.
Des Anchois.

Anchovies are served as a preliminary to the most aristocratic dinners, being drained of the oil which clings to them after being taken from the can. Three or four Anchovies are then placed between delicate soda biscuits, and tied with a bit of ribbon in squares, with a dainty bow cut short in the center. The effect is very pretty. The Anchovies are also mashed and placed between the crackers, like a sandwich. Either way is excellent and elegant.



Anchovy Salad.
Salade d'Anchois.

This salad is a dainty dish for luncheon or supper. Have an oval dish and arrange the Anchovies, drained of oil, crosswise on a bed of crisp lettuce, or of chopped watercress. Surround with a border of chopped whites of eggs and a similar border of chopped watercresses, and pour over all a sour French Dressing. (See recipe.) Anchovies are used as an elegant hors d'oeuvre.



CHAPTER XII.

MEATS.
Des Viandes.

Meats are, of course, common to every clime and country, but not every people have the palatable and appetizing methods of preparation that have been handed down to the Creoles of Louisiana by their French and Spanish ancestors and so modified and improved upon that it may be said that they have created a new school of cookery in the choice preparation and serving of beef, veal, mutton, pork and venison. Our "roties" or roasts, our methods of broiling, our delightful "ragouts," our famous "grillades," our unique "daubes," in a word, our dozen and one highly nutritious and eminently agreeable combinations of meats, with vegetables, and our unequaled majiner of seasoning, have given to the Creole kitchen a fame that has been as lasting as well deserved.

The Creoles have discovered that almost any portion of the beet from the head to the tail may be delicately and temptingly prepared, so as to please even the most fastidious palates, They have reduced the science of cooking meats to a practical system that works the most beneficial effects in the homes of the poor, and which enables the family of moderate means to live not only economically, but with as much real ease and luxury even as the wealthy classes.



Rules Which the Creoles Follow In Cooking Meats.

Always remember that Beef and Mutton must be cooked rare, and Pork and Veal well done. Beef should always be roasted, broiled or smothered.Mutton may be roa,sted, broiled, boiled or stewed. Veal may be roasted, stewed, smothered or fried, when cut into chops. Pork is always roasted or fried. Ham is broiled, boiled or fried. Bacon is broiled, fried or boiled, the latter when cooked with vegetables.

Venison is roasted or made into "ragout," like Beef a la Mode, and the outlets are broiled. The meat of venison should be of fine grain and well covered with fat. If the venison is very young, the hoofs ate but slightly opened; if old, the hoofs stand wide apart.

With this preliminary we will now present the various Creole forms of preparing meats.



BEEF.
Du Boeuf.

ROAST BEEF.
Boeuf Roti.

The first four ribs of the beef are always the best for a roast. The tenderloin lies here, and two good ribs or a "full cut," as the butchers term it, should be enough to make a fine roast for a family of six. Always remember that if the roast is cut too thin the juices dry too rapidly and the exquisite flavor is gone. After the ribs come the sirloin and the spine bone as second and third choice. Have the butcher skewer the roast so that it will have a nice shape when it comes on the table, apd will retain all the juice of the beef. Leave the bones in the roast, as the meat will be far sweeter than when taken out. Rub the meat well with salt and pepper, dredge slightly with lard and set in a hot oven. The heat of the oven at once coagulates the blood and prevents it from escaping, thus rendering the meat nutritious. Every now and then baste the beef with its own juices and let it cook, adding no water, as sufficient fat runs from the beef to baste with. Allow fifteen minutes to every pound of meat it one likes the meat rare, otherwise allow twenty minutes. But the Creoles always roast beef rare. To ascertain the desired state, occasionally stick a needle into the beef. If the blood spurts up, the meat is ready to serve, and, cooked to this point, is a most nutritious dish. Watch carefully and do not let it pass this stage. Serve on a dish in its own gravy.



Filet of Beef Larded.
Filet de Boeuf Pique.

Trim the filet nicely, removing the outer muscular skin. Lard the filot well, using larding needles. The lard must be very thin, like a shoestring. The larding is done by filling the needles with the lard and pushing them through the filet as far as they will go. If the needles are long enough they will come out on the other side of the filet, leaviag the lard within. Repeat this process all down the center and along the sides of the filet, about an inch apart, and have the rows neat and even. If you have not a larding needle, make incisions with a knife, and push the lard in with your finger, but the filet is never as juicy and tender, nor does it look so clean and even when baked. When well larded, dredge well with salt and pepper, rubbing this thoroughly into the beef. Cut up one small onion, one bay leaf, and mash four cloves, and place in the bottom of the baking pan. Lay the larded filet on this bed, the larded side being uppermost. Put small bits of butter equal to a half tablespoonful on top, and bake in a quick oven thirty minutes. This dish is always eaten rare. To ascertain if sufficiently done, stick a fork into the filet; if the blood bubbles out, it is ready to serve. The meat when done is always spongy and elastic to the touch.

In the meantime prepajre the following brown sauce: Take one talalespoonful of butter and one of Glace (see recipe under chapter "Sauces for Meats, Fish, etc."), and three of water; rub smoothly and melt in a saucepan, stirring constantly to prevent burning. When brown add one glass of Madeira or Sherry wine and add a half cup of water. Season well with salt and pepper. Pour over the filet, which must be placed in a hot dish, and serve.

Filet of Beef Larded With Mushrooms.
Filet de Boeuf Pique aux Champignons.

Trim and lard the beef according to the directions given in the above recipe, and bake in the saane manner — rare. When it has cooked for a half hour in a quick oven, it wil be done. Then make a sauce as follows: Take one tablespoonful of butter and one of Glace and three of water; melt the butter and add the Glace, browning nicely without burning, and stirring constantly. When brown add one glass of Madeira or Sherry wine, if desired, and one-half pint of water. Season well with salt and pepper. Then add a half can of mushrooms, chopped very fine. Stir well and let it boil about ten minutes, so ais not to be too thick nor yet too thin. The intelligent cook will judge by tasting to see that it is seasoned properly. Place the filet in a hot dish and pour the sauce over and serve hot.



Filet of Beef With Truffles.
Filet de Boeuf Pique aux Truffes ou a la Perigeux.

Proceed in the same manner as in the preparation of Filet of Beef Larded. When it has baked for a half hour make a sauce as follows: One tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan; add two tablespoonfuls of Glace (see recipe under chapter "Saueos for Meats, Fish, etc.") and add a half wineglass of Sherry and one pint of broth or water. Let it boil slowly for ten minutes, and add one-half can of truffles, chopped very fine, if a la Perigeaux; it aux truffes, cut in dice. Let the sauce boil slowly twenty minutes longer, and then pour over the filet, serving hot.



Broiled Beefsteak.
Filet de Boeuf Grille.

The cut known as the "Porterhouse Steak" is unquestionably the best for broiling. The next in order is the sirloin, where there are always choice cuts, but the entire sirloin is not profitable for broiling and the coarse ends may be used in making stews, gumbos, etc. There is an art in broiling a beefsteak properly, and the Creoles have certainly attained this in its perfection. The broiler in a well-regulated household is always put on a furnace of hot charcoals in preferance to the open front of the stove. The coals not only render the meat free from any deleterious effects, should, by any chance, the meat not be from a perfectly healthy animal, but the broiling over the coals gives the meat a flavor one vainly seeks otherwise. Dredge the meat well with salt and pepper and then brush lightly with butter. Place it on the hot gridiron and let it broil quickly for four minutes; then turn on the other side for four minutes longer. When done take off, place in a hot dish, butter nicely and sprinkle chopped parsley over, and the juice of a lemon, and serve immediately.



Smothered Beefsteak.
Filet Braise.

Braising or smothering meat is a mode ot cooking little understood by the Americans, but which has been brought by the Creoles to a high state of perfection. By this process the meat is Just covered, and no more, with a little water, or with a strong broth made from animal stock or the juices of vegetables. The pot is covered with a closely-fitting lid and is put on a slow fire and allowed to simmer slowly for two or three hours, just short of the boiling point. By this slow process of cooking, tough meats are rendered juicy, tender and very agreeable to the palate, while the covered pot enables the meat to retain all its flavor.

The great secret in smothering meat is to let it cook very slowly, simmering, however, all the time, so that the heat may thoroughly penetrate and render tender and juicy the coarse fiber of the meat. When tender, put the beefsteak into a platter, cover with the onions and gravy, and you will have a delicious and delicately flavored dish.



Beefsteak Smothered in Onions.
Filet Braise aux Onions.

Beat the Round Steak well with the rolling pin or steak hammer; cut off the outer skin and press the meat back into shape. Place the tablespoonful ot lard

in the deep trying pan ana let it melt Then lay in the sliced onions, and over these the beefsteak, which has been well seasoned with salt and pepper and dredged with the flour. Cover closely. Let it simmer over a hot fire for a few minutes and then turn the steak on the other side. After three minutes add two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, chopped parsley, thyme and bay leaf and a clove of garlic. Turn the steak, letting the flour brown well, and keep the pot closely covered. when brown pour over one cup of water, or a pint, which will be sufficient to cover the meat. Bring this to a brisk boil and set the pot back where it can simmer gently for about two hours.

Filets of beef may be smothered in the same manner, only these will require no beating with the steak hammer.



Filet of Beef Larded.
Filet de Boeuf Pique.

Smother the Beef, using a filet for this delicious dish, according to the recipe given for Smothered Beefsteak. After it has cooked about a half hour add one can of mushrooms and let it continue to simmer gently for an hour and a half longer. When ready to serve add, if possible, a gill or a small wineglass of Sherry or White Wine; boil ten minutes longer. Put the filet in a dish, place the mushrooms over and around as a garnish, pour over the sauce and serve.

If truffles are used instead of the mushrooms, add one-half can and proceed in exactly the same manner as when using the mushrooms.



Filet of Beef With Tomatoes.
Filet de Boeuf Pique.

Smother the tilet in exactly the same manner as already described. When cooked for about a half hour, add one-half can ot tomatoes and their Juice, or six large fresh tomatoes sliced in their Juice. Let tlie mixture simmer for an hour and ai halt longer, season well and serve, pouring the gravy over the filet

Filet of Beef Larded.
Filet de Boeuf Pique.

Smother the filet according to the directions given above, adding two chopped tomatoes to the sauce. Take the tomatoes and cut off the stem end, scoop out the soft inside, being careful to retain the sltins in proper shape. Then take a hall cup of mushrooms, one-half cup of stale bread crumbs, which have been wet and squeezed, one clove of garlic, chopped very fine, and one grated onion, a sprig of chopped parsley. Chop the mushrooms fine, place a tablespoonful of butter into a frying pan, and, when melted, add the bread crumbs, which have been seasoned with salt and pepper and Cayenne, and mixed thoroughly with the chopped onion or garlic and the parsley. When these begin to fry add the chopped mushrooms, stirring conrstantly for aibout five or eight minutes. Serve with Stuffed Tomatoes (see recipe).



Beef a la Mode.
Daube.

Cut the fat of the salt meat into thin shreds. Chop the onion and bay leaf very fine, as also the garlic, thyme and cloves. Rub the shreds well with salt and pepper. Take the rump of beef and lard thickly by making incisions aibout three or four inches in length and inserting the pieces of salt fat and spices. onion and thyme and garlic, mixed thoroughly. Take two large onions and cut into quarters and put in a saucepan with one tablespoonful of lard. Let the slices brown and then lay on top the rump of beef, well larded. Cover closely and let it simmer very slowly till well browned. Then add the chopped bay leaf and parsley. "when brown add five carrots cut into squares of an inch, and two turnips, cut in the same manner, and two large onions, chopped fine. Let the whole brown, keeping well covered, and cooking .slowly over a slow but regular fire. Be always careful to keep the cover very tight on the pot. When it has simmered about ten minutes, turn the daube on the other side, cover closely and let it simmer ten minutes more. Then cover with sufficient boiling water to cover the daube; or, better still, if you have it, use instead of the water boiling "consomme" or "pot-au-feu," and, if possible, a glass of Sherry or Madeira wine; or, if you have neither of these, which are always to be preferred in cooking meats, a glass of good Claret. Season according taste with salt, Cayenne and black pepper. Cover the pot tight and set it back on the stove, letting it smother slowly for about three hours, or until tender. Serve hot or cold.



Cold Daube a la Creole.
Daube Froide a la Creole.

This is one of the most excellent dishes made by the Creoles, and is always a great standby for luncheons in winter. Take

Cut the salt meat into shreds, roll well in Cayenne and black pepper. Chop finely several sprigs of thyme and three bay leaves, one clove of garlic, three sprigs of parsley, and mash well three cloves and six allspice. Roll the strips of salt meat, which must be about three inches in length and one-half inch thick, in this. Make incisions into the rump of meat and force in the strips of fat meat and the spices. Then rub the whole well with salt and pepper, Judging according to taste and proceed to cook according to the recipe for Beef a lai Mode. Let the Daube cook about four hours when you intend to serve it cold.

In the meantime, in another pot, place a veal steak of about two pounds, and two pig's feet. Season well with salt and pepper and Cayenne, and cover well with four quarts of water, and let them boil. Add one bay leaf, one sprig of thyme, one-half clove of garlic and one onion, all minced very fine, and two cloves mashed into almost a jelly, and one glass of Sherry or Madeira wine. Let these boil well with the veal and pig's feet. Then, when the veal and pig's feet are cooked very tender, take them out of the pot and mince tbe meat of eajch very fine; return to the sauce, and again season highly, according to taste, for the flavor depends upon the piquant seasoning. After the daube has cooked four or five hours, take off the stove and pour over the sauce and set all in a cool plape. Serve the next day — cold, cutting into thin slices. It will all have formed a jelly that is most delicious and appetizing.



Beef Marine.
Boeuf Marine.

The "brisket" of the beef is excellent for this, as also the "breast-plate." Mix the spices, salt and pepper thoroughly and rub we'll into both sides of the beef. Chop the onions fine, and cover the meat with them. Then mix the oil and vinegar and the juice of one lemon, and pour this over the meat. Set it in the ice box, or a cool place, and let it stand overnight. Then put it into the stewpan, and be careful to retain all the juices of the spices. Set on the fire and let it simmer ten minutes, adding the bay leaves, chopped very fine. Then add a tablespoonful of flour, rolled smoothly in a half teaspoonful of butter or lard, melted. Let this brown, and then half cover the meat with boiling water, using good judgment. Cover closely and set on the oven, letting the beef cook two hours, and turning once, so thart. both sides may be well penetrated by the heat. Serve on a hot dish, pouring the gravy over. This is a very old-fashioned dish.



Fried Meat.
La Viande Frite.

Frying among the Creoles is done in several ways. The first and the method most generally adopted in households Is to put a tablespoonful of lard or an ounce, as the quantity of meat to cook may seem to require, into a frying pan. When the lard has reached the boiling point lay in the meat and cook first on one side, then on the other, to a nice brown. The second method is that in use among the Creole chefs, restaurateurs, and in the homes of the wealthier classes; the meat is completely immersed In the boiling lard as in frying fish or doughnuts. The intense heat quickly closes up the pores of the meat, and a brown crust is formed; the heat of the lard should be such that a piece of bread dropped into it becomes brown instantly. The lard should never be smoking. This ruins the meat and gives a burnt flavor. As soon as it begins to smoke remove the frying pan to the side of the stove, but still keep it at the boiling point. The half-frying method mentioned aibove is, however, the one most generally in use, and if followed properly, excellent results are obtained; indeed, many Creole chefs prefer it. There is another method that is very generally used, and which imparts a flavor similar to that of broiled meat. This is to lay the meat in a thick-bottomed frying pan with a tablespoonful of butter. Brown the meat quickly first on one side and then on the other; lay in a hot platter and season as you would broiled meat.



Fried Meat.
Grillade.

The round of the meat is always selected for Grillades, and one steak will serve six persons. The steak is cut into pieces of about six or eight squares, and each piece is called a "grillade." Season well with salt and pepper, rubbing these into the meat thoroughly and letting It soak well into the fibers. Have ready a hot pan. and place within a tablespoonful of lard, and, when hot, a sliced onion and one clove of garlic, chopped very fine. Let this brown, and then add one chopped tomato. Place the Grillades In this, letting them soak thoroughly. Cover with a tight cover, and set back, letting them fry slowly, so as to absorb all the lard and juices. Serve on a hot dish, when brown, with garnishes of parsley. This is the recipe for making Grillages without gravy. Some also fry simply in the boiling lard, using only a half tablespoonful, and letting it soak and absorb thoroughly after being well seasoned. This is a matter of taste.



Grillades With Gravy.
Grillades a la Sauce.

Select a nice round steak and beat well. Cut into grillades of about four inches square and season highly with salt and pepper and Cayenne. Put a tablespoonful of lard into the frying pan, and when it heats, add a chopped onion, one clove of garlic; and as these brown, add one tablespoonful of flour, making a Brown- Roux. (See recipe under chapter "Sauces for Meats, Fish, etc"). Then add two tomatoes, sliced, with their juices, and as this browns lay the grillades upon it. Cover closely, and a? it browns on one side, turn on the other. Then add a half tablespoonful of vinegar and a cup of water. Stir well and set back on the stove and let it sinimer slowly for about a half hour. This Is very nice served with hominy at break-fast, or with red or white beains and boiled rice at dinner.

Again, the Grillades a la Sauce are made by frying the grillades, after seasoning well, pimply in half a tablespoonful of boiling lard. The lard must always be boiling, so that the meat juices may at once coagulate. After they are browned nicely on both sides, take the grillades out of the frying pan and set in a hot dish over a pot of boiling water and cover. Have an onion chopped finCf put half a tablespoonful of laffd into the frying pan, stirring well to detach all particles of meat that may have adhered. Then add a chopped onion and brown, and a tablespoonful of flour or Glace (see recipe under cha,pter "Sauces for Meats, Fish, etc.") and let this brown. Pour in a tablespoonful of vinegar and a cup of water, season well with salt, pepper and Cayenne, and let it boil till it reaches a right consistency, which will be in about ten minutes. Pour over the grillades. and serve.



Grillades Breaded.
Grillades Panees.

The round of the veal is always used for this. Cut the veal into squares of about four inches; season vrell with salt, pepper and Cayenne. Beat an egg well and take each grillade and soak well in the egg, and then roll in bread crumbs grated. Have ready a pan of boiling grease, sufficient for the grillades to swim in it; fry to a nice brown and serve very hot.



Left-Over Meat.

Left-over meat may be utilized in many delightful ways, such as "Boulettes," "Boulards," "Croquettes," "Rissoles," "Meat Souffle" and various forms of Hash. The following are the forms of preparation in use among the Creoles:



Meat Balls.
Boulettes.

Take one pound of steak from the upper round and mince and chop very fine. Add to it one tablespoonful of lemon juice, one onion (well grated), one tablespoonful of melted butter, and mixed salt, black pepper and Cayenne, seasoning highly; mix all thoroughly. Form the meat into balls, using about two tablespoonfuls for each, which will allow six or eight balls or boulettes. Have ready a deep frying pan of lard, sufficient for the boulettes to swim and fry to a nice brown. Take out and drain of all grease, place on a hot platter and garnish with fried parsley, and serve very hot.

The same directions may be used In making croquettes of meat, only the latter are formed into cylindrical shapes. If fried in butter, the boulettes. or croquettes, are very delicious, but they are nice either way if well seasoned, for their success depends upon this.



Meat Balls.
Boulards.

Select slices of beef cut very thin from the round of the cross rib. Take one tomato, one onion, one carrot, a stalk of celery, several sprigs of parsley, one bay leaf, a sprig of thyme, three hard-boiled eggs, and chop very fine. Mix this with one tablespoonful of butter, a half cup of cracker crumbs and a pinch of ginger. Salt and pepper to taste. Take each slice of meat, and make a roll of it, folding the dressing within and folding over the edges that it may be retained. Tie each with thin twine. Have boiling lard or suet on the fire, drop in the boulards rolled in bread crumbs, set them back on the stove, cover well, and let them simmer gently for about two hours, adding a half cup of water to prevent scorching. Keep the pot covered. After two hours, drain the boulards well by laying them on heated brown paper; place them in a hot dish, garnish it with sliced hard-boiled eggs, parsley and olives, and serve. Each Doulard should be about the size of an egg.



Left-Over Meat.
Rissoles.

Mince the meat finely and season well. Mix the ingredients thoroughly with it, adding, if you have it, minced Chauriee or usage meat, or a little cold ham minced. Form it into balls, using two tablespoonfuls for each ball. Brush lightly with milk, toss in a little flour, pat to get off all superfluous flour, and brown nicely in boiling lard. Drain off all lard and serve on a platter, garnished with parsley sprigs.



Meat Souffle.
Souffle de Boeuf.

Put two level tablespoonfuls of butter into a frying pan, and when it Is hot add two tablespoonfuls of flour, rubbing smoothly and letting it brown. Then add gradually one cup of cold milk. Stir this until it boils. Add one-half teaspoonful of salt; a little pepper and one cupful of chopped meat, or fowl, that has been left over. When this comes to a boil, add the yolk of two beaten eggs. Let it cook a moment longer and set to cool. Then beat the whites of the eggs, and when the meat mixture is cold, fold them in carefully. Turn this into a buttered dish and bake in a moderate oven twenty minutes. Serve as soon as removed from the fire. A little grated nutmeg is a great addition.



Beefsteak Pie.
Vol-au-Vent de Boeuf.

Make a nice pie crust. (See Plata Paste.) Line a baking pan with , and bake in the oven. Cut the meat very fine, into dice, and season well, rubbing with the minced thyme, parsley, bay leaf and salt and pepper. Stew the meat as in Ragout de Veau a la Bourgeoise. Place in the pan. Dot the top with bits of butter, and place over all a layer of pie crust, decorating the edge nicely. Bake to a nice brown. Serve in the dish in which it was cooked, with any left-over sauce spread over the slices.



Potted Beef.
Terriue de Boeuf.

Chop the slices of beef very fine with the suet, and season with the mashed spices, the herbs, minced very fine, and mix thoroughly with the beaten yolka of the eggs. Pour over all the brandy and mix. Line the bottom of the baking nan with strips of lean bacon and dot of beef on top with bits of butter. Bake for two hours in a quick oven.



HASH.
HACHIS.

Take the remains of cold roast, stew, bouilli. steaks or fowl, and mince very fine. To every quart of meat allow one onion, a quarter of a clove of garlic, chopped fine, and one pint of chopped (uncooked) potatoes, and two hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine. Mix all this with the minced meat, add salt, pepper and Cayenne to taste; put into a stew pan with a tablespoonful of butter or lard, and let it simmer gently. After ten minutes adil a half pint of hot water. Let it cook ten minutes longer and serve. The egg may be omitted.



Dry or Baked Hash.
Hachls Sec..

Chop and mince the meat very fine. Chop the potatoes fine, or in square-inch pieces. Mince the parsley, bay leaf, onion and garlic fine; mix all together with the meat and potatoes and season highly with pepper and Cayenne, salting to taste. Add the tablespoonful of butter and bake in a moderate oven for about one hour.



Hash on Toast.
Hachis sur Canapes.

Cut the left-over roast, bouilli or steak into small squares. To each pint of these little squares allow one tablespoonful of butter, one tablespoonful of flour and a half pint of boiling water. Put the butter into a frying pan, and as it melts add the flour, being careful not to let it burn. When browned add the water, or, preferably, milk, and stir until it begins to boil. Then add the hashed and seasoned meat, and season again to taste. Set the hash on a moderate fire and let it simmer for fifteen minutes.

In the meantime, toast slices of bread and butter them. Set them in a hot dish, spread each slice with the hash very thickly and pour the sauce over and serve. The hash may be baked and spread on the toast and served with a sauce a l'Espagnole. (See recipe.)



Corn Beef.
Boeuf au Mi-Sel.

Cut the veal into fine pieces, season well, and put it in a kettle with the calf's feet, and season highly with pepper, Cayenne and salt to taste. Add three quarts of beef broth, or "pot-au-feu." Add the minced vegetables, herbs and the peppercorns, and let it boil gently until it forms a jelly, which will be in about two and a half hours. Then take out the veal and calf's feet, and carefully remove all the bones, if any, and place in a mold. Let the liquor in which it was boiled boil until it is reduced to about a quart, adding, in tho meantime, the good vinegar. When re duced, pour over the meat, and set it in a cold place over night. When cold, turn out of the mold and garnish nicely with sliced lemon and parsley sprigs and serve in slices.



Veal With Olives.
Veau aux Olives.

This is a very old-fashioned Creole dish. Get a flank of veal and cut It into strips of about tour inches in length and four in width. Cut off sufficient to make a half cup, and chop this fine, with a slice of cold boiled ham. Make a mince meat, adding chopped herbs, according to taste, 1 grated onion, 1 hard-boiled egg, the juice of 1 lemon and a tablespoonful of butter, with a naif cup of bread crumbs. Take the strips of veal, stuff them nicely with this mixtures and roll over the ends, tying to prevent the farcie from escaping. Place a tablespoonful of butter in a frying pan, and, when it heats, add the rolls of veal. Let them fry for ten minutes, turning, and then add soup broth sufficient to cover them. Cover closely and set back on the stove, and let thenx simmer steadily but slowly for an hour longer; then place in a hot dish, pour the gravy over, seasoning highly; add about two dozen stoned olives, and pour over the rolls and serve.



Veal Pot Pie.
Vol-au-Vent de Veau.

This is a famous dish among the Creoles with large families. For a family of six, get a veal brisket, and allow three parts of minced veal to one of ham.

Make a nice pie crust. (See Plain Paste.) Line a baking pan with this, and bake in the oven. Cut the meat very fine, into dice, and season highly, rubbing with the minced thyme, parsley, bay leaf and salt and pepper and Cayenne. Stew the meat as in Ragout de Veau a la Bourgeoise. Place in the pan. Dot the top with bits of butter, and place over all a layer of pie crust, decorating the edges nicely. Bake to a nice brown. Serve in the dish in which it was cooked, with any left-over sauce spread over the slices.



Veal Pot Croquettes.
Croquettes de Veau.

This is an excellent way of utilizing left-over veal. Remove all the tough fibers and nerves. Hash the veal well and season with the minced vegetables and sweet herbs, mixing all thoroughly. Then take a cup of the soft of the bread, wet it and squeeze, and soak in milk, in which you have beaten two eggs. Mix all this with the meat very thoroughly and season to taste. When well mixed, form the meat into cylindrical shapes and brush with a little butter. Then roll in a beaten egg and roll again in powdered bread crumbs. Fry in boiling lard and serve hot on a plate garnished with fried parsley.



Calf's Head a la Poulette.
Tete de Veau a la Poulette.

Clean and prepare the call's head as in the recipe given for "Calf's Head Soup." (See recipe.) Then boil it according to recipe. Cut one lemon fine and add to- the boiling calf head, which, it must be remembered, is boiled simply in water, and salt and pepper. Add two tablespoonfuls of good vinegar and let It cook till done. This is either used to make a mock turtle soup or is served with a Sauce a la Poulette, as follows: Make a Sauce a la Poulette. (See recipe.) Put the calf's head in the sauce and let it boil for a half hour. Take the yolk of one egg and beat it as you would an omelet. Add to the calf's head and serve. This will give the sauce a fine golden color.

Calf's head may also be served with a Sauce Allemande. (See recipe.)



Calf's Head a la Torture.
Tete de Veau a la Tortue.

Slice the onions and mince the garlic. Put the butter into a stew pot, and as it melts add the onions and let them brown; then add the garlic and let it come to a rich brown. Add one tablespoonful of flour, sifted well ,and, as this becomes brown, add one pint of consomme or water if you have not the broth. Then add the chopped thyme and bay leaf and the peel of one lemon, cut very fine, and the juice. Let all this simmer for about ten minutes and then cut up the calf's head and add it to the mixture. After fifteen minutes add a half can of mushrooms, and, in a few minutes, one small glass of Sherry wine. Let it all cook about ten minutes, and then season well, according to taste. Let all cook about half an hour longer, and, when ready to serve, place the calf's head in the middle of the dish, pour the gravy over and range the mushrooms around. Garnish them with the pieces of a flat omelet, which you have made from the two eggs, and cut into diamond shapes, alternating with toast butterel and cut into diamond-shaped Croutons.



Calf's Brains Tried.
Cervelles de Veau Marinade.

Plunge the brains into cold water to disgorge them of all blood and remove the fine skin and blood that surrounds them. Then blanch with scalding water In five minutes take them out of the hot water and put them into a saucepan and cover with cold water. Add a tiny onion, sliced fine; parsley and. bay leaf, whole. Let them simmer gently for five minutes. Then take from the fire and drain. When cold, cut into pieces of a square inch and dip in a batter or tomato sauce, and then in grated bread crumbs, patting gently. Drop into boiling lard and-fry to a golden brown. Take out and drain of grease and serve on a bed of fried parsley. A garnish of boiled green peas is also very pretty and palatable.



Calf's Brains, Brown Butter Sauce.
Cervelles de Veau au Beurre Noir.

Prepare the brains as mentioned above by boiling, and then place in a saucepan, with a tablespoonlul of butter. Cut up a tiny onion, and also add a sprig of thyme, bay leaf and parsley, all minced very fine. Add to the butter, and then add the brains cut in slices a half inch thick. Season again to taste. Fry for five minutes, and serve with a Sauce aux Beurre Noir. (See recipe.)



Calf's Liver Fried.
Foie De Veau Saute a la Lyonnaise.

Slice the liver very fine into pieces of about three inches in length and one in width. Season well with salt and pepper. Slice two onions very fine and take a tablespoonful of lard or butter and put into the frying pan. Wheu it heats, add the onions, and, as they brown, place on top the slices of liver. Let them brown on one side about two minutes and a half, and then turn on the other. Let this side brown two minutes and a half longer and serve with the onion sauce, to which add a teaspoonful of vinegar.



Calf's Liver a la Bourgeoise.
Foie de Veau Saute a la Bourgeoise.

Wash the liver and lard it well with needles. Put a tablespoonful of lard or butter into the frying pan, and when hot, add immediately the onion, carrot and turnip, all sliced very fine, and then the fine herbs, nicely minced. Let these brown, and add the liver. Pour over this about two spoons of White wine or one of Sherry. Add about a pint of consomme or boiling water. Season highly, cover the saucepan well, set back on the fire, and let it simmer for about half an hour, and serve.



Fried Liver and Bacon.
Foie de Veau Frit au Petit Sale.

Slice the liver into pieces of about three inches in lengrth and one-quarter of an inch in thickness; slice the bacon very thin, having as many slices of the bacon as of the liver. Put the bacon in the frying pan and fry brown; then place it in a heated dish and set over a pot of boiling water and cover to keep warm. Dust the liver with flour, after having seasoned well with salt and pepper and fry it in the bacon fat. When it cooks about five minutes, allowing two minutes and a half to each side, take out and arrange on the same dish with the bacon in alternate slices. Garnish nicely with parsley and serve.



Calf's Feet, Plain.
Pieds de Veau au Naturel.

Split each of the calf's feet in two. Then carefully remove the larger bones, and cut the meat into pieces of about one inch square. Soak well in fresh water for one hour. Then wash and drain thoroughly. Put two tablspoonfuls of flour and three quarts of cold water Into a saucepan; stir well, mixing thoroughly; place the feet in the mixture and add one onion (chopped fine), twelve whole peppers, one carrot cut into fine shreds; the herb bouquet and two tablespoonfuls of salt. Let the feet boil briskly for about one hour. Take from the fire and drain well. They are now ready to serve with any sauce that may be desired.





Calf's Feet a la Poulette.
Pieds de Veau a la Poulette.

Boil the calf's feet; then take out the larger bones and cut in pieces of about one square inch. Prepare a Sauce a la Poulette by putting one tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan, and, as it melts, add two tablespoons of sifted flour, add about one pint of the water in which the calf's feet have been boiled. Stir well and throw in the calf's feet, salt and pepper to taste, and, if desired, about a quarter of a can of chopped mushrooms. Let it boil about five minutes, and then take off the stove and add the yolk of an egg (beaten well), the juice of one lemon, and serve.



Calf's Feet, Tomato Sauce.
Pieds de Veau, Sauce Tamate.

Prepare the feet as in the recipe for "Calf's Feet, Plain," and pour over, when ready to serve, a Sauce a la Tomate. (See recipe.)



Calf's Feet, Piquante Sauce.
Pieds de Veau, Sauce Piquante.

Prepare the calf's feet as in recipe for "Calf's Feet, Plain," and add, when ready to serve, one pint of Sauce Piquante.(See recipe.)



Calf's Feet, Sauce Remoulade.
Pieds de Veau a la Sauce Remoulade.

Prepare the feet as in the recipe for Calf's Feet Plain, and pour over, when ready to serve, one pint of hot Sauce Remoulade. (See recipe.)



Calf's Feet, Italian Sauce.
Pieds de Veau a la Sauce Italienne.

Prepare the feet as in the recipe for "Calf's Feet Plain", and serve with one pint of Sauce a l'Itanlienne. (See recipe.)

SWEETBREADS.
Ris de Veau.

Sweetbreads are the glands in the throat of a suckling calf. They are found in the throat of all very young suckling animals, but are more considerable in the throat of the young calf, and even then at the largest are seldom bigger than a man's fist doubled over. The sweetbreads are the glands used by the calf in sucking, and are only found in the young calf during the period when it is fed on its mother's milk. When a calf is turned out to grass, the sweetbreads, or milk glands, begin to grow smaller, and in three or four days disappear, no longer standing out in a mass of delicate flesh, but hanging long and soft and flabby. On account of their delicacy, sweetbreads have always been the object of particular attention of good cuisin-teres, because, in a fine, fresh state and with proper preparation they can be made not only into a most delightful and palatable dish, but are, perhaps, the most recherche of all meat dishes. At least the sweetbreads have always been so considered by the French, who set the world the lesson of good eating hundreds of years ago; and the Creole chefs of New Orleans, improving upon old French methods of cooking, as well as originating their own delicious combinations, sustain the verdict of the gourmets of the ancient mother country.



How to Blach Sweetbreads.

Select three fine pairs of sweetbreads and clean and trim nicely. Soak them for at least two and a half hours in cold fresh water, pouring off the water from time to time till three separate waters have been used. About three-quarters of an hour may be allowed for the first two waters. Add a pinch of salt to each water. After soaking for the time specified, drain the sweetbreads and place them in a saucepan of cold water and set on the fire; add a half teaspoonful of salt, and let them blanch till they come to a boil. Then drain and set them in cold water to freshen. Drain thoroughly, press them into shape and lay on a napkin in a cool place. They are now ready for general use. The sweetbreads should be pressed down gently with a pound weight, in order to flatten well.



Sweetbreads Larded, With Mushroom Sauce.
Ris de Veau Pique aux Champignons.

Soak the sweetbreads in clear, cold water as soon as you come from market, for they are so delicate that they spoil very easily. Wash well, to take off all the blood; wash again in a clear cold water, and parboil them for ten minutes.Then drain them of all water, press them into shape and put them on a clean cloth on a table and cover with a plank and put a weight upon them to flatten. When cold, clean with a knife, cutting off all the outside nerves, veins and fibers, without breaking the sweetbreads, however. Cut fat lard into little strips like matches, and, with a larding needle. Lard the sweetbreads, slipping the needle in on one side and bringing out on the other. Lard each sweetbread eight times. Then slice one onion and one carrot very fine; mince three bay leaves and a whole sprig of thyme. Take a very thin slice of very fat bacon, cut it into thin strips and cover the bottom of the saucepan with these. Lay the sweetbreads on top and put on top of these the sliced onion, carrot and finely minced herbs. Salt and pepper by sprinkling nicely. Cover this with a few fine strips of fat bacon. Cover the whole with a brown paper, which has been well greased with butter, and put the pan in a slow oven with the paper on top. Let the sweetbreads bake for about twenty minutes, basting occasionally. In the meantime make a Sauce a I'Espagnole as follows: Chop a few pieces of beef very fine, or else use good stock. If meat is used boil in about two pints of water. When it is reduced to about one pint, take off and strain. Take a tablespoonful of butter or lard, and brown lightly with a tablespoonful of flour. Then add the water, and dissolve well, stirring constantly to prevent being lumpy. Add to this a half can of mushrooms, and let it simmer a few minutes, and then add a glass of Sherry or Madeira wine. Let it cook rapidly for about ten minutes. In the meantime, the sweetbreads will have been cooked to a nicety. Take them out of tle pan and put one by one into the sauce, and let them cook ten minutes longer. Serve with buttered croutons cut in dice shapes. Sweetbreads are always served with fresh young green peas. This is a famous Creole dish.



Sweetbreads With Green Peas.
Ris de Veau Saute aux Petit Pois.

Prepare the Sweetbreads in exactly the same manner as indicated in the above recipe, which is the very nicest way in which they can be served. Make the sauce as indicated, letting it brown slightly, and, instead of the mushrooms, add a can of French Petit Pois or a pint of fresh young green peas that have already been boiled well and drained from all liquor. Place the sweetbreads in one by one and let them cook for ten minutes longer and serve with the sweetbreads placed in the center of the dish, and the green peas around them as a garnish.



Sweetbreads With Truffles.
Ris de Veau Saute aux Truffles.

Prepare the Sweetbreads in exactly the same manner as in the recipe "Sweetbreads with Mushrooms." When making the sauce, add a wineglassful of Madeira or Sherry, and one-half can of truffles cut in halves. Serve with the truffles as a garnish about the sweetbreads. This is a very expensive dish, very recherche and very elegant.



Sweetbreads a la Creme.
Ris de Veau it la Creme.

Clean and parboil the Sweetbreads for twenty minutes. Then remove all veins and nerves, and chop the meat into pieces of about an inch and a half. Chop the mushrooms very fine indeed. Put the butter in a saucepan, and, when it melts, add the flour, being careful not to let it brown. When perfectly smooth, add the milk and stir constantly until it boils. Then add the chopped mushrooms and let them simmer for five minutes. Season well to taste with salt and white pepper. Then add the Sweetbreads and cook for five minutes longer and serve hot. At luncheons and dinners the Sweetbreads a la Creme are served in small silver shells or fancy paper cases.



Sweetbreads a la Financiere.
Ris de Veau a la Financiere.

Select fine, fresh Sweetbreads and prepare as in the recipe for Sweetbreads Larded with Mushrooms. Parboil for twenty minutes; then (Drain of all water; press them into shape, lay on a clean napkin and cover with a plank and place a weight upon them to press and make solid. Take a piece of fine salt pork, and cut into little thin strips like matches and lard the Sweetbreads with this, using a very fine larding needle, and following implicitly the directions given in the recipe for Sweetbreads Larded With Mushroom Sauce. Lard each Sweetbread eight times. Then take a shallow saucepan and put within a half pound of butter. When the butter melts, lay in the Sweetbreads, one by one. Season with salt and pepper very lightly, and add the three carrots, sliced fine, and the onion, sliced very fine. Add the finely minced thyme and bay leaves. Butter a piece of brown paper and cover the saucepan; then set in the oven and let the Sweetbreads cook slowly till they are of a bright golden brown. From time to time uncover the saucepan and turn the Sweetbreads, so that all portions of them may be evenly colored. When they have reached this beautiful color add one pint of good beef broth (Consomme or Bouillon), and let them simmer for a half or three-quarters of an hour. When nearly ready to serve, prepare a Sauce a la Financiere, as follows: Take two table-spoonfuls of butter, melt and remove from the fire, and add gradually a table-spoonful of flour; blend well with a wooden spoon till very smooth, and moisten with one pint of rich chicken broth and set on the fire. Add the truffles, nicely sliced; a dozen and a half stoned olives; the blanched chicken livers, cut in pieces; the mushrooms, nicely chopped; a half pint of Madeira or Sherry wine, salt and pepper to taste, and a dash of Cayenne or Tabasco. Let the sauce cook for twenty minutes. It should be of the consistency of rich cream. Place the sauce in a round dish, lay the Sweetbreads over it, garnish with the Godiveau Quenelles and Croutons fried in butter and send to the table hot.



SWEETBREADS A LA POULETTE.
Ris de Veau a la Poulette.

Parboil the sweetbreads for about twenty minutes, then make a Sauce a la Poulette (see recipe), adding the juice of one lemon and seasoning to taste. But do not add the eggs till the sauce has been taken from the fire or it will curdle. When the sauce is made, place the Sweetbreads in it, one by one, and let it come to the boiling point. Then remove from the fire and stir in the yolks of four eggs that have been well beaten, and a half tablespoonful of butter. Sprinkle with finely-chopped parsley, pour over the Sweetbreads and serve.



Sweetbreads in Casseroles.
Riz de Vean en Casseroles, ou Vol-au-Vent.

Parboil the Sweetbreads in exactly the same manner as in the above recipe for Sweetbreads a la Poulette. Six Sweetbreads will suffice. Cut them into dice pieces after parboiling; add a quarter of a can of finely-chopped mushrooms to the sauce and a glass of Sherhy wine.Take two dozen oysters and cut in pieces, taking oft all the hard portions. Add the chopped Sweetbreads to the sauce, and, after ten minutes, add the oysters. Let them cook for five minutes, have ready a pan filled with a rich Vol-au-Vent crust, pour the mixture in and serve. Or make the Vol-au-Vent crust, which is very difficult (see recipe), into small shells, bake and fill with the Sweetbreads. This is an elegant dish for fashionable luncheons, but quite above the ordinary householder's purse. The Sweetbreads are generally served In casseroles or fancy cases.



Sweetbreads Crepinettes.
Crepinettes de Ris de Veau.

Clean and parboil the Sweetbreads as already shown in recipe. Chop an onion very fine and place it in a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter. Let them simmer without browning; add one bay leaf, one sprig of thyme, one-half clove or garlic, a teaspoonful of prepared mustard, and mix well. Then add a pint of water and stir well; then add the Sweetbreads, which have been chopped very fine and formed into "Crepinettes," or little fringed balls, by patting with the hand; let them simmer for about fifteen minutes longer. Serve with any sauce, preferably a Cream Sauce. (See recipe under chapter "Sauces for Fish, Meats etc.")



Fried Sweetbreads Breaded.
Ris de Veau Panees.

Wash and parboil the Sweetbreads and then trim off all tendons and nerves. Cut into pieces of about two inches long and roll first in a well-beaten egg and then in bread crumbs. Drop into boiling fat and fry till a golden brown. Serve with a Cream Sauce.



Brolled Sweetbreads.
Ris de Veau Grillees.

Parboil the Sweetbreads and then remove all nerves. Cut into halves. Brush with melted butter and place on the gridiron. Broil nicely, and, when well colored, take off, pour melted butter over them, season again, and serve very hot. This is a delicious breakfast dish.



Sweetbreads Smothered.
Ris de Veau Bralsses.

Prepare the Sweetbreads as in the recipe for "Sweetbreads Larded With Mushrooms." Put them into a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of butter, and let them brown slightly. Add a finely-sliced carrot and onion and the minced herbs. Season lightly with salt and pepper. Cover the saucepan with a buttered paper, and then cover closely. Occasionally uncover and turn the Sweetbreads till they are all browned evenly to a nice golden brown. When they have reached this color, add the pint of consomme or water and cover again and let them simmer for about twenty minutes. They are now ready to serve with any kind of sauce or garnish that may be desired. In serving Sweetbreads thus prepared, always place the sauce on the dish, first having the dish very hot; lay the Sweetbreads over the sauce, garnish nicely with fried Croutons and serve. Sweetbreads thus prepared may be served with a Sauce a I'Oiselle, Sauce Salpicon, Sauce a la Soubise, Sauce a la Bearnaise, Sauce a la Duxelle, Sauce aux Gourmets, with a Puree of Spinach, or with hot Crepes.



Tripe.
Tripe.

Tripe, which is the large stomach of ruminating animals, is generally cleaned, scraped, bleached and prepared by the butchers before it is sold. It is nutritious and digestible. To prepare the tripe properly for cooking, wash it carefully in several waters. When throughly clean, put it in a kettle of cold water, add one tablespoonful of salt and one of vinegar, and let the tripe boil for five hours at least. It is always best, if tripe is to be used for breakfast, to prepare it and give the long boiling the day before. Drain thoroughly. Then it is ready for preparation according to any of the following recipes:



Stewed Tripe.
Tripe Sautee.

Take the prepared tripe and cut into strips of about one finger length and a half inch in width. Put a tablespoonful in a saucepan; add a finely sliced onion, a spring of parsley and a bay leaf, minced. Stir in the melted butter without letting it brown, then add a tablespoonful of flour. Stir well and add a pint of milk. Stir constantly till it comes to a boil, seasoning to the taste with salt and pepper. Then add the well-seasoned tripe and let it cook over a moderate fire for about five minutes.



Stewed Tripe a la Lyonnalse.
Tripe Saute a la Loyinnaise.

Place a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan and add one chopped onion, one carrot, finley sliced; a sprig each of thyme, parsley, bay leaf and salt and pepper. Let it brown slightly and place the tripe on top, and add a half clove of garlic, minced ver fine. Sprinkle with chopped parsley and add the juice of one lemon. Let it all simmer for a few minutes and then add a half cup of broth or hot water. Season to taste; let it simmer for twenty minutes longer and serve.



Tripe a la Poulette.
Gras-Double a la Poulette.

Having prepared the tripe according to the directions given under the heading of "Tripe," make a rich Sauce a la Poulette, always omitting the eggs till later. (See recipe.) Take eight small white onions that have already been boiled in plain water until they are perfectly tender, and add to the sauce. Let them stew for about five minutes. Then add the tripe, which has been cut into pieces of three inches in length and one-half inch in width, and stew the whole gently for about a half hour. Take off the fire and add the beaten yolks of two eggs, stirring constantly, and serve hot.



Fried Tripe.
Tripe Frite.

Prepare the tripe, boil well, and cut into pieces of three inches in length and one in width. Roll it in a beaten egg and then roll in grated bread crumbs. Drop in boiling lard and try to a golden brown. (See directions for frying.) Take off the fire and place on a bed of fried parsley and garnish with sliced lemon. Serve with a Sauce Piquante or a Sauce Poivrade. (See recipe for meat sauces.)



Tripe a la Creole.
Gras-Double a la Creole.

Clean the tripe well, and boil till tender. Cut it into slices of about two inches long and half an inch wide. Take two onions and slice them fine, and a tablespoonful of butter. Put in a saucepan together and let them smother well. Then chop about one inch square of lean ham very fine, and add. Take two cloves of garlic, chopped fine, with three sprigs each of thyme and bay leaf, minced very fine. Put in a saucepan, and let all brown.Then add about twelve large, fresh tomatoes, or the contents of a two-pound can. Season all to taste with salt and Cayenne pepper. Let it cook for ten minutes, and then add the tripe, and let all smother for twenty-five minutes. Season to taste,and serve hot.



Tripe a la Mode de Caen.
Gras-Double a la Mode de Caen.

Take three pounds of tripe. Cut the tripe into pieces of about two inches square. Slice three onions and three large carrots very fine. Take one dozen whole bay leaves, one ounce of thyme. whole; one dozen whole cloves, and the same number of allspice, three whole cloves of garlic, two dozen pieces of very thin bacon cut into pieces of two inches square. Have ready a two-gallon earthen jar that can stand baking in an oven. Put in the bottom of the jar a thin layer of butter. Place on top a thin layer of bacon, then a thin layer of onions, carrots, bay leaves, thyme, garlic, spices, dividing into two equal portions the whole amount. Sprinkle over the whole salt, Cayenne and Chili pepper. On top of this lay one-half of the tripe. Over the tripe place a layer of bacon; then vegetables, seasonings, etc. Over this place another layer of tripe, and remnants of thyme, bay leaf, vegetables, bacon, etc., as below, this being the last layer. Pour over all a half bottle of White wine and one cup of broth or water. Cover the jar closely with a layer of Pie Paste (Pate Brisee--see recipe), set in a very moderate oven, and let it cook slowly for at least five hours of constant, steady cooking. This is a very recherche old-fashioned Creole dish, and very excellent. Some add to the tripe a small quantity of calf's head or feet. In making this dish you will need little else for dinner besides a soup or gumbo.



CHAPTER XIV.

Mutton.
Du Mouton.

The leg, shoulder and loin of the mutton are used as roasting pieces. The brisket and neck are used for soups and stews, and from the loins are cut the delicate French chops or cutlets of mutton. Mutton is so susceptible of elegant seasoning, and so easily impregnated with the different aromatic herbs used in cooking that it becomes not only most agreeable to the taste, but tender and very easily digested.



Something To Remember In Cooking Mutton.

Remember that mutton must never be breaded, and mutton chops fried. You will hear of mutton chops en papilotte, in imitation of the ways of cooking veal chops, but the Creoles very wisely and very sensibly refrain from cooking mutton in any other ways than those given in this book. No good Creole cook will eat a fried mutton chop.



Roast Leg of Mutton.
Gigot Roti.

Select a fine, tender leg of mutton. Wipe thoroughly with a damp towel and dredge with salt and pepper, thoroughly rubbing, so that the meat may be penetrated by the seasoning. Place the mutton in a baking pan, set in a quick oven and bake, basting every ten minutes or so, allowing twelve minutes to every pound. The mutton must never be overdone, but underdone. The Creoles always serve it rare. It will require no larding, for the meat is rich and soon makes sufficient juice to allow frequent basting. To ascertain if done, press with the fingers or stick with a fork; the juice will spurt out, and it is then ready to serve. Decorate the bone with a quilling of white paper, and serve in its own sauce. The dish on which mutton is placed must always be very hot, as also the plates on which it is to be served. A very nice way to serve it, and one generally used by the Creoles, is to put a circle of nicely-boiled and browned turnips around the dish, and serve with the gravy of the mutton.



Roast Saddle of Mutton.
Selle de Mouton Rotie.

A Saddle of Mutton is two loins. Proceed to roast in exactly the same manner as for a single leg. Serve with Currant Jelly.



Roast Loin of Mutton.
Filet de Mouton Roti.

The filet of mutton is a square out from the loin. Proceed to dredge with salt and pepper, and roast in exactly the same manner as leg of mutton. The Creoles serve the filet very often with a garnish of green peas (Petit Pois) piled around.



Boiled Leg of Mutton, Cap�r Sauce.
Gigot de Mouton Bouilli, Sauce aux Capres.

Rub the leg of mutton well with salt and pepper. Have ready a pot of boiling water, into which you have thrown the herbs, bay leaf, salt and pepper, allowing a teaspoonful each of the two latter ingredients. Put the leg of mutton into the water being very careful to have it well covered with water, else the meat will blacken. Let it boil gently, but steadily, allowing fifteen minutes to every pound of meat. When done, place on a dish and serve with a Caper Sauce. In serving slice nicely and put a few drops of lemon on each slice, and pour over the Caper Sauce. (See recipe Caper Sauce.) Mutton thus prepared is also served with a Puree of Turnips.



Mutton Stew.
Ragout de Mouton aux Pommes de Terre.

Cut the mutton into pieces of about an inch square and season well with salt and pepper. Put one-quarter of a table-spoonful of lard into the stewpot, and when it melts add the thinly sliced onions. Let these brown for a few minutes and then add the mutton and the ham, chopped very fine. Let this continue browning, and when slightly browned add one tablespoonful of finely sifted flour and stir well. Then add the finely-minced bay leaf and a half clove of garlic, minced fine. Brown lightly,for a mutton stew must never be dark. After twenty minutes, add two quarts of boiling water and let it boil for about ten minutes longer, seasoning to taste. Then add the potatoes, cut into halves, and let the mixture cook for three-quarters of an hour longer, making one hour and a half in all. Let it simmer gently all the time, so that the meat may be perfectly tender.



Mutton Stew With Turnips.
Ragouts de Mouton aux Navets.

Cut the mutton into pieces of about an inch in length and thickness, and season well. Proceed to make the stew as mentioned above, only instead of adding potatoes, add turnips parboiled, and cut into halves or quarters. This is a very delicious stew. The neck of the mutton may also be used for stews, but preferably the brisket.



Shoulder of Mutton Smothered With Turnips.
Epaule de Mouton Bralsee.

If the mutton does not appear very tender the process of smothering it will make it so. It is well to beat the leg well with a rolling pin, and you will be sure of good and tender eating. Season well. Slice an onion and one carrot very fine; chop fine a half stalk of celery, and put these, with the shoulder of mutton, into a deep baking pot. Cover well and let the mutton juice permeate the vegetables and brown them. Then add the minced bay leaves and cloves; cover and let these brown, and after ten minutes add one quart of boiling water. Season well again, and set on a steady fire, allowing fifteen minutes to every pound. An hour before serving add six whole turnips, which have been peeled and parboiled, and let these remain smothered with the mutton. Serve with the turnips as a garnish. This dish is highly recommended.



Broiled Mutton Chops.
Cotelettes de Mouton Grilles et Panees.

In selecting mutton chops for broiling, remember that the smaller French chops, which are cut from the breast of the mutton, are generally served at dinner, and the loin chops for breakfast. The breast chops are daintier in appearance, but the loin chops are sweeter and the meat is more solid. The French chops should always be cut thinner than the loin chops.

Season the chops well with salt and pepper and brush with melted butter and a few bread crumbs. Have the gridiron very hot and place the chops upon it. In a few seconds turn the chop and let this side cook. The blood will be running out, and the chop is done. Place on a platter, butter thickly and sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve very hot.



Mutton Chops.
Cotelettes de Mouton.

The cutlets are slices from the thick part of the leg of the mutton and are very excellent eating. Trim off the outer skin and broil in the same manner as mutton chops. They are very delicious served for dinner with a garnish of Puree of Spinach. (See recipe.)



Mutton Chops, Brewer's Style.
Cotelettes de Mouton a la Brasseur.

Select six thick chops from the loin of the mutton. Trim neatly and season well with salt and black pepper and a dash of Cayenne. Rub lightly with butter on either side and broil on a hot charcoal fire. Have ready a hot dish and pour over the chops a sauce of melted butter, seasoned nicely with salt and pepper, the juice of one lemon and three minced shallots. Serve hot.



Mutton Hash.
Haschis de Mouton.

This is a splendid way of utilizing the left-over mutton. After having taken off all the rough edges of the roast and cut out the gristle and hard membrane, hash the mutton into pieces of about one inch in size. Take six left-over tomatoes, or freshly boiled, and cut into quarters. Chop fine one herb bouquet. Place a tablespoonful of butter or a half tablespoonful of lard into the stewpot, and as it melts add the mutton seasoned well, and a few minutes later the fine herbs. Mince the clove of garlic if the flavor is liked and add. Stir constantly without browning much, and add a tablespoonful of flour. Let this brown very slightly and then add the tomatoes. Cover and let all simmer for about twenty minutes, and then pour over a pint of boiling water. Season again to taste and set back on the stove and let it simnaer gently for about three-quarters of an hour. Cut some Croutons and fry them in butter; place on a dish and serve with the hash. The Creoles often add several poached eggs if the sauce is not thick enough. It is also a frequent custom to add a quarter or a half can of mushrooms to the hash, but this is always a matter of taste and economy.



Mutton Feet a la Poulette.
Pleds de Mouton a la Poulette.

This is a famous Creole dish. Scald the mutton feet in boiling water and remove every vestige of wool that may adhere, cleaning and scraping the feet. Then place them in a pot. cover well with boiling water, add half a lemon (including peel and meat) to the water, and salt well. In the meantime, prepare a Sauce a la Poulette as follows: Make a Cream Sauce (see recipe Meat Sauces) and add the juice of one lemon, or halt a tablespoonful of good vinegar. Take the mutton feet out of the water in which they have been boiled, take out the big bones from the feet. Put the mutton feet into the Sauce a la Poulette, add a gill of water, let all simmer about five minutes, and then take off the fire and add the yolks of two eggs, beaten well, stirring well Into the sauce. Serve hot. Many of the Creoles add a half can of mushrooms to the mutton feet before putting in the sauce. This makes the dish very delicious, increasing the flavor.



Mutton Feet a la Lyonaise.
Pieds de Mouton a la Lyonnaise.

Clean and boil the mutton feet in the same way as indicated in the above recipe. When done take out the large bones and cut the feet into two-inch pieces. Cut two onions very fine, mincing them, and brown in a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter. When slightly brown add a tablespoon of flour. Mix well, making a nice Brown Roux (see recipe under chapter on "Sauces for Meats, Fish, etc.") and then add about a pint of the broth in which the mutton feet have been boiled. As it boils, skim off the grease and let it simmer for about ten minutes. Then add the mutton feet and let them simmer ten minutes longer, and serve hot, with Croutons of bread fried in butter. Mutton feet may also be served with a Puree of Onions. (See recipe.)

Stuffed Mutton Feet.
Pieds de Mouton Farcis.

Clean the mutton feet well, according to directions given, and bOil and take out all the bones. Take a half cup of wet bread and squeeze well. Season well with salt and pepper and fry in a little butter and add a chopped egg Stuff the feet with this, splitting down the length and sewing up to prevent the dressing escaping. Take a saucepan and put in one tablespoonful of lard and lay over it thin slices of veal, well seasoned, and one bay leaf, one sprig of thyme and geranium (minced very fine), three chopped carrots, and two onions (chopped very fine). Pour over this the juice of a lemon, let it simmer gently for about a half hour, turning the veal, that it may cook well and be thoroughly penetrated by the juices. Put the stuffed mutton feet on top, cover closely, and let all simmer for a half hour longer. Then unsew the mutton feet, lay them on the slices of veal, garnish nicely and serve with a Sauce a l'Espagnole, Sauce aux Tomates, a Sauce aux Ognons, or Sauce a la Provencale. The latter two are highly recommended.



Sheep Tongue Smothered.
Langues de Mouton Braisees.

Scald and blanch the tongue, removing the skins. Throw them into cold water. Dry and pique or lard very delicately with larding needles. Season well with salt and pepper. Slice the bacon into fine strips and lay in the bottom of a saucepan; place the lamb tongues over this. Place on top another fine layer of bacon in very fine strips. Add the minced carrots, onion, herbs, and salt and pepper again to taste. Let it simmer for about fifteen minutes, and then moisten with about a pint of boiling water or broth. Let it cook over a slow fire about three hours. Then take out the tongues, place them on a hot dish, strain the sauce through a sieve, set back on the stove a few seconds, and add one-quarter of a cup of capers, and three pickles, sliced fine. Stir well and let it boil up once. Pour over the tongues and serve.

Lamb tongues are prepared in the same manner when braised or smothered.



Sheep Brains.
Cervelles de Mouton.

Plunge the brains into cold water to disgorge them of all blood and remove the fine skin and blood that surround them. Then blanch with scalding water. In five minutes take them out of the hot water and put them into a saucepan and cover with cold water. Add a tiny onion, sliced fine, parsley and a whole bay leaf. Let them simmer gently for five minutes. Then take from the fire and drain. When cold cut into pieces of a square inch and dip in a batter or tomato sauce, and then in grated breadcrumbs, patting gently. Drop into boiling lard and fry to a golden brown. Take out and drain off grease, and serve on a bed of fried parsley. A garnish of boiled green peas is also very pretty and palatable.



Sheep Brains, Brown Sauce.
Cervelles de Mouton., au Beurre Noir.

Prepare the brains in exactly the same manner as indicated in the above recipe and serve with Brown Butter Sauce. (See recipe.)



Sheep Kidneys.
Rogons en Brochettes.

Slice the kidneys very thin and wash well, then scald and wipe dry. Pass a skewer through each kidney, after seasoning well, and brush with melted butter. Place on a double broiler and cook for five minutes, allowing two and a half minutes to each side. Place on a hot dish and pour over melted butter and a little lemon juice. Garnish nicely with parsley and serve hot.



LAMB.
Agneau.

Lamb is in season from April to September. Like very young veal, it is unwholesome and tasteless if eaten too young. A lamb should always be two months old, else it will be what the Creoles call "une viande geialneuse," or a jelly meat not fit to eat and very difficult to manage. The best way to cook lamb is to roast it or bake it. The loin of the lamb is cut into chops; the brains, tongue, cutlets, tendons and feet are cooked in the same manner as those of sheep, and it would be superfluous to repeat the recipes. Stewed Lambs' Tongues, or "Langues d'Agneau Saute," served with a Sauce Tomate, or a Sauce a la Tartare, is an excellent entree, or luncheon dish.



Roasted Lamb, Mint Sauce.
Quartier d'Agneua Roti, Sauce Menthe.

This is the standing dish for the Easter dinner in New Orleans. Select a fine fresh, white hind-quarter of lamb. Roast in exactly the same manner as indicated In "Roast Leg of Mutton" (see recipe), only allow about twenty minutes to the pound in cooking. Serve with garnish of parsley and a Mint Sauce. (See recipe.) Roast Lamb is always served with fresh, young green peas and asparagus tips.



Roasted Lamb a la Bearnaise.
Agneau Roti a la Bearnaise.

Select a fine, white hind-quarter of the lamb; lard it in the same manner as given for larding "Roast Filet of Beef." (See recipe.) Rub well with butter on top and sprinkle over thickly with the soft of bread crumbs, minced parsley, thyme, bay leaf, salt and pepper and minced shallots. Set in the stove and cover with a buttered brown paper. Let it roast, allowing eighteen or twenty minutes to the pound, in a quick oven and, when done, take off the paper, sprinkle again lightly with grated bread crumbs; let it brown and set in a hot dish; sprinkle over with lemon juice; garnish the dish with sprigs of parsley and sliced lemon, and serve, carving in slices and placing a quarter of a lemon on each plate.

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Filet of Lamb Roasted and Larded.
Filet d’Agneau Roti et Pique.

Trim the filet nicely, removing the outer muscular skin. Lard the filet well, using larding needles. The lard must be very thin, like a shoestring. The larding is done by filling the needles with the lard and pushing them through the filet as far as they will go. If the needles are long enough they will come out on the other side of the filet, leaving the lard within. Repeat this process all down the center and along the sides of the filet, about an inch apart, and have the rows neat and even. If you have not a larding needle, make incisions with a knife and push the lard in with your finger, but the filet is never as juicy and tender, nor does it look so clean and even when baked. When well larded, dredge well with salt and pepper, rubbing this thoroughly into the beef. Cut up one small onion, one bay leaf, and mash four cloves, and place in the bottom of the baking pan. Lay the larded filet on this bed, the larded side being uppermost. Put small bits of butter equal to a half teaspoonful on top, and bake in a quick oven thirty minutes. This dish is always eaten rare. To ascertain if sufficiently done, stick a fork into the filet; if the blood bubbles out, it is ready to serve. The meat, when done, Is always spongy and elastic to the touch.

In the meantime, prepare the following Brown Sauce: Take one tablespoonful of butter and one of Glace (see recipe under chapter “Sauces for Meats, Fish, etc.”) and three of water, smoothly rubbed, and melt in a saucepan, stirring constantly to prevent burning. When brown, add one glass of Madeira or Sherry wine and a half cup of water. Season well with salt and pepper. Pour over the filet, which must be placed in a hot dish, and serve with fresh, young green peas.

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Filet of Lamb à la Bechamel.
Filet d’Agneau à la Bechamel.

Roast the lamb as in the manner given, and prepare a “Sauce à la Bechamel.” (See recipe.) Slice the lamb and pour over the sauce and serve. This is considered an excellent entree.



Broiled Lamb Chops.

Broil in exactly the same manner as Mutton Chops, only let them remain a little longer on the griddle, until the chops are firm under pressure of a foric. Season the chops well with salt and pepper and brush with melted butter and a few bread crumbs. Have the gridiron hot and place the chops upon it. In a few seconds turn the chops and let the other sides cook. Place on a platter, butter thickly and sprinkle with chopped parsley, and serve very hot.



Smothered Breast of Lamb

Select nice, fresh breast and shoulder of lamb. Have the butcher remove all the bones; wash or wipe carefully with a damp towel. Take one cup of bread crumbs, which have been wet and squeezed, and season well with one grated onion, clove of garlic, chopped parsley,thyme, bay leaf, and spice to taste. Put in a frying pan with one tablespoon of butter and fry about five minutes. PLace this dressing into the open side of the lamb, roll it up in its own meat, and tie it securely with thin strips of twine so the dressing may not escape in baiting.Slice the carrot, onion and turnip very fine, and fry in a tablespoonful of butter in a deep pan. When brown, add the lamb and cover and let it simmer for about fifteen minutes. Then add the tomatoes and let them brown; then add just enough boiling water to cover the meat (one pint); set the pot back on the stove and let simmer gently and steadilt for about three hours or according to the size of the roll. Serve with the vegetable dish around with its own gravy.



Minced Lamb

Place the butter in a frying pan; add one chopped onion and brown slightly. Add the mushrooms, and season to taste. Then add the half pint of veal broth, if you have it; if not, boiling water or milk, and let it simmer a few minutes.Thicken with a tablespoon of blended flour; add the mince lamb and a gill and a half of cream; let all simmer, stirring constantly; and when done, which will be in about ten minutes, take off of the fire. Add the yolks of two eggs, beaten, aand stir constantly. Place in a hot dish, garnish with croutons (buttered) and serve. This is a very nice breakfast dish from the leftover lamb.



Epigram of Lamb.

Take two breasts of Lamb; tie them and put them to boil in soup stock for forty-five minutes. Then drain well and extract all the bones. Press them down with a heavy weight on top. When thoroughly cold, cut each breast into three triangular-shaped pieces, dip them into olive oil, or melted lard, or butter, and season with salt and pepper. Roll each piece in fresh bread crumbs grated, and broil on a slow fire, allowing four minutes to each side. Serve with a pint of hot Macedoine or any garnish that may be desired, arranging the breast over the garnish. The epigram may be served a la Soubise with a hot Soubise sauce, or a la Chicoree with a hot chicory sauce, or a la Louisianaise with a hot Madeira wine sauce, and garnish of fried sweet potatoes.



Lamb en Blanquette.

The brisket of the lamb is best for this dish. Cut into pieces of two square inches. Put in a stew pot and cover with a half gallon of water, and add salt and pepper and two onions and one carrot, chopped fine. Let it boil till very tender.

When it reaches this stage, take the meat out of the saucepan and keep the water in which it was boiled. Take another saucepan and put a tablespoonful of butter in it, and as it melts add a tablespoonful of flour. Let it brown lightly, and add one pint of the water in which the veal was broiled. Stir well, making it very light, and not thick. Add one-half can of mushrooms, and let the whole boil about fifteen minutes, so as to be very light. Then put in the veal, which is already cooked. Let it simmer for about fifteen minutes longer, and take off the fire and add the yolks of two eggs, well beaten, two tablespoonfuls of the gravy, and the juice of one lemon. Serve hot.



Lamb's Brains

FIX THIS!

The recipes given for the preparation of Sheep Brains may be followed in cooking Lamb's Brains. Lamb's Brains are a very delicate dish. The folliwing recipe, Lamb's Brains a la Remoulade, however, is a famous Creole dish.

Lamb's Brains a la Remoulade.
Cervelles d'Agneau a. la Remoulade.

Plunge the Lamb's Brains into cold water, and let them stand for an hour, changing the water several times. Prepare in exactly the same manner indicated for the preparation of Sheep Brains. After removing from the water and taking off the skin, drain off all water. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water and season it with salt and pepper and an herb bouquet of parsley, bay leaves and thyme. When the herbs begin to boil add a pint of White wine to the water, as it boils up again drop in the brains and let them cook for ten minutes. Remove the herb bouquet and strain the brains through a sieve.

Place on a hot dish and serve with the following sauce: Chop the shallots very fine mince the garlic and mash the yolks of the eggs. Put the vinegar into a small saucepan and add the shallots, the garlic, and let all boil till the vinegar is reduced about one-half. Then mash the yolks of eggs in the sweet oil and cut up the capers and add all to the vino-gar. Add the parsley and the vinegar pickles, chopped fine, and let all come to a boil. Then add the chives and two teaspoonfuls of Creole mustard. Mix well and pour all over the brains and send to the table very hot.

Lamb's Feet.

Pieds d'Agneau. The various delightful ways that the Creoles have of serving Mutton Feet may be used in preparing Lamb's Feet, the latter especially making many delightful and recherche entrees. We have Pieda d'Agneau a la Poulette," etc. (See re cipe for cooking Mutton Feet, "Pieds d'Agneau au Blanc," "Pieds d'Agneau a la Bourgeoise," etc.)

Lamb's Feet, White Sauce.
Pieds d'Agneau, S'auce Blanche.

Clean the feet well, and, after boiling, take out all the bones, cut in little pieces of about two inches or less, season nicely and cook in a pint of their own water over a slow fire. Add the juice of a lemon, and then throw in the beaten yolk of an egg to bind nicely, and serve hot.

Lamb's Feet a la Bourgreolse.
Pieds d'Agneau a la Bourgeoise.

Clean the feet well and boil in the manner above indicated. When the water is reduced, take out the feet, cut in pieces, taking out all the bones. Put back in the saucepan, add a tablespoonful of butter blended well with a tablespoonful of flour. Stir well and add two sprigs of parsley, minced very fine, and the juice of one lenion. Let this simmer for ten minutes longer and serve hot.

Broiled Lamb's Kidneys.
Rognons d'Agneau Grillees.

Prepare in exactly the same manner as in the recipe for broiling Sheep Kidneys, and serve with melted butter and lemon Juice and chopped parsley, thrown over. In all these recipes, where the skewer is used in broiling to keep the kidneys from separating, the skewer must be drawn out before buttering and serving.

Stewed Lamb Tongue.
Langues d'Agneau Sautees.

Clean the tongues; wash well and boil in clear water for an hour and a half. Then throw them into cold water and remove the skins. Cut the vegetables fine, and put them with the butter into a saucepan. Add a pint of broth or water, and then add the finely-minced herbs. Add the tongues and let them simmer gently for two hours. Serve hot, with the gravy poured over.

Lamb Tongues With Tomato Sauce
Langues d'Agneau a la Sauce Tomato.

Cook the tongue as in the recipe given above, omitting, of course, the vegetables. When done, place the tongues on a hot dish, pour over a rich tomato sauce (see recipe) and serve.

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CHAPTER XV.

PORK.

Du Cochon.

The old Creoles, like their French ancestors, hold that every portion of the hog is good, from the head to the feet, and all portions are utilized in the various dishes which are so delightfully prepared in New Orleans. For roasting, the Creoles always use the delicate "Cochon de Lait," or suckling pig, if not more nor less than four or five weeks old, when the pig is roasted whole; otherwise the best parts of the grown hog for roasting are the loin and the leg. Pork chops or cutlets are taken from the loin. They are used as entrees, as are also slices of cold ham; the kidneys, cooked in wine, and the tails braisees, or smothered.

Pork must always be cooked well done, or else it will be dangerous, unwholesome and indigestible. It must be roasted or fried. The Creoles will never eat a broiled pork chop.

Roast Loin of Pork.

Longe de Pore Rotle.

A Loin of Pork.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Parsley to Garnish.

Apple Sauce.

Score the loin in close lines across and down. The lines should be about a half inch apart. Dredge well with salt and pepper and place in the oven, letting it cook slowly and long, allowing at least twenty-five minutes to every pound, and basting every five minutes for the first half hour and every ten minutes thereafter. Pork must always be well done. When cooked thoroughly, take out of the baking pan, put in a hot serving dish, and garnish nicely with parsley. Serve with Apple Sauce and a little horseradish. (See recipe "Sauces for Meats," etc.

Roast Pork,

Porc Roti.

The leg and shoulder may be roasted in the same manner as the loin, allowing from twenty to twenty-five minutes to a pound in cooking.

Roast Pig Stuffed.

Cochon de Lait Roti et Flarcl.

1 Pig, Four or Five Weeks Old.

3 Large Onions.

2 Cups of Bread Crumbs.

S Sprigs of Chopped Parsley.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

2 Ounces of Butter.

2 Teaspoonfuls of Powdered Sage.

3 Hard-Boiled Eggs.

1 Herb Bouquet.

In New Orleans the pig is always sold killed and cleaned by the butcher. Wash the young pig well, cleaning again, and scraping thoroughly and taking out all remaining hair from the ears and nostrils. Wash again thoroughly in cold water, inside and out, shaking the pig vigorously, head downward. Then turn upwards and pour cold water over it. Wipe dry inside and out with a coarse towel, and then rub well inside with salt and pepper and minced parsley, thyme and bay leaf. Prepare a dressing as follows: Wet the bread crumbs and squeeze thoroughly. Then add the sprigs of minced parsley and hard-boiled eggs and the powdered sage. Mix well. Season all highly with black pepper and salt, using about a teaspoonful of salt and a half teaspoonful of black pepper. Place two ounces of butter, which will be equal to two tablespoonfuls, in a frying pan on the stove, and, when it melts, add the minced onions. Let them brown, and then add the dressing, stirring well, and letting it fry for five minutes. Take off and stuff the pig and sew up the opening. Truss the fore legs forward and the hind feet forward, and close under the body. Wipe the pig carefully with a damp towel, and then place a corn cob in its mouth to keep it open. Rub the pig all over the outside with butter, dredging lightly with salt and pepper. Place in a moderate oven, and bake steadily for two and a half or three hours, according to size and age. Baste frequently, and, when half done, rub again with butter until the pan is saturated. Continue basting at intervals. When done, take out of the oven and place on a host dish. Garnish the dish with parsley. Take the corncob out of the mouth and place instead a nice, rosy apple. Serve very hot. with Apple Sauce. (See recipe "Sauces for Meats," etc.)

Sweet potatoes are a nice vegetable to serve with roast pig. Boil a half dozen first and then peel carefully and place them whole, about fifteen minutes before serving the pig in the pan where it is roasting; let them soak in the gravy, brown nicely and serve on a separate platter or as a garnish.

Roast Spare Ribs.

Cotelettes de Pore Roti.

Spare Ribs.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

A Garnish of Parsley and Radish.

Dredge the spare ribs lightly with salt and pepper, after having washed well and wiped dry with a coarse towel. Place them in the baking pan and dredge with butter; place them in the oven and cover with a piece of buttered paper. Allow twenty minutes to every pound in cooking. About twenty minutes before serving take off the buttered paper, dredge again, with melted butter, and let it brown nicely. Serve with a garnish of parsley and radishes.

If it is desired to stuff the spare ribs, have the ribs cracked, crosswise, the entire length, in two places. Put a stuffing, as for roast pig, in the center, or a stuffing made of mashed potatoes and three hard-boiled eggs, mixed thoroughly. Close the ends of the ribs over this, tie well and roast as for a roast pig. Serve with an Apple Sauce or a Sauce Piquante. (S'ee recipes "Sauces for Meats," etc.)

Pork Tenderloins.

Filet de Pore Saute.

4 Pork Tenderloins.

A Tablespoonful of Lard.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Have the tenderloins cut thin and split lengthwise without separating. Season well with salt and pepper. Have ready a very hot frying pan, place a table-spoonful of butter or lard within and add the tenderloins. Turn every two minutes, not leaving them very long on either side at a time. Be careful to cook through and through, smothering over a low fire, and serve with Apple Sauce or Currant Jelly. (See recipes "Sauces for Meats," etc.)

Fried Pork Chops.

Cotelettes de Cochon a la Poele.

6 or 8 Pork Chops.

Grated Bread Crumbs.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Wash the pork chops and season well with salt and pepper. Roll in grated bread crumbs and fry in boiling lard twenty-five minutes. This will be when they have reached a rich brown. Take out, place on a platter, and serve with pickles or a Sauce aux. (See recipe.)

Pig's Feet.

Pieds de Cochon.

6 Pig's Feet.

2 Bay Leaves.

3 Blades of Mace.

1 Dozen Whole Cloves.

1 Whole Red Pepper Pod.

1 Pint of Good Cider Vinegar.

Salt, Pepper, and Cayenne to Taste.

Select young and tender pig's feet clean and scrape well and soak in cold water several hours. Split and crack the feet in several places; put them in a stewpot; cover with cold water and let them simmer until tender. When done, lay in a crock. Boil the vinegar, mace, cloves and bay leaves and pepper pod together a few minutes. Season the feet with salt and pepper, and pour the spiced vinegar over while boiling. Cover the crock and set to cool. The feet will be ready for use in twenty-four hours.

Pig's Feet, Sauce Robert.

Pieds de Cochon a la Sauce Robert.

3 Pig's Feet.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter or Olive Oil.

1 Tablespoonful of Salt.

1-2 Tablespoonful of Pepper.

Grated Bread Crumbs.

1-2 Pint of Sauce Robert.

Boil three good-sized Pig's Feet in a salted water, and when tender, take out of the water and drain thoroughly. Split the feet in two and place in a dish and season well with salt and pepper. Then rub them with the olive oil or butter; roll the feet in grated bread crumbs and put them to broil, allowing four minutes to each side of the feet. Prepare a hot Sauce a la Robert (see recipe),and pour this sauce in a warm dish. Lay the feet nicely over it and send to the table hot.

Pig's Feet Plquant Sauce.

Pieds de Cochon a la Sauce Piquante.

Prepare in exactly the manner directed above, and, after broiling the feet, serve with a half pint of Sauce Piquante. (See recipe.)

Pig's Feet, Tomato Sauce.

Pieds de Cochon a la Sauce Tomate.

Boil and prepare the feet as in recipe for "Pig's Feet, Sauce Robert," and serve with a half pint of hot Tomato Sauce.

Pig's Feet, Tartar Sauce.

Pieds de Cochon a la Sauce Tartare.

Prepare the feet as indicated in the recipe for "Pig's Feet, Sauce Robert," and serve with a half pint of Sauce a la Tartare.(See recipe.)

Pig's Feet, St. Hubert Style.

Pieds de Cochon a, la St. Hubert.

Prepare the feet as in the recipe for "Pig's Feet, Sauce Robert." and serve with a half pint of hot Piquant Sauce, to which has been added a teaspoonful of Creole mustard, diluted.

Stuffed Pig's Feet a la Perigueux.

Pieds de Cochon a la Perigueux.

3 Pig's Feet.

2 Minced Truffles.

1-2 Glass of Madeira Wine.

1 Pound of Boned Turkey Forcemeat,

6 Pieces of Crepinette.

1 Egg.

2 Ounces of Butter.

1-2 Pint of Hot Perigueux Sauce.

Boil the Pig's Feet, and then split them in two; take out the bones, lay the flesh on a dry, clean cloth and wipe well. Make a forcemeat of boned turkey (see recipe under chapter Stuffings for Fowls, etc.); add the truffles, which have been finely minced, and a half glass of Madeira or Sherry wine. Mix this well together. Crepinette is applied to a skin found in the stomach of the pig. Take six pieces of this crepinette, which you will have secured from the butcher; cut them the size of a man's hand and lay on a clean biscuit board; place on each piece of skin a portion of the forcemeat about the size of a hen's egg and flatten out well. Place one-half of a pig's foot on top of this farcie, and cover with another layer of the stuffing. On either side lay three thin slices of truffles. Wrap the crepinettes up in some fanciful shape, such as an envelope or card case, and dip them separately in a well-beaten egg, and then in grated bread crumbs. Put two- tablespoonfuls of butter in a saucepan or deep frying pan, cover closely, and let the feet cook on a slow fire for twenty-five minutes, allowing twelve minutes and a half to each side. Serve with a pint of hot Perigueux Sauce. (See recipe.) Place the sauce in a dish, lay the feet neatly over it, and send to the table hot.

Stuffed Pig's Feet, Madeira Sauce.

Pieds de Cochon a la Sauce Madere.

Prepare the feet in exactly the same manner as indicated in the recipe given above, and serve with a pint of hot Madeira Sauce, instead of the Sauce Perigueux.

Hogshead Cheese.

Fromage de Cochon.

1 Hog's Head.

1 Lemon.

1 Glass of Sherry or Madeira.

2 Onions.

1 Slice of Ham.

Thyme, Bay Leaf, Spices.

Boil the whole of the hog's head, which has been well cleaned and scraped. Add four teaspoonfuls of salt, and a lemon cut in half. After four hours, when the head will have become very tender, take out of the water and set to cool. Then skin the meat from the head. Preserve the water in which it has been boiled. Cut up the entire head, ears and tongue and two of the feet, if you have boiled them, too, into pieces of about one inch in length. Take two large onions and chop them very fine. Put a tablespoonful of lard and the onions into a pot. Don't let them brown, but slightly smother. Season well with minced thyme, three mashed cloves, a dash of red pepper (Polvre Rouge). Add a teaspoonful of water taken from the reserve in which the head was boiled. Let this simmer. Gently; then add one pint of the water, the peel of a large lemon, cut fine, and one glass of Sherry or Madeira. Add hot pepper to taste, seasoning highlv. Boil well. Then add the head and a slice of ham, cut into pieces of about one inch long and a half inch wide. Season to taste, and add five powdered allspice, one blade of chopped mace and three mashed cloves. Let it boil for an half hour longer, till it comes to the right consistency. When cooked, fill a bowl with the cheese and put a closefitting dish on top, and then place a piece of plank over this and set a big weight of about fifteen pounds or three or four flatirons on top. When the cheese cools, which will be in about five or six hours, turn out of the bowl. It will have taken the shape of the bowl and become a fine head of cheese, ready to be served. This is the Creole's way of making hogshead cheese, and it cannot be improved upon.

Salt Meat.

Viande Salee.

Salt pork enters so largely into cooking that it will be unnecessary to devote special attention to it here. It is used in cooking cabbage and pork and beans-a most excellent dish for children- and with nearly all green herbs and vegetables it serves as a delightful flavor. In the chapter on vegetables, wherever it is advisable to use salt or pickled pork, this subject will be treated.

Pickled Pork.

Petit Sale.

Coarse Salt Sufficient to Make a Brine.

12 Bay Leaves.

2 Dozen Onions.

25 Pounds of Pork.

1 Ounce of Saltpetre.

12 Cloves.

6 Allspice.

Pork should be pickled about twenty hours after killing. It is pickled always in sufficient quantity to last for some time, for, if proper care is taken, it will keep one year after pickling; but it may also be pickled in smaller quantities, of three or four pounds at a time, reducing other ingredients in the recipe according to quantity of pork used. To twenty-five pounds of pork allow one ounce of saltpetre. Pulverize thoroughly and mix with a sufficient quantity of salt to thoroughly salt the pork. Cut the pork into pieces of about two pounds, and slash each piece through the skin, and then rub thoroughly with the salt and saltpetre mixture till the meat is thoroughly penetrated through and through. Mash the cloves very fine and ground the allspice. Chop the onions. Take a small barrel and place at the bottom a layer of salt, then a layer of coarsely chopped onions, and sprinkle over this a layer of the spices and minced bay leaves. Place on this a layer of the pork; pack tightly; then place above this a layer of the salt and seasonings and continue with alternate layers of pork and seasonings till all the pork is used up. Conclude with a layer of the minced herbs and spices and have a layer of salt on top. Cover the preparation with a board on which a heavy weight must be placed to press down the meat. It will be ready for use in about ten or twelve days.

HAM.

Jambon.

Ham is one of the most useful articles of supply that can be kept in any household. The Creoles generally keep a nicely boiled ham on hand. In case of unexpected company for lunch or supper, the ham is always ready and sure to be appetizing. It forms combinations in many dishes, and is in itself a delightful breakfast dish and dinner entree.

Fried Ham.

Jambon Bouilll.

A Ham.

2 Blades of Mace.

1 Dozen Cloves.

4 Bay Leaves.

Black Pepper and Parsley to Garnish.

Wash the ham well in cold water, scraping off all portions of mold or salt. Have a large boiler of water on the stove; or, better still, the furnace. Throw in two blades of mace, a dozen cloves and three or four bay leaves. Put the ham in the water and let the fire be slow, allowing the water to heat gradually. Do not permit it to come to a good boil for two hours at least, and be careful to skim carefully, so that all rejected substances may not impregnate the ham. Keep it simmering gently, allowing twenty minutes to every pound. When done, let the ham cool in its own liquor, and then put the ham on a board, cover with another board, and lay a weight over. Leave under weight several hours. This will enable you to cut the ham in thin slices after removing the weight. Then carefully remove the skin without taking off the fat. Sprinkle it in patches with black pepper and ornament the shank bone with quilled paper, or a paper frill. Serve it cold with a garnish of parsley. Cold boiled ham should be sliced very thin and served with pickles and mustard.

Fried Ham.

Jambon Frit.

8 Thin Slices of Ham.

Pepper to Taste.

Parsley to Garnish.

Slice the ham thin. Heat the frying pan very hot. Lay in the ham in its own fat and fry over a quick fire. The Creoles serve eggs, nicely fried, with ham. Allow an egg fo every slice of ham. After taking the ham out of the pan, drop in the eggs. If you do not like eggs fried on both sides (many prefer them so), baste the eggs with the hot grease, and be sure to cook the yolks whole. When they are well set, without being hard, take the eggs out and lay one on each slice of ham. Garnish with parsley. Sprinkle the eggs with salt and pepper very lightly and serve. This is a very popular Creole breakfast dish.

If eggs are not served with the fried ham, and a gravy is desired, make one as follows: Take one tablespoonful of flour and add to the remaining fat in the pan. Mix well until smooth. Add a hall pint of milk and stir until it boils; throw in a dash of black pepper, pour over the ham and send to the table hot.

Broiled Ham.

Jambon Grille.

6 or 8 Thin Slices of Boiled Ham.

6 or 8 Slices of Buttered Toast.

Always use boiled ham for broiling. Slice it about a half inch thick, according to the number to be served, and trim off the rough edges. Have the broiler very hot, lay the slices of ham upon it and brown well. Serve with buttered toast.

Broiled Ham With Cucumber Garnish.

Jambon Grille aux Concombres.

6 or 8 Slices of Boiled Ham.

Pepper.

Cucumbers.

Cut thin as many slices of ham as desired and broil evenly over hot coals. When well brown, butter add pepper, sprinkling, and serve with slices of cucumber that have been steeped in salted vinegar several hours ranged around it.

Ham Croquettes.

Croquettes de Jambon.

2 Cups of Finely Chopped Boiled Ham.

2 Cups of Mashed Potatoes.

The Yolks of 3 Eggs.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Cream.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

A Dash of Cayenne.

Chop the ham fine and add to the mashed potatoes. Then add the cream and butter and the yolks of two eggs, beaten well. Beat all together until smooth, then add a dash of Cayenne. Mold the ham into cylinder shapes of about a finger in length and roll in the beaten egg that remains. Then roll in bread crumbs grated and fry in the boiling fat.

Ham puffs are made in the same way, only the potatoes are omitted, and a stiff batter is used instead, made of one pint of flour and one of water, three eggs and four ounces of finely chopped ham. The ham is placed in the batter and fried in boiling lard to a golden brown.

Ham Souffle.

Souffle de Jambon.

1 Cup of Minced Ham.

3 Eggs, Beaten With the Whites and Yolks Separate.

1 Teaspoonful of Finely Chopped Parsley.

Pepper to Taste.

Mix together the chopped parsley, ham and yolks of eggs and a dash of Cayenne pepper. Beat all very hard till it becomes light. Then add the whites of the eggs, which have been beaten to a froth. Beat together sufficiently to mix well. Fill a dish and bake in an oven for eight or ten minutes and serve with a Cream Sauce. (See recipe.)

Boiled Bacon.

Petit Sale Bouilli.

Proceed in exactly the same manner as for boiled ham.

Fried Bacon.

Petit Sale Frit.

Cut into very thin slices, put in the frying pan and fry to a nice golden brown. This is a fine breakfast dish.

Creole Sausage.

Saucisses a la Creole.

It has been said by visitors to New Orleans that the Creoles excell all other cooks in preparing appetizing sausages From the old Creole negresses, who go about the streets in the early morning crying out "Belles Saucisses!" "Belle Chaurice!" to the "Boudins" and "Saucissons" so temptingly prepared by the Creole butchers in the French Market, the Creole sausage enters largely into domestic cooking and forms a delightful flavor for many dainty dishes, especially of the vegetable order, while in the preparation of the famous "Jambalaya," the "Chaurice" is one of the most necessary and indispensable ingredients.

Chaurice.

4 Pounds of Lean,Fresh Pork.

2 Pounds of Fat Fresh Pork.

2 Large Onions, Minced Very Fine.

1 Clove of Garlic, Minced Very Fine.

1 Teaspoonful of Cayenne Pepper and Chili Pepper (very hot).

1 Teaspoonful of Red Pepper.

3 Teaspoonfuls of Salt.

2 Teaspoonfuls of Finely Ground Black Pepper.

1 Sprig of Thyme, Well Minced.

3 Sprigs of Parsley, Finely Minced.

2 Bay Leaves, Chopped or Minced Very Fine.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Allspice, Very Fine.

Hash the pork as fine as possible-fat and lean- and mix together. Then season highly with the salt and black pepper and Cayenne, Chili and red pepper (pimento) . This high seasoning distinguishes the Creole sausage from all others. Chaurice must be seasoned very hot, so do not fear to have too much red pepper. Mince the onion and garlic as fine as possible, then add to the Chaurice. Mince the herbs as fine as possible, and add, and then mix the finely ground spices thoroughly with the Chaurice. Hash all together, and when well mixed, take the casings (the Creoles always use the entrails of the sheep for this purpose) that have been well cleaned by the butcher. Scald them and wash thoroughly again. Dry them and fill with the mixture, tying them in the lengths you desire.

Chaurice is fried in boiling lard for breakfast, always having sufficient to have the sausage swim in it, and served, after draining of all grease, on a hot dish with minced parsley thrown over as a garnish. It is used most extensively in making "Jambalaya," and a few Chaurice thrown into the pot of boiling cabbage or beans add greatly to the flavor. This is a distinctive Creole sausage and the very nicest and most highly flavored that can be eaten.

Chaurice With Puree of Potatoes.

Chaurice a la Puree de Pommes de Terre.

2 Pounds of Chaurice.

4 Irish Potatoes.

1 Egg, Well Beaten.

Prick the sausages and lay them in the bottom of a pan. Make a soft Puree of Potatoes (see recipe) and pour this over the sausage. Then spread a beaten egg very evenly on top, sprinkle with bread crumbs, and place in the oven and let it bake a half hour. This is a nice breakfast or luncheon dish.

Chaurice With Creole Sauce.

Chaurice, Sauce a la Creole.

2 Pounds of Chaurice (about 6 to a pound).

1 Clove of Minced Garlic.

1-2 Can of Tomatoes.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

1 Teaspoonful of Black Pepper.

1 Large Onion.

1-2 Spoon of Lard.

Place a half teaspoonful of lard in the frying pan or stewpan, and when it heats add the chopped onion. Let this brown slightly and then add the minced garlic. Then add the half can of tomatoes. As this browns put in the sausae which you have pricked gently. Cover and let them simmer for about five minutes, then add the seasonings to taste. Add about a half cup of boiling water. Cover well and let all simmer for twenty minutes longer. This is very nice for breakfast.

Saucisses.

Saucisses, unlike Chaurice, are made from pork and beef mixed.

2 Pounds of Lean Beef.

2 Pounds of Lean Pork.

1 Pound of Lean Veal.

1 Pound of Fat Pork.

2 Large Onions Minced Very Fine.

2 Cloves of Garlic.

1 Teaspoonful of Cayenne Pepper.

1 Tablespoonful of Black Pepper.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Salt.

3 Bay Leaves. Minced Very Fine.

1-2 Spoon Each of Ground Cloves, Mace

Allspice and Grated Nutmeg.

1 Teaspoonful Each of Minced Thyme.

Sweet Marjoram.

Chop and hash the meat (fat and lean) very fine, mincing it, and then season highly with salt and pepper and Cayenne, mixing well. Add the minced onion and garlic, mix well, and then add the finely minced herbs and spices. Mix thoroughly and fill the casings which you have gotten from the butcher and washed again thoroughly. Fill them with the mixture, in lengths of about two feet or one foot and a half, stuffing tightly. Tie at both ends and let them stand overnight in a deep brine. If used for breakfast, take out as much as desired, wide dry and cut into slices and fry, or fry the sausage, the whole length, in boiling lard, and then slice nicely. Garnish with chopped parsley and serve.

Saucissons.

Saucissons are sausage made from the lean, fine flesh of the pork and the filet, of beef.

2 Pounds of Fresh Pork, Very Lean.

1 Pound of Fat.

2 Pounds of Filet of Beef.

1 Large Onion.

1 Teaspoonful of Cayenne Pepper.

1 Teaspoonful of Black Pepper.

3 Teaspoonfuls of Salt.

1 Bay Leaf, Chopped Fine.

1-4 Teaspoonful Each of Ground Allspice, Cloves.

1-2 Nutmeg.

1-2 Teaspoonful Each of Fine Herbs.

1 Clove of Garlic.

Mince and hash the meat very fine, mixing the beef and pork and fat. Then season highly with the Cayenne, salt and pepper, mixing thoroughly. Season next with the minced onion and garlic; mix well, and then with the minced herbs and spices, mixing all thoroughly. Fill the casings, which are never very large for Saucissons. Tie them in sausages of about a finger in length, or three inches, and they are ready to be cooked. Saucissons are always fried in boiling lard and served whole, placing several on each plate.

Boudins.

Boudins are blood sausages and are much affected by the Creoles.

Take 1 Pound of Hog or Beef Blood (1 pint).

1-2 Pound of Hog Fat.

2 Onions.

Salt, Pepper and Cayenne to Season Highly.

1-2 Clove of Garlic.

Mince the onions fine and fry them slightly in a small piece of the hog fat. Add the minced garlic. Hash and mince the remaining fat very fine, and mix it thoroughly with the beef blood. Mix the onions, and then season highly, adding of allspice, mace, clove and nutmeg half teaspoonful each, finely ground, and a half teaspoonful each of fine herbs. When all mixed, take the prepared casings, or entrails, and fill with the mixture, being careful to tie the sausage casing at the further end before attempting to fill. Then tie the other end, making the sausage into strings of about two feet. Wash them thoroughly on the outside after filling, and then tie again in spaces of three inches or less in length, being careful hot to make too long. Place them to cook in a pot of tepid water, never letting them boil, as that would curdle the blood. Let them remain on the slow fire till you can prick the sausage with a needle and no blood will exude. Then take them out, let them dry and cool.

Boudins are always fried in boiling lard. Some broil them, however.

Boudin Blanc.

1 Pound of the White Meat of Fowl (left over).

1 Pound of Lean Pork.

1 Pound of Fat Pork.

1 Pint of Cream.

1-2 Cup of Soft of Bread.

The Yolks of 2 Eggs.

1-4 Teaspoon of Ground Spices.

1-2 Clove of Garlic.

1 Onion.

1 Teaspoonful Cayenne.

Salt and Pepper, 1 Teaspoonful Each.

Cut the meat and mince. Season highly with the salt and pepper and Cayenne. Add the minced onion and garlic. Mix well with half a cup of the soft of bread, wet and squeezed well. Cook all for about fifteen minutes in one pint of cream. When reduced take off the stove, add the beaten yolks of two eggs, stir well and cool. Fill the prepared entrails and tie either end, and place them in a pot containing half milk and half water. Boil them for about twenty minutes and then prick gently, place in buttered papers and broil gently. The left-over of rabbit, chicken, turkey, partridge and other birds may be prepared in this manner, as also the left-over of crawfish or crabs. This is a Creole hors d'oeuvre.

Chitterlings.

Andouilles.

2 Pounds of Fat Pork.

2 Pounds of Lean Pork.

1 Pound of Inner Lining of Stomach of Hog.

2 Cloves of Garlic.

3 Bay Leaves.

2 Large Onions.

1 Tablespoonful Each of Salt and Pepper.

1 Teaspoonful of Cayenne.

1 Teaspoonful of Chili Pepper.

1-2 Teaspoonful Each of Mace, Clovoa and Allspice, ground fine.

1 Tablespoonful Each of Minced Thyme.

Sweet Marjoram and Parsley.

Select the largest intestines of the hog, wash clean, disgorge and thoroughly cleanse, and let soak for twenty-four hours in fresh water, changing the water frequently. Then drain and dry well. Cut them into threadlike pieces of about once inch in length, and hash the pork lean and fat, together; mix thoroughly with the threads of intestines or inner stomach of the hog, and season highly with the salt, pepper and Cayenne and Chili pepper. Mince the onion and gar lie and herbs as fine as possible anil add to the meat. Add the ground spices and mix and hash all together very fine. Take six or eight of the large intestines that have been thoroughly soaked and disgorged and fill these casings with the preparation, after scalding and drying the casings thoroughly. Tie into the desired lengths and use as desired. This is a very fat sausage and entirely too rich for delicate stomachs. When tied into large sausages about the size of the hand they are called "Andouilles." When tied into small sausages they are styled "Andouillettes." The latter arc the more delicate. This sausage is generally served with mashed potatoes, "a puree of peas or lentils. The chitterlings are first boiled in an aromatic water, with an herb'bouquet, or in milk; they are then broiled, or baked in the oven for eight or ten minutes.

CHAPTER XVI.

POULTRY.

De la Volaille.

Poultry of all kinds, especially chicken, furnishes the good cook with an infinite variety of delightful dishes, which are dishes that may grace the tabic of the people from the simple farmer or the Creole in his humble home to the rich banker who can afford to serve them with truffles and mushrooms.

Roast chicken, roast turkey, roast goose, roast duck are welcome dishes on every table. The entrees that are made from poultry are various, such as Turkey Daube, Fricassees of Chicken, with truffles, mushrooms, green peas, rice; Ragouts of Ducks, Chapons au Gros Sel, Poulardes a la Sauce Tartare, Poulet Saute a la Creole, all manner of croquettes and salads, and goose entre a la Chipolata. Full-grown poultry always has the best flavor.

TURKEY.

Dinde.

The turkey hen is called "dinde," the turkey gobbler "dindon." The preference in eating is always given to the "dinde," as the "dindons" never make quite such excellent dishes.

Turkey may be roasted, stewed or made into gumbo. Only a very old and lean turkey is ever stewed. It is utilized in this way as a home dish, never on the company table. The boned turkey is the triumph of the New Orleans cuisine' when serving cold turkey. No great reception or buffet lunchon is complete without it. It is the standing dish on New Year's Day, when the Creole ladies receive tneir gentlemen friends, and, on occasions of marriages in the family, every father will insist that there shall be a boned turkey for the wedding feast.

Boast Turkey.

Dinde Rotie.

1 Turkey.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Dressing According to Taste.

A hen turkey is always best for roasting. Clean and prepare the turkey. Make a nice stuffing either of oysters, egg, truffles or chestnuts (see Dressings for Fowls). Rub the turkey well with salt and pepper inside and out, and then rub the inside with butter, using about a half tablespoonful. Stuff first the space from which you took out the craw and then sew up the slit in the skin, fastening the skin by a piece of thread tied around the neck or folding it over and fastening with a small skewer. Then stuff the body of the turkey. Push the legs under the skin near the rump, cross them and fasten them with a small skewer or tie with a piece of twine. Turn the wings back, under the body of the fowl. Rub the turkey all over with butter or lard, and place in the baking pan that has been greased lightly. Bake the turkey in a quick oven, allowing about fifteen minutes to every pound. Baste every ten minutes or so with its own drippings. When done, remove the twine and the skewer and place on a hot dish, garnished nicely with parsley, and serve. The turkey breast should always be carved in delicate slices.

In making the dressing of any kind, always take up the liver and heart, which you have seasoned well and minced very fine, and add to the turkey dressing and mixing thoroughly.

Roast Turkey With Truffles.

Dinde Truffee Rotie.

1 Fine Young Hen Turkey.

1 Pound of Lean liTam, Cut into Dice.

2 Pounds of Truffles. 1-4 Nutmeg.

1-4 of a Teaspoonful of Pepper.

1 Bay Leaf, Minced Fine. Clean and prepare the turkey for roasting as directed in the above recipe. Put a saucepan on the fire and put in the ham cut into dice. When hot add two pounds of the very best truffles and the grated nutmeg, the pepper and a mincei bay leaf. Stir over the fire tor about fifteen minutes. Then take off and let cool. When it is cold stuff the place at the neck of the turkey whence you tako the craw, and sew up and arrange as indicated in the directions for dressing a turkey. Stuff the body of the turkey with the remainder of the truffles and sew it up and truss it. Set it in the even and roast according to the above recipe, serving with a Sauve aux Truffles. This is a very expensive dish.

Roast Turkey With Mushrooms.

Dinde Rotie Farcie aux Champignons.

Proceed in the above manner, substituting mushrooms instead. Turkey With Chestnuts or Oysters.

Dinde Rotie Farcie au Marrons ou aux Haitres. Prepare the turkey in the manner indicated in "Roast Turkey"; stuff according to taste with either a Chestnut or Oyster Dressing (see recipes under chapter "Stuffings and Dressings for Poultry, Game," etc.) and cook as in recipe for "Roast Turkey." Chestnut and Oyster Stuffings are favorite Creole dress -ings for turkeys.

Turkey en Daube.

Dinde en Daube.

1 Large Turkey.

1 Bunch Each of Parsley, Thyme and

Small Celery Leaves,

Large Slice of Salt Pork.

2 Onions and 2 Carrots, Sliced.

10 Cloves. 1-2 Calf's Foot.

1 Clove of Garlic. Bouquet of Sweet

Herbs.

11-2 Pints of Broth or Boiling Water.

2 Spoonfuls of Brandy. 1 Pint of White Wine.

Clean and prepare the turkey as in the above directions, then stuff either with egg dressing or oyster stuffing. Rub well with salt and pepper. Place at thft bottom of a deep pot slender strips of salt pc-rk and half of a calf's foot, well prepared. Place on top of this the slices of onions, carrot, fine herbs, minced nicely; garlic, minced, celery, parsley, etc., and lay the turkey on this bed. Pour over it one pint of White wine and two tableEjpoonfuls of Brandy, and ono pint and a half of good broth or boiling water. Season well to taste and cover tightly. Set on the stove to simmer very slowly for at least five hours if the turkey is old. Turn it once very carefully when half done cooking. After five hours lift the turkey out of the sauce, place on a hot dish. Strain the sauce through a sieve, and if the turkey is served at once, serve hot in a separate dish. If not, pour it over the turkey and set it away to cool. It will become quite jellied and makes an excellent luncheon dish.

Boned Turkey.

Gelatine Truffee a la Gelee.

1 Young Turkey Hen,

2 Pounds of Young Veal.

1 Pound cf Fat Fresh Pork.

1 Pound of Lean Fresh Pork.

1-4 Pound of Cooper's Gelatine.

1-4 Can of Truffles.

1 Tablespoonful Each of Minced Parsley

and Thyme.

3 Minced Bay Leaves. 1 Lemon.

3 Sprigs E>ach of Thyme and Bay Leaf.

1 Glass of Brandy. , 1 Wineglass of Sherry. 2 Carrots.

1 Turnip. 1 Stalk of Celery.

2 Gallons of Water.

1-2 Teaspoonful Each of Grated Cinnamon and Allspice.

For this highly-prized dish, select a young hen turkey. It must be hand-picked — that is, it must not be scalded, or it will be unfit for the purpose of boning. Clean it thoroughly, and, when well cleansed, place the turkey on the table, with the breast down, and take a sharp penknife, or a very sharp-pointed knife, and cut the turkey open from the neck to the rump, down the backbone. Then, with great care, run the knife between the bones and the flesh to the wings, and, on reaching the joint, un-joint and separate the bones from the body without breaking the flesh; in like manner remove each bone as you reach the joint, except the small bone in the tips of the wings, which cannot be taken out easily and which are generally left on. Carefully slit out the bones of the leg, and then run the knife between the bones and flesh till you come to the breast bone. Skillfully separate the flesh from the bone by running the knife between, being careful to pull it out without breaking the flesh of the turkey. After removing the carcass, spread out the turkey, which will be whole, anrt wipe inside and out with a damp towel, and rub well with salt and pepper, inside and out. Set aside in a cool place and prepare the following dressing or stuffing: Take two pounds of young veal, one pound of young, fat, fresh pork, and one pound of lean fresh pork. Mince these as fine as possible, and then season as follows: One-half of a nutmeg, finely grated; tablespoonful of minced parsley; one of minced thyme, three of minced bay leaves, one teaspoonful of salt and one of black pepper, a teaspoonful of grated cinnamon, one-quarter teaspoonful of grated allspice and the juice of one onion. Mix all this thoroughly in the stuffing. Add two raw eggs, beaten well; one wineglass full of Sherry and one of Brandy; stir well. when well mixed add one-quarter of a box of truffles, chopped, but not too fine. Take the turkey, lay it open and carefully cut a layer of meat in nice slices from the inner part. Then put in a thick layer ot the stuffing, and lay over this a layer of the meat, using the whole liver, sliced in strips, also as alternate layers; then put in the rest of the stuffing as a layer, and bring the turkey nicely together and sew up so that It will retain its original shape. 'Have ready a nice, clean towel; roll the turkey in the towel, and tie it securely at both ends and around the middle in a solid way. Take all the bones of the turkey, the skinned feet, cleaned head and all, and place in a large pot. Add two pounds of veal, cut In pieces, and two calf's feet. Put in two carrots, one turnip, several sprigs of thyme and parsley, three bay leaves and a large piece of celery. Add two gallons of water, and let this boil very hard for an hour. Then add the turkey, which you will have tied in the towel, and let it boil for two hours. After two hours, take the turkey out of the towel. It will have shrunken up by this time and the towel will be crinkled greatly. Roll the towel out very smoothly again, and placa the turkey back in it while hot, and roll carefully again. Tie it at both ends and across the middle, and then place on a table and put a board or plank on top, and over this a fifteen-pound weight. Leave it in a cool place, but not in the ice box, as it must cool gradually and naturally. After it has cooled five or six hours you may put it in the ice box. In the meantime you will have left on the fire the pot with the water, bones, etc., in which the turkey has been boiled. Let it boil for two hours longer, with the bones and all. Then take off and drain the whole through a strainer, first letting the juice fall in another pan; then strain this through a towel, for there must be no pieces of cinnamon or herbo or dregs in this jelly. Skim off all the grease that floats on top, being careful not to leave a particle. Put it on the fire again, and let it simmer. Add to the boiling mixture one lemon and skin, cut in four or five pieces, and season with salt to taste. Put in a bowl one-quarter of a pound of gelatine, and add one pint of water in which the turkey has been boiled; stir well and let the gelatine melt. When well melted, pour into the boiling mixture and beat it as you would a cake, mixing thoroughly. Take another bowl, and break three raw eggs in it, and mash the shells and add; add one small wineglass of water and heat well again, as you would a cake. Prepare a flannel bag of size sufficient to hold a half gallon. Then pour the eggs into the broth, beating very thoroughly and rapidly through and through for ten minutes, while it remains on the fire. The moment it begins to boil up it will curdle; then take the mixture off and strain in the flannel bag. Let this fall into a few tin cups or cans, for they are best, and set on ice. The next morning it win be hard. Then unroll the turkey and put it in a dish; cut the Jelly from the can into fancy shapes and ornament the turkey with it, placing a fancy border around the dish. Tou will have a dish that a king might envy.

Boned chicken may be prepared in exactly the same way.

CHICKEN.

Poulet.

Chickens may be broiled, boiled, fried,

stewed, baked or smothered. For broilng, always purchase spring chickens.

For baking, the chicken must be young

and tender. For invalids, a delicately boiled spring chicken, with Drawn Butter Sauce, is a most nutritious and easily digestible dish.

Broiled Chicken.

Poulet Grille.

A Spring Chiicken. Melted Butter. Salt and Pepper to Taste. Select spring chickens for broiling. For a family of six several will, be required. Clean the chickens nicely,' singe, and then split down the middle of the back, laying the chicken open. Break the breastbone with a mallet and flatten out the chicken. Season well with salt and pepper, and brush with melted butter. Have the broiler ready over a moderate fire, and place the chicken between (the double broiler is best) and let the fowl broil slowly for about a half hour, if the chicken is very tender, otherwise three-quarters of an hour. It is well to keep a plate over it all the time, as it will retain its flavor better. Turn the chicken frequently, so that it may be broiled through and through. It should be slightly browned on the skin side. When done, place in a heated dish, pour over melted butter and garnish with chopped parsley and serve hot. A garnish ot cresses is very pretty. The dish is then called "Poulet Grille aux Cressons. Boiled Chicken. Poulet Bouilll.

A Spring Chicken. Drawn Butter Sauce. Salt and Pepper to Taste. Select a nice spring chicken, clean and singe and split down the middle of the back. Season with salt and pepper, rubbing well on the Inside of the chicken. Place in a saucepan and cover well with water, and let it simmer well for one hour if the chicken is young. If the chicken is a year old and over, let it simmer for two hours, according to age. When done take out of the water and place in a heated dish. Pour over a Drawn Butter Sauce (see recipe) and garnish with chopped parsley.

Creamed Chicken.

Poulet a la Creme.

1 Chicken. Salt and Pepper to Taste. A Cream Sauce.

Select a fine one-year-old chicken, and clean, singe and boil according to the above recipe, first having cut in joints, however. In boiling always simply cover the chicken with water, otherwise you will have chicken soup, all the nutriment of the chicken being absorbed by the soup. When cooked for an hour or longer, if the chicken Is now very tender, take out of the saucepan and place In a dish and pour over a Cream Sauca (see recipe), and serve.

Deviled Chicken.

Poulet a la Diable.

1 Chicken. 1 Tablespoonful ot Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Onion. 1 Bay Leaf. 1 Sprig of Parsley.

1-2 of a Clove of Garlic.

1 Glass of White Wine.

1 Pint of Water.

1 Teaspoonful of Prepared Mustard.

Salt and Pepper.

A Dash of Cayenne. Boil the chicken according to the above recipe. Mince the meat fine. Make a sauce by putting into a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter, and as it melts add one onion, minced very fine; a sprig of minced parsley, one minced bay leaf and a half clove of minced garlic. Let it simmer gently without browning and then add one tablespoonful of flour, well sifted. Mix thoroughly, and add three tablespoonfuls of vinegar or a wineglass of White wine. Stir well and add one pint cf the water in which the chicken was boiled. Season with salt and pepper to taste and a slight dash of Cayenne. Then add one teaspoonful of prepared mustard. Let it simmer three mlnutea longer, and as it comes to a boil pour over the chicken and serve. Any remains of cold chicken are very delicious served with this "Sauce a la Diable. (See recipe "Meat Sauces.")

Chicken a la Tartare.

Poulet a la Tartare.

1 Spring Chicken.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1 Tablespoonful of Thyme.

1 Bay Leaf, Minced Fine.

1 Chopped Onion.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the chicken according to the above recipe, adding the chopped vegetables and herbs. Season to taste. When done, place on a hot dish, butter nicely and serve with a Sauce a la Tartare. (See recipe.)

A broiled chicken may be served in the same manner, but either broiled or boiled, the chicken must be cooked whole, splitting down the back.

Stewed Chicken, Brown Sauce.

Fricassee de Volaille, Sauce Brune.

1 Chicken.

1 Onion.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Sprig of Thyme

1 Sprig of parsley

3 Bay Leaves

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Clean and cut the chicken into pieces at the joints. Season well with salt and black pepper. Chop the onions fine. Put a tablespoonful of lard into the stewpot, and, when hot, add the onion. Let it brown slightly and then add the flour which has been well sifted. Let this brown and add the chicken. Let all simmer a few minutes and then add the chopped thyme, parsley and bay leaf. The latter must be minced very fine. Stir well and often. When every piece is nicely browned, add one and a half pints of boiling water or soup broth. Stir until it begins to boil. Season again to taste. Cover and let it simmier gently for an hour, or until tender. In making a fricassee, the liver, heart and gizzard of the chicken are all thrown into the stew. Dish up the chicken, pour over the hot sauce and serve hot. This dish is very nice with boiled rice or potatoes. It is a simple, elegant dish, within the means of everyone. This is a plain fricassee.

Stewed Chicken, White Sauce.

Fricassee de Volaille, Sauce Blanche.

1 Chicken.

1 Onion.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls Flour.

1 Pint Fresh milk

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Clean and cut the chicken into joints and clean the gizzard, liver and open the heart. Season well with salt and pepper, and put all into a stewpan on a moderate fire. Cover well with boiling water. Let simmer for an hour and a half or quarter if the chicken is very young; longer if the chicken is old. Add the juice of two large onions. Cook until tender. This is the unvarying rule in stewing or cooking chickens, as one may be tender and the other quite tough, though of the same age. When the chicken is done, blend together one large tablespoonful of butter and of flour in a frying pan without browning; add a pint of milk and mix well. Add this to the chicken, mixing and stirring constantly till it boils. Salt and pepper to taste. Take from the fire and add the beaten yolks of two eggs and a little chopped parsley. Serve hot.

Chicken Saute a la Creole.

Poulet Saute a. la Creole.

2 Fine Spring Chickens.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

2 lablespoonfuls of Flour.

6 Large, Fresh Tomatoes, or 1-2 Can.

6 Fresh, Sweet Green Peppers.

2 Cloves of Garlic.

3 Large Onions.

3 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

2 Bay Leaves.

1 Pint of Consomme or boiling water

Take two spring chickens and clean nicely and cut into pieces at the joints. Season well with salt and pepper. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a stew-pan, and, when it melts, add the chicken. Let this brown slowly for a good five minutes. Have ready three large onions sliced. Add these to the chickens and let them brown. Every inch must be nicely browned, but not in the slightest degree burned. Add two tablespoonfuls of flour; let this brown. Then add a half dozen large, fresh tomatoes, nicely sliced, or a half can of tomatoes, and let these brown. Cook very slowly, allowing the mixture to simply simmer. Add chopped parsley, thyme and bay leaf, and two cloves of garlic finely minced. Let all brown without burning. Cover and let it smother over a slow but steady fire. The tomato juice will make sufficient gravy as yet. If you have sweet green peppers, add a half dozen, taking the seeds out before adding and slicing the peppers very fine. Stir well. Let all smother steadily for twenty minutes at least, keeping well co\'ered and stirring occasionally. When well smothered, add one cup of Consomme, if you have it; if not, one cup of boiling water. Let it cook again for a full half hour, very. very slowly over a very steady fire, and season again to taste. Cook ten minutfts more, and serve hot.

Chicken With Mushrooms.

Poulet Saute aux Champignons.

1 Fine Spring Chicken.

1-2 Cups of Mushrooms.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

2 Chopped Onions.

1 Clove of Garlic.

1 Glass of Madeira or Sherry Wine.

1-2 Square Inch of Ham to Season

Thyme. Parsley, Bay Leaf.

Cut into joints and season a nicely cleaned chicken. Put it in a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of butter, and let it simmer for about ten minutes, browning slightly, A mushroom sauce Is never dark. Add two nicely-chopped onions, and let these brown slightly; then, add one-half of a square inch of ham. chopped very fine indeed. Add thyme, parsley and bay leaf, following carefuHy the order given in adding the ingredients. A minute later add the garlic, which has been minced very fine. Let all brown together for ten minutes. Cut the mushrooms into halves, put them with the water into the pot, stirring well. Let them simmer five minutes. Then add a wineglass of Sherry or Madeira, stir and cover the pot closely, so that it can smother well. If the sauce appears too thick add about a half cup of broth or boilingr water. Season to taste, and let all cook very slowly for an hour longer over a steady fire. The secret in smothering chicken is to let it cook slowly, so that the seasoning may permeate the flesh and the heat by slow degrees render it tender and most palatable.

Chicken With Truffles.

Poulet Saute aux Truffes.

Proceed in exactly the same manner as in the above recipe, only add a halt can of truffles instead of the mushrooms. This is an expensive dish.

Chicken and Rice.

Poulet au Riz.

1 Fine Chicken.

1-2 Square Inch of Ham.

2 Small Turnips.

2 Carrots.

2 Onions.

1 Clove of Garlic.

1 Small Piece of Lemon Peel.

1 Small piece of Red Pepper Pod.

1 Bay Leaf.

2 Whole Cloves, Without the Seed.

3 Sliced Tomatoes.

3 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

2 Quarts of Water.

2 Tablespoons Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Clean and cut and season the chicken well with salt and pepper. Put the butter into the saucepan and let It melt, and add the seasoned chicken. Let it brown well, and add the vegetables, all chopped very fine. Then add the minced herbs and garlic, and after this the spices. Let all simmer gently for ten minutes, and pour over two quarts of boiling water. Stir and season again to taste and sit back on the stove and let it simmmer steadily and slowly for three-quarters of an hour. When two-thirds cooked, add one cup of well-washed rice, stir well, seasoning again to taste. Do not let the rice become mushy. Let the grains stand out. Let all cook for twenty minutes longer and serve, taking out first the pieces of chicken and ranging the rice around as a garnish. Serve with the sauce poured over.

Chicken Stewed With Green Peas. Poulet Saute aux Petit Pois.

1 Nice Chicken of a Year Old.

1 Pint of Green Peas.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

2 Chopped Onions.

1 Clove of Garlic.

1 Pint of Fresh Milk.

1-2 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

Thyme

Parsley

Bay Leaf.

Cut and season the chicken nicely. Put it in a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of butter, and let it simmer nicely for about ten minutes without browning. Add two nicely-chopped onions and let these brown slightly. Then add a square inch of ham, chopped very fine, and minced thyme, parsley and bay leaf, one sprig each. Add the garlic, nicely minced. Let all brown together, slightly simmering all the time. Then pour in one pint of boiling water, and set back on the stove and let simmer gently for an hour and a quarter. About twenty minutes before serving add one pint of milk, and let all cook for twenty minutes. Serve with the green peas heaped around the chicken, which should be placed in the center of the dish. Pour the gravy over, and bring to the table.

Chicken With Dumplinis.

Poulet aux Echaudes.

1 Fine Year-Old Chicken.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme, Parsley and Bay Leaf.

2 Dozen Small Dumplings.

Prepare a Plain Fricassee, Brown or White Gravy, and, about twelve minutes before serving, add the dumplings, dropping them in lightly, and bring the chicken to a brisk boil. (See recipe for Dumplings.) Place the chicken and dumplings in the dish, pour the hot gravy over and serve.

Chicken a la Jardiniere.

Poulet a la Jardiniere.

1 Fine Chicken.

6 Small Onions.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Sprig Bach of Thyme, Parsley and Bay leaf

1-2 Head of Cauliflower.

1-2 Cup of Green Peas.

3 Small Artichokes.

1-4 Can of Mushrooms.

Cut and stew the chicken as in Fricassee Brown Gravy. After adding the water add a half dozen small onions, and let it simmer for an hour, or until tender. Then add one-quarter can of mushrooms, a small half head of cauliflower (nicely chopped), a half cup of green peas and several cooked artichokes. Set upon a quick fire, mix well and add a pint of good broth or water; let all cook for twenty minutes longer and serve hot.

Smothered Chicken.

Poulet Braise.

1 Chicken.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard.

This is a most delicate and palatable way of cooking chickens. After cleaning the young chicken, split down the back and dredge with salt and pepper. Put a tablespoonful of lard into the frying pan, and, when it is hot, add the chicken. Let it simmer gently for about fifteen minutes, then add a half cup of water, and set back on the stove, and let It simmer gently and steadily for about an hour. Serve with a garnish of chopped parsley. Some smother the chicken in butter, but this is according to taste. Butter always makes a greasier dish than lard when frying or smothering meats.

Breasts of Chicken Louisiana Style.

Supreme de Volaille a la Louisianaise.

The Filets of 2 Chickens.

1 Small Onion, sliced.

1 Minced Bay Leaf.

1 Blade of Mace.

4 Cloves. of garlic

Salt and Pepper to Taste. The filets are the white meat on either side of the breast bone. In one chicken you will have four filets. Form this white meat neatly into filets by patting and flattening. Then season well with salt and pepper. Put the butter into the stewpan and add the sliced onion, the bay leaf (whole) and the spices. Let all simmer without browning. Then lay In the filets of chicken, being careful not to let them brown. Let them simmer gently and add one cup of the water m which you have broiled the dark meat of the chicken. Let all simmer gently for an hour. When done, arrange the fllels tastefully on a dish, garnish with parsley sprigs and Croutons of bread nicely shaped in diamond form and fried in butter. The dark meat may be utilized fn making salads, croquettes or boudins.

Breasts of Chicken, Queen Style,

Supreme de Volaille a, la Reine.

6 or 8 Breasts of Chicken.

2 Trouffles.

4 Mushrooms.

2 Ounces of Chicken Forcemeat.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Gill of Madeira Wine.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Mushroom Liquor.

1 Pint of Hot Sauce a la Reine.

Under the breast of each chicken is found a small filet. Carefully remove this, and set aside on a dish for further use. Take a small, sharp knife and make an incision three inches long and one inch deep in the inner side of each breast; season lightly with salt and pepper, and then stuff each breast in the incision made, using two ounces of chicken forcemeat (see recipe), mixed with two truffles and four mushrooms, all finely minced. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a stewpan; lay the breasts in gently. Take each small filet, press gently into shape and flatten; make several small incisions and place within a fine slice of truffle, about an inch in diameter. Carefully lay on top of each breast lengthwise. Brush lightly with melted butter. Pour into the pan, but not over the breasts, the wine and mushroom liquor. Cover tightly and set in the oven for fifteen minutes. Send to the table hot.

Smothered Chicken.

Poularde Etouffe.

1 Young Hen.

1-4 Pounds of Nice Bacon.

1 Lemon.

2 Carrots.

2 Onions.

1 Herb Bouquet.

1 1-2 Cups Broth.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

This is a nice way to utilize young hens. Clean and singe the chicken nicely, and, after taking out the entrails, truss it as in roasting turkey. Place in the frying pan small pieces of fat bacon, cut in very slender strips of about the size of your finger. Place over this slices of lemon, very fine, and cover again with slender bits of bacon. Moisten this with a half cup of water and lay over two carrots, cut in thin slices, and two onions, cut likewise, and a teaspoonful each of thyme, parsley and one bay leaf, minced fine. Place on top of this the chicken and cover closely. Let it cook on a good fire for three-quarters of an hour, or a half hour, if the chicken is exceedingly tender. When done, take out the chicken, add one-half cup of broth to the liquor in which It has been boiling. Stir well and season highly, and pour over the chicken and serve. A sauce of tomatoes may also be made and served with this dish.

Fried Chicken.

Poulet Frit.

1 Spring Chicken.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Lard.

2 Eggs.

4 Tablespoonfuls of Flour.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Clean and cut the chicken into joints. Dredge well with salt and pepper. Make a nice batter with the eggs and flour and roll the chicken in this, patting lightly. Place in the hot lard in the frying pan and let it cook for about three-quarters of an hour, watching carefully that it may not burn. Serve on a platter garnished with chopped parsley and cresses.

Fried Chicken, Cream Sauce.

Poulet Frit a la Creme.

1 Spring Chicken.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Lard.

Salt and Pepper.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1-2 Pints of Milk.

Clean and cut the chicken at the joints. Dredge well with salt and pepper and a little flour. Put the lard into the frying pan, and, when hot, add the chicken, letting it fry slowly for three-quarters of an hour until done. Be careful not to burn. When done, arrange the pieces on a hot dish. Pour off all the fat that remains in the frying pan but one tablespoonful. Add to this a tablespoonful of sifted flour. Mix thoroughly and then pour in a half pint of rich cream or milk. Season well with salt and pepper, let it come to a slight boil and pour over the chicken and serve.

Roast Chicken.

Poulet Roti.

1 Chicken.

1-2 Tablespoonful Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Proceed in exactly the same manner as for roasting a turkey. (See recipe.) The chicken must bake in a quick oven, allowing fifteen minutes to every pound. A roasted chicken may be stuffed or not, according to taste, with a stuffing of oysters, eggs or truffles (see Dressings for Fowls) in exactly the same manner as turkey.

Chicken a la Reine.

Poulet a la Reine.

2 Chickens of 1 Year Old.

1-4 Pounds of Nice Bacon.

1 Carrot, cut fine.

1 Onion, cut fine.

1 Quart of Broth or Water.

1 Herb Bouquet.

Clean the chickens and truss as for roasting. Then dredge inside and out with salt and pepper. Cut the bacon into very thin strips, about the width of a match, and cover the bottom of the stewpan. Lay over this the carrots and onions, sliced fine, and put another layer of salt meat in delicate strips. Put the chickens in this and cover well and set inside of a hot oven. After twenty minutes add the boiling broth or water and the bunch of sweet herbs. Let the chickens cook for two hours, turning them at the end of one hour and basting occasionally. Put the chicken in a hot dish, boil the gravy down to a half quart, skim off all the grease and pass through a sieve and pour over the chickens and serve.

Casserole of Chicken.

Casserole de Volallie.

1-2 Cup of Cream.

3 Quarts of Cold Water.

1 Tablespoonful of Salt.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Cups of Louisiana Rice.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

A White Fricassee of Chicken.

Make a Fricassee of Chicken, White Gravy. Boil the rice according to recipe (see Boiled Rice) and then mash the rice thoroughly and add the butter and season with salt and pepper. Take a raised pie pan or casserole and press the rice into this, and set away to cool. When cool cut out the center of the rice and fill the wall and bottom with the white fricassee of chicken. Cover the top with the rice which you have cut out, laying on lightly, so as not to press the chiclcen sauce through. Beat an egg well and brush over this. Set in the oven and bake. Serve with Mushroom Sauce.

Chicken Souffle.

Souffle de Poulet.

1 Pint of Chopped Left-Over Chicken.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1 Pint of Milk.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

3 Fresh Eggs.

1-2 Cups of Stale Bread.

Salt, Pepper and Cayenne to Taste.

Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the flour, and mix nicely without browning. Then add the milk and stir constantly till it boils. Add the bread crumbs and cook for one minute longer. Then take from the fire and add the chicken, which has been hashed very fine and seasoned well with salt, pepper and Cayenne, judging according to the taste. Beat the yolks of the eggs and add, mixing thoroughly. Then beat the whites to a stiff froth and stir very carefully into the mixture. Grease the bottom of a baking dish with butter and put the mixture in this, baking for twenty minutes in a quick oven. Serve immediately while hot, or it will fall.

Chicken Pie.

Vol-au-Vent de Volaille.

1 Chicken.

1 Onion.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme, Bay Leaf and Parsley.

Pie Paste.

Clean and cut the chicken into small pieces of about two inches in length and make a plain fricassee. (See Fricassee Brown Gravy.) Prepare a Vol-au-Vent Paste (see recipe), and fill a tin pan of about two quarts with the Paste. Pour in the chicken gravy, and let it bake in the oven till the top crust is nicely browned. Always bake the under crust first. This is a delightful entree at any feast. Vol-au-Vent of pigeons, young veal and frog legs are made in the same manner. A Vol-au-Vent of Frogs is called "Grenouilles a la Poulet." The Vol-au-Vent Paste is difficult to make.

Chicken Patties, Queen Style.

Petites Bouchees, a la Reine.

1 Small Young Chicken.

12 Rounds of Puff Paste.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1-2 Pints of Milk.

1-2 Cans of Mushrooms.

A Pinch of Grated Nutmeg.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Roast or broil the chicken nicely. Make a Puff Paste. (See recipe.) Cut a dozen rounds with a biscuit cutter; mark a smaller round or top for a cover. Brush with a beaten egg, and mark on the surface of each with the cutter, dipping it each time in hot water, so that the marked outline may remain perfect. Set in a brisk oven and let them brown nicely for twelve minutes. Then remove the covers gently with a knife and fill with the following garnishing: Remove all the chicken meat from the bone and chop very fine. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a sautoire or stewpan and add a tablespoonful of sifted flour. Stir till smooth. Pour in gradually a half pint of hot milk till the same reaches the consistency of a thick cream. Season to taste with salt and pepper and a little nutmeg, and add one-half can of mushrooms finely chopped and the chicken. Stir constantly and let it come to a boil. Then remove from the fire and fill the patties. Set the covers on, serve on a hot dish. Pork tongues, blanched sweetbreads and all other "Bouchees" are prepared in the same manner.

Boned Chicken,

Galatine Truffee a la Gelee.

Proceed in exactly the same manner as for boned turkey and serve. See recipe Boned Turkey.)

Chicken Croquettes.

Croquettes de Volaille.

1 Young Chicken.

2 Small Onions.

1 Bay Leaf.

4 Sprigs of Parsley.

1 Large Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Cup of Milk.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

Cayenne and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the chicken as directed in the recipe for boiling. Then, when cold, remove all the tough fibers and nerves. Hash the chicken well and season with the minced vegetables and sweet herbs mixing all thoroughly. Then take a cup of soft of the bread, wet it and squeeze and soak in milk, in which you have beaten two eggs. Mix all this with the chicken very thoroughly and season to taste. When well mixed form the meat into cylindrical shapes and brush with a little butter. Then roll in a beaten egg and roll again in powdered bread crumbs. Fry in boiling lard and serve hot on a plate garnished with fried parsley.

Remains of cold turkey or cold chicken may be utilized in this way.

Chicken Balls, Queen Style.

Boudins a la Reine.

1 Young Chicken.

2 Small Onions.

1 Bay Leaf.

4 Sprigs of Parsley.

1 Cup of Milk.

2 Eggs.

1-4 Grated Nutmeg.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boudins a la Reine are made in exactly the same manner as croquettes, only the mixture is placed in a frying pan and fried in butter, using about a tablespoonful. To this is added about one pint of milk. Beat the chicken thoroughly in this, add a grated nutmeg, then take off the fire and add two eggs, well beaten. Fill custard cups with the mixture, place in the oven setting in a pan of boiling water and covering with paper. Let them bake thus as you would a cup custard for twenty minutes, and take off the paper and let them brown. Serve hot. All cold roasts, whether of turkey or chicken, may be thus utilized.

Bonlettes.

Boulettes are prepared in exactly the same manner as boudins, only the meat is formed into boulettes, or small balls, and patted on either side to flatten slightly.

Chicken Salad, Mayonnaise Sauce.

Mayonnaise de Volaille.

Remains of Cold Chicken, or Freshly Boiled.

3 Hard-Boiled Eggs.

Celery.

1 Onion.

Celery, Asparagus Tips and Boiled Beets to Garnish.

A Sauce a la Mayonnaise.

The remains of cold chicken are used for this. But it is always preferable for dinners to boil the chickens nicely and use only the white meat, if you wish the dish to be recherche. The dark meat, however, is equally good, thougrh it may not look so pretty. After cooking the chickens very tender, pick out all the white meat into small pieces of about an inch or less, and add chopped celery of the whitest fiber and very tender. Mix thoroughly, using good judgment in having parts of the celery and chicken in the proportion of one-third celery. Chop an onion very fine, and add. Season all with salt and pepper to taste. Place on a dish and spread over a nice Mayonnaise dressing (see Sauce a la Mayonnaise), and garnish prettily with celery tips, asparagus tips, olives and very delicately sliced red beets, and sliced lemon.

Chicken Livers.

Foies de Volaille.

Chicken livers may be prepared as "Foie de Volaille Saute," or "Foie de Volaille en Brochette." They are prepared in exactly the same manner as in the recipes for cooking beef's liver. (See recipe.)

CAPONS.

Chapons.

Capons of either turkey or chicken are cooked in exactly the same manner, generally being best when boiled or roasted.

Chapon Farcie a la Crenie corresponds to Creamed Chicken, and Chapon a la Poele corresponds to Poularde a la Poele, and are particularly recommended. (See recipes.)

GUINEA FOWL.

Pintade.

The Guinea Fowl is only eaten when very young, and then it makes a nice, palatable dish. All the preparations given for cooking turkey may be followed in preparing this fowl, and it is unnecessary to repeat them here. (See recipes for Cooking Turkey.)

GOOSE.

Oie.

The goose is a much tougher fowl than either the chicken or turkey, and requires longer to cook. It is also dryer meat, and in roasting requires to have a little water poured over it. Never roast a goose that is more than eight months or a year old, and never eat a goose over three years old. The happy age for general cooking is when the goose has reached one year or one year and a half. Young wild geese of not more than one year, and yard ducklings of similar age, are broiled in the same manner as spring chicken. The fatter the goose the more tender and juicy the meat.

Roast Goose.

Oie Rotie.

1 Young Goose.

4 Onions.

1 Cup of Mashed Potatoes.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Thyme.

2 Sprigs of Parsley.

4 Apples.

11-2 Tablespoonfuls of Lard.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

A roast goose, properly prepared, is a very savory dish, whether the fowl is wild or tame. But, as mentioned above, the goose must be tender. If the breastbone yields easily to pressure and the pinions are very tender, the legs smooth and yellow and free from feathers, the goose is young. In picking a goose never scald it, as this utterly ruins the flesh. The goose must be hand picked. Then singe and clean, and season well and roast as you would a turkey, allowing, however, twenty-five minutes to every pound. It may be served with a Giblet Sauce as roast chicken. Apple Sauce or Currant Jelly is always served with Roast Goose, preferably the Apple Sauce. Any stuffing used in baking a turkey may be used for roast goose, such as oyster or egg, etc. But the following is an excellent special dressing and seems to bring out more than any other the flavor of the goose:

Take one cup of mashed potatoes, four apples, peeled nicely and cored, and four onions, one-half teaspoonful of sage, powdered well; one-half teaspoonful of thyme, and pepper and salt to taste. Place the apples and onions and herbs in a saucepan and add water sufficiently to cover nicely. Let all cook together till soft. Then mash well and rub through a sieve. Add the cup of mashed potatoes and mix well, seasoning with salt and pepper. Stuff the body and craw, sew up and truss the goose. Put into the roasting pan, rubbing a half tablespoonful of lard over it and pouring over a half cup of water, boiling. Baste the goose very frequently, say every ten minutes, so that it will be fine and juicy. It generally requires at least an hour and a half to roast well, but the rule of twenty-five minutes to the pound is a good one to follow. A "Green Goose" is always best for roasting, but this must be covered from the beginning with a piece of buttered paper, else it will brown before cooking. Serve with Apple Sauce.

Goose Daube.

Oie en Daube.

Prepare in exactly the same manner as Turkey Daube (see recipe). A goose that is not so young may be cooked a la Daube.

Goose a la Chipolata.

Oie a la Chlpolata.

1 Fine Young Goose.

1-2 Pound of Chaurice.

1 Can of Mushrooms.

1 Dozen Large Chestnuts, nicely roasted and skinned.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme and Bay Leaf.

3 Sprigs of Parsley.

The Juice of 2 Lemons.

4 or 5 Bits of Lemon Peel.

2 Onions.

1 Pint of Boiling Water.

1-2 Tablespoonful of Lard or Butter.

1 Spoon of Flour.

Place the lard or butter in the stewpot and when it melts add the onions, which have been nicely sliced. As they brown add the goose, which has been cleaned, singed and nicely cut at the joints into pieces, and well rubbed with salt and pepper, and the sausage, which must be cut in halves. Let simmer for about ten minutes, until every portion is slightly browned, and then add the minced herbs and garlic. After three minutes add the spoonful of flour, mixing well, and let it all simmer for ten minutes longer, then pour in the can of mushrooms and their water, and add immediately the chestnuts. Let the goose cook till tender, and serve hot.

Fat Livers.

Des Foies Gras.

The livers of geese that have been caged tightly, so that they can make no movement, and which have been kept in a very high temperature, much higher than that of the atmosphere-geese which have been deprived of every ray of light-are used for the famous dish, "Foies Gras." The French first discovered this manner of caging geese, doing it at their ancient stronghold of Strasbourg. At Toulouse the livers of tame ducks were treated in the same manner. The Creoles, descendants of the French, brought over the custom to the old French colony of Louisiana, whence it has spread to all portions of the United States. While the livers of the geese or ducks become soft and fat under this treatment, the rest of the body suffers, and becomes so very fat that the goose flesh is good for nothing, or, as the Creoles say, "Plus bonne a rien." Foies Gras are now sold in cans in every large grocery establishment in the United States. They come already cooked, in such shape that they can easily be made into any of the delectable dishes that so delight the old Creole or French "bon vivants." The most famous of these dishes is the

Patties of Foies Gras.

Pates de Foie Gras.

1 Terrine of Foies Gras.

1 Pound of Fat Pork.

1 Pound of Goose Fat.

1-2 Can of Truffles.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

A Glass of Sherry Wine.

A Puff Paste.

Procure the fat livers of geese. (They are no longer to be bought except already prepared in cans, Terrine de Foie Gras aux Truffles du Perigord, Strasbourg.) To this allow one pound of fat pork and one pound of the fat of geese. Chop these and the livers very fine, allowing pound for pound of the fat meat and goose fat to the same quantity of livers. Season well with salt and pepper, and moisten it well with Sherry wine. Chop a half can of truffles and mix, and put all in a quart or pint measure baking pan, which you will have lined with Puff Paste. (See recipe.) The pan must be about two and a half or three inches deep. Bake this paste, and then fill in with the foies gras. Cover with a light cover of the dough, and decorate around the edges with the clippings of dough that remain. Place the pie in the oven, and let it bake for about an hour to a nice brown, covering for the first three-quarters of an hour with a piece of paper, to prevent burning. When done, serve in the dish in which it was baked. This is the real Creole Pate de Foie Gras.

Stewed Foies Gras Foies.

Gras en Matelote.

1 Terrine of Foies Gras.

Thin Strips of Bacon.

1 Carrot.

1 Onion.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1 Wineglassful of White Wine.

2 Spoonfuls of French Brandy.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Get the prepared Foies Gras. Cut them into slices or filets. Lard them with a larding needle and then place at the bottom of the saucepan small strips of bacon, cut very thin and fine. Add one carrot, nicely sliced; one onion, nicel.v sliced, and a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Cover this with narrow strips of bacon, and moisten with sufficient White wine to cover well, and two spoonfuls of Brandy. Add the juice of a lemon aid let it simmer well for a few minutes.

Then add the livers, and let them simmer for ten minutes longer. Season to taste, cook five minutes more and serve hot. In seasoning the livers prepared in this manner must always have a stimulating taste.

Loaf of Foies Gras

Pain de Foie Gras.

Foies Gras.

1-2 Can of Mushrooms.

1-4 Can of Truffles.

2 Shallots.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme, Parsley and Bay Leaf.

1 Leaf of Rose Geranium.

1-4 Teaspoonful Each of Ground Cinnamon, Allspice, Cloves and Mace.

1 Young Sweetbread.

1-2 Cup of the Soft of Bread.

The Yolk of an Egg.

Grated Bread Crumbs.

Choose sufficient livers for the number of guests, for this is never an everyday dish, and place them in a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter. Let them simmer gently and add a half can of mushrooms and a quarter of a can of truffles, two shallots, nicely minced; a sprig each of thyme, bay leaf and parsley, minced fine; salt and pepper to taste, and a half teaspoonful of prepared mustard; the leaf of one geranium, minced fine, and a quarter teaspoonful each of ground cinnamon, allspice, cloves and mace. Mix this thoroughly and let it simmer in the juice of the mushrooms for about twenty minutes. Then take a young sweetbread and cook according to recipe for Plain Fried Sweetbreads, and add a half cup of the soft of the bread, well moistened with milk. Mix this with the hashed sweetbreads, and add the yolk of an egg. Place this in a mortar with the foies gras and mix well. Then turn into a pan and brush lightly with the beaten yolk of an egg, and sprinkle grated bread crumbs over. Set in a pan of boiling water (Bain-marie), and bake in the oven for about a half hour.

Foies Gras Loaf Jellied.

Pain de Foies a la Gelee.

Foies Gras.

1 Slice of Fat Fresh Pork.

1 Slice of Lean Pork (Grated).

1-2 Can of Mushrooms.

p>

1-4 Can of Truffles.

1 Calf's Foot.

1 Bay Leaf.

Grated Bread Crumbs.

1 Sprig Bach of Thyme and Parsley.

1-4 Teaspoonful of Ground Allspice, Cinnamon, Cloves and Mace.

1-2 Cup of the Soft of Bread.

The Juice of 1 Lemon.

Bits of Lemon Peel.

1 Tablespoonful of French Brandy.

This is prepared in exactly the same manner as the above,only the sweetbreads are omitted, and in their place is added an egg, well beaten, and a piece of grated lean and fat fresh pork meat. Add a half can of mushrooms again and a quarter of a can of truffles, and a piece of calf's foot. Cook into a mixture of the consistency of gravy, mash well and strain in a sieve after seasoning very highly; add the juice. Let this simmer for about five minutes and add the pint of boiling water. Set upon the back of the stove, and let it cook for about two hours, or an hour and a half, according to the age of the goose, throwing in the bits of lemon peel. When done, skim carefully of all grease, and at the moment of serving add the juice of one-lemon to the mixture and serve. This is a very rich dish, and is served as an entree.

CHAPTER XVII. PIGEONS.

Pigeons.

Pigeons are of two kinds, those of the dovecoat and those that are shot on the wing, commonly called doves. The latter are always broiled, just as one would broil any other bird or a tenderloin beefsteak; else they are roasted in little bands of bacon. The former are prepared in various ways, as. Indeed, the latter may be also, only the wild taste is more apparent when broiled or roasted.

Broiled Pigeons.

Pigeons Grillees.

6 or 8 Young Squab.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Melted Butter.

6 or 8 Pieces of Buttered Toast.

The Juice of 1 Lemon.

Chopped Parsley to Garnish.

Squab are always best for broiling. Pluck and clean nicely inside and out. Wipe with a damp towel. Split down the back and spread open as you would a broiled chicken. Have the gridiron very hot. Rub the pigeon inside and out with salt and pepper, and brush lightly with butter. Place the broiler over a moderate furnace fire, from which all the gas has been exhausted, and let it broil slowly ten minutes on the inner side and five minutes on the outer. In the meantime toast a piece of bread for every pigeon that you broil. Moisten well with butter. Place the squab upon the toast, allowing one squab for each piece of toast, sprinkle with chopped parsley and butter, and serve hot. It is always well to rub the pigeon with a little lemon juice, as that renders the flesh nice and white.

Pigeons Broiled a la Crapaudlne

Pigeons a la Crapaudine.

4 Pigeons.

The Yolk of an Egg.

1 Cup of Milk.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

A Tomato Sauce.

This is a famous Creole dish, and the object is to so dress the pigeons that they will resemble little frogs, hence the name, "Pigeons a la Crapaudine."

Clean the pigeons nicely, inside and out, and then carefully cut the breast from the loin joints, without separating entirely. Raise the breast up from the shoulder joints, and pass it over the head of the pigeon, without separating it from the shoulders. Then press it down very firmly with your hands or a masher. Have ready the yolk of one egg, well beaten in a cup of milk. Season well with salt and pepper. Soak the pigeons in it well, so that they will absorb the milk and be thoroughly impregnated. Roll over and over, so that they will gather up the seasoning. Then pass them through bread crumbs, rolling and then patting each pigeon with your hands, so that the crumbs will hold. Brush each with a little melted butter. Have ready a double broiler, well heated, but on a slow fire. Place the pigeons on it, broiling very slowly. Broil tor fifteen or twenty minutes, allowing from seven to ten minutes to each side, and serve with Tomato Sauce. (See recipe.)

Roasted Squab.

Pigeons Rotis sur Canapes.

6 or 8 Young Squab.

6 or 8 Thin Slices of Fat Bacon.

4 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

Truffles (if desired).

2 Tablespoonfuls of Water.

6 or 8 Slices of Buttered Toast.

Use squab only for roasting. Clean nicely, and then truss the pigeon as you would a turkey, only use wooden skewers to hold the wings and legs in place. Take a slice of nice fat pork and fasten it around the body of each pigeon, passing over the breast. Put a bit of butter about the size of a pecan in each bird, and, if you can afford to do so, you may stuff with truffles. But this is a matter of taste. Put the pigeons in the roasting pan, and add a tablespoonful of butter and about two tablespoonfuls of water. The oven should be hot, but must not be scorching. Baste the birds frequently, and let them roast from fifteen to twenty minutes, according to their size. Prepare toasted bread, one slice for each pigeon. Butter well, and then remove the fat pork and place the pigeons on the toast. Pour over each a little of the gravy which has been made in the roasting pan, allowing it to soak into the bread. Serve hot, with a jelly, preferably Cranberry Sauce.(See recipe.)

Compote of Pigeons.

Pigeons en Compote.

6 Fine Fat Squab.

A Half Can of Mushrooms.

1 Clove of Garlic.

2 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf.

1 Onion.

2 Tablespoonfuls of White Wine.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1-2 Cup of Consomme.

Clean the squabs nicely; singe, draw and truss, with their legs inside. Rub well with salt and pepper and three cloves, ground very fine, and three allspice, also ground very fine. Take a tablespoonful of butter and melt in a saucepan. Add the sliced onion, and as it browns add the sliced carrot. Let this simmer gently for three or four minutes, and then add a minced sprig of thyme, and parsley, and one bay leaf and the clove of a garlic, minced very fine. Let all this brown, and then place on top the pigeons, which you will have bound in thin strips of bacon tied around the body. Add two tablespoonfuls of white wine and cover well. Let this simmer for about fifteen minutes, till the pigeons are nicely browned, and then add a half cup of consomme, if you have it; if not, a half cup of boiling water. After ten minutes add a half can of mushrooms. Let all simmer gently for an hour longer, being careful not to let the pigeons go to pieces. Watch, therefore, very carefully. Place each pigeon on a slice of toasted Crouton, and garnish with the mushrooms. Pour over the gravy, and serve hot. This is a most excellent compote.

Squab With Green Peas.

Pigeons Etouffes aux Petit Pois.

3 Pigeons.

1 Pint of Green Peas.

1-4 Inch of Ham.

2 Onions.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Bay Leaf.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Clove of Garlic.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Clean the pigeons nicely, leaving them whole, as you would a fowl that is to be roasted, and truss nicely. Take two onions and slice well, and place in a saucepan with a tablespoonful of melted butter. Let them brown slightly, and lay the pigeons that have been rubbed well with salt and pepper, inside and out, on top of the onions. Cover closely and let them smother. Then add for one pigeon one-half or one-quarter of an inch of nice ham, minced very fine, to give a good seasoning. Then add one sprig of thyme and one bay leaf, and the clove of a garlic, minced very fine. Let this smother very slowly for ten or fifteen minutes. When well browned moisten with a cup of consomme or broth, and add one pint of fresh green peas, or one can. Cover tight, and let all simmer over a slow fire for one hour, or more if the pigeons are not very tender. Serve on a platter, placing the pigeons in the center and heaping the green peas around. This is delicious, and the real Creole method of cooking pigeons with green peas.

Pigeons and Crawfish.

Pigeons a la Cardinale.

3 Pigeons.

2 Dozen Crawfish.

1 Slice of Fat Bacon.

1 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Onion.

1 Carrot.

1 Herb Bouquet.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Clean the pigeons nicely, and rub inside and out with the juice of a lemon. Then rub with salt and pepper, and brush with melted butter. Place thin strips of fat bacon in the bottom of a saucepan, lay the pigeons on this, and cover with another thin layer of strips of bacon. Cover with butter and set in a slow oven and let them simmer gently. In the meantime prepare a "Poele" as follows: Take a small square inch of ham, chop or mince very fine, and fry in a tablespoonful of butter. Add an onion and a carrot, chopped fine. Let these brown, and then add an herb bouquet, minced very fine. When brown add a cup of bouillon, and let it boil for ten minutes. Pour this sauce over the baking pigeons, and let them cook slowly for about an hour, or until done. In the meantime boil about two dozen nice crawfish, according to recipe (see Crawfish), and, when the pigeons are done, place them on buttered Croutons and place between each a garnish of crawfish. Add about a half cup of the broth in which the crawfish have been boiled to the gravy in the baking dish. Let it simmer for five minutes till reduced slightly, and pour over the pigeons. This is Creole to the letter.

Pigeon Pie.

Vol-au-Vent de Pigeons.

6 Young Wild Pigeons.

1 Onion.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Sprig Each Thyme, Bay Leaf and Parsley.

Pie Paste.

Clean and cut the young pigeons into small pieces of about two inches in length and make a plain fricassee. (See Fricassee Brown Gravy.) Prepare a Vol-au-Vent Paste (see recipe) and fill a tin pan of about two quarts with the paste. Pour in pigeons and gravy, and let bake in the oven till the top crust is nicely browned. Always bake the under crust first. This is a delightful entree at any feast.

Again, the pie may be prepared as follows: After cleaning the pigeons, stuff each daintily with oyster or egg dressing and then loosen the joints with a knife without separating them. Put into a stewpan and make a plain fricassee as above indicated. Let them cook until tender, and season with salt and pepper. Fill the pie dish with the pie paste; put in the birds, pour over the gravy, cover with a crust and bake.

CHAPTER XVIII.

GAME.

Gibler.

The number and variety of the game of the Louisiana forests have been the subject of many a magazine and newspaper article, and the administration and Joy of the chasseurs, or hunters, from earliest days. Our birds alone are so distinct and remarkable that the great Audubon devoted his life to their study, and his volume on the birds of Louisiana stands out as the greatest work extant upon birds. The fact is, that all through the year, from January to December, fancy game may be found in the New Orleans markets, though the game laws are very strict, and no bird is allowed to be shot out of season.

Something to Remember When Cooking Game.

Game should never be fried. This Is horrible. The larger game is roasted or broiled, or, as with ducks and venison, squirrels and rabbits, made into stews or "salmis." The smaller game is roasted or broiled.

VENISON.

Du Chevreuil.

The meat of Venison may be kept in cold weather at least ten or twelve days, if hung in a cold place; in warm weather for much less time, unless dried. The meat of fresh Venison is of a fine grain, and is always nicely covered with fat. The age of the deer can always be told by examining the hoofs; if it is young, the hoofs will be very slightly opened; if old, they will stand apart. Of all meats, Venison cooks the most rapidly. Venison is always best when the deer has been killed in the autumn. Wild berries are then plentiful and the animalhas then abundant opportunity to fatten upon this and other fresh, wild food.

Boast Haunch of Venison.

Culssot de Chevreuil Rotl.

A Haunch or Saddle of Venison.

Melted Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Watercress to Garnish.

Currant Jelly.

Prepare the haunch or saddle of Venison in the same manner as you would the roast beef. (See recipe Roast Beef.) Only pour a cup of water over the venison when putting in the oven, for it is a dry meat, and requires a little moistening if roasted. Bake in a quick oven, allowing ten minutes to the pound. A haunch of Doe Venison will require in the aggregate half an hour less time to roast than Buck Venison. To prevent the hoof and hair just above changing color in cooking always bind this with a coarse piece of muslin, in four or five pieces of thickness, covering the hoof and hair. Wet with cold water, and bind a buttered paper tightly around and over it. Baste every ten minutes, with melted butter first, and then with the drippings of the Venison. When half cooked, turn the Venison over, so that the other side may cook. Unbind the hoofs and garnish them with quilled paper. Place the Venison on a dish garnished with Watercress. Serve with Currant Jelly. (See recipe.)

Saddle of Venison, Currant Jelly Sauce.

Selle de Chevreuil, Sauce Groseille.

A Saddle of Venison Weighing About 5 Pounds.

1 Onion.

1 Carrot.

1-2 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1-2 Glass of Madeira Wine.

1 Gill of Consomme.

Currant Jelly Sauce.

Skin the Venison neatly and remove all the sinews from the surface. Take fine larding needles and lard closely. Tie the saddle around four times. Slice the carrot and onion and put in the roasting pan. Place the Saddle of Venison on top of these, sprinkle lightly with a pinch of salt, and spread a half tablespoonful of butter over. Set in a brisk oven and roast for forty minutes, frequently basting the Venison with its own gravy. Before taking it from the pan remove the cord which binds it and place the saddle in a hot dish. Then pour the Madeira wine and a gill of veal consomme into the pan, set on the stove and let it come to a boil. Then skim the gravy of all fat and strain over the Venison. Serve with a hot Currant Jelly Sauce as follows: Take a half pint of Currant Jelly and stir till it is thoroughly dissolved. Then put in a saucepan a wineglassful of good old Port wine, and set on the stove and let it come gradually to a boil. Add the currant Jelly and mix till thoroughly dissolved; then add a tablespoonful of Sauce Espagnole (see recipe) and let it again come to a boil. Serve with the Venison, sending each to the table separately.

Venison steaks broiled may also be served with this sauce. The steaks are placed in a dish one overlapping the other; the hot sauce is poured over and thus sent to the table.

Venison Steaks a la Poivrade.

Filet de Chevreuil a la Poivrade.

6 Filets or as Many Filets as Desired.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

A Sauce Poivrade.

The filets or Venison steaks are taken from any part of the Venison. The best are from the haunch or leg, and cut three-quarters of an inch in thickness. Rub them well with salt and pepper, and then fry in butter, allowing about five minutes to the steak. Venison must be served on a very hot dish and eaten hot. Place in a heated dish, and garnish with melted butter and chopped parsley, and serve with a Sauce Poivrade for Venison (see recipe), pouring the sauce over the steaks. This is a delicious dish.

Venison Outlets Broiled.

Cotelettes de Chevreuil Grilles.

6 Venison Cutlets.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Melted Butter.

Chopped Parsley.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Watercress to Garnish.

Trim the cutlets nicely, rub well with salt and pepper, brush with a little butter, and broil over a quick, clear fire, allowing about eight minutes, or less according to size, to each cutlet. They must always, like all Venison, be underdone. When cooked, place in a very hot dish, pour over a little melted butter and chopped parsley, garnish with watercress, and serve with Currant Jelly.

Stewed Venison a la Creole.

Salmi de Chevreuil a la Creole.

Venison Steaks, or Rougher Part of the Deer.

2 Onions.

1 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Clove of Garlic, Chopped Very Fine.

1 Herb Bouquet, Chopped Fine.

1 Glass of Claret.

1 Cup of Water.

1 Can of Mushrooms.

The rougher parts of Venison are usually used for stewing, but the dish is most delicious when made of Venison steaks. Cut the Venison into two-inch square pieces, and rub well with salt and pepper. Chop two onions very fine, and put them in a stewpan with a tablespoonful of melted butter. Let them brown slightly; then add the Venison meat. Let it brown slightly, and then add one tablespoonful of flour, and let this brown a little. Chop the square inch of ham very fine, mincing it, and add. Then add the clove of garlic, and two sprigs each of thyme and parsley and a bay leaf, minced fine. Let this brown nicely, and pour over one glass of good Claret. Let this cook for ten minutes, stirring it constantly, so that it will not burn, and then add one cup of boiling water. Stir well, season again to taste, and let it boil for thirty minutes, and serve hot. This dish will be improved beyond estimation if a can of mushrooms is added immediately after adding the water. But it may be made without the mushrooms. Serve very hot.

Venison, Hunter's Style.

Chevreuil a la Chasseur.

3 Pounds of Venison Meat.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Onion.

1 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Clove of Garlic.

2 Sprigs of Thyme.

2 Bay Leaves.

1-3 Fox of Mushrooms.

The Zest of a Lemon.

1 Glass of White Wine.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Croutons to Garnish.

Cut the Venison into pieces of about two inches square. Salt and pepper well. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a saucepan with the Venison and let it brown slowly. When nearly brown, add an onion, chopped fine, and let this brown slightly; then add the ham, minced very fine, and the clove of garlic and bay leaves and thyme, minced verv fine. Stir in with the Venison, and let these brown for about two minutes. Then add a tablespoonful of flour and brown for a few minutes more. Add a half bottle of White wine and let all simmer for five minutes. Then add a quart of consomme or water and let all cook for about one hour. Season again according to taste and add a half can of mushrooms chopped fine and the zest of a lemon and season again to taste. Let all cook a half hour longer and serve on a hot dish with Croutons fried in butter.

Stewed Venison, French Style.

Civet de Chevreuil a la Francaise.

2 1-2 Pounds of Venison (the lower and lean part preferable).

A Handful of Parsley.

1 Onion.

1 Sprig of Thyme.

2 Bay Leaves.

12 Whole Peppers.

A Half Glass of Vinegar.

1 1-2 Glass of Claret.

1 Pint of Veal Consomme.

1 Ounce of Salt Pork.

12 Small Onions.

1 Dozen and a Half Mushrooms.

1 Herb Bouquet.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Croutons.

Cut the Venison into small pieces of about two inches square. Make a "Marinade" by placing the Venison in an earthen jar with one large onion sliced, a handful of parsley, the chopped thyme and bay leaf, the whole peppers, a light seasoning of salt and black pepper, and the vinegar. Let the Venison marinate for twelve hours. Then drain it from the juice and place it in a saucepan with one tablespoonful of the best butter, and let it brown over. a moderate fire. After ten minutes add three tablespoonfuls of flour and stir constantly. Then moisten with the consomme and the claret. Season again to taste with salt and pepper, and stir until it comes to a boil. Then add the small onions which have been nicely peeled, and one ounce of salt pork and the herb bouquet. Let all cook about forty minutes, and about five minutes before serving add the mushrooms. Take the herb bouquet from the preparation; place the latter on a hot dish and decorate nicely with toasted Croutons, and serve hot.

Venison in a Chafing Dish

Chevreuil au Rechaud.

8 or 10 Slices of Venison.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Currant Jelly.

1 Tablespoonful of Water.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

This is a most delicious way of preparing Venison. The old Creoles use, if a chafing dish is not available, a little alcohol lamp and a frying pan. Slice the Venison very thin in pieces about two inches long and one inch wide, and about the thickness of a silver dollar. Have the chafing dish or alcohol lamp on the dining table, as you sit to eat. The pan must be very hot. The meat must be well seasoned with salt and pepper, and ready to put into the pan. Put a tablespoonful of butter into the dish. Let it get very hot, without burning. Put the slices of Venison in the dish. In one minute turn them over. Take a table spoonful of melted butter, and blend well with a tablespoonful of Currant Jelly and a tablespoonful of water. Spread this over the cooking Venison. Turn again. Let it cook for five minutes only, and serve very hot. This is one of the finest old-fashioned Creole dishes, and is good for breakfast, luncheon or supper. Bear in mind that to be effective it must be made at the table, as it will lose half its flavor if brought from the kitchen to the table.

Venison Hash.

Hachis de Chevreuil.

3 Cups of Left-Over Venison.

6 Potatoes.

1 Herb Bouquet.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard or Butter.

This is a splendid way of utilizing the left-over Venison. After having taken off all the rough edges of the roast and cut out the gristle and hard membrane, hash the Venison into pieces of about one inch in size. Take six left-over tomatoes, or freshly boiled, and cut into quarters. Chop fine one herb bouquet. Place a tablespoonful of butter or a half tablespoonful of lard into the stewpot, and as it melts add the Venison, seasoned well, and a few minutes later the fine herbs. Mince the clove of a garlic if the flavor is liked and add. Stir constantly without browning much, and add a tablespoonful of flour. Let this brown very slightly, and then add the tomatoes. Cover and let all simmer for about twenty minutes, and then pour over a pint of boiling water. Season again to taste and set back on the stove and let it simmer gently for about three-quarters of an hour. Cut some Croutons and fry them in butter; place on a dish and serve with the hash.

WILD TURKEY.

Dinde Sauvage.

The wild turkey abounds in Louisiana. It is roasted in the same manner as the domestic fowl (see recipe) and always served with Cranberry Sauce. (See recipe.)

WILD DUCKS.

Canards Sauvages.

The wild ducks, so much enjoyed in Louisiana, are many, but the most famous are the Canvasback Ducks, or "Cannards Cheval," the more delicate "Teal Ducks," or "Sarcelles," and the noted Mallard Ducks, or "Canards Francais." Then we have a species of water fowl called the "Poule d'Bau," or water chicken, which lives exclusively in the waters of the Louisiana bayous and marshes; as it never comes on dry land, it has been classed by the ancient Creoles among the fish, and is eaten on Fridays and fast days, when flesh meat is prohibited to Catholics.

In the following recipes given below, it must be borne in mind that all tame or domestic ducks may be cooked in the same manner as the wild ducks. For this reason it would be superfluous to give a special section to the former. But the flavor of the wild duck is such that it is always preferred on Creole tables as the superior bird. Ducks are stewed or roasted. The wild goose, or "Die Sauvage," is cooked in the same manner as the wild duck and the domestic goose. The "Duckling," or "Canneton," in the same manner as the delicate "Teal Duck" or "Sarcelle."

In cleaning all game, remember that they must be hand-picked, and never scalded, as scalding utterly ruins their flavor. Wild duck should not be dressed too soon after being killed.

Canvasback Duck.

Canatd Cheval.

Epicureans declare that the Canvas-back Duck is the King of Birds. And as it feeds mostly on wild celery, it requires no flavors or spices to make it perfect. The bird partakes of the flavor of the celery on which it feeds. This delicious flavor is best preserved when the duck is roasted quickly with a hot fire. And so also with the dainty Mallard or French Ducks.

Mallard Ducks or Canvasback Ducks Boasted.

Canards FYancais ou Canard Cheval Rotis.

1 Pair of Wild Ducks.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Clean the ducks as you would a chicken, without scalding, however. Rinse out the inside and wipe well inside and out with a wet towel. But do not wash the duck unless you have broken the gall bladder, as the washing destroys their flavor. Rub the inside well with salt and pepper, and rub outside as thoroughly. Place a three-inch lump of butter on the inside. Truss nicely and place tha ducks in a baking pan, and brush the tops with melted butter. Pour over two tablespoonfuls of water, and set in a very hot oven, and allow them to bake twenty minutes, if they are not very large, and thirty minutes, if larger than the ordinary size of Canvasback ducks. A wild duck is never cooked dry. It must reach the point where the blood will not run if the flesh is pierced with the fork in carving. When done, place the ducks in a very hot dish, and serve with their own gravy poured over them. Garnish nicely with parsley or watercress. Serve with Currant Jelly. Always have the plates very hot in which you serve the ducks at table.

Broiled Canvasback Ducks.

Canards Cheval Grillees.

1 Pair of Ducks.

1 Tablespoonful of Olive Oil.

Salt and Pepper.

Drawn Butter Sauce.

The Juice of 1 Lemon.

Minced Parsley to Garnish.

The Canvasback Duck Is very excellent when broiled. Hunters often serve this when on long hunts, and it is said the taste of the game Just bagged is beyond estimate. Broiled Canvasbacks are served as follows on the Creole table: Clean the duck nicely, as for broiling a chicken, wipe well and split down the middle of the back In the same manner as for a chicken. Season well with salt and pepper. Rub the duck well with olive oil of the best quality, and place on the broiler. Turn It over at least twice, so that it will cook thoroughly through and through without burning. Let it cook from seven to ten minutes on either side. Place on a dish that is very hot, pour over a Drawn Butter Sauce, in which you will have squeezed the Juice of a lemon, and mixed some minced parsley. Decorate with watercress or parsley sprigs. Bring to the table covered and very hot, and serve on heated plates. This dish Is very elegant.

Stewed Wild Ducks.

Salmi de Canards Sauvage a la Creole.

1 Pair of Ducks.

1 Square Inch of Ham.

2 Onions.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Clove of Garlic.

1 Herb Bouquet, Chopped Very Fine.

1 Glass of Claret.

1 Cup of Water.

Clean and pick the ducks nicely. Cut Into joints, or stew whole, as desired. The Creoles generally cut them into Joints. Rub well with salt and pepper. Chop two onions very fine. Put them into the stewpan with a tablespoonful of melted butter, and let them brown slightly. Then add the well-seasoned ducks. Let these brown well and add the one square inch of finely minced ham. Add the clove of garlic and two sprigs each of thyme, parsley and one bay leaf, minced very fine. Let this brown with the ducks, stirring frequentlv, and then pour over one good glass of caret. Let this simmer for ten minutes, stirring constantly, so that it will not burn, and add one cup of boiling water. Season well to taste, and let the ducks simmer well for about an hour.

Ducks Stewed With Mushrooms.

Salmi de Canards aux Champignons.

1 Pair of Ducks.

1 Square Inch of Ham.

2 Onions.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Clove of Garlic.

1 Herb Bouquet, Chopped Very Fine.

1 Glass of Claret. 1 Cup of Water.

1 Can of Mushrooms.

Prepare the Ducks for cooking exactly as in the above recipe and proceed to cook accordingly. Immediately after adding the boiling water add a can of mushrooms, and continue cooking according to recipe. The mushrooms add a delicious flavor to the dish. Serve hot, using the mushrooms as a garnish.

Wild Dncks, Hunters' Style.

Salmi de Canards Sauvages a la Chasseurs.

2 Fine Canvasback Ducks.

1-2 Pint of Veal Broth or Water.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Dozen Mushrooms, Sliced.

3 Fresh or Canned Tomatoes.

1 Onion.

1-2 Glass of Madeira Wine or Lemon juice

1-2 Pint of Sauce Espagnole.

The Zest of 1 Lemon.

Croutons.

Pick the ducks; singe, draw, and, after rinsing clean within, wipe neatly within and without; cut off the wings, legs and breasts; then take the two carcasses and sprinkle lightly with salt and place in the oven to bake about six minutes. Then remove the carcasses and hash them up. Put them Into the saucepan; add a pint of veal broth, consomme or water In lieu of either of these. Add a herb bouquet tied together, and lot the preparation simmer for about a quarter of an hour over a moderate fire. Put a tablespoonful of butter Into a saucepan, and lay In the wings, breasts and legs of the Ducks; season lightly with salt and pepper, and set on a very brisk fire and let cook for a few minutes, on either side. Now add a half glassful of Madeira wine and a half pint of Sauce Espagnole and' the grated zest of a lemon. Take the gravy from the carcasses and strain over the Ducks, and allow all to cook about a quarter of an hour. Then place on a hot dish and decorate nicely with Croutons fried In butter and cut in dice shape.

Ducks a, la Bourgreoise.

Salmi de Canards a, la Bourgeoise.

2 Fine Canvasbaclc Ducks

1 Tablespoontul of Butter.

3 Tomatoes (fresh or canned).

12 Onions.

2 Carrots.

1-2 Glass of Madeira Wine.

The Zest of 1 Lemon.

1-2 Pint of Sauce Espagnole.

1-2 Pint of Consomme or "Water.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Prepare the Ducks and cook according to above recipe. After placing finally in the saucepan, add twelve small onions which have been nicely glazed (see recipe "Glaze"); add the two carrots cut into small dice and which have been cooked in salted water for two minutes, before adding to the ducks; also add a half ounce ? of salt pork cut into halt-inch pieces Let these cook for fifteen minutes with the ducks and serve on a hot dish with Croutons.

Stewed Ducks With Turnips.

Salmi de Canards aux Navets.

1 Pair of Ducks.

6 Turnips.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Onions, Chopped Fine.

1 Square Inch of Ham, Minced Very Fine.

1 Bay Leaf.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1 Clove of Garlic.

3 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

This is one of the most delightful ways of cooking wild ducks. The turnip blends well with the flavor of the wild ducks, and a nicer way of serving this vegetable in combination does not exist. Clean the Ducks, and cut into pieces at the joints. Put a tablespoonful of butter into the pot, and, as it melts, add the onions, chopped fine. Let this brown, and then add the pieces of Ducks. Let them brown, and add the minced ham. Immediately after add the turnips, sliced or cut in quarters, a tablespoonful of sifted flour. Stir well, let the flour brown- slightly and add the minced thymt, parsley and bay leaf, and one clove of garlic, minced very fine. Stir well again, and let it smother for about fifteen minutes, stirring frequently, so that it will not burn. Then add water, almost sufficient to cover the Ducks, and stir well. Cover tight, and let the mixture smother for a half hour longer.

Wild Ducks With Olives.

Salmi de Canards aux Olives.

3 Cups of Left-Over Duck.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Onion.

2 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf.

1 Cup of Broth or Water.

1 Glass of Claret.

2 Dozen Spanish Olives.

Toasted Croutons

This is a nice way to utilize the leftover Duck; take all the remains of the Duck and select the good parts, and cut them into pieces of about an inch and a half square. Put a tablespoonful of butter into the stewpan, and. as it browns, add one onion, chopped fine. Stir this brown and then add the Duck. Stir well; add the tablespoonful of sifted flour, stir again, and in four or five minutes add two sprigs each of thyme and parsley and one bay leaf, minced very fine. Let this brown well, and smother nicely for about ten minutes.

Add a pint of good broth if you have it; if not, a cup of boiling water. Stir well, and season again according to taste. Pour in a half glass of good Claret, and add about two dozen fine olives, stoned. Let all boil for thirty minutes longer, and serve hot, with garnish of diamond-shaped toasted Croutons.

Stewed Ducks, Peasant Style.

Salmi de Canards a. la Paysanne.

1 Pair of Fine Ducks, French or Canvas back.

1 Dozen Glazed Onions.

2 Carrots.

1 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Cup of Green Peas.

1 Bay Leaf.

2 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Clove of Garlic.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1 Glass of Madeira or Sherry Wine.

The Zest of 1 Lemon.

Prepare the Ducks exactly as in the recipe for "Stewed Ducks With Turnips ' (see recipe), only the turnips are omitted. Add two carrots cut into dice pieces, and twelve glazed onions and the green peas. A quarter of an hour before serving add a glass of Madeira wine. Serve on a hot dish, with Croutons fried in butter, using the onions as a garnish with the Croutons.

Stewed Ducks, French Marshal Style.

Salmi de Canards a la Marechale Fran-caise.

1 Pair of Fine Ducks, French or Canvas-back. 12 Godiveau Quenelles. 12 Mushrooms.

2 Onions Chopped Fine.

1 Bay Leaf.

3 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Clove of Garlic.

1 Square Inch of Ham

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1 Glass of Madeira or Sherry Wine.

Croutons to Garnish.

Prepare the Ducks exactly as in the recipe for "Stewed Ducks With Turnips," omitting the turnips. Add ten minutes before serving, twelve small Godiveau Quenelles (see recipe) and the wine. Garnish the dish with Croutons (see recipe) and twelve nicely-cooked mushrooms, cut in two. Send to the table hot.

Cold Wild Duck.

Canards Sauvages Froid.

Remains of Cold Duck.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1-2 Tumbler of Currant Jelly.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Port Wine.

Cut the cold "Wild Duck nicely in thick slices, and serve with a sauce made as follows: Take one tablespoonful of butter, one-half tumbler of Currant Jelly, and two tablespoonfuls of good Port wine. "Warm the butter in the saucepan, add the wine and jelly, thoroughly blended; mix well, and serve with the slices of cold duck. The duck may also be served very deliciously with Currant Jelly alone, and buttered toast.

Teal Duck.

Sarcelle. The Teal Duck is the smallest and most delicate of the wild ducks. It is prepared in the same manner as the Mallard, preference, however, being left whole while roasting and broiling, on account of its size. The Teal Duck is always broiled whole, without splitting on the back.

Teal Ducks Roasted.

Sarcelles Roties.

3 Pairs of Teal Ducks.

6 Thin Strips of Bacon.

6 Truffles.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Water.

6 Slices of Toast.

Currant Jelly.

Clean the duck nicely and put one truffle and a lump of butter about the size of a peanut, with salt and pepper, on the inside. Rub well with salt and pepper and a little butter melted. Take a thin strip of bacon and bind it around the body of the duck, fastening with a skewer. Place a tablespoonful of butter in the roasting pan, and pour about two tablespoonfuls of water in it, dropping slightly over each bird. Set in a quick oven and bake for thirty minutes, or until done. The bird should always be served underdone. Have ready a hot dish, garnished with parsley, and a slice of toast buttered for each bird. Place the birds on them, sprinkle over chopped parsley, and take the juice in which the birds have been roasted, pour a little over each bird, so that it sinks down into the toast, and squeeze a little lemon juice over each, and serve hot.

The truffle may be omitted, but it is considered very elegant. The bird is just as good without, however, and it is within the reach of the poorest, simply for the hunting. Serve with Currant Jelly.

Teal Duck Broiled.

Sarcelle Grillee.

3 Pairs of Teal Ducks.

6 Strips of Bacon.

Melted Butter.

Chopped Parsley.

Olives and Slices of Lemon to Garnish.

6 Slices of Toast.

Clean and prepare the duck in exactly the same manner as for roasting, binding with the strip of bacon. Place on a broiler, turning frequently, and let it broil for about thirty minutes, very slowly. Serve with melted butter and chopped parsley spread over, and the juice of a lemon squeezed in. Garnish the dish nicely with sprigs of parsley slices of lemon and olives. Serve with Currant Jelly.

Teal Duck a la Bigarade.

Sarcelle a la Bigarade.

3 Pairs of Teal Ducks.

1 Bigarade or Sour Orange.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

A Sauce a l'Espagnole.

Clean the ducks and take the liver and fry them in a little melted butter. Season well with salt and pepper and a slight pinch of ground allspice and cloves and the zest of a "bigarade," or sour orange. If the orange is not available, take the zest of a lemon. The zest is the skin of the orange or lemon, scraped off without touching the inner pulp, or white skin. Place this in the interior of the ducks (you must have the boiled livers of five or six for the garnishment of two ducks), and then rub the outside well with salt and pepper. Bind with a strip of bacon and place on the broiler. In about thirty minutes it will be done. Cook over a slow fire, turning frequently. In the meantime prepare a "Sauce a l'Espagnole," and as soon as the birds are done pour off from the broiler all the juice that has fallen, and put this into the sauce, with the juice of two sour oranges or citrons. Let it warm without boiling, pour over the birds, which you have placed on buttered toast, and serve hot. This is an ancient Creole dish, almost lost in our day, but which deserves to be resurrected.

Stewed Rabbit.

Salmi de Lapins.

A Pair of Rabbits.

2 Onions.

1 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

I Clove of Garlic, Chopped Very Fine.

1 Herb Bouquet, Chopped Fine.

1 Glass of Claret.

1 Cup of Water.

1 Can of Mushrooms.

Stewed rabbit is a great dish among the Creoles. They say that this is the only way to cook a rabbit. Proceed as follows:

Skin and clean the rabbit. Wash well and cut into pieces at the joints, and rub well with salt and pepper. Chop two onions very fine, and put them in the stewpan with a tablespoonful of melted butter. Let them brown slightly, then add the rabbit. Let it brown slightly, and then add one tablespoonful of flour, and let this brown a little. Chop the square inch of ham very fine, mincing it, and add. Then add the clove of garlic, and two sprigs each of thyme and parsley and a bay leaf, minced fine. Let this brown nicely, and pour over one glass of good Claret. Let this cook for ten minutes, stirring it constantly, so that it will not burn, and then add one cup of boiling water. Stir well, season again to taste, and let it boil for thirty minutes, and serve hot. Green peas or potatoes, boiled or mashed, make a nice entree for this dish.

Rabbit, Hunters' Style

Lapin a la Chasseur.

A Pair of Rabbits.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Onion.

1 Slice of Ham.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Clove of Garlic.

2 Sprigs of Thyme.

2 Bay Leaves.

1-2 Box of Mushrooms.

The Zest of a Lemon.

1-2 Bottle of Claret Wine.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Croutons to Garnish.

Prepare the rabbit; clean and draw, and cut into pieces at the joints. Rub well with salt and pepper; put a tablespoonful of butter into the saucepan with the rabbit and let it brown slowly. When nearly brown, add the onion, chopped tine, and let this brown slightly. Then add the ham, minced very fine, and the clove and garlic and bay leaves and thyme, minced very fine. Stir with the rabbit, and let these brown for about two minutes; then add a tablespoonl of flour and brown for a tew minutes; add a half bottle of Claret wine and let all simmer for five minutes; then add a quart of consomme or water, and let all cook for about one hour. Season according to taste. Add a half can of mushrooms, chopped fine, and the zest of a lemon, and again season to taste. Let all cook for a half hour longer and serve on a hot dish, with Croutons fried in butter.

Rabbit en Matelote.

Lapin en Matelote.

A Pair of Rabbits.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Lard or Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Flour

6 Fresh, Large Tomatoes, or a Half Can.

1 Large Onion, Chopped Fine.

3 Sprigs Each of Thvme.

Sweet Marjoram, Parsley and Bay Leaf.

1 Glass of Good Claret, or the Juice of 3 Lemon.

1 Quart of Water or Consomme.

Salt and Pepper to Taste. A Dash of Cayenne.

Skin, clean, wash and cut the rabbit into pieces at the joints. Put the lard or butter into a deep stewpan or kettle. When hot, add gradually two tablespoonfuls of flour, stirring constantly to prevent burning. Throw in about ten or twelve well-mashed allspice, and three sprigs each of chopped thyme, parsley bay leaf and sweet marjoram, one clove of garlic, and one large onion, chopped very fine. Add six fresh large tomatoes, chopped fine, or one-half can of tomatoes. Pour in one glass of good claret add about one quart of water, and let it boil well. Then add salt and Cayenne to taste, and, when this has boiled about five minutes, add the rabbit, putting in piece by piece. Add the juice of a lemon, and let all boil about ten minutes. Serve with French Fried Potatoes, Mashed Potatoes or Potato Croquettes.

HARE.

Lievre.

The hare and the rabbit are very much alike, the closest relationship existing between the two. The principal difference is that the rabbit is smaller in size than the hare, and its ears and legs are shorter.

The hare may be cooked in almost any manner in which rabbits are served. There are, however, some special methods in vogue among the Creoles which are here appended. In preparing the hare for roasting, it should be first skinned, and then washed well in cold water and rinsed thoroughly in tepid water. If the hare seems a little musty from being emptied before being hung up, rub the insides well with vinegar and again wash thoroughly in warm water. Prepare for cooking as you would a rabbit, wipe well with a soft towel, dress nicely, stew the animal up and truss it, and allow it to roast from three-quarters of an hour to one hour, according to size. Baste occasionally with butter, just before serving. Of late the hare is much affected by epicures. Many consider the meat far more tender and of more delicate flavor than the rabbit. It is generally served with Currant Jelly.

Hare, Roasted and Stuffed.

Lievre Roti.

2 Fine Hares.

3 Onions.

1 Carrot.

3 Apples.

2 Ounces of Sausage Meat.

6 Mushrooms.

1 Lemon.

1 Sprig of Thyme.

1 Bay Leaf.

2 Cloves.

3 Sprigs of Parsley.

1 Glass of White Wine or Cider.

1 Pint of Consomme.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Slices of Bacon.

1-2 Tablespoonful of Pepper.

1-2 Tablespoonful of Salt.

Croutons.

Select two fine Hares and cut them in half. Separate the hindquarters from the fore and then bone them down to the legs. Do not bone the legs. Place the Hares in an earthen dish that is quite deep, then make a marinade as follows: Pour in a glassful of White wine, add a small lemon nicely sliced, and a small onion minced fine, one sprig of thyme and one bay leaf, all minced very fine. Season this preparation with a tablespoonful of salt and a tablespoonful of pepper and two mashed cloves. Take the saddles of the Hares and roll them well in this, and let the entire Hares steep well in the marinade for twelve hours.

Chop an onion very fine and put it in a saucepan on the stove, and, when well heated, put in a tablespoonful of butter, cook for one minute, and then add two ounces of fine chaurice (sausage) (see recipe), chopped very fine; six mushrooms, chopped very fine; a teaspoonful of minced parsley, a teaspoonful of salt and a half teaspoonful of pepper; mix well and let all cook for about five minutes. Take three fine apples and cut them fine, carefully removing the cores, place them in a clean saucepan on the fire, with a half glassful of good White wine or the best Cider. Let this boil about five minutes, and then add the stuffing and mix well together. Then set the mixture to cool. Take the Hares from the marinade and stuff the boned saddles very carefully and evenly, and give a nice round, even shape; tie them to keep them firm; then place a fine slice of bacon over each saddle, tying firmly. Cut up a carrot and onion into fine slices and place in the bottom of the roasting pan; lay the Hares over these and pour one pint of consomme over the Hares. Place them in a hot oven and roast for three-quarters of an hour, basting frequently with their own gravy. Then remove from the oven and untie. Place the Hares on a hot dish nicely decorated with dice-shaped Croutons, and pour the gravy over the Hares and serve very hot.

Hare, Creole Style.

Civet de Lievre a la Creole.

1 Fine, Tender Hare.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Flour.

1 Large Onion.

1 Dozen Small Onions.

3 Tomatoes.

1 Ounce of Minced Ham.

2 Sprigs of Thyme.

2 Bay Leaves.

1-2 Glass of White Wine.

1-2 Glass of Red Wine.

1 1-2 Teaspoonfuls of Salt

1 1-2 Tablespoonfuls of Pepper.

1 Pint of Consomme or Water.

Skin, clean, draw and thoroughly wash a fine, tender Hare. Preserve the liver and, heart. Cut the Hare into pieces at the joints. Make a marinade by taking a half glass of White wine, one large finely-sliced onion, the thyme and bay leaves (finely minced), and place in a stone jar. Add a half teaspoonful of grated nutmeg and a tablespoonfhl of salt, and place in this mixture the cut-up Hare, and let all steep for six hours. Then lift the pieces out carefully; have ready a saucepan into which you will have placed a teaspoonful of butter, and add twelve small onions, glazed (see recipe); one ounce of ham, minced fine: put the Hare into the pan and let all brown nicely for about ten minutes. Then add the flour, finely rubbed, stir well and let brown. Add the tomatoes, peeled and sliced fine; let all brown ten minutes longer, and add the Red wine and the consomme or water. Stir till it begins to boil; then season according to taste, with salt and pepper. Let all cook for three-quarters of an hour, and add the heart and liver, which you will have finely chopped and thoroughly mixed together. Let all cook for a quarter of an hour longer and serve with toasted Croutons.

Sewed Hare With Onions

Gibelotte de Lievre.

1 Fine Hare.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Large Onion.

1 Dozen Small Onions.

1 Ounce of Ham.

2 Sprigs of Thyme.

2 Bay Leaves.

1 Glass of White Wine.

1-2 Can of Mushrooms.

1 Pint of Consomme or Water.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Prepare in exactly the same manner as above indicated, only do not use the tomatoes or Red wine; use instead of the Claret one pint of broth or consomme, and add a half can of mushrooms about ten minutes before serving.

Filet of Hare Sance Poivrade.

Filet de Lievre, Sauce Poivrade.

2 Fine Hares.

2 Onions.

2 Carrots.

A Half Glass of White Wine.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard or Butter.

1 Cup of Broth or Water.

Sauce a la Poivrade.

Take two fine Hares, clean neatly and cut the filets neatly from the rack. Lard the surface carefully with fine needles. Season well with salt and pepper. Make a marinade with half a glass of White wine, one onion and one carrot, minced very fine. Let all steep together for two hours; then place the butter or lard in a baking dish, with an onion and carrot, sliced fine. Put the filets of Hare over this and set in the oven and let it cook for a half hour. Baste frequently with the Hares' own juices. Place the filets on a hot dish, add a tablespoonful of broth to the gravy in which the Hares were cooked; let all come to a boil on the stove; strain the gravy and pour over the filets. Bring to the table hot and serve w\th *?- Sauce a la Poivrade.

Stewed Squirrel.

Salmi d'Ecureuil.

A Pair of Squirrels.

2 Onions.

1 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Clove of Garlic, Chopped Very Fine.

1 Herb Bouquet, Chopped Fine.

1 Glass of Claret.

1 Cup of Water.

1 Can of Mushrooms.

Skin and clean the Squirrels; wash well and cut into pieces at the joints. Chop two onions very fine and put them in a stewpan with a tablespoonful of melted butter. Let them brown slightly; then add the Squirrel. Let it brown slightly, and then add one tablespoonful of flour, and let this brown a little. Chop the square-inch of ham very fine, mincing it, and add. Then add the clove of garlic, and two sprigs each of thyme and parsley and a bay leaf, minced fine. Let this brown nicely, and pour over one glass of good Claret. Let this cook for ten minutes, stirring it constantly, so that it will not bum, and then add one cup of boiling water. Stir well, season again to taste and let it boil for thirty minutes and serve hot. This dish will be improved beyond estimation if a can of mushrooms is added immediately after adding the water. But it Is very nice without the mushrooms, serve very hot.

Squirrel,Hunters' Style.

Ecureuil a,la Chasseur.

Procure two fine Squirrels, and prepare in exactly the same manner as in the recipe "Rabbit, Hunters' Style." (See recipe.)

Squirrel en Matelote.

Ecureuil en Matelote.

Procure two fine Squirrels, and prepare in exactly the same manner as in the recipe for "Rabbit en Matelote." (See recipe.)

CHAPTER XIX.

BIBDS.

Des Ciseaux.

As already mentioned, Louisiana points with pride to the quality and variety of the Birds found in her forests. Fine game birds are always heavy for their size; the flesh of the breast, is plump and firm, and the skin clear. To be sure that the bird is fresh if purchased from dealers, pluck off a few feathers from the inside of the legs and around the vent; in a freshly-killed bird the flesh ?will be fat and fresh-colored; if the game has been hung a long time the flesh will be dark and discolored. These are infallible guides in selecting game birds. In serving birds, remember that young Green Peas, or "Petits Pois Fran-cais," as they are generally called, are nice entree for all birds. The following are the recognized Creole rules and methods of preparing our delightful "Fancy Game":

Invariable Rule for Broiling Birds.

Ciseaux Grillees.

Prepare the birds by hand picking. If of the very small variety, such as gras-sets. reed birds, robins, etc., do no pick out the entrails, for there will be little left of the bird but a charred mass. Rub the bird well with salt and pepper, and then with melted butter. Tie a strip of very finely-sliced bacon around the body of the bird, joining with a skewer, and place on a broiler over a slow fire, and let it cook for ten, fifteen or twenty or even thirty minutes, according to the size of the bird. Turn frequently, so that it may cook well without burning. When done, take off the broiler. Have ready always buttered French toasts, and place the birds upon them, allowing a slice of toast for each bird. Trim away the rough edges of the toast. It is a matter of taste whether the strip of bacon be removed or not. But in the most exclusive homes of Creole New Orleans It is retained, being removed at the table by the person to whom it is served, the hot bacon keeping the bird hot, juicy and tender. Always pour over the bird a little of the juice that has run from it in broiling, and let it soak down into the toast. Pour over a little melted butter and chopped parsley, and lemon juice if you like. Garnish with sliced lemon and parsley sprigs, and bring to the table hot.

Invariable Rule for Boasting: Birds.

Oiseaux Rotis.

Prepare the birds in exactly the same manner as for broiling, cleaning out the entrails of the larger birds, and leaving the small ones untouched, with the exception of the Papabotte, the gizzards of which must never be eaten, for the Papabotte is a very rich bird. Rub with salt and pepper and melted butter. In the larger birds, if you can afford it, put a truffle or two, for stuffing, and in all put a little lump of butter and a little salt and pepper, a pinch of chopped thyme, parsley and bay leaf, and a small pinch of the four spices, but very, very small indeed. Bind with strips of bacon, and place in a baking pan with a table-spoonful of butter. Let them bake or roast thirty minutes or less, according to size, and serve always on buttered French toast, over which you will pour, when you have placed the bird upon it a bit of the gravy made when cooking. Prepare this gravy by simply adding a tablespoonful of water, letting it cook "two minutes; then strain; let it cook for two minutes more, and pour upon the breast of the bird, so that it will soak down into the toast. Garnish nicely with sprigs of parsley and lemon, and serve hot.

Bear in mind that all large game should be roasted; the small may be roasted or broiled, according to taste.

PAPABOTTE.

The Papabotte is one of our most recherche and distinctive birds. The Papabotte is a summer bird, and is with us from the latter part of the month of June to September. The game laws are very strict, and it is not allowed to be killed out of season. The first Papa-bottes in the market, like the first Pom-pano, are much sought after. It is a rich bird, and is the joy of the ancient Creole gourmets. "Papabotte a la Creole!"-- "Ah!" they will tell you, "you have a dish that is enough to make a dead man turn alive!" Thus prepared, the dish is sometimes called "a la Francais-Creole,'' not because the bird has been ever cooked by the French in their own domains, for Is is unknown in French forests, but be cause the Creoles, in cooking it to the best advantage, adopt the French dress ing, which will be explained in stuffing the bird, according to the subjoined distinctive Creole recipe:

Papabotte a, la Creole.

Papabotte a la Creole.

6 Papabottes.

6 Truffles.

6 Thin Slices of Bacon.

6 Slices of Toast.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Water.

The Zest of a Lemon.

The Juice of 1 Lemon.

Olives and Sprigs of Parsley to Garnish.

Clean the Papabotte as you would a chicken, and take out the entrails. Separate the gizzards, and be sure to throw them away, retaining all the rest of the entrails for stuffing. Chop the remaining entrails very fine, and season well with salt and pepper. Fry them iri about a quarter of a spoon of butter. In the meantime take the Papabotte and rub well with salt and pepper, and put a small piece of butter, about the size of a peanut, with a little salt and pepper, in the Papabotte. Place in the Interior one

truffle. Bind a strip of thin bacon around the body. Place a tablespoonful of butter in a baking dish, and set the Papabotte in it, and add about two tfible-spoonfuls of water. Set the dish in a quick oven, and let the birds roast thirty minutes, turning over once, so that they may be perfectly done. When the entrails are done, add two inches of the zest of the lemon and a little juice. Take slices of toast, allowing one slice for each bird, and spread over each a coating of the entrails, or farcie. Place a bird on each slice of toast, after taking off tho binding of bacon, or leaving it on, ac cording to taste. Add one spoon of water to the gravy in which the Papabottes have been cooking, strain it, then warm for two minutes, and pour hot on top of the breast of the bird, allowing it to melt down into the French toasts. Garnish the dish nicely with sprigs of pars ley and olives, and serve hot.

Broiled Papabotte.

Papabotte Grille.

6 Papabottes.

6 Fine Strips of Bacon.

6 Slices of Buttered French Toast.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Melted Butter.

Juice of 1 Lemon.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

Sliced Lemon and Parsley Sprigs to Garnish.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Clean the Papabotte well, removing the entrails, and be particularly careful to throw away the gizzard. Rub the birds with salt and pepper and then with melted butter. Tie a strip of very finely-sliced bacon around the body of each bird, joining the bacon with a skewer, and place the birds on a broiler over a slow fire and let them cook fifteen, twenty or even thirty minutes, according to the size of the birds. Turn frequently, so that they may broil without burning. When done, take off the broiler; have ready the slices of buttered French toast, and place a bird upon each slice. Trim away the rough edges of the toast. Pour over the birds a little of the juice that has run from them in broiling, and let this soak down into the toast. Pour over a little melted butter and chopped parsley, and add a little lemon juice, if desired. Garnish with slices of lemon and parsley sprigs and bring to the table hot.

Roast Papabotte.

Papabotte Roti.

6 Papabottes.

6 Truffles (if desired).

3 Sprigs of Chopped Thyme and Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf, Minced.

6 Thin Strips of Bacon.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Water.

6 Slices of French Toast.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Sprigs of Parsley and Thin Slices of Lemon to Garnish.

Prepare the Papabottes as indicated in the above recipe. Rub with salt and pepper and melted butter; put a truffle or two into each Papabotte, if you can afford it, and put in each bird a little lump of butter about the size of a peanut, a pinch of salt and pepper, and a pinch of chopped thyme and parsley and bay leaf. Bind the birds with the strips of bacon and place in a baking pan with a tablespoonful of butter. Let them bake or roast for thirty minutes or less, according to size. When done, place each bird on a slice of buttered French toast, and, when you have placed the bird thus, pour over a bit of the gravy which you will have made by adding to the birds while cooking, and Just four minutes before serving add a lablespoonful of water, letting It cook for two minutes; then strain this gravy, and let It cook two minutes more. Pour a little over the breast of each bird, so that it will Boak down into the toast. Garnish nicely with sprigs of parsley and sliced lemon and serve hot.

PABXBIDGES. Perdreaux.

The Partridge may be roasted or broiled; being a large bird, if roasted It may be stuffed with truffles or any stuffing, such as oysters or egg, an! served on toast, as indicated in the recipes for broiling and roasting birds.

The term "Perdreaux" is applied by the French to young Partridges, and "Per-drix" to the older birds. In the young birds the tips of the long wing feathers are pointed; in the old birds the tips of the wing feathers are round.

Roast Fartridgre.

Perdreaux Rotis, ou Perdreaux Pidiues Sur Canapes.

6 Fine Young Partridges.

6 Thin Slices of Bacon.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

2 Sprigs of Thyme.

2 Sprigs of Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Toasted Bread.

Parsley or Watercress to Garnish.

Clean, singe and draw and wipe the birds neatly; rub each bird well witii salt and pepper, and then with melted butter. If it can be afforded, stuff the bird with truffles, placing one or two in each bird, and place within the bird a pinch of salt and pepper, a lump of butter about the size of a peanut, and a pinch of chopped thyme, parsley and bay leaf, all minced very fine. Bind the birds with thin strips of bacon, and fasten each strip with .a skewer. Put the Partridges in a baking pan in a brisk oven, and add two tablespoonfuls of butter and one of water. Let them bake from twenty-five to thirty minutes, according to size, basting occasionally with their own juice. When done, have ready the buttered French toast; place the birds upon the toast and pour over a bit of the gravy made when cookinp;. Prepare this gravy by adding two tablespoonfuls of water to the Partridge juice after removing the birds; let it cook for two minutes, and then strain and let it cook two minutes more. Pour upon the breast of the birds, so that it will soak into the toast. Garnish the dish nicely with sprigs of parsley or watercress and servo hot.

Roast Partridge, Bread Sance.

Perdreaux Rotis, Sauce au Pain.

3 Pine Young Partridges.

Slice of Toast Bread

11-2 Ounces of Fresh Bread Crumbs.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1-2 Cup of Cold Water.

1-2 Cup of Cream or Milk.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Salt.

6 White Peppers.

Prepare the Partridges and roast according to reoine for "Roast Partridge." (See recipe.) Make a bread sauce as follows: Crumble one and a half ounces of fresh bread crumbs and place in a saucepan with a half cup of cold water; add, when the water heats, a tablespoonful of butter, six whole white peppers and a half teaspoonful of salt, cook for five minutes; then add a half cup of rich-milk or cream. Let the whole cook five minutes more. Remove the white peppers. Place the Partridges on the toasted bread, and garnish the dish nicely with parsley sprigs or watercress. Send to the table hot with the sauce in a separate dish. Pour the sauce over the Partridges when serving.

Broiled Partridses.

Perdreaux Grilles,

3 Fine Young Partridges.

6 Slices of French Toast

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

The Juice of a Lemon

Parsley Sprigs and Sliced Lemon to Garnish.

Prepare the birds as in the above recipe. Cut them in two by splitting down the back, as in broiling a chicken. Ruo with salt and pepper and melted butter. Place on a broiler and let them broil from fifteen to twenty minutes, allowing from seven to ten minutes, according to the size of the bird, to either side during the broiling process. Turn frequently to avoid burning. Have ready the buttered French toast; place the birds upon it and pour over a little of the juice that ran from the bird while broiling. Let it soak down in the bread; pour over melted butter and chopped parsley, and add a little lemon juice, if desired. Garnish the di nicely with sprigs of parsley or water cress and send to the table hot.

Partridge With Soar Orange Sance.

Perdreaux aux Bigarades.

3 Fine Partridges.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

The Juice of a Sour Orange.

Toasted Croutons.

Watercress or Parsley to Garnish.

Broil the Partridges according to recipe for "Broiled Partridge." (See recipe.) Prepare a "Drawn Butter Sauce" (see recipe), and add the juice and zest of a sour orange. Pour over the birds and let it soak down into the toast, oerve hot, with garnishes of parsley or watercress.

Partridges Hinters' Style.

Perdrix Sautees a la Chasseur.

3 Fine Partridges.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Flour.

1 Finely Chopped Onion.

p>

12 Whole Mushrooms.

2 Sprigs'Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1-2 Glass of Sherry or Madeira Wine.

1 Cup of Water or Consomme.

Croutons.

The older birds are used for stewing purposes. Clean the Partridges; singe, draw and wipe well. Cut up the birds as you would a young chicken. Rub well with salt and pepper, and place in a stewpan with two tablespoonfuls of butter. After letting them brown well on either side, about three minutes, add the finely-chopped onion and carrot, and the minced herbs. Let these brown tor two minutes, and add the flour and let all brown nicely. Then add a cup of water or consomme and the wine and the chopped mushrooms Cover closely and cook tor fifteen minutes and then serve, using toasted Croutons as garnish.

Partridge, Creole Style.

Perdrix Sautees a la Creole.

3 Fine Parti'idges.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

3 Large Tomatoes.

2 Sprigs Bach of Tliyme and Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf.

1-2 Glass of Sherry or Madeira Wine.

1 Cup of Water or Consomme.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Croutons to Garnish.

Clean the Partridges; singe, draw and wipe well. Cut up the birds as for Fricasseed Chicken. Rub well with salt and pepper and place in a stewpan, and let them brown well on either side. Then add the finely-chopped onion and tne herbs, minced very fine. Let these brown and add the tablespoonful of flour. Let brown nicely, and add the chopped tomatoes and their juice; cover and let simmer about five minutes, and then add the wine and a cup of water or consomme. Cover closely and let all cook for fifteen minutes and serve hot, using toasted Croutons for a garnish.

Partridge a la Flnanclere.

Perdreaux a la Financiere.

3 Fine Toung Partridges.

1 Carrot. 1 Onion. 1 Bay Leaf.

2 Sprigs of Thyme. 1 Tablespoonful of

Salt.

1 Tablespoonful of Pepper.

A Dash of Cayenne. 2 Sprigs of Parsley.

1-2 Pint of Consomme or Water.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

3 Truffles.

2 Dozen Stoned Olives.

3 Blanched Chicken Livers.

1 Dozen Mushrooms.

1 Dozen Quenelles of Veal or Chicken.

1 Pint of Madeira or Sherry Wine. Clean the partridges according to the recipe given. Singe, draw, wipe well and then truss neatly. Rub well with salt and pepper. Take a piece of fat salt pork and cut into strips and lard the partridges with these thin strips, using a larding needle. Then put two tableson-fuls of butter into a shallow saucepan, let the butter melt, add the onion and carrot, sliced fine, and the minced parsley and bay leaf; lay the partridges over these, cover the saucepan and let the partridges brown till they reach a nice golden color. Then add a half pint of chicken or veal consomme, or if these are not convenient add a half pint of water. Cover the saucepan and let them simmer down for twenty minutes, turning occasionally, so that they may be thoroughly cooked. Then remove the birds, placing them on a hot dish in the oven. Make a Sauce a la Financiere by adding to the gravy in which the partridges were cooked; one tablesoonful of flour; let it brown and add one pint of rich chicken broth, one tablespoonful of butter, three sliced truffles, two dozen stoned olives, three blanched chicken livers cut in pieces, one dozen mushrooms, one dozen small balls or quenelles (see recipe) of minced veal or chicken (may be omitted), and a pint of Sherry or Madeira wine. Season well with salt and pepper, and add a dash of Cayenne. Let all cook for twenty minutes, using a wooden spoon to stir. The sauce should be of the consistency of rich cream. After twenty minutes place the partridges back in the sauce and let them warm for about three or four minutes. Place in the dish, pour the sauce over them and serve hot with garnish of toasted Croutons.

Partridge and Cabbage.

Perdrix aux Choux.

3 Fine Partridges.

A Fine, Tender Head of Cabbage.

12 Chaurice (Sausage).

1-2 of a Pound of Salt Pork.

1 Onion.

1 Carrot.

4 Cloves.

1-2 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Herb Bouquet.

1 Pint of Veal or Chicken Broth (White).

1 Pint of Beef Broth or Water.

Salt and Pepper to Taste. Clean the partridges, selecting large and older partridges in preference to the young. Clean, singe, draw and wipe well. Then truss them neatly, rub with salt and pepper and butter and place in a roasting pan. In the meantime take a fine, tender head of cabbage, clean thoroughly and cut into four parts. Wash the cabbage well in cold water and put into boiling salted water for five minutes. Then take the cabbage out of the water and drain well; make a hollow in the center of each piece of cabbage; place within the partridges, cover with the other pieces and tie together. Put in a saucepan the quarter of a pound of salt pork which has been well scalded and washed of all salt and cut into six slices. Add one carrot cut into four pieces, one whole onion into which you will have stuck four cloves, the herb bouquet, the sausage and one pint each of white veal broth or chicken broth, and one pint of water or beef broth. Season with a small pinch of salt, and a good pinch of pepper, and place the cabbage in this preparation. Put the partridges in the oven and let them roast for ten minutes. Then remove and take the cabbage from the mixture, make a hollow in the center of the cabbage, place within the partridges and cover with the remaining portion of cabbage; tie each half separately together; then return to the saucepan, placing a piece of buttered paper over to keep all air from escaping. Put the lid on the saucepan, set in the oven and let the partridges cook thus for an hour. Remove the lid and paper, skim off all that may adhere to the surface, drain the cabbage and slice; dress neatly on a hot dish. Untruss the partridges and lay them on the cabbage, placing on each dressed section a piece of sliced boiled pork, a sausage cut in half; slice the carrots nicely in round pieces, and use these as a decoration, placing them artistically around the dish. Strain the sauce in which the partridges were cooked and let it reduce slightly. Serve with the cabbage and partridge, bringing it to the table in a separate bowl and pouring over the cabbage when serving.

Chartreuse of Partridge.

Chartreuse de Perdrix.

3 Fine Partridges.

A Fine, Tender Head of Cabbage.

12 Chaurice (Sausasre).

1-4 Pound of Salt

Pork.

3 Small Onions.

2 Turnips.

2 Carrots.

4 Cloves.

11-2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1-2 Cup of Green Peas.

1 Herb Bouquet.

1 Pint of Veal or Chicken Broth.

1 Pint of Consomme.

1-2 Pint of Demi Glace, or Madeira Sauce.

Prepare the partridges and cabbage exactly as for the recipe "Partridges and Cabbage."

Butter a three-pint mold lightly; cut the turnips, carrots and onion into small even pieces, using a vegetable tube; put

a layer of the cut vegetables in the boU torn of the mold; lay on top a layer of the cooked cabbage, cut the partridges into pieces and-place a layer of them on the cabbage, filling in the hollow spaces with cabbage chopped fine and the chopped vegetables; fill in further with the sliced sausage and lay on top six slices of the salt pork; then place another layer of the partridges, fill in the hollow places with the sliced turnips and carrots and onions and the sausage; place on top another layer of cabbage, covering the top well with the cabbage and pressing down very carefully; decorate the mold prettily around the edges with the sliced carrots and turnips and place in a tin baking pan and set in a moderate oven for fifteen minutes. Have at hand a hot dish, turn the mold upside down and carefully draw it off the preparation. Send to the table hot, and serve with Demi Glace, or Madeira Sauce. (Se3 recipe.)

Breasts of Partridge Truffle Sauce.

Supreme de Perdreaux, Sauce Perigueux.

3 Fine Young Partridges. 3 Truffles.

12 Mushrooms.

1-2 Glass of Madeira "Wine.

2 Ounces of Chicken Forcemeat.

A Pint of Sauce a la Hollandaise.

2 Gills of White Wine.

Clean, singe, draw and wipe the partridges carefully. Then remove the skin from the breasts. By a delicate manipulation with a very sharp, small knife make an incision on the top of each breastbone from end to end and _ cut off the entire breast, including the wing bone, from the carcass. Carefully remove the small filet which lies under each breast and place on a dish aside for further use. Then cut an incision two inches square and one inch in depth into each breast, on the inner side. Rub well with salt and pepper, and stuff the Incision with two tablespoonfuls of chicken forcemeat, to which has been added six finely-chopped mushrooms and two thinly-sliced truffles. Butter the inside of a tin saucepan and lay the six breasts very carefully within. Then take each of the six small filets that have been laid aside; rub them well with salt and pepper and make a small incision on the top of each and place within a thin slice of truffle and brush lightly with melted butter. Lay these filets lightly on. top of each of the breasts, and again brush lightly with melted butter. These filets and breasts thus arranged constitute su-premes. Pour into the pan a half glass of Madeira wine and two tablespoonfuls of the chicken liquor, cover the pan tightly and place in a hot oven for fifteen minutes.

Take one pint of Hollandaise Sauce, add one finely-minced truffle and a half dozen minced mushrooms and two gills of Whiite wine. Place the sauce In a saucepan of hot boiling water and let the sauce heat well without boiling. Pour this sauce into a hot dish and then take the pan with the partridges out of the oven, remove the breasts and filets, or "supremes," place them on the dish with the sauce, garnish nicelv with Croutons and send to the table hot.

QUAIL.

Cailles.

The Quail is a most delicious and tempting bird. It delights the most fas-

tidious, and that famous preparation, "Quail on Toast," or- "Cailles sur Canapes," is a dish that no great dining is considered complete without, when quail are in season.

We have two kinds of quail, the blue and the yellow spotted, or pivele. Both are excellent. If purchased in the market or city stores, see that the skin is clear and the breasts full and tender. The Quail is either broiled or roasted, following exactly the same directions given in the recipes for broiling and roasting. In broiling, allow from twelve to fifteen minutes. In roasting, from twenty to twenty-five. Always cook slowly on a slow fire.

Roasted Quail.

Cailles Roties.

6 Quails.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Water.

The Juice of 1 Lemon.

6 Slices of Toast.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Sliced Lemon and Parsley Sprigs, or

Watercress to Garnish.

Select six fine, fat, tender Quail. Pick, singe, clean and wipe them well. Butter the inside of each Quail nicely and sprinkle lightly within with salt and pepper. Rub lightly on the, "outside with butter, then truss the bird and bind the body round with a thin strip of bacon. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a roasting pan and set the birds in the pan and cook in the oven from twenty to thirty minutes, according to size. Have ready the buttered toast. Place on a hot dish, lay a bird on each slice of toast. Add a little butter to the gravy in which the Quails have been roasted, a tablespoonful of water and the juice of one lemon. Let this cook for three or four minutes, strain and set on the stove for two minutes longer and pour over the breast of the birds so that it will soak into the bread. Garnish the dish nicely with parsley and sliced lemon or sliced lemon and watercress, and send to the table hot. when served with a garnish of watercress the dish is called "Cailles aux Ores-sons."

Quail Roasted in Grape Leaves.

Cailles de Laurier aux Feuilles de Vignes.

6 Fine Quails.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Water.

The Juice of 1 Lemon

6 Slices of Buttered Toast.

12 Grape Leaves.

Green Grape Jelly.

Follow the directions given in the above recipe for roasting Quails, only do not wrap the Quails in strips of bacon. Instead, rub the bodies well with butter and then envelop the birds in fresh grape leaves; set in a baking pan and proceed to roast according to the directions given above. Garnish a dish nicely with fresh young grape leaves, place the Quails on slices of toast and lay upon the leavea and send the dish to the table hot. Serve the Quails with Green Grape Jelly. This is, of course, a rare dish, and can only be served at the season when the grape vine is in leaf. It is much affected at such times by epicures, but it .is a dish within the reach of any who may have a grape vine near. The grape leaves impart a very peculiar and grateful flavor to the Quail.

Boasted Qaall.

Cailles de Laurier Rottes.

6 Fine, Tender Quails.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Water. 6 Truffles.

S Thin Strips of Bacon. The Juice of 1

Lemon. Parsley Sprigs and Sliced Lemon to Garnish.

To make this delicious dish, clean the Quail and butter inside and throw in a little salt and pepper. Stuff with truffles, and bind the body, after rubbing, with a strip of bacon. Set in the oven in a baking pan in which you have placed a tablespoonful of butter, and let it roast twenty or thirty minutes, according to size. Have ready buttered toast. Put the birds on the toast. Add a little butter to the gravy in which they have been roasted, and a tablespoonful of water, and the juice of a lemon. Let this cook for three or four minutes, strain, set on the stove for two minutes longer, and pour over the breast of the bird, so that it will soak into the bread, and serve with a nice garnish of parsley and sliced lemon, and with green peas as an efitree.

Broiled Quail on Toast.

Cailles Grillees sur Canapes.

6 Fine, Fat Quaijs. 6 Strips of Bacon.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 6 Slices of

Buttered Toast.

The Juice of 1 Lemon.

Parsley Sprigs to Garnish.

Rub the bird well with salt and pepper, and then with melted butter. Tie a strip of very finely-sliced bacon around the body of the bird, joining with a skewer, and place on a broiler over a slow fire, and let it cook for ten, fifteen or twenty, or even thirty minutes, according to the size of the bird. Turn frequently, so that it may cook well without burning. When done take off the broiler. Have ready always buttered French toasts, and place the birds upon them, allowing a slice of toast for each bird. Trim away the rough edges of the toast. It is a matter of taste whether the strip of bacon be removed or not. But at the most elegant dinings in Creole New Orleans it is retained, being removed at the table by the person to whom it is served, the hot bacon keeping the bird hot, juicy and tender. Always pour over the bird a little of the juice that has run from it in broiling, and let it soak down into the toast. Four over a little melted butter and chopped parsley, and lemon juice, if vou like. Garnish with sliced lemon and parsley sprigs, and bring to the table hot.

Quails Broiled With Bacon.

Cailles Grillees et Bardees.

6 Fine, Fat Quails. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Salt. 1-2 Tablespoon-

ful of Pepper. 6 Slices of Bacon. 6 Slices of Toast.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Sauce a la Maitre

d'Hotel.

Watercress and Sliced Lemon to Garnish. Clean the Quails, singe and wipe well. Split them through the back without separating the breast and break the leg bones. Rub well with salt and pepper and a little melted butter, mixed together, and put the Quails on a broiler and let them broil on a moderate fire for fifteen minutes, allowing seven and a half minutes to either side, and turning frequently to prevent burning. Have

ready a hot dish with six slices of buttered toast, lay the Quail on top and pour over a little melted butter (Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel), and then decorate the dish with parsley sprigs, on which lay six nicely broiled slices of breakfast bacon.

Smothered Quail.

Cailles Braissees.

6 Fine, Fat Quails. 1-2 Carrot.

1-2 of an Onion. 1-2 Cupful of Water.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

6 Thin Strips of Bacon.

Select fine, fat Quails, clean, singe and wipe well. Truss neatly and cover with a thin layer of bacon. Then place two tablespoonfuls of butter in a saucepan; place the Quails in the pan; add half of an onion and carrot minced very fine, cover and let the Quails brown to a nice golden color. Then moisten with a half cup of water and set the pan in the oven. Cover with buttered paper and let the Quails cook for twenty minutes. Serve on a hot dish nicely garnished with pars* ley sprigs or lettuce leaves.

Braised Quails, Celery Sauce.

Cailles Braisees a la Sauce Celeri. Proceed to clean and cook the Quails as in the recipe given above and serve with a pint of hot Celery Sauce (see recipe) poured over.

Quails Braised a la Financiere.

Cailles Braissees a la Financiere.

Braise the Quails as in the recipe for "Braised Quails," and serve with a pint of hot Sauce a la Financiere poured over.

WOODCOCK.

Becasse.

The "Becasse" is a rare bird. It is in season from December till April. In purchasing see that the skin is clear, the breasts firm and plump and the wings tender to the touch.

Pluck and clean, but never draw these birds. The olden epicurean ideas of Creole cookery forbid this. If you were to serve the Becasse to an old Creole bon vivant without the entrails he would consider it quite shocking, and his indignation would vent itself immediately in unmistakable terms. The "Becasse" is always broiled or roasted and served on buttered French toast. If roasted, always put, if you can. one truffle in "the body as a stuffing, and when serving a little melted butter on top of the breast. Boast Woodcock on Toast. Becasses Roties sur Canapes.

6 Fine Woodcock. 6 Slices of Buttered Toast.

6 Strips of Bacon.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf.

Sliced Lemon and Sprigs of Parsley or

Watercress to Garnish.

Prepare the birds as in the "Invariable

Rule for Roasting Birds." (See recipe.)

Rub with salt and pepper and melted butter, put a truffle in each bird for stuffing, and in all put a little lump of butter and a little salt and pepper, a pinch of chopped thyme, parsley and bay leaf, and a small pinch of the four spices, but very, very small, indeed. Truss neatly. Bind with strips of bacon, and place in a baking pan with a tablespoonful of butter. Let them bake or roast thirly

minutes or less, according to size; remove from the oven and place on buttered French toast on a hot dish, cover and set over a pot of boiling water to keep warm. Prepare gravy by simply adding a table-spoonful of water to the gravy made when cooking the birds, let it cook for two minutes; then strain; let it cook for two minutes more and pour upon the breast of the bird so that it will soaii down into the toast. Garnish nicely with sprigs of parsley and lemon, and serve hot.

Broiled Woodcock on Toast, Becasses Grilles sur Canapes.

6 Fine, Fat Woodcock. 6 Slices of Buttered French Toast. 6 Fine Strips of Breakfast Bacon. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. Parsley Sprigs, and Sliced Lemon to Garnish

Prepare the birds by hand picking. Singe and wipe well. Rub the bird well with salt and pepper, and then with melt ed butter. Tie a strip of very finely-sliced bacon around the body of the bird, joining with a skewer, and place on a broiler over a slow fire, and let it ?fook for ten, fifteen or twenty, or even thirty minutes, according to the size of the bird. Turn frequently so that it may cook well without burning. When done take off the broiler. Have ready always buttered French toasts, and place the birds upon them, allowing a slice of toast for each bird. Trim away the rough edges of the toast. Always pour over the bird a little of the Juice that has run from it in tiroiling, and let it soak down into the toast. Four over a little melted butter and chopped parsley, and lemon juice, if you like. Garnish with sliced lemon and parsley sprigs, and bring to the table hot. In cooking, and in serving, follow the "Invariable Rule for Broiling Birds." (See recipe.)

SNIPE.

Becassine.

The Snipe is one of our finest birds, and is much sought after by epicures. But the glory, of our Louisiana forests is that the rich gifts of nature may be had by the poor as well as the millionaire.

The Becassine is a welcome dish at the most exclusive tables. It is a winter bird, and is with us from December till April, as also the "Becasse," or "Wood-cock." If you tell an old Creole that you are going to treat him to "Becassines" or "Becasses," he will smack his lips and say: "Ah! you are a connoisseur."

"Becassines" are either roasted or broiled; follow implicitly the directions given in the rules for broiling and roasting birds. Serve in the same manner, with a garnish of cresses or parsley, and always on buttered French toasts. In selecting Snipe, see that the flesh is clear and firm and the breasts full and tender.

Roast Snipe on Toast.

Becassines Roties sur Canapes.

6 Fine Snipe. 6 Slices of Buttered French

Toast.

6 Strips of Bacon.

2 Tablespoonfuls or Butter.

1 Sprig Each of Thvme and Parsley. 1

Bay Leaf.

Sliced Lemon and Sprigs of Parsley or

Watercress to Garnish.

Prepare the birds as in the "Invariable Rule for Roasting Birds " Rub with salt and pepper and melted butter. If you

can atford it, put a truffle Into each bird for stuffing, and in all put a little lump of butter and a little salt and pepper, a pinch of chopped tnyme,' parsley and bay leaf, and a small plncli of the four sptces, but very, very small, indeed. Bind with strips of bacon, and place in a baking pan with a tablespoonful of butter. Let them roast thirty minutes or less, according to size, then remove and place always on buttered French toast on a hot dish, and cover ana set over a pot of boiling water to keep warm and juicy. Meanwhile prepare a gravy by simply adding a tablespoonful of water to the gravy made in cooking the birds; let it cook for t'wo minutes; then strain; let it cook for two minutes more and pour a little upon the breast of each bird, so that it will soak down into the toast. Garnish nicely with sprigs of parsley or watercress and slices of lemon, and serve hot.

Broiled Snipe on Toast.

Becassines Grillees sur Canapes.

6 Fine Fat Snipe.

6 Slices of Buttered French Toast.

6 Strips of Bacon.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter, Parsley

Sprigs and Sliced Lemon to Garnish.

Prepare the bird by hand picking, sing* ing and trussing neatly, following the "Invariable Rule for. Broiling Birds." (See recipe.)

Rub the bird well with salt and pepper, and then with melted butter. Tie a strip of very finely-sliced bacon around the body of the bird, joining with a skewer, and place on a broiler over a slow fire and let it cook for ten, fifteen or twenty, or even thirty minutes, according to the size of the bird. Turn frequently, so that it may cook well without burning. When done take off the broiler. Have ready always buttered French toasts, and place the birds upon them, allowing a slice of toast for each bird. Trim away the rough edges of the toast. It la a matter of taste whether the strip of bacon be removed or not. Always pour over the bird a little of the juice that has run from it in broiling, and let it soak down into the toast. Pour over a little melted butter and chopped oarsley, and lemon juice It you like. Garnish with sliced lemon and parsley sprigs, and bring to the table hot.

Grassets, Kecd Birds, Koblns, Larks, Broiled or Roasted

Grassets, Ortolans, Grives, Alouettes, Grillees ou Rotls.

6 or 8 Birds. 6 or 8 Slices of Toast.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

6 or 8 Strips of Bacon. Salt and Pepper

to Taste.

Sliced Lemon and Sprigs of Parsley or

Watercress to Garnish.

Grassets, Reed Birds, Robins and Larks are delightful small game that come in the summer. Thev are with us from July, through October. The Reed Birds, or Ortolans, are the terror of the rice planters of Louisiana. They peck at the rice and spoil the growth, and are, consequently, shot in this season, when the rice is maturing, in order to rid the rice fields of their presence. They are delicate eating, as are also the Louisiana Robins, Larks, and the Grassets, which latter are fat, plumpy birds of the Robin order. The name Grasset is given to indicate fatness and plumpness. These birds are always broiled or roasted, following the invariable rules laid down above. They should be broiled over a clear fire, and do not require much more

than fiye minutes to broil; ten minutes to roast in a quick oven. Serve, whether broiled or roasted, on buttered French toast, and garnish with cresses or pars-sprigs. All these little birds should be broiled "en brochette," that is, a skewer should be run through the body. Salt and pepper after, and pour melted butter and chopped parsley over them. If roasted, they may be served with a brown gravy.

POUIES D'EAU.

Poules d'Eau.

2 Pairs of Poules d'Eau. 6 Turnips. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

2 Onions, Chopped Fine.

1 Square Inch of Ham, Minced Fine.

1 Bay Leaf. 1 Clove of Garlic.

3 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

The poule d'Eau is a species of water duck, resembling both a chicken Etnd a duck. The Creoles gave it the name of "Poules d'Eau," or "Water Chicken." As it lives entirely in the water and marshes, never coming on dry land, it is classed by the Creoles among the fish and served as a Friday or fast-day dish. It makes a very delightful entree, either stewed plain or with turnips. It is never cooked in any other way. As it feeds much on flsu, It often has the flavor of fish. In the hands of an inexperienced cook it is sometimes unpalatable on that account Before cooking parboil a few minutes if there is the slightest odor of fish; add a small peeled carrot or onion to the water and this will absorb the flavor of fish.

Stewed Poules d'Eau.

Poules d'Eau a la Creole.

1 Pair of Poules d'Eau.

1 Square Inch of Ham. 2 Onions.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 1 Clove of

Garlic.

1 Herb Bouquet, Chopped Very Fine.

1 Glass of Claret. 1 Cup of Water.

1 Can of Mushrooms.

Clean and pick the Poules d'Eau nicely. Cut into joints or stew whole, as desired. The Creoles generally out them into joints. Rub well with salt and pepper. Chop two onions very fine. Put them into the stew-pan with a tablespoonful of melted but-, ter, and let them brown slightly. Then add the well-seasoned ducks. Let these brown well, and add the one square-inch of finely-minced ham. (Omit the ham on fast days.) Add the clove of garlic and two sprigs each of thyme, parsley and one bay leaf, minced very fine. Let this brown with the Poules d'Eau, stirring frequently, and then pour over one good glass of Claret. Let this simmer for ten minutes, stirring constantly, so that it will not burn, and add one cup of boiling water. Season well to taste, and let them simmer well for about an hour. Serve hot with Croutons for a garnish.

Stewed Poules d'Eau With Turnips.

Salmi de Poules d'Eau aux Navets.

1 Pair of Poules d'Eau.

6 Turnips. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Onions Chopped Fine.

1 Square Inch of Ham, Minced Very Fine.

1 Bay Leaf. 1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

Salt and Pepper to Taste. 1 Clove of

Garlic.

S Sprigs Each of Thytne and Parsley.

This is the most delightful way of cooking Poules d'Eau. The tuinip blends well with the flavor, and a nicer way of serving this vegetable in combination does not exist. Clean the Poules d'Eau and cut into pieces at the joints. Put a tablespoonful of butter into the_ pot, and as it melts add the onions, chopped fine. Let this brown and then add the pieces of Poules d'Eau. Let them brown, and add the minced ham. (Omit the ham on fast days.) Immediately after add the turnips, sliced or cut in quarters, and a tablespoonful of sifted flour. Stir well, let it brown slightly, and add the minced thyme, parsley and bay leaf, and one clove of garlic, minced very fine. Stir well again, and let it smother for about fifteen minutes, stirring frequently, so that it will not burn. Then add water almost sufficient to cover the Poules d'Eau. and stir well. Cover tight and let the mixture smother for a half hour longer. Tou will have one of the nicest dishes that ever graced a table. Game Pie. Pate de Gibier.

1 Dozen Small Birds. 1 Dozen Eggs. A Rich Pie Crust. 1 Dozen Hard-Boiled Eggs. 2 Cups of Egg Dressing. Salt and Pepper to Taste. Take one dozen small birds. Snipe, Quail, Woodcock, etc., and clean well, inside and out. Stuff each one with a dressing the same as for turkey, using either egg or oysters as desired. Loosen the joints with a knife, but do not separate them. Put them in a stewpan, with water enough to cover them, and let them cook till nearly tender. Then season with salt and pepper again and two table-spoonfuls of butter. Thicken the gravy with one tablespoonful of flour, let cook for ten minutes more and then remove and set to cool. Butter a pudding dish and line the sides with a rich pie crust (see recipe). Have ready the hard-boiled eggs, cut in slices. Put in a layer of tho eggs and a layer of the birds until the dish is full. Pour over the gravy and then cover the pie with a crust and bake to a light brown.

The pie may also be mad% very nicely by stewing the birds as one would a chicken (see recipe), and then line a pie pan with a rich pie crust; bake lightlj-, fill in with the stewed birds, pour over the gravy, place a cover of the pie crust on top, set in the oven and bake to a light brown.

Chand-EToid of Game. Chaud-Froid de Gibier. The Breasts of 3 Ducks, or 1 Dozen Breasts of Small Game. 1 Cup of Chicken Forcemeat. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 1 Pint of Aspic Jelly. 1 Pint of Poulette Sauce. 3 Truffles. Watercress to Garnish. This is a most recherche dish, seldom made in these days on account rtf the cost, but in old Creole days it was a standing dish at every great feast. It may be made with Canvasback or French or Teal Duck, or with Woodcock, Snipe and other small game. The dish demands such beautiful decoration that it requires an artist to make a real Creole Chaud-Froid.

Clean the ducks or game or spring chicken, if the latter is used; wash ana truss neatly. Then wrap in buttered paper and smother according to recipe for Smothered Chicken (see recipe). When

done take out of the paper and separate the breasts of the game or chicken from the legs. Trim them neatly and stuff the portion between the breasts proper and the filets with a chicken forcemeat. (See recipe.) Mix together equal parts of Aspic Jelly and Poulette Sauce. (See recipes.) Stir till thick and surround with crushed ice. Then dip the breasts of the game or chicken into this mixture. Take a fine baking sheet or dish and arrange the breasts in fanciful or pyramidal figures on this dish, and when set decorate them nicely with sliced truffles and the remaining sauce that has been poured into timbale molds that have been

previously lined with Aspic Jelly, and which have become set. Decorate nicely with these timbales of Aspic and Foulettie Sauce, and garnish the dish with Croutons, on which you will have placed portions of Aspic Jelly. Decorate the edges of the dish with watercress, and place on the table cold. Wlien ready to serve, serve a portion of the breast of the duck or the entire breast of the small game on a Crouton of Aspic Jelly, with the timbale turned out on the end of the chicken or game and the other end garnished with watercress. If chickens are used be careful to have spring chickens of one and a half pounds in "weight.

CHAPTER XX.

STUFFING AND DRESSING FOR POULTRY, GAME, FISH, ETC.

FORCEMEAT.

Des Farcies-Des Quenelles.

The Creoles claim that oysters, eggs, chestnuts or truffles are the only elegant dressings for poultry or game, and oysters or egg stuffing for fish. The following are the methods of preparing these dressings:

Oyster Dressing.

Farci aux Huitres.

2 Dozen Oysters.

1 Cup of Bread, Wet and Squeezed.

1 Onion, Chopped Very Fine.

1-2 Square-Inch Ham.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Sage.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme, Parsley and Bay Leaf, Minced Very Fine.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Wet the soft of the bread and squeeze thoroughly till you have one cup, judging the quantity of stuffing always by the size of the fowl to be stuffed, and adding more in proportion, if needed. Season the bread well with salt and pepper, and add the minced herbs, mixing well. Take a tablespoonful of butter and put in the frying pan. As it melts add the onion, which must be chopped very fine. Let this brown for about five minutes, and while frying, add the bread and stir well. Then add the square inch of ham, minced very fine. Mix well and let all fry well. Season again to taste. Then add the two dozen oysters, cut in two, with all the hard portions taken off. Mix all well, and fry for a few minutes longer. Then, if you prefer a dry dressing, place the pan in the oven and let the dressing bake for ten minutes. If you prefer, as many do, the moister and richer dressing, stuff the fowl or fish immediately, and proceed to bake. Arrange and bake the fowl as in the directions on these special subjects. Twice the above quantity of bread will be needed, and perhaps a little more, in stuffing turkey. Nothing is more elegant or recherche than an oyster dressing. The flavor of sage is very much liked by some and disliked by others. If used - and the Creoles always use it- add a teaspoonful sifted, and mix thotoughly with the bread before putting it in the frying pan, if two cups of dressing are used, and less for one cup, in proportion.

Oyster Stuffing for Poultry,

Farci d'Huitres.

All depends upon the size of the fowl. For the ordinary-sized fifteen or sixteen-pound turkey take

3 Dozen Oysters.

1 Quart of Stale Bread, Wet and Squeezed.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Parsley.

1 Sprig of Thyme.

1 Bay Leaf.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Sage.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Drain the oysters; wet the stale bread with hot water, squeezing thoroughly. Chop fine the liver and gizzard of the fowl, and put a tablespoonful of lard into the frying pan. Mix in the chopped onions and add the chopped liver and gizzard. As it begins to brown, throw in the chopped herbs, and then add the bread, which has been mixed well and seasoned with the chopped sage. Mix well. Add to this one tablespoonful of butter and stir, blending all thoroughly. Now add the pint or so of oyster water, and as it is reduced mix in the oysters. Stir for three or four minutes and take off and dress the fowl. This dressing is highly recommended.

Stuffing of Truffles.

Farci aux Truffes.

1-4 Can of Truffles.

1 Cup of Bread, Wet and Squeezed.

1 Onion, Chopped Very Fine.

1-2 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 1-2 Teaspoonfuls of Sage.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme, Parsley and Bay Leaf, Minced Very Fine.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Proceed in exactly the same manner as for egg or oyster stuffing, using a quarter of a can of truffles chopped, instead of the oysters or egg. But keep in mind that this is an expensive stuffing. Some fastidious epicures stuff the fowl entirely with truffles, but this will make the dish of turkey dressed in such manner cost at least $10.

Egg Dressing.

Farcis aux Oeufs.

4 Hard-Boiled Eggs.

1 Cup of Bread, Wet and Squeezed Thoroughly.

1 Chopped Onion.

1-2 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Teaspoonful of Butter.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Sage.

1 Sprig Bach of Thyme, Parsley and Bay Leaf.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Wet the bread and squeeze thoroughly. Chop the eggs fine and mix with the bread. Mince the herbs and add. Season well with salt and pepper. Chop the onion and fry it in one tablespoonful of butter. As it browns add the bread. Into which you have mixed the sifted sage, if desired. Add, as it fries, the half square-inch of ham, minced very fine. Season again to taste, and let all fry about ten minutes. Take off the stove and stuff the fowl or fish and proceed with the arrangement for baking. Egg dressing Is a very nice stuffing for fish, if oysters cannot be had.

Stuffing for Ducks.

Farci Pour les Canards.

2 Dozen Oysters.

1 Cup of Bread, Wet and Squeezed,

1 Onion, Chopped Very Fine.

1-2 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Sage.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme, Parsley and Bay Leaf, Minced Very Fine.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

The Creoles generally stuff the domestic duck when roasted, using an oyster stuffing. (See recipe.) But many hold that the flavor of the wild duck is finer when not stuffed. This is a matter of taste. The wild duck stuffed with oysters is a most delectable dish.

Ducks may be stuffed with truffles. This is much affected by epicures when serving the famous Mallard or Canvasback Ducks at great dinings. But a duck stuffed with truffles is a very expensive dish.

The domestic duck is always roasted and stuffed. Serve with Currant Pelly.

Stuffing for Goose.

Farci Pour i'Oie.

1 Cup of Mashed Potatoes.

4 Apples.

4 Onions.

1-2 Teaspoonful Powdered Sage.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Thyme.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Any stuffing used in baking a turkey may be used for roast goose, such as oyster or egg, etc. But the following is an excellent special dressing and seems to bring out more than any other the flavor of the goose:

Take one cup of mashed potatoes, four apples (peeled nicely and cored), and four onions; one-half teaspoonful of sage, powdered well; one-half teaspoonful of thyme, and pepper and salt to taste. Place the apples and onions and herbs in a saucepan and add water sufficient to cover nicely. Let all cook together till soft. Then mash well and rub through a sieve. Add the cup of mashed potatoes and mix well, seasoning with salt and pepper. Stuff the body and craw, sew up and truss the goose, and bake according to recipe. (See recipe for "Roast Goose.")

A Simple Bread Stufflnc.

Farci do Pain.

1 Pint of Stale Bread, Wet and Squeezed Thoroughly.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful Each of Chopped Parsley and Thyme

1 Bay Leaf.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Wet the bread and squeeze. Add the minced herbs and season well with salt and pepper. Mix all thoroughly and fry in butter.

Onion Stuffing.

Farci aux Ognons.

1 Pint of Stale Bread, Wet and Squeezed Thoroughly.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful Each of Chopped Parsley and Thyme.

1 Bay Leaf.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Proceed in exactly the same manner as for bread stuffing, using alo one large onion, chopped very fine, and mixed thoroughly. This is a very nice dressing and cheap.

FOBCEMEATS.

Queneiles.

Queneiles are small balls of fowl, fish meat or other chopped and hashed Ingredients rolled nicely, and used as a garnish for poultry and fish, and fish or meat sauces, often adding both to the taste and beauty of a dish.

Creole Forcemeat.

Queneiles a la Creole.

Calf's Liver.

A Slice of Pork Fat.

1 Onion.

2 Sprigs of Thyme.

2 Sprigs of Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Grated Nutmeg.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Take calf's liver and pork fat, in the proportions of two-thirds liver and one-third fat. Grind both together very, very fine. Then mince an onion, and two sprigs each of thyme and parsley, and one bay leaf, and mix with the ground meat; add a half teaspoonful of grated nutmeg and salt and pepper to taste. Mix well. Put one tablespoonful of hot butter in a frying pan and throw In the chopped meat. Let all blend well together without cooking for about two minutes, stirring all the time. Take the mixture off, and, when it cools, form into little balls about the size and shape of a pecan. Roll these in flour, and then parboil in boiling water that has been well seasoned with pepper and salt. The balls then become Queneiles, and are used as a garnish for meats, etc. Place around tho meat and pour the sauce over and serve hot. These are the genuine Queneiles.

Sausage Forcemeat.

Queneiles de Saucisses.

1-4 Pound of Fresh Pork.

2 Square Inches of Lean Raw Ham.

1 Sprig of Thyme.

1 Bay Leaf.

1 Sprig of Parsley.

A Pinch ot Grated Nutmeg.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Hash the pork; season well with salt and pepper, according to taste, adding a pinch of grated nutmeg and the chopped herbs and minced ham. Hash all very fine and make into small balls and use as desired. This is a nice garnishing for meat when served with sauces.

STOPPED HERE

OodiTeanx Forcemeat.

Quenelles Godiveaux.

1-4 Pound of Suet. 1-4 Pound of Lean

Veal.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 1-2 Gill of

Cold Milk.

1 Teaspoonful Each of Minced Thyme

and Parsley. 1 Bay Leaf.

2 Raw Eggs. A Pinch of Grated Nutmeg.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Remove all the stringy tissue from the suet and pound in a mortar; hash the veal well and mix with the meat. Take a tablespoonful of flour and blend well with half a gill of cold milk and a table-'Spoonful of melted butter, and add to the suet and veal and blend well. Season highly with salt and pepper, and add a pinch of grated nutmeg. Then add the yolks of two raw eggs and the white ot one egg, and, when well blended, strain all through a sieve, roll into balls and ?use as needed. In making this forcemeat, poultry or game may be used in-.stead of veal.

Chicken Forcemeat. Quenelles de Volaille.

2 Raw Chicken Breasts,

The Tolks of 4 Eggs. Bread Soaked in

Water.

1 Teaspoonful of Butter.

1 Bay Leaf. 1 Teaspoonful Each of

Thyme and Parsley.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

A Pinch of Grated Nutmeg.

Cut up the chicken and pound in a mortar; add an equal quantity of bread soaked in milk or water and well squeezed; add the butter and the yolks of the eggs: blend well and season highly with salt and pepper and the minced herbs, and add a pinch of grated nut -meg. Mix all together and roll into balls, and use as desired.

Game Forcemeat Quenelles de Gibier.

The Breasts of Any Birds. 4 Eggs.

1 Teaspoonful of Butter.

1 Bay Leaf. 1 Sprig of Thyme. 1 Sprig

of Parsley.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

In making a forcemeat of game, use judgment in regard to quantity. The partridge is the best bird for a game

forcemeat. Take two breasts of partridges, cut into pieces, and pound in a mortar. Add the same quantity of bread that has been wet with milk or water and squeezed well. Add the butter and the yolks of four eggs, and season highly with salt and pepper and a pinch of grated nutmeg. Mix thoroughly and press all through a sieve. Two well-pdunded truffles may be added. Use as desired.

Fish Forcemeat.

Quenelles de Poisson.

1-2 Pound of Firm Fish. The Whites of 3 Eggs. 1-4 Pint of Cream or Milk. 1 Bay Leaf. 1 Teaspoonful Each of Minced Thyme and Parsley. Salt and White Pepper to Taste. A Pinch of Grated Nutmeg. The left-over fish may be utilized for these Quenelles, or take a half pound of any firm fish — Sheepshead, Redfish or Red Snapper. Take out all the bones and remove the skin. Pound the fish well in a mortar, and add gradually the well-whipped whites of three eggs. Add gradually the cream or milk, and season to taste with salt and pepper, using white pepper. Add the grated nutmeg and minced herbs. Mix thoroughly, drain through a sieve, form into little balls, and use when needed.

Grab Forcemeat.

Quenelles des Crabes. The Meat of 12 Crabs. 1 Onion. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 1 Tablespoonful of Flour. 1-2 Teaspoonful of Salt. 1 Teaspoonful of White Pepper. A Dash of Cayenne. 1 Clove of Garlic. 12 Mushrooms, if desired. The Tolks of 3 Eggs. Chop the onion very fine and fry in one tablespoonful of butter until a golden brown; then add a tablespoonful of flour and moisten with a quarter of a pint of water, or oyster juice, till the sauce begins to thicken well; season with the salt and pepper and a dash ot Cayenne. Add the clove of garlic, finely minced, and the herbs. Then add the crab meat, finelv minced, and the mushrooms, if desired. Cook for a half hour in the saucepan, and then take off the fire and add the yolks of the eggs. Stir again for a moment, cool, and roll into balls and use as desired.

CHAPTER XXI. SAUCES FOB FISH, MEATS, POULTRY, GAME, ETC.

Des Sauces Pour les Poissons des Viandes, la Volaille. le Gibier, etc.

The Creoles, like their French ancestors, hold that the three mother sauces, or "Sauces Meres," are Brown Sauce, or "Sauce Espagnole"; the White Sauce, or "Sauce Allemande," and the "Glace," or "Glaze." These are the foundation of all sauces, and upon their successful making depends the taste and piquancy of the numberless variety of fancy sauces that give to even the most commonplace dish an elegatice all its own. The Creoles are famous for their splendid sauces, and the perfect making of a good sauce is considered an indispensable part of culinary art and domestic economy. The first thing to learn in making sauces of every kind is how to make a good "Roux," or the foundation mixture of flour and butter, or flour and lard. We have the Brown Roux and the White Roux. In making a Brown Roux, this unfailing rule must be the guide; Never, under any consideration, use burnt or over-browned flour.

Brown Roux.

Roux Brun.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful Flour.

In making the roux, which is the foundation of a fancy sauce, melt the tablespoonful of butter slowly, and add gradually the flour, sprinkling it in and stirring constantly, till every portion is a nice, delicate brown. Never make it too brown, because it must continue browning as the other ingredients are added in the order given in every recipe in this book. It is a great mistake to pile ,all ingredients, one after another pell-mell, into a dish, in the course of preparation. The secret of good cooking lies in following implicitly the gradual introduotion of the component parts in the order specified.

In making a roux for cooking gravies or smothering meats, the proportions are one tablespoonful of lard and two of flour, butter always making a richer gravy than lard, and sometimes being too rich for delicate stomachs. It is a great fad among many in our day to use nothing but butter in cooking. The Creoles hold that butter should be used in its proper place, and lard in its own. The lard is not only less expensive, but is far preferable to an inferior quality or butter, and in many cases preferable to the best butter, according to the dish in course of preparation. Properly made, the taste of lard can never be detected, and it is feared that butter is used by many to cover up, by its taste, the deficiencies of having made the roux improperly. If there is the slightest indication of burnt odor or overbrowning, throw the roux away and wash the utensil before proceeding to make another. Remember that even a slightly burnt sauce will spoil the most savory dish.

White Roux.

Roux Blanc.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful Flour.

The White Roux is made exactly like the Brown Roux, only that the butter and flour are put simultaneously into the saucepan, and not allowed to brown. It is then moistened with a little broth or boiling water, and allowed to boil a few minutes till thick. The White Roux is the foundation of all white sauces, or those containing milk and cream. It is also used in nearly all purees. In the Sauce Veloute it should be colored.

GLAZE

Glace.

5 Pounds Rump of Beef. 5 Pounds of

Bones.

2 Calf's Feet.

1 Large Herb Bouquet. 1 Stalk of Celery.

3 Large Carrots.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Glace is the foundation of all sauces for roasts, filets, etc. In other words, it is Liebig's Beef Extract, which every housekeeper may make and keep on hand for gravies for meats. It is made as follows: Roast five pounds of the rump of the beef. Take five or six pounds of bones of beef and two calf's feet. After roasting the beef well and brown, but rare, chop it in small pieces, and put in a pot with two gallons of water. Add to this the bones and calf's feet, all raw. Then add a large herb bouquet, and one stalk of celery and three large carrots. Let the whole come to a boil. As the scum rises skim, and then season with salt and pepper to taste. Let all boil til reduced to one quart. Strain this, and it will make a jelly or glace when cold: Do not add any flour or grease. The good Creoles cook considers it little short of a crime to add flour to the gravies of roast or broiled beef. This glace is then used as a "demi-glace" for sauces for sweetbreads, when they are prepared in sautes, filets of beef, etc. In making this "demi-glace," take one tablespoonful of the glace, and add a spoonful of Madeira or Sherry wine. It should always be a light sauce. Use this for thickening Sauce Espagnole.

Anchovy Sauce.

Sauce aux Beurre d'Anchois.

1 Tablespoonful of Anchovy Butter.

11-2 Tablespoonfuls Flour.

11-2 Tablespoonfuls Butter.

Make a White Sauce (see recipe), and add to this a tablespoonful of Anchovy butter, Which comes prepared. Let it melt, season to taste in the sauce, and serve. An Anchovy Sauce may be either brown or white. Serve with boiled fish.

Apple Saucce

Sauce Marmalade de Pommes.

6 Large Apples.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 4 Cloves.

1 Stick Cinnamon. 1 Cup Water.

Cut the apples into pieces, peel and let them boil till mashed into a jelly, stirring frequently, to prevent burning. Add the ground cloves and the stick of cinnamon, ground fine. Let them boil at least three-quarters of an hour, mashing as they become tender. Then take off the fire and press them through a coarse sieve. Add sugar to taste, add the butter, and set all back on the fire, and let it simmer gently for five minutes longer. Set to cool in a dish, and serve with Roast Pork or Roast Goose. The sauce must not scorch, or the taste will be spoiled.

Bearnaise Sauce.

Sauce Bearnaise.

6 Shallots . 1-2 Clove of Garlic.

1-2 Gill of French Vinegar.

1 Tablespoonful Each of Flour and Butter.

Yolks of Four Eggs.

A Grated Nutmeg. 1-2 Lemon's Juice.

Glace.

Chop the shallots and mince the garlic very fine. Blend the butter and flour, or take a good tablespoonful of Glace (see recipe), and moisten with a tablespoonful of White wine and good white consomme, till you have about a pint. Set on the stove, in a porcelain-lined saucepan. Add the pepper and salt and butter, and a quarter of a teaspoonful of grated nutmeg. Add half a gill of vinegar and the juice of a lemon, according to taste and acidity. When of the consistency approaching starch, take from the fire and add the yolks of four eggs, beaten well, and stirring all the time, till you have the consistency of a thick starch. Serve immediately, with broiled steak, broiled chops, broiled fish, etc.

Bechamel Sauce.

Sauce Bechamel.

2 Ounces of Raw Ham. 2 Fresh Mushrooms.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Pint of Veloute Sauce. 2 Gills Rich Cream.

1 Stick of Celery, Cut Very Fine.

1-2 Carrot. Cut Very Fine.

1-2 Onion, Chopped Very Fine.

1 Bunch Sweet Herbs. 2 Cloves. 4 All spice. Blade of Mace.

Put the butter in a saucepan, and as it melts add the chopped onion, and let it stew until very tender, but do not let it brown. Mince the ham and cut the vegetables very fine, and add first the ham, letting it brown a minute, and then the vegetables, herbs and spices. Let ail simmer gently for ten minutes, without browning. Add the Veloutee Sauce (see recipe), stir in well, and bring all to a boil. Let it boil ten minutes, and be sure to stir constantly. Then add, by gentle degrees, the cream, which should not be heated, but which must be very rich and sweet (if not perfectly sweet it will spoil the sauce). When all this is blended, the sauce is of a velvet smoothness, and very delicious. Strain and set on the fire a minute longer to heat, and serve hot. It is served with fish, chicken and sweetbreads.

Bordelaise Sauce.

Sauce a, la Bordelaise.

2 Shallots. 1-2 Glass Claret.

3-4 Pint of Sauce Espagnole.

A Dash of Red Pepper.

Cut two shallots very fine; put in a saucepan with a half glassful of Claret; reduce one-half; add three-quarters of a pint of good Sauce Bspagnole (see recipe) and a dash of red pepper. Cook for twenty minutes and serve hot. In serving this sauce, the flavor may be increased by adding a dozen round slices of blanched Marrons.

Bordelaise Sauce, Creole Style.

Bordelaise Sauce a la Creole.

1 Onion or 2 Shallots.

1 Tablespoonful of Olive Oil.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Peel the onion or shallots and chop fine. Put in a saucepan with one table-spoonful of olive oil; let the onion saute well, and pour the sauce over tenderloin filets or sirloin steaks when it is desired to serve these a la Bordelaise A tablespoonful of Red wine may be added to the sauce.

Brown Sauce

Sauce Espagnole.

1 Pound of Neck or Brisket of Veal.

Bones of Beef.

1 Gallon of Water. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Lard.

1-2 Can Mushrooms or 1-4 Can Truffles.

2 Carrots. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Flour.

2 Cloves Garlic. 1 Herb Bouquet.

1 Wineglass of Sherry.

Take a good quantity of bones, place in a gallon of boiling water, and make a strong consomme, seasoning well with salt and pepper. Take a piece of the brisket or neck of the beef, and roast rare, so that the blood spurts out when pricked with a needle. After roasting cut it in pieces of about one inch square. Take two tablespoonfuls of lard and three of flour, and brown slightly, stirring all the time. After browning, add the water of the consomme, which has been reduced to about half a gallon, pouring it in slowly and stirring constantly. Then add all the pieces of the roast beef which you have cut. Add three carrots, two cloves of garlic, one onion, an herb bouquet (tied together of thyme, parsley and bay leaf), and let the whole boil well two hours, stirring every five minutes until reduced to the consistency of starch. Then strain well through a strainer or sieve, season to taste, and set back on the stove to cook a few minutes longer. Taste, and if sufficiently seasoned, take it off and allow it to get cool. This sauce is then used as a foundation sauce, and will keep for at least one month in our climate of New Orleans, if put in a cool place in winter or the ice box in summer.

The Brown Sauce, or Sauce Espagnole is made by taking out of this foundation sauce one tablespoonful at a time, and then adding one wineglass or two table-spoonfuls of Sherry, to dissolve, and a half pint of broth. Set it to boil again, and add a half can of mushrooms or truffles, as desired. It is used for all meats, fish or fowl served hot.

If one does not desire to keep it, and it is a matter of economy to do so, it can be made by reducing the proportions for the dish to be prepared, simply browning one tablespoonful of butter and two of flour, adding at the right time a pint of boiling broth, and Sherry to taste.

Brown Butter Sauce.

Sauce aux Beurre Noir.

1-4 Pound of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Cut Parsley (not

chopped).

3 Tablespoonfuls Juice of Lemon or

Vinegar.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Melt the butter in a saucepan, and when it begins to smoke it is browning. Then add two tablespoonfuls of cut parsley, and let it brown half a minute longer. Then add three tablespoonfuls of the juice of a lemon or Tarragon Vinegar, and let it simmer two minutes longer, and serve with Stingaree or Rat aux Beurre Noir (see recipe), calfs brains or cra wfish boiled.

Bread Sauce.

Sauce de Pain.

11-2 Ounces of Fresh Bread Crumbs.

1-2 Cup of Cold Water.

1-2 Ounce of Butter.

1 Cup of Cream or Milk.

6 Whole Peppers.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Crumble the bread and place in a saucepan with the water; add the butter, salt and peppers. Cook for five minutes and add the milk. Cook five minutes longer, remove the peppers and serve hot.

Caper Sauce.

Sauce aux Capres.

Make a White Sauce, as above, and add a half cup of finely-cut French capers before serving. This sauce is served with boiled mutton.

Cauliflower Sauce.

Sauce aux Choufleurs.

For this sauce, as a foundation, first make the Cream Sauce (see recipe), and add to it the flowerets of the cauliflower, which you will have previously boiled till tender, and cut very fine. Serve th boiled fish, veal saute, boiled cauliflower, etc.

Chambord Sauce.

Sauce a la Chambord.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Large Onion Minced. 1 Sprig of Thyme.

1 Bay Leaf. 3 Large Tomatoes.

1 Truffle, if Desired.

6 Thinly Sliced Mushrooms.

1 Pint Oyster Water.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

2 Sprigs of Parsley. 2 Cloves, Mashed.

4 Allspice, Ground.

Brown the onion in the butter, but do not let it burn. Add three large tomatoes, chopped fine, with their juice and the finely-minced herbs, the thinly-sliced truffles and mushrooms. Let these brown well for about ten minutes. Then add the pint of oyster water, and season to taste. Add if you have them, three or four crawfish, chopped fine, and one dozen oysters. Let all boil twenty minutes longer, and season to taste. Serve with Baked Red Snapper and other baked fish.

Champagne Sauce.

Sauce au Champagne.

1 Glass of Champagne. 2 Cloves.

6 Whole Peppers. 1 Bay Leaf.

3-4 of a Pint of Sauce Espagnole.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Powdered Sugar.

Put the Champagne, cloves, peppers, bay leaf and sugar in a saucepan; set on the fire and reduce for five minutes. Then moisten the mixture with three-quarters of a pint of Sauce Espagnole and let it cook for fifteen minutes longer. Strain well and serve.

Chili Sauce.

Sauce au Chili.

6 Tomatoes. 4 Green Peppers 1 Onion.

1 Tablespoontul of Salt.

11-2 Cups of Vinegar.

Cayenne and Chili Pepper to Taste.

Boil the vinegar and add the chopped tomatoes and green peppers and the minced onion, adding a tablespoonful of sugar. Let all boil one hour. Season to taste, strain, and serve with any fish or meats.

Chestnut Sauce.

Sauce aux Marrons.

1 Pint of Large Roasted Chestnuts.

1 Pint of Boiling Stock.

1 Tablespoonful Flour. 1 Tablespoonful

Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Roast the chestnuts, and peel and mash them very fine. Make a Brown Roux with the flour and butter, and add the boiling stock. Let it boil for about five minutes, and add the mashed chestnuts; stirring constantly, and seasoning to taste. Let it boil for two minutes, take off and serve hot, with Broiled Dindon-neau (turkey chicks). This is a great Creole dish, and is considered a most recherche and delicate one. The sauce may also be served with Roast Turkey.

Celery Sauce.

Sauce au Celeri.

Mince the celery well; put it in a saucepan and cover with boiling water. Let it boil about thirty minutes, until tender. Then make a Cream Sauce.

Colbert Sauce.

Sauce Colbert.

1-2 Pint of Madeira Sauce.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Consomme.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

The Juice of Half a Lemon.

Put a pint of very thick Madeira Sauce (see recipe) in a saucepan, add gradually the butter and consomme and mix well without allowing the mixture to boil. When ready to serve add the juice of half a lemon and a teaspoonful of chopped parsley.

Cream Sauce.

Sauce a la Creme.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful

Flour.

2 Gills of Fresh Milk or Cream.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Melt the butter in the saucepan, and add the flour gradually, letting it blend without browning in the least. Add the boiling milk or cream and stir without ceasing. Add salt and white pepper to taste, and serve immediately with boiled fish, etc.

Cranberry Sauce.

Sauce aux Airelles.

Wash the cranberries in cold water, and pick well, rejecting all those that float on top or are in any manner overripe and spoiled. Put them in a porcelain-lined saucepan, with one pint of water, and let them boil over a moderate fire, stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon, and mashing the fruit as much as possible. When the berries have cooked about twenty minutes, remove the saucepan from the fire, and add the sugar, stirring in sufficient to sweeten nicely. Let them cook at least ten or fifteen minutes longer, after adding the sugar, and put into an earthen bowl, and let the sauce cool. Never strain the sauce. Many do, but the Creoles have found out that cranberry jelly is a very poor and insipid sauce, compared with that of the whole fruit, when formed into a sauce in an earthen mold. Liquid cranberry is a very poor apology for the dainty crimson mold of the native fruit.

Let them stand at least overnight, or twenty-four hours, in a cool place, before serving. Serve Cranberry Sauce with Roast Turkey.

Crapaudine Sauce.

Sauce a la Crapaudine.

1 Pint of Sauce Piquante.

8 Chopped Mushrooms.

1 Teaspoonful of Dry Mustard.

2 Teaspoonfuls of Tarragon Vinegar.

Put a half pint of very light Piquante Sauce on the fire, add the mushrooms, finely chopped, and a teaspoonful of dry mustard, which has been well diluted in two tablespoonfuls of Tarragon vinegar. Let the sauce boil for five minutes, and serve hot.

Creole Sauce

Sauce a la Creole.

2 Tomatoes. 6 Shallots.

1 Chopped Sweet Pepper.

1 Glass Sherry. Salt and Cayenne to

Taste.

Make a Tomato Sauce quite brown. (See recipe.) Add the chopped shallots and sweet pepper, and, when these are browned, add one wineglassful of Sherry wine, seasoning highly. Serve with meats.

Cucumber Sauce.

Sauce aux Concombres.

1 Nice, Tender Cucumber.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Prepared Mustard. The Yolks of One Egg Seasoning

to Taste.

Peel and grate the cucumber, and add the mustard, mixing thoroughly. Add the juice of one lemon and the yolk of one egg, beaten thoroughly. This is a delicious salad dressing.

Currant Jelly Sauce.

Sauce a la Gelee de Groseilles.

1-2 Tumbler of Currant Jelly.

4 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 1 Gill Water.

1 Gill of Port or Madeira Wine.

Melt the butter, and add the jelly, blending well, and then add the gill of wine and water. Add a little salt and sugar to taste. The sauce is much finer when made of wine without water, but this is a question of taste. If the wine only is used, double the proportions, or according to taste. This sauce is served with Venison and other game.

Drawn Butter Sauce.

Sauce aux Beurre.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter,

1 Tablespoonful Chopped Parsley.

Juice of 1 Lemon.

This sauce is made simply by melting , butter and adding a little chopped parsley. Add the juice of a lemon, if desired. It is used as a garnish for broiled meat fish, chicken, etc.

Demi-Glace.

Demi-Glace.

1 Pint of Sauce Espagnole.

1 Glass of Madeira Wine.

1 Glass of Mushroom Liquor.

1 Herb Bouquet. 1 Teaspoonful of

Pepper.

Salt to Taste.

To one pint of Sauce Espagnole (see recipe) add a glass of Madeira wine and a glass of mushroom liquor, an herb bouquet and a teaspoonful of pepper. Carefully remove all fat and set on the fire and cook for thirty minutes. Strain and use when needed. This sauce is used in all recipes where Madeira Sauce is indicated as a foundation sauce.

Devil's Sauce.

Sauce a la Diable.

1 Onion. 2 Cloves of Garlic.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Pickle a Finger Long. 1 Teaspoonful of Mustard.

2 Gills of Consomme. Salt and Cayenne.

1 Glass of Wihite Wine. Juice of a Lemon.

Brown the onion in butter, and add the two cloves of garlic, minced very fine. When brown, add one pickle, minced very fine, and add a teaspoonful of mustard prepared. Then add two gills of consomme and one glass of White wine, and the juice of a lemon, and allow it to cook slowly. Season with salt and hot pepper (piment fort), and serve with shell fish, chicken, sweetbreads, etc. This is a hot sauce.

Duxelle Sance

Sauce Duxelle.

1 Pint of Madeira Sauce.

1-2 Glass of White Wine.

12 Mushrooms. 2 Shallots.

1-2 Ounce of Beef Tongue.

1-2 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Put half a pint of Madetra Sauce and a half glass of White wine in a saucepan. Add the mushrooms, which must be chopped very fine. Then add the shallots, which will have also been chopped fine and browned in butter. Let this reduce slightly and add half an ounce of finely-chopped cooked beef tongue. Let all boil for five minutes and serve hot.

Egg Sauce.

Sauce aux Oeufs.

The Yolks of 3 Eggs.

2 Chopped Hard-Botled Eggs.

1 Bay Leaf, Minced Fine. 1 Onion.

6 Peppers.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Flour. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter

1-2 Teaspoonful of Grated Nutmeg.

1 Pint of Veal or Chicken Broth.

Chop the onions and put in the saucepan with the butter and bay leaf. Stir in the flour to thicken and moisten with the broth. Mix well, and add the nutmeg, and salt and pepper to taste. Beat the yolks of the eggs separately with the juice of half a lemon. Pour gradually into the sauce, but do not let it boil after they are added. Press through a sieve, and, when ready to serve, sprinkle with two chopped hard-boiled eggs and a teaspoonful of minced parsley.

Hard-Egg Sauce.

Sauce aux Oeufs Durs.

Make a White Sauce, as above, and add three or two hard-boiled eggs, chopped, but not too fine, and a little finely-minced parsley as a garnish. This sauce is served with boiled fish or boiled chicken or other fowl.

Genoese Sauce.

Sauce a la Genoise.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Flour,

1 Glassful of Claret.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1-2 Pint of Water.

Salt, Pepper, Nutmeg, and Allspice to

Taste.

Melt a tablespoonful of butter, stir in two tablespoonfuls of flour, and mixwell till smooth. Then add a wineglassful of Claret, stirring all well. To this add about half a pint of water, and season with pepper and salt and a little nutmeg and ailspice. Let the sauce simmer and reduce to about one-half. Add parsley as a garnish and serve with boiled fish or boiled meat.

Gibiet Sauce.

Sauce d'Abbattis.

The Turkey Giblets. 1 Cup of Water.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Put the gibiets or simply the gizzard into a saucepan and cover well with water. Let them simmer as long as the turkey roasts, then cut them fine and take the turkey out of the pan on which it has been roasted. Add the gibiets and stir well, and then add a cup of the water in which the gibiets have been boiled. Season to the taste and serve in a sauce dish, pouring over the dressing when serving the turkey.

Hollandaise Sauce.

Sauce a la Hollandaise.

1 Tablespoonful of Melted Butter.

The Juice of Half a Lemon. Yolk of 1

Egg.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1 Teaspoonful of Chopped Parsley.

Sauce a la Hollandaise is nothing more than a Drawn Butter Sauce, to which the juice of a lemon and the yolk of an egg have been added. Melt the butter; add the juice of half a lemon; mix well and take off the stove and add the yolk of one egg, well beaten. Add a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, beating steadily. This sauce is very light, and as soon as removed from the fire is served hot with the fish.

Horseradish Sauce.

Sauce au Raifort.

3 Eggs. 1 Cup of Cream. Grated Horseradish.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1-2 Pint of Consomme or Broth.

Grate the horseradish in sufficient quantity for use, and place it in a saucepan with the boiling stock. Let it boil about ten minutes, or less, until tender. Season to taste. In the meantime rub the eggs in a bowl with the cream, beating and mixing thoroughly. Add these to the horseradish, stirring constantly, but do not let the sauce boil, or the horseradish will curdle. Serve with roast meats or with baked fish.

Hunters' Sauce.

Sauce a la Chasseur.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Flour.

3 Tomatoes. 2 Onions. 6 Mushrooms.

1 Pint of Consomme.

Put the flour and butter into a saucepan and blend well; then moisten with one pint of consomme or water; add the chopped tomatoes, onions and mushrooms and season with a pinch of salt and pepper; add an herb bouquet and let it boil for an hour; before serving add the juice of a lemon or six drops of vinegar. If you have fresh game two tablespoonfuls of blood may be added, but do not let it boil after this.

Italian Sauce.

Sauce a I'ltalienne.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful Flour. 8 Shallots, Greens and White.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1-2 of a Lemon's Juice. 1-2 Can Mushrooms.

Consomme. Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Cayenne to Taste.

A Sauce a I'ltalienne may be either brown or white. If mushrooms are used, make a white sauce; that is, let the butter and flour blend without browning. Add a half cup of consomme and a half can of chopped mushrooms, the white of the shallot (chopped very fine), and the juice of half a lemon. If a brown sauce, add the shallots to the butter and flour, which you will have browned, using the chopped white and green of the shallots. Then add a half pint of consomme, and let it simmer for about an hour, and add the juice of a lemon and serve.

The white sauce is used for fish, the brown for meats. Always season to taste.

Financier Sance.

Sauce a la Financiere.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

6 Stoned Olives. 12 Mushrooms.

1 Glass of Sherry Wine.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

A Dash of Cayenne.

Melt the butter, then remove from the fire and add the flour. Blend with a wooden spoon till smooth. Moisten with one pint of consomme till it reaches the consistency of cream. Then add the chopped mushrooms, stoned olives, pepper, salt and Cayenne. Before serving add the wine. Serve hot.

Jolle Fille Sauce.

Sauce a. la Belle Creole.

The Yolks of 2 Hard-Boiled Eggs.

1-2 Cup Bread Crumbs.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1-2 Cup of Cream

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Put the butter into the saucepan, and add the flour, letting it blend well, with out burning or browning, for this is a white sauce. When it becomes a delicate yellow add the bread crumbs, stir for one minute, and add the half cup of consomme or broth. Stir well, and add a half cup of cream, and salt and pepper to taste. Add the chopped parsley as a garnish, and a little onion juice. Take off the fire and add the well-chopped yolks of two eggs, and a tablespoonful of lemon juice. Serve with boiled fish or boiled meats of any kind.

Lyonnaise Sance.

Sauce a la Lyonnaise.

1 Dozen Tomatoes. Equal Parts of Onions.

1-2 Spoon of Butter. 2 Cloves of Garlic.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme and Bay Leaf, Minced Fine.

Sherry to Taste. 1 Tablespoonful of

Flour.

Salt and Pepper and Cayenne to Taste.

Make a good Tomato Sauce (see recipe) , and add to this the equal parts of onion browned in butter. Stir well, add a little lemon juice, and serve wit!i any meats.

Madeira Sance.

Sauce Madere.

2 Gills of Espagnole Sauce or Brown

Sauce.

1 Gill of Truffles, Cut in Two.

1 Gill of Mushrooms, Cut in Two.

1 Glass of Madeira Wine.

Make a Sauce Espagnole (see recipe), and let it boil for about five minutes. Add salt and pepper to taste, and the mushrooms and truffles, cut in pieces. Let them boil for ten minutes, and then stir in the wine. If you have not the Madeira, use Sherry wine. Serve with Filet of Beef Roasted, etc.

Maitre d'Hotel Sance.

Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful

Flour.

The Juice of 1-2 a Lemon.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1 Pint of Clear Water.

Put the butter and the flour in the saucepan and let them blend without burning. Mix well over a slow fire, and add one pint of consomme. Add the juice of half a lemon and the chopped parsley, and let all boil about fifteen minutes. When it reaches this point take off the stove and add the yolk of one egg, well beaten; mix well, stirring round, and serve with boiled fish, etc.

Never add egg while the sauce is on the fire, as it will curdle immediately.

Mayonnaise Sauce.

Sauce Mayonnaise.

Yolk of 1 Egg.

Sweet Oil. Lemon. Vinegar.

Pepper and Salt.

Take the yolk of one fresh egg, raw, and put in a bowl. The egg and the oil must be cold, and in summer it is well to keep the soup plate in which you make the dressing on cracked ice in a pan, so that the oil will not run. Put the yolk in a plate; add, drop by drop, a little sweet oil from the bottle. when you have dropped about a spoonful, being careful to work it into the yolk of the egg, drop by drop, and blend all the time, take a lemon and drop a few drops into the mixture. It will at once begin to harden as you stir it in. Continue stirring till the egg grows hard, and then steadily, drop by drop, let the oil fail, working it all the time with your fork into the egg. Have another spoon, begin to drop in the lemon juice, working it the same way again, till it hardens the egg. Then begin again with the oil and work again, and again drop the lemon till you have the juice of half a lemon and about two gills of oil, finishing with the oil. When the egg begins to curdle, add a little salt, but do not add this salt till the mayonnaise is complete. Serve very cold, with salads, etc.

Mushroom Sauce.

Sauce aux Champignons.

1-2 Pint of Broth (white) or Boiling

Water.

Lemon Juice. 1 Can of Mushroms.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonf ul

Flour.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Make a Brown Roux, melting the butter in the saucepan, and adding the flour, and stirring till well browned. Then stir in the boiling stock, or water, if you have not the stock; add the mushrooms. and salt and pepper to taste. Add the juice of half a lemon and let it cook for about fifteen minutes longer. This is a fine sauce for Roast Filet of Beef. Pour the sauce over the filet, and serve hot.

Mint Sauce.

Sauce Menthe.

1 Good Handful of Mint, Chopped Very

Fine.

1 Tablespoonful of Tarragon Vinegar.

1 Teaspoonful of Sugar.

A Pint of White Beef Stock.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Chop one good handful of fresh mint and put it in a bowl; add a teaspoonful of Tarragon Vinegar and one teaspoonful of sugar. To this add one pint of good white beef stock. Mix all together and place in a bain-marie or hot-water bath that is, stand in a saucepan of hot water on the fire and let it warm without boiling. If the mint boils, it will be very bitter. Serve with roast lamb.

Normandy Sauce.

Sauce a la Normande.

1 Pint of Sauce Veloute.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Mushroom Liquor.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Fish Stock.

The Yolks of 2 Eggs.

The Juice of Half a Lemon.

Make a pint of Sauce Veloute (see recipe), and add the mushroom liquor. Reduce for about ten minutes and add two tablespoonfuls of Fish Stock or Oyster Juice; if not at hand add hot water. Let it all boil again, and then add the yolks of two eggs and the juice of a lemon. Strain through a fine sieve, and add a teaspoonful of fresh butter and serve with fish. The sauce should be of the consistency of cream.

Onion Sauce.

Sauce Soublse.

8 Onions. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour. Lemon Juice.

Boil the onions until quite tender, adding salt and pepper. When soft mash well and pass through a sieve. Take one spoon of butter and one of flour and melt, blending together without burning or allowing to brown, in this cream dissolve the puree of onions, boiling gently for ten minutes and stirring well. Add the juice of a lemon, a teaspoon of vinegar, and serve with cutlets of lamb, fried sweetbreads, etc.

Oyster Sauce.

Sauce aux Huitres.

2 Dozen Oysters. The Oyster Water.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful

Flour.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the oysters in their own water. Add a nice herb bouquet while boiling. Take a tablespoonful of butter and one of flour and put into a saucepan, and mix well without browning; water this with the juice of the oysters, sufficient to make one pint; season to taste. Let it boil for ten or fifteen minutes, and, when it reaches a thick consistency, serve with freshly-added oysters, taking the old ones out, because oysters that have boiled more than three minutes are unfit for eating being hard and indigestible; or the sauce may be served without the oysters. This is a sauce for boiled fish, etc.

Parsley Cream Sauce.

Sauce a la Creme de Persil.

A Tablespoonful and a Half of Butter.

A Tablespoonful and a Half of Flour.

Half a Cup of Water or White Broth.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

To the recipe for White Sauce add one tablespoonful and a half of finely-minced parsley. You may also add a tablespoonful of cream. This is nice with boiled fish or boiled chicken.

Pepper Sauce.

Sauce Poivrade.

1 Carrot, Minced Fine.

2 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Onion, Minced Fine

1-2 Pint of Consomme. 1 Bay Leaf.

1 Wineglass of Sherry or Madeira.

1-2 Grated Lemon. 1 Small Piece of

Celery.

Salt and Black Pepper to Taste.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful

Flour.

A Dash of Cayenne.

Put the butter in the saucepan, and, as it melts, add the flour. Let it brown slowly, and then add one pint of Consomme. Let it boil, and add the minced herbs and vegetables and the zest or outer skin of half a grated lemon. (The zest is the skin of a lemon, grated off without touching the inner white skin or pulp.) Let all boil slowly for an hour and a half. Add a wineglassful of Sherry or Madeira and season with salt and black pepper (hot) and a dash of Cayenne. Let it boil for ten minutes longer, take off the stove and strain, and serve with any game.

Pepper Sauce for Venison.

Sauce Poivrade pour le Chevreuil.

1 Carrot, Minced Fine. 2 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Onion, Minced Fine.

1-2 Pint of Consomme. 1 Bay Leaf.

1 Wineglass of Sherry or Madeira.

1-2 Grated Lemon. 1 Small Piece of

Celery.

Salt and Black Pepper to Taste.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful

Flour.

A Dash of Cayenne.

This sauce is made in exactly the same manner as Sauce Poivrade (see recipe) with this difference, that when it is to be served with venison a half glass of Currant Jelly is added, and the sauce allowed to boil ten minutes longer.

Pickle Sauce.

Sauce aux Comichons.

A Tablespoonful and a Half of Butter.

A Tablespoonful and a Half of Flour.

Half a Cup of Water or White Broth.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

To the recipe for White Sauce (see recipe) add chopped gherkins, or any other vinegar pickles, using about two or three. Add, just before serving. Serve with fish.

Piquant Sauce.

Sauce Plquante.

2 Onions. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Cloves of Garlic.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme, Parsley and Bay

Leaf.

2 Pickles, 2 Inches in Length.

1 Teaspoonful of Strong French Vinegar.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Cayenne or Hot Pepper.

Chop two onions very fine. Smother in a tablespoonful of butter. When well cooked, without burning, add one tablespoonful of consomme or water. Add two cloves of garlic, minced very fine, and the herbs minced very fine. Season to taste with hot pepper. Take two pickles about two inches in length, and cut into thin slices of about a quarter of an inch in thickness. Put this into the sauce, with a teaspoonful of strong vinegar, and let the whole boil about five minutes. Serve with boiled beef, boiled beef tongue, boiled pork tongue, of any boiled meats.

Poulette Sauce.

Sauce a la Poulette.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful Flour.

The Tolks of 2 Eggs.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1-2 Pint of Consomme or Water.

Juice of an Onion. Salt and Pepper to Taste.

The Juice of Half a Lemon.

Melt the butter and flour, blending well without browning. Add a half pint of water, or consomme, the juice of one lemon, and let it simmer twenty minutes. Season to taste. Take from the fire, add the yolks of two well-beaten eggs and the juice of a lemon, and serve immediately.

Ravigote Sauce (Cold).

Sauce Ravigote.

12 Shallots. 2 Cloves of Garlic. 1 Pickle.

1 Tablespoonful of Mustard.

1 Tablespoonful of Vinegar.

The Yolk of an Egg.

4 Sprigs of Chopped Parsley.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme and Bay Leaf.

Chop the shallots, greens and white, all very fine, and mince the cloves of two garlics very fine. Put these in a howl, and add one pickle of about three inches long, chopped very fine; drain the pickle first of all water; add a good bunch of parsley, chopped very fine. Mix all this together in a bowl, and add one tablespoonful of mustard. Mix well. Add a good tablespoonful of vinegar and salt and pepper to taste. Beat the yolk of an egg and mix well in the sauce. This sauce is to be served cold, with cold meats, turkey or fowl.

Ravigote Sauce (Hot).

Sauce Ravigote.

12 Shallots. 1 Tablespoonful of Vinegar.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Chopped ParslSV.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Chop the parsley very fine. Have ready a "Sauce Veloutee." (See recipe.) Add the other ingredients. Mix well. Place in a saucepan and set in boiling water and let it heat, and serve hot with fish, white meats of chicken, etc.

Sauce Remoulade.

Remoulade (Cold).

3 Hard-Boiled Eggs. 1 Raw Yolk of Egg.

1 Tablespoonful of Tarragon Vinegar.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Olive Oil.

1-2 Clove of Garlic, Minced Very Fine.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Prepared Mustard

Salt and Cayenne to Taste.

A Remoulade is a cold sauce, and is always served with cold meats. Boil the eggs till hard. Remove the shells and set aside the white, which you will have crumbled fine for a garnish. Put the yolks into a bowl, mash very fine, till perfectly smooth, add the mustard and mix well, and the seasonings of vinegar and salt and Cayenne to taste. Then add the olive oil, drop by drop, working in the egg all the time, and then add the yolk of the raw egg, and work in thoroughly, till light. Then add the juice of half a lemon. Mix well, increasing the quantities of oil or vinegar, according to taste, very slightly. If the sauce is not thoroughly mixed. It will curdle. It is now ready to be served with cold meats, fish or salads.

Green Remoulade.

Remoulade Verte. 3 Hard-Boiled Eggs. 1 Raw Tolk of Egg.

1 Tablespoonful of Tarragon Vinegar.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Olive Oil.

1-2 Clove of Garlic, Minced Very Fine.

1-2 Teaspoonful Prepared Mustard.

Salt and Cayenne to Taste.

A Green Remoulade is made in exactly the same manner as the above, only it is colored with the juice of spinach or parsley, using about two tablespoonfuls of either.

Robert Sauce.

Sauce Robert.

2 Onions. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Cloves of Garlic.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme, Parsley and Bay Leaf.

2 Pickles, 2 Inches in Length.

1 Teaspoonful of Strong French Vinegar.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Cayenne or Hot Pepper.

Make a Sauce Piquante (see recipe), and add a teaspoonful more of prepared mustard, and two more of minced parsley, the juice of a lemon, and let it boil up once, and serve with steak, pork chops, liver saute, turkey or goose.

Spanish Sauce.

Sauce Espagnole. 1-4 Pound of Brisket or Veal.

Bones of Beef.

1 Quart of Water. 1 Tablespoonful of

Lard.

1-2 Can Mushrooms, or 1-4 Can Truffles.

1 Carrot. 1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Clove of Garlic.

2 Sprigs Bach of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Bay Lea.

1 Wineglass of Sherry.

Take a good quantity of bones, place in a quart of boiling water, and make a strong consomme, seasoning well with salt and pepper. Take a piece of the brisket or neck of the beef, and roast rare, so that the blood spurts out when pricked with a needle. After roasting cut it in pieces of about one inch square. Take two tablespoonfuls of lard and three of flour, and brown slightly, stirring all the time. After browning add the water of the consomme, which has been reduced to about half a pint, pouring it in slowly and stirring constantly. Then add all the pieces of the roast beef which you have cut. Add three carrots, two cloves of garlic, one onion, an herb bouquet, tied together, or thyme, parsley and bay leaf, and let the whole boil well two hours, stirring every five minutes, until reduced to the consistency of starch. Then strain well through a strainer or sieve, season to taste, and set back on the stove to cook a few minutes longer. Add one wineglass or two table spoonfuls of Sherry to dissolve, and a half pine of broth. Set it to boil again, and add a half can of mushrooms or truffles, as desired. It is used for all meats, fish and fowl, served hot.

Sauce Tartare.

Sauce a la Tartare.

A Mayonnaise Sauce. 6 Shallots.

1-2 Clove of Garlic. 1 Pickle.

A Handful of Parsley, Minced Fine.

1 Teaspoonful Mustard.

Prepare the Mayonnaise as directed above. Put in a bowl a half dozen shallots, greens and all, and chop fine; add a handful of parsley, chopped fine; and the half-minced clove, and one whole pickle, well chopped. Mix all this together and put in a cloth and strain out the juice by pressing. Add this juice to the Mayonnaise, and add one teaspoonful of mustard, salt, Cayenne and black pepper to taste. This is served with filet of trout, etc.

Tomato Sauce.

Sauce aux Tomates.

1 Dozen Tomatoes.

1-2 Tablespoonful of Butter. 2 Cloves of

Garlic.

1 Sprig Each of Thyme and Bay Leaf.

Minced Fine.

Sherry to Taste.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

Salt and Pepper and Cayenne to Taste.

Take one dozen large tomatoes, or one can, and put in a pot to boil, with one-half tablespoonful of butter. Add salt and pepper to taste, and one pint of water. Let it cook for about ten minutes and add minced thyme, parsley and bay leaf, very fine, and two cloves of garlic, minced fine. Let it boil, and, when well boiled, take from the fire and mash through a sieve, reducing to a pulp take a tablespoonful of flour and put in a saucepan, and add a half spoon of flour. When it blends and browns nicely add the tomato juice, season nicely to taste, and, when ready to serve, add chopped parsley as a garnish. Serve with meat, fish or game.

Veloute Sauce.

Sauce Veloutee.

8 Ounces Butter, or 1 Tablespoonful and

a Halt.

1 Tablespoonful and a Half of Flour.

2 Gills of Water.

The Well-Beaten Tolks of 2 Eggs.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Juice of a Lemon.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

Blend the flour and butter as in White Sauce, only letting it become slightly yellow. Add by degrees the boiling water and season to taste. A Tablespoonful of White wine is a fine addition. Add the juice of half a lemon, and a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Let it simmer for about ten minutes, and take from the fire, and add the well-beaten yolks of two eggs. Serve immediately with any boiled fish or meats.

Vinaigrrette Sauce.

Sauce Vinaigrette.

12 Shallots. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Vinegar.

5 Tablespoonfuls of Oil.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Chopped Parsley.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Mix all together as in a Sauce Ravigote, cold (see recipe), and add the oil and vinegar; serve cold, with cold boiled meat, cold boiled fish, etc.

White Sauce.

Sauce Blanche.

A Tablespoonful and a Half of Butter.

A Tablespoonful and a Half of Flour.

Half a Cup of Water or White Broth.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Blend the flour and butter in the saucepan without bro-wning in the least. Add by degrees the boiling water or White Consomme of veal or chicken, stirring until smooth, and boiling three minutes. Salt and pepper to taste. Add the juice of half a lemon. If the sauce is to have other ingredients, this is the foundation for them. It must be of the consistency of thick starch to begin with, in the litter case.

German Sauce.

Sauce Allemande.

4 Pounds of Raw Veal.

The Bones of a Chicken.

1 Gallon of Water. 1 Carrot. 1 Turnip.

Celery Tops.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

2 Spoonsful of Lard.

1 Herb Bouquet of Thyme, Parsley, Bay Leaf.

1 Stalk of Celery. 2 Long Carrots.

1 Wineglassful of Madeira or Sherry Wine.

Take the veal and the bones of the chicken and put into a pot with a gallon of water. Add the herb bouquet, tied together, and one chopped carrot, one turnip, chopped, celery tops, and other ingredients of a good "pot-au-feu." Let all boil slowly for three hours until it is reduced one-half . Then salt and pepper to taste. This will give a white broth or consomme blanc. When boiled to this point take off the fire and strain the broth into a jar. Now take two tablespoonfuls of butter and three of flour, and put into a saucepan together, letting the butter and flour blend, without browning. Add all the broth to this, stirring slowly while on the fire. Add a good, strong bouquet of herbs, thyme, parsley and bay leaf, all tied whole together. Add two large carrots, and let it boil till reduced to one-half again. After it has reduced, season to taste, and when it has reached the consistency of starch take off the fire and strain, and let it get cool. This sauce is used for ail white meats and fish. when used for fish take one tablespoonful an moisten with a little fish broth. Add a wineglass of Sherry or Madeira, and set on the fire to heat, and add a pint of consomme or broth. This sauce Allemande will keep at least one month in our climate, in the ice box. If one prefers to make it as needed, follow the proportions of one tablespoonful of butter, two of flour, and one pint of boiling broth.

CHAPTER XXII.

SALADS.

Des Salades

The Creoles have always been famous for the excellent salads which grace their tables. Salad, like soup, or gumbo, is the daily accompaniment of dinner in even the most humble Creole home. They hold, one and all, that a good salad is a most delightful dish, but a poor one is worse than none at all.

The old Spanish proverb that "to make a perfect salad there should be a miser for vinegar, a spendthrift for oil, a wiss man for salt and a madcap to stir ail these ingredients, and mix them well together," still holds as the unfailing Creole rule in making a good salad. The reason is clear. For the dressing of the salad should be saturated with the oil. before the salt, pepper and vinegar are added. Results have proven, however, where the salad is dressed in the bowl, that there can never really be too much vinegar, for, from the specific gravity of vinegar, compared to the oil, what is useless will fall to the bottom of the bowl. By dissolving the salt in the vinegar, instead of the oil, too, it becomes more thoroughly distributed throughout the salad. But this will not hold where each makes his own salad dressing at table, as is common in Creole families.

The simple French Dressing for salads is always the best for daily use, and also for formal dinners. It is not only lighter, as compared to the Mayonnaise Dressing, and, therefore, far more acceptable at dinners where the courses are many, but the Creoles hold, like the French, that it is the only dressing for salads that are not intended for luncheons or teas, such as chicken, shrimp or crab salads. A Mayonnaise Dressing for salad should never be used at the family dinner or formal dinings.

Plain French Dressing for Salads.

Assaisonment Francals.

3 Tablespoonfuls of the Best Olive Oil.

1 Tablespoonful of Vinegar, According to Taste.

1-4 Teaspoonful of Salt.

1-4 Teaspoonful of Black Pepper.

First put the oil into a small bowl. Then add gradually the salt and pepper until all are thoroughly mixed. Then add gradually the vinegar, stirring continually for about a minute. It is now ready to pour over the salad, and remember that it must be mixed thoroughly. The proportion of vinegar varies according to the salad to be dressed. Lettuce salad requires but little; tomato salad, corn salad or Doucette require more. Serve this dressing with lettuce, tomato, onion, cucumber and other vegetables and green salads.

French Dressing — No. 2.

Assaisonment Francais.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Oil.

1 Tablespoonful of Tarragon Vinegar.

A Saltspoon Sach of Black Pepper and

Salt.

Chopped Onion and Parsley.

The Juice of Half an Onion.

Mix these in the order given above, adding the onion juice and parsley, well chopped, last. This is a more elaborate French dressing. Serve with the same salads as above. The oil may be omitted for those who do not like it, but it will be no longer in either of these recipes a French Dressing. The Creoles hold that the oil is a very healthy, digestible and essential ingredient.

Mustard Dressing.

Assaisonment a la Moutarde.

1 Tablespoonful of Vinegar.

1 Teaspoonful of Prepared Mustard.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Olive Oil.

The Yolk of 1 Egg, if Desired.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Blend the mustard and the oil, adding the latter, drop by drop at first, and then proceeding more confidently. Whenever the dressing appears to be curdling, add a few drops of vinegar, and work rapidly till it becomes smooth again. Add the salt and pepper, and when the dressing is finished, use it for celery salad, fish, tomatoes, potatoes, etc. If the oil appears to separate from the other ingredients, it can always be rubbed into them smoothly again by adding a few drops of vinegar. In all these salads the question of oil and its measurements can only be approximated. Good judgment must always be the final test.

Creole French Dressing.

Assaisonment a la Creole.

3 Tablespoonfuls of the Best Olive Oil.

1 Tablespoonful of Vinegar.

1 Teaspoonful Mustard.

The Yolk of a Hard-Boiled Egg.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Blend the oil and salt and pepper in the manner above indicated, and then add these to the mustard, drop by drop, alternating with the vinegar. When well blended add the well-mashed yolk of a hard-boiled egg. Stir well, and serve with lettuce, celery or potato salad.

Mayonnaise Dressing.

Sauce Mayonnaise.

Tolk of 1 Egg.

Sweet Oil. Lemon. Vinegar.

Pepper and Salt.

Take the yolk of one fresh egg, raw and put it in a bowl. The egg and the oil must be cold, and in summer it is well to keep the soup plate in which you make the dressing on cracked ice in a pan, so that the oil will not run. Put the yolk in a plate; add, drop by drop, a little sweet oil from the bottle. when you have dropped about a spoonful, being careful to work it into the yolk of the egg, drop by drop, and blend all the time, take a lemon and drop a few drops into the mixture. It will at once begin to harden as you stir it in. Continue stirring till the egg grows hard, and then steadily, drop by drop, let the oil fall, working it all the time with your fork into the egg. Have another spoon, begin to drop in the lemon juice, working it the same way again till it hardens the egg.

Then begin again with the oil and work again, and again drop the lemon till you have the juice of half a lemon and about two gills of oil, finishing with the oil. When the egg begins to curdle, add a little salt, but do not add this salt till the Mayonnaise is complete. Serve very cold, with salads, etc.

Mayonnaise is the standing sauce for chicken salad, shrimp salad, crab salad, etc. When making for these large salads, as a garnish use three yolks of eggs and other ingredients in proportion.

Remoulade Dressing.

Sauce Remoulade.

3 Hard-Boiled Eggs. 1 Raw Yolk of Egg

1 Tablespoonful of Tarragon Vinegar.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Olive Oil.

1-2 Clove of Garlic, Minced Very Fine.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Prepared Mustard.

Salt and Cayenne to Taste.

A Remoulade is a cold sauce, and is always served with cold meats. Boil the eggs till hard. Remove the shells and set aside the whites, which you will have crumbled fine for a garnish. Put the yolks into a bowl, and mash very fine, till perfectly smooth. Add the mustard, and mix well, and the seasonings of vinegar and salt and Cayenne to taste. Then add the olive oil, drop by drop, working in the egg all the time, and then add the yolk of the raw egg, and work in thoroughly, till light. Then add the juice of half a lemon. Mix well, increasing the quantity of oil or vinegar, according to taste, very slightly. If the sauce is not thoroughly mixed it will curdle. It is now ready to be served with cold meats, fish or salads.

Vinaigrette Dressing.

Sauce Vinaigrette.

12 Shallots. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Vinegar.

5 Tablespoonfuls of Oil.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Chopped Parsley.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Mix all together, as in a Sauce Ravigote, cold (see recipe), and add the oil and vinegar; serve cold, with cold boiled meat, cold boiled fish, etc.

Anchovy Salad.

Salade d'Anchois.

1 Box of Anchovies.

A Plain French Dressing.

Cut the sardines into pieces of about an inch in length. Season nicely with a French Dressing, and serve. This is jl delicious luncheon dish.

Artichoke Salad.

Artiohauts en Salade.

I Pint of Cold Boiled Jerusalem Artichokes.

1 Teaspoonful of Vinegar.

1 Teaspoonful of Chopped Parsley.

French Dressing.

Boil the Artichokes. (See recipe.) When cold, peel them and cut into quarters. Add chopped parsley and the French dressing; mix, and serve very cold.

Tips of Asparagns Salad.

Polntes d'Asperges en Salade.

1 Pint of Asparagus Tips.

A Plain French Dressing.

Boil the Asparagus tips. (See recipe.) When cold, place on a dish and garnish nicely. Serve very cold, with French Dressing.

Bean Salad.

Salade d'Haricots.

1 Pint of Cold Beans.

Vinaigrette Sauce.

This is a nice way of utilizing cold leftover red or white beans. Serve with a Vinaigrette Sauce. (See recipe.)

Beet Salad.

Salade de Beteraves.

4 Large Red Beets. French Dressing.

Boil the beets till done, and then peel and slice nicely. Set them to cool and pour over them a French Dressing or a plain dressing of vinegar, salt and pepper. This is a nice spring or winter salad in New Orleans.

Cauliflower Salad.

Choufleur a la Vinaigrette.

1 Pint of Boiled Cauliflower.

1 Teaspoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1 Teaspoonful of Tarragon Vinegar.

A French Dressing (plain).

Boil the cauliflower as directed. (See recipe.) Then separate the flowerets; mix them with parsley, and cut the remainder very fine and mix also. Let it cool. Serve with a French Dressing, after adding first an extra teaspoonful of Tarragon vinegar. This is a famous and very popular Creole way of serving cauliflower.

Celery Salad.

Salade de Celeri.

1 Pint of Crisp French Celery.

2 Hard-Boiled Eggs. French Dressing.

Cut the celery into pieces of about a quarter of an inch. Chop two hard-boiled eggs, not too fine, and mix well with the chopped celery. Blend all with French Dressing and serve. This is a delicious salad.

Celery Mayonnaise.

Mayonnaise de Celeri.

1 Pint of Crisp White Celery.

A Mayonnaise Sauce.

Chop the celery, or, rather, cut fine, as indicated in the above recipe. Mix the Mayonnaise with it. Garnish nicely with celery tips and serve. The mustard dressing is even nicer than the Mayonnaise for this salad.

Chervil Salad.

Salade de Cerfeuil.

1 Pint of Chervil.

A Plain French Dressing.

Chervil is a delicious salad herb, much affected by French and Creole gourmets. It is served cut fine between bits, in the same manner as Lettuce Salad, with a French Dressing.

Chicken Salad.

Mayonnaise de Volallle.

1 Pint of Cold Boiled Chicken.

1-2 Pint of Mayonnaise Sauce.

1 Head of Crisp Fresh Lettuce.

Cut the chicken into small dice. Chop half of the lettuce very fine, and sealon well with salt and pepper. Make a bed of the remainder of the lettuce leaves, and place first a layer of the chicken and then of the lettuce, until you have used all. Spread the Mayonnaise Sauco over the top nicely, and garnish prettily with slices of cold hard-boiled eggs, sliced beets, celery tips, etc. For chicken and celery salad follow the recipe for Volallie en Salade, given under the heading of "Poultry." (See recipe.) Leftover chicken may be utilized in either of these salads.

Crab Salad a la Mayonnaise.

Mayonnaise de Crabes.

1 Pint of the Meat of Crab (hard shell).

Mayonnaise.

Hard-Boiled Eggs. Garnishes.

Boil and pick crabs sufficient to give a pint of meat. (See recipe for Boiling Crabs.) Season well with salt and pepper. Place in a dish, on a bed of crisp lettuce leaves, spreading over them the Mayonnaise Sauce, and garnish nicely with hard-boiled eggs, sliced beets and tips of celery.

Crawfish Salad.

Mayonnaise d'Ecrevisses.

3 Dozen Crawfish.

A Sauce a la Mayonnaise.

Boil the crawfish, pick the meat out of the shells, heads and tails, break them into pieces, and prepare in exactly the same manner as Shrimp Salad.

Cress Salad.

Salade de Cresson.

Cress. Vinegar. Salt and Pepper.

Prepare in exactly the same manner as lettuce, washing and bringing to the table firm and crisp. In this salad use for dressing only Tarragon vinegar, salt and pepper to taste.

Cucumber Salad.

Salade de Concombres.

2 Fine Cucumbers.

A Plain French Dressing.

Wash and slice two nice young cucumbers, and use a plain dressing of vinegar, salt and pepper. This is a very delicious salad. There are many so-called elegant novelties introduced lately in the way of serving cucumbers, such as stuffed cucumbers, fried cucumbers, etc. The Creoles look with disdain, and justly, on these silly innovations in the serving of a vegetable which nature intended to be used for salad purposes, and nothing else.

Corn Salad.

Salade de Maches, ou Doucette.

1 Pint of Corn Salad.

A Plain French Dressing.

This is an excellent salad, and is prepared and served with a French Dressing. Take one pint of fresh Doucette and pare off the outer stale leaves, if there are any; cut off the roots. Wash the Doucette well in two waters, drain in a napkin and place in the salad bowl. When ready to serve add a plain French Dressing, but not before. Mix well, so that every portion will be impregnated with the dressing. Serve very cold. A garnish of two hard-boiled eggs, sliced or cut in quarters, or of two medium-sized beets, which may be added both for taste and effect.

Bandelion Salad.

Salade de Dent-de-Lion.

1 Pint of Fresh White Dandelion.

A Plain French Dressing.

Cut off the roots and green portion of the leaves: wash and steep in salt and water. When they become crisp, drain and press dry; rub the salad bowl with a clove of garlic and season the dandelions with French Dressing. This salad may also be served with two hard-boiled eggs cut in quarters or sliced and laid over; or with two medium-sized beets, sliced, and seasoned with a plain French Dressing.

Endive Salad.

Salade de Chicoree.

1 Pint of Endives. French Dressing.

1 Teaspoonful of Chervil, Chopped Very

Fine.

Prepare the endives in the same manner as the lettuce. When ready to serve, add the chervil and the French Dressing. If endives stand, like lettuce, they will wilt after being dressed. Serve immediately.

Fish Salad.

Salade de Poisson a la Mayonnaise.

1 Pint of Cold Boiled Fish.

1 Head of Lettuce. Mayonnaise Sauce.

Use cold boiled left-over fish, picking nicely into bits of about an inch and a half square. Follow the same directions as in the above recipes, only do not mix lettuce and fish in layers. There is nothing nicer than a fine fish salad.

Green Pepper Salad.

Salade de Piments Doux a la Creole.

4 Tomatoes. 2 Green Peppers. 1 Large

Onion.

French Dressing, Plain.

Slice the tomatoes, onion and green peppers nicely and thin, arrange on a dish, placing a layer of tomatoes, an alternate layer of onion and green pepper and tomatoes mixed. Dress either before bringing to the table, or at the table, with French Dressing. This is a great Creole family salad, and a very healthy one.

Green Peppers a l'Espagrnole.

Piments Verts en Salade a I'Espagnole.

6 Green Peppers. 3 Tomatoes.

A Plain French Dressing.

Parboil the peppers so that they will peel easily, and scald the tomatoes. Peel them, removing the seeds of the peppers. Cut the peppers into one-inch pieces, slice the tomatoes, and serve with plain French Dressing as a salad.

Lentil Salad.

Salade de Lentilles.

1 Pint of Lentils.

A Viinaigrette Sauce (see recipe).

Lentils are prepared in the same manner as Bean Salad (see recipe), and served with Vinaigrette Sauce. They make a cheap, excellent and healthy salad.

Lettuce Salad.

Salade de Laitue.

3 Heads of Lettuce.

French Dressing. 2 Eggs.

Take fresh, crisp lettuce of sufficient quantity for the number to be served, three young heads being enough for six. Dip in cold water, examining each leaf, and pick over carefully, and select the fresh, crisp leaves. Place all these in a salad bowl, and garnish nicely with sliced hard-boiled egg. Never dress the lettuce before bringing to the table. The vinegar causes the leaves to wilt utterly, and takes away all the relish which one experiences from looking at a fresh, crisp dish, and also spoils a fine table garnish. Bring to the table, and let the sauce, always a plain French Dressing or Creole Dressing preferred, be made at the table. Generally each makes the dressing to suit himself or herself, using proportions of greater or lesser quantity than those mentioned in the recipe. If one person dresses the salad for the table, use the proportions given above in any of the French salad dressings for this amount of lettuce. This is one of the nicest and most refreshing as well as one of the healthiest of all salads.

Louisiana Salad.

Salade Louisianaise.

2 Lettuce Heads. 6 Pickel Cucumbers.

2 Dozen Pickled Onions.

A Plain French Dressing.

Use, in this fancy salad, lettuce, pickled cucumbers, pickled onions, out in dice, and serve with a French Dressing.

Okra Salad.

Salade de Fevi.

4 Dozen Boiled Young Okras.

French Dressing.

Boil the okra as directed. (See recipe.) When cold, dress nicely with vinegar, salt and pepper, or, if preferred, the plain French Dressing, and serve very cold. This is a most delightful salad, the okra being very cooling in our tropical climate.

Spanish Salad.

Salade a I'EspagnoIe.

4 Sliced Tomatoes. 2 Dozen Pickled

Onions.

1-2 Pint of Mayonnaise Dressing.

This is a very much affected salad, made of sliced tomatoes and pickled onions, prettily arranged around a small bed of Mayonnaise heaped in the center.

String Bean Salad.

Haricots Verts en Salade.

1 Pint of Cold Boiled String Beans.

French Dressing (plain).

Only very young and tender beans should be used for this salad. Boil as directed under the heading "Vegetables," and put the beans in a salad bowl and allow to cool well. Serve with a plain French Dressing of Vinegar and a dash French Dressing, or, better still, a simple dressing of vinegar and a dash of Cayenne.

Tomato Salad.

Salade de Tomates.

4 Fresh, Fine Tomatoes.

French Dressing.

Slice the tomatoes nicely and place on a salad dish. Never peel or scald tomatoes intended for salad. Serve nicely with a plain French Dressing or any of the above dressings. Tomatoes may also be served with Mayonnaise Dressing. In this case place them on a bed of crisp, fresh lettuce, whole, and serve one to each person, or cut them in halves. Tomatoes with Mayonnaise is a luncheon dish, or a supper dish.

Iced Tomatoes.

Tomates Frappe.

6 Whole Tomatoes. 1 Pint Mayonnaise

Sauce.

A Garnish of Chopped Ice.

Take the tomatoes whole. Lay on a bed of lettuce or cress, as indicated above. Garnish with chopped ice, and serve very cold with Mayonnaise Sauce. This is delicious and very elegant.

Tomato, Green Pepper and Onion Salad.

Salade a la Creole.

4 Tomatoes. 2 Green Peppers. 1 Large

Onion.

French Dressing (plain).

Slice the tomatoes, onions and green peppers nicely and thin; arrange on a dish, placing a layer of tomatoes, an alternate layer of onion and green pepper, and tomatoes mixed. Dress either before bringing to the table, or at the table, with French Dressing. This is a great family salad among the Creoles, and a very healthy one. The Creoles follow the old adage, that the taste of the onion must only lurk within the bowl when using it for salad. More than this renders the salad disagreeable and coarse.

Watercress Salad.

Salade de Cresson.

1 Pint of Watercress.

Minced Potato, if desired.

A Plain French Dressing.

This salad is made of watercress simply, or watercress and minced potatoes, mixed in equal quantities, and served with a French Dressing. It is a most healthy, light and excellent salad, especially in summer. The salad is delightful without the potatoes. They may be added if desired.

The Gardener's Wife Salad.

Salade a la Jardiniere.

1 Carrot. 3 Beets.

1-2 Cup of Green Peas. 1 Cup String

Beans.

A Plain French Dressing.

Take fine strips of vegetables of different colors, cooked and cold, with green peas and string beans, and dress nicely with oil and vinegar and serve.

Sardine Salad.

Salade de Sardines.

1 Box of Sardines.

A Plain French Dressing.

Cut the sardines into pieces of about half an inch in length. Season nicely with a French Dressing and serve. This is a delicious luncheon dish.

Potato Salad.

Salade de Pommes de Terre.

3 Large Cold Boiled Potatoes.

2 Hard-Boiled Eggs.

6 Tablespoonfuls of Olive Oil.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Vinegar. 1 Large

Onion.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

4 Sprigs of Parsley.

This is a nice way of utilizing cold leftover potatoes. But the freshly-boiled potatoes always make the nicest salad: Pare and peel the potatoes. If freshly boiled, and let them cool. Prepare the salad dressing, following impliclty the directions given for plain French Dressing, only here the quantities are larger in proportion. Add the vinegar, stirring constantly. A dash of mustard may be added, if desired. Mince the onion very fine, and cut the potatoes into dice or slices, and mix them carefully with the onion. Then add the dressing, turning the potatoes into it without breaking, sprinkle all with parsley, nicely chopped, and serve cold.

Russian Salad.

Salade a la Russe.

2 Carrots. 2 Parsnips.

1 Cup of Cold Minced Fowl. 3 Anchovies.

1 Dozen Olives. 3 Caviares.

1 Tablespoonful of Sauce a la Tartare.

1 Teaspoontul of Mustard.

This salad is made of cooked carrots, parsnips, beets, cold roast beef, cold ham, a truffle (if it can be afforded), all cut into fancy or dice-shaped pieces. Use one ounce of each of the meats, or simply one cup of cold minced fowl, as it may not be convenient to have all these meats at hand in households. Add six boned anchovies, and one dozen olives and two caviares, and serve with Tartare Sauce, or with a French Salad Dressing, to which mustard has been added. It is a heavy salad.

Shrimp Salad.

Salade de Chevrette a la Mayonnaise.

2 Pints of Cold Boiled Shrimp.

1 Head of Crisp Lettuce. Mayonnaise

Sauce.

Take Lake Shrimp and River Shrimp combined, if you have them. Cut tha larger Lake Shrimp into two. Season well with salt and pepper. Chop some lettuce. Season well. Place first a layer of shrimp and then of lettuce, and spread over all a Mayonnaise Sauce. Garnish nicely with sliced hard-boiled eggs, sliced beets and celery and lettuce tips, and serve very cold.

CHAPTER XXIII. EGGS.

Des Oeufs.

A chapter on eggs would be superfluous in any cook book, were it not for the fact that there are many, many women who cannot tell for a certainty just how long to boil an egg soft or hard, just when the exact point is reached when the omelette is cooked to a nicety, and how to send to the table in all the perfection of good cooking that most delicate and palatable dish, the "Scrambled Egg."

The Creoles have very wisely eschewed all innovations in cooking eggs that require more than five to eight minutes to cook to perfection. They cling to the old fashioned soft-boiled egg, the hard-boiled egg, fried egg, scrambled and poached eggs. They have retained many ancient French and Spanish methods of cooking eggs, but none of these, followed properly, according to the time-honored customs, calls for more than five or eight minutes at the most in cooking.

The first and most important point to be considered in preparing eggs for the table is to ascertain whether they are perfectly fresh. The fresher the egg the better. The egg which appears moldy or in the least bit ancient should be rejected. Never, under any circumstances, put a tainted egg in any dish, under the impression that other ingredients will hide the flavor. Never put such an egg in a cake. The presence of one egg that is not fresh will ruin an entire dish. As a, matter of health, above all other considerations, such eggs should be rejected.

The old Creole dairkies, in common with many other people, have a way of finding out whether an egg is fresh by inclosing it in the hollow of the hand and looking through it with one eye, while shutting the other. They aver that if you can distinctly trace the yolk in one solid mass, and if the white around it looks clear, the egg is good. A more simple and scientific way, and by far a surer one, is to drop the eggs into cold water. The fresh ones will sink immediately to the bottom, the doubtful ones will swim around a little before reaching the bottom, and the bad ones will float.

Eggs are among the most nutritious articles of food substances. They are rich in albumen, and their free use cannot be too highly recommended to the delicate, to hard brain workers, and to families generally.

Boiled Eggs.

Oeufs a la Coque.

Have ready a saucepan of boiling water. Use only fresh eggs. Put them in the boiling water without cracking the shells. If you desire soft-boiled eggs, or "Oeufs Mollets," let the eggs boil from two minutes to two minutes and a half by the clock, keeping the exact time, minute by minute. The whites will then be set. If you desire the yolk to be set also in the soft-boiled egg, let the eggs boil three minutes, but not a second longer. For hard-boiled eggs, five minutes is sufficient. Bear in mind always that the water must be boiling hard before you put eggs into it, and that the exact time for boiling must be followed by the clock or with the watch in hand.

Poached Eggs.

Oeufs Poches.

Have the frying pan filled with boiling water. Add salt. Some add also a tablespoonful of vinegar ter of taste. The eggs must be absolutely fresh. Break the eggs into a saucer, one by one, and gently slip off into the water, without breaking the yolk. Break another and another, until you have four in the pan, and allow the eggs to stand apart. Let them boil thus on the water, till the white forms a thin veil over the yolks. Then the eggs are done. Take them up gently, neatly round off the ragged edges, sprinkle the top with a little black pepper, place on buttered toast, and serve immediately.

Fried Eggs.

Oeufs Frits.

6 Eggs. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Lard.

The lard must be very hot. Break the eggs gently into a saucer, one by one, and drop gently into the lard, without breaking the yolks. With the spoon take up a little of the hot lard and drop gently over the top of the egg, if you wish it to be quite done. Otherwise simply fry till the yolk is set. Slide out on a batter cake turner, and place in a dish. Sprinkle with salt and black pepper, and add, if you wish, a little parsley garnish, and serve very hot.

Ham and Eggs.

Oeufs au Jambon.

6 Slices of Ham. 6 Eggs.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard.

The ham should always be soaked in hot water before frying. Cut slices of about half an inch in thickness, of sufficient size to lay an egg upon them. Lay the ham in the hat frying pan, and let it fry until the fat becomes transparent. Then take the slices out and put them on a hot dish. Break the eggs, one by one, into a saucer, and slip them into the frying pan, and fry in the same lard in which you have fried the ham. When the yolks are quite set, take them out, and lay one egg on each slice of ham. Garnish nicely with parsley, and serve hot. This is a great Creole breakfast dish.

Scrambled Eggs.

Oeufs Brouilles.

6 Fresh Eggs. A Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Break the eggs into a saucer, one by one, and then transfer to a bowl. Season well with salt and pepper. Have the frying pan very hot. Put into it the butter, and add immediately the eggs, and keep stirring around and around and across for about three or four minutes, judging by the consistency of the egg, which must be like a thick mush as you take it from the fire. Keep stirring a few seconds longer after you have taken the pan off the fire, and put the eggs into a hot dish, and garnish witn parsley and serve immediately with buttered toast or broiled ham. The beauty of the scrambled egg is that the whites and yolks are delicately blended. The practice of beating the yolks and whites thoroughly together, as for an omelette, before scrambling the eggs, is to be condemned as against the best ethics of Creole cookery. There is no comparison in the taste of the scrambled egg cooked according to the above method and the eggs in which the yolks and whites have been previously beaten together.

Eggs Scrambled In Ham.

Oeufs Brouilles au Jambon.

6 Eggs.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Finely Minced

Boiled Ham.

A Tablespoonful of Butter.

Mince the ham very fine, and break the eggs, one by one, into a saucer, and add to the bowl in which you have minced the ham. Mix all together. Place a tablespoonful of butter in the frying pan, add the eggs and ham, stir briskly, and when it comes to the consistency of starch take off the fire, and serve hot on buttered toast.

In the same manner eggs may be scrambled with minced truffles, mushrooms, onions, celery or tomatoes.

Eggs Scrambled With Preserves.

Oeufs Brouilles aux Confitures.

6 Eggs. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Fruit Marmalade.

Eggs may also be scrambled with mar malade of apricots or prunes, in which case they are called "Oeufs Brouilles aux Confitures." Follow above recipe, using the marmalade instead of the ham.

Eggs Fondus.

Oeufs Fondus au Fromage.

6 Eggs.

4 Heaping Teaspoonfuls of Gruyere

Cheese, Grated.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Break the eggs into a saucepan, add the butter the grated cheese, a little salt and pepper. Place the saucepan on a hot fire, stir the mixture around and around till the edges begin to thicken, and when of the consistency of a thick starch take off the fire and serve immediately on buttered toast.

Eggs With Asparagus Tips.

Oeufs aux Pointes d'Asperges.

6 Eggs.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Asparagus Tips.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Milk. Salt and

Pepper.

Buttered Toast.

Boil the asparagus tips (see recipe), and put the eggs into a saucepan, with the butter, after seasoning well with salt and pepper, and mixing the milk. Stir a second, and throw in the asparagus, and proceed to scramble as in preceding recipe. Serve on buttered toast.

Cauliflower may be prepared with eggs in the same way.

Shirred Eggs.

Oeufs sur le Plat.

6 Eggs. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Break the eggs into a thin dish, in which they are to be served, having first buttered the bottom of the dish or pan. Sprinkle them with salt and pepper, pour over a little melted butter, place in a quick oven, and let them bake until the yolks are set. Serve in the dish in which they have been cooked.

Eggs a la Poulette.

Oeufs a la Poulette. 6 Eggs. 1-2 Pint of Sauce a la Poulette.

Boil the eggs hard and slice. Pour over a Sauce a la Poulette (see recipe), and serve hot.

Beauregard Eggs.

Oeufs a la Beauregard.

6 Eggs. 1-2 Pint of Fresh Milk.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Cornstarch.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the eggs for five minutes, till hard. Then take out of the water and cool, take off the shells, and separate the whites from the yolks, rubbing the latter through a sieve, and chopping the former very fine. But do not mix them. Have the milk ready to boil, and rub the butter and cornstarch together, and add to the boiling milk. Then add the whites of the eggs, and salt and pepper to taste. Prepare previous to this some buttered toast, and cover it now with a layer of this white sauce, and then add a layer of the yolks of the eggs. Add another layer of the sauce, and another layer of the yolks, and then the remainder of the sauce. Sprinkle the top with a little salt and pepper, and set in the oven and let it stand two minutes, and serve hot.

Plain Omelet.

Omelette.

4 Fresh Bggs. 1 Tablespoonful of

Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

If you wish to have the omelet very nice, break the whites and yolks separately, and beat the former till they come to a light froth, and the latter till they are quite light. Then beat the whites and yolks together. Season well. Melt the butter in a frying pan, letting it grow hot, but not by any means brown. Pour in the mixture of egg. Let it stand about two minutes, shaking occasionally to prevent it from sticking to the pan. Continue shaking over a quick fire until the eggs are set. Then roll the omelet, folding it in two or three rolls and making it long and narrow. Take a hot dish, turn the omelet into it, garnish with parsley, and serve hot immediately, or it will fall. It is always easier to make several small omelets and have them pretty and sightly than to succeed perfectly in making a large one.

Creole Omelet.

Omelette a la Creole.

6 Fine, Ripe Tomatoes. 2 Onions.

6 Eggs.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Minced Ham.

1-2 Clove of Garlic.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Scald and skin six fine, ripe tomatoes, and chop them fine. Chop two onions, and mince the garlic very fine, and add a large spoonful of bread crumbs. Fry them with a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan till quite brown. Then add the tomatoes, and salt, pepper and Cayenne to taste, and let all stew for an hour, at least. .Prepare the eggs as for Ham Omelet (see recipe), and when the tomatoes are quite done have ready a heated frying pan and a half tablespoonful of butter. Pour this into the pan. As they become set pour in the center the tomatoes, and fold the omelet over, and cook for two minutes longer. Roll gently into a dish and serve hot.

Ham Omelet

Omelette au Jambon.

4 Eggs. 1-2 Teaspoonful of Flour.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Milk.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Chopped Ham.

1-2 Grated Onion.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Beat the yolks to a cream, and add the other ingredients. Rub all these smoothly together, and then add the whites of eggs, beaten to a froth. Beat all thoroughly together. Put a tablespoonful of butter in the frying pan. When it melts add the omelet. Let it stand, shaking occasionally to prevent from sticking to the pan, till the eggs are quite set. Then fold as in a plain omelet, turn into a hot dish, and serve.

Kidney Omelet.

Omelette aux Rognons.

3 Kidneys. 6 Eggs.

11-2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

Cut the fat from the kidneys, wash well, and cut into small pieces. Mix these with the eggs, which you will have prepared as for a plain omelet, and proceed as in Ham Omelet. This is very nice served with Tomato Sauce.

Mushroom Omelet.

Omelette aux Champignons.

6 Eggs. 1-4 Can of Mushrooms.

1 1-2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

Stew the mushrooms a few minutes. Then chop them fine. Make a plain omelet. When it is ready to fold, place the mushrooms across the center, fold twice over, let it cook two minutes longer, and serve hot.

Onion Omelet.

Omelette a l'Ognon.

4 Eggs. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Large Onion Minced Very Fine.

Beat the eggs as for a plain omelet. Then stew the onions in the butter till quite tender. Stir in the omelet once, and then let it cook as in a plain omelet. Roll in folds, and serve hot.

Omelet Souffle.

Omelette Soufflee.

The Whites of 6 Eggs. The Yolks of 4

Eggs.

The Juice of Half a Lemon, or a Spoon

of Orange Flower Water or Kirsoh.

4 Tablespoonfuls of Powdered White

Sugar.

Have a baking dish ready, greased with butter, and be sure that the oven is very hot. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth. Beat the yolks and the sugar to a cream, and add the juice of half a lemon or a tablespoonful of orange flower water or Kirsch. Add the whites of the eggs. Stir carefully and heap all quickly into the baking dish and bake about fifteen minutes, till the top is a delicate brown. Serve immediately, as it will fall if allowed to stand. This may be served as a sweet entremet or as a dessert.

Parsley Omelet.

Omelette au Persil.

6 Eggs. 11-2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Cut Parsley.

Proceed in exactly the same manner as for Plain Omelet, only mix a tablespoonful ol cut parsley in the omelet before putting in the frying pan.

Truffle Omelet.

Omelette aux Truffes.

6 Eggs. 2 Truffles.

11-2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

An omelet with truffles is made in the same manner as a Mushroom Omelet.

Rum Omelet.

Omelette au Rhum.

3 Eggs. 1 Glass of Jamaica Rum.

1 Teaspoonful of Milk.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Beat the yolks well; add the milk, and then add the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Beat all together. The longer the eggs are beaten, the lighter will be the omelet. Make a plain omelet. (See recipe.) Fold and turn quickly into a hot dish; place three lumps of loaf sugar on top of the omelet, and bring to the table hot. As you place it on the table pour the rum over the omelet and around. Set the rum on fire with a match, and with a tablespoon dash the burning rum over the omelet till all the sugar has melted over it and all the rum has evaporated. When it ceases burning serve immediately. This is served as a sweet entremet.

CHAPTER XXIV.

LOUISIANA RICE.

Le Riz de la Louisiana.

The cultivation of rice began in Louisiana nearly a hundred years after it comnienced in Georgia and South Carolina, but Louisiana now produces more of this beautiful grain than both these states combined. It is one of the great Louisiana staples, and New Orleans is the distributing point of the immense crop that yearly makes our immense rice fields of Southwestern Louisiana the wonder and admiration of tourists.

In no section of the world can rice be grown at so small a cost as in Louisiana. The cost of growing the grain in our matchless clime is small, and it requires but little capital to begin.

The following recipes, carefully selected from among many that are used in this old Creole city of New Orleans, will give an idea of how rice is prepared and made such a delightful article of food in our Creole households:

How to Prepare Rice for Cooking.

The whiteness of the rice depends in a great degree upon its being washed thoroughly. Pick the rice clean, and wash it well in cold water before attempting to cook, rubbing the rice well with the hands to get all the dust off. Pour off the first water, and add fresh; then pour off this, and add fresh again. The rice will then be ready to cook.

How to Boil Rice.

When properly boiled, rice should be snowy white, perfectly dry and smooth; and every grain separate and distinct. To attain this end, put a quart of water on the fire, and let it boil well, with a teaspoonful of salt. Wash a cup of rice well in cold water. When the water commences to boil well add the rice. The boiling water will toss the grains of rice, and prevent them from clinging together. As soon as the grains commence to soften do not, under any circumstances, stir or touch the rice again. Let it continue to boil rapidly for about twenty minutes, or until the grains begin to swell out, and it appears to thicken. This is easily ascertained by touching one of the grains with your finger. When it has reached this stage take the cover off and pour off the water, and set the pot in the oven, so that the rice may swell up. Let it stand in the oven about ten minutes. Do not let it brown, but simply dry — that is, let the water which rises dry out of the rice. Take it off, and let it stand a few minutes. Then pour out into a dish. Every grain will be white and beautiful, and stand apart because the drying in the oven will have evaporated the moisture, leaving the rice soft, snowy white and perfectly dry.

Boiled rice is delicious served with chicken, turkey, crab or shrimp or okra gumbo, as also with many vegetables, all daubes, and with gravies of all kinds. It is the standing dish of every Creole table.

Creole Jambalaya.

Jambalaya a la Creole.

Jambalaya is a Spanish-Creole dish, which is a great favorite in New Orleans, and is made according to the following recipe.

One and a Half Cups of Rice.

1 Pound of Fresh Pork. 1 Slice of Ham.

1 Dozen Pine Chaurice (Pork

Sausage).

2 Onions. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Cloves of Garlic.

2 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

2 Bay Leaves. 2 Cloves Ground Very

Fine.

3 Quarts of Beef Broth or Hot Water.

(Broth Preferred.)

1-2 Spoonful of Chili Pepper.

Salt, Pepper and Cayenne to Taste.

Cut the pork very fine, lean and fat, into pieces of about half an inch square. Chop the onions very fine, and mince the garlic and fine herbs. Grind the cloves. Put a tablespoonful of butter into the saucepan, and add the onions and pork, and let them brown slowly. Stir frequently, and let them continue browning slightly. When slightly brown add the ham, chopped very fine, and the cloves of garlic. Then add the minced herbs, thyme, bay leaf and parsley and cloves. Let all this brown for five minutes longer, and add a dozen fine Chaurice, cut apart, and let all cook five minutes longer. Then add the three quarts of water or broth, always using in preference the broth. Let it all cook for ten minutes, and when it comes to a boil add the rice, which has been carefully washed. Then add to this a half teaspoonful of Chili pepper, and salt and Cayenne to taste. The Creoles season highly with Cayenne. Let all boil for a half hour longer, or until the rice is firm, and serve hot.

Crab Jambalaya.

Jambalaya aux Crabes.

1 Dozen Fine, Large Crabs.

11-2 Cups of Rice. 3 Quarts of Broth.

3 Tomatoes. 2 Onions.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour. 2 Cloves of Garlic.

2 Sprigs of Thyme. 2 Bay Leaves.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Chili Pepper.

Salt and Black Pepper to Taste.

Boil the crabs according to recipe. (See Boiled Crabs.) Then cut in pieces, cutting the bodies into quarters. Proceed in exactly the same manner as in making Shrimp Jambalaya.

Jambalaya an Congri

Jambalaya au Congri

1 Cup of Rice.

1 Pint of Cowpeas.

1 Large Onion.

1-2 Pound of Salt Meat. 1 Square Inch

of Ham.

Chop the salt meat, after washing, into dice, and mince the ham. Boil the cowpeas and the salt meat and ham together. Add the onion, minced very fine. Boil the rice according to recipe for boiled rice. (See recipe.) Chop the meat well. After the peas and the rice are cooked, pour the rice into the pot of peas, which must not be dry, but very moist. Mix well. Let all simmer for five minutes, and then serve hot. On Fridays and fast days the Creoles boil the peas in water, adding a tablespoonful of butter, but no meat. It is again buttered according to individual taste at table. The jambalaya, however, is much nicer when made with the meat.

Shrimp Jambalaya.

Jambalaya aux Chevrettes

11-2 Cups of Rice. 3 Tomatoes.

80 Lake Shrimp.

2 Onions. Cayenne to Taste.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful

Flour.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Chili Pepper.

Salt. Pepper. 2 Cloves of Garlic.

2 Sprigs Bach of Thyme and Bay Leaf.

Chop two onions very fine, and put them in a saucepan to brown with a tablespoonful of butter. After a few minutes add a tablespoonful of flour and stir well. Then add chopped thyme, bay leaf and parsley, and two cloves of garlic, minced very fine. Let all of this fry five minutes longer, and be careful not to let it burn or brown too much. Add a half teaspoonful of Chili pepper, and three large tomatoes, chopped fine, and also add the juice. Let all brown or simmer for ten minutes longer. When cooked add three quarts of broth or water, or, if on Friday, and you do not eat meat, add oyster water or plain water (the former preferred) which has been heated to the boiling point. Let all boil well, and then add the lake shrimp, which you will already have boiled according to recipe. (See recipe for Boiled Shrimp.) Let the mixture boil again for five minutes, and add one cup and a half of rice, or half a pound, which has been well washed. Mix all well, and let boil for half or three-quarters of an hour longer, stirring every once in a while, so as to mix all together. Serve hot.

A French Pilon.

Pilou Francals.

2 Chickens. 1-2 Cup of Rice.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

The Yolks of 2 Eggs. Bread Crumbs.

Boil the fowls according to recipe. (See recipe Boiled Chicken.) When done, take out about a pint of the liquor in which it was boiled, and put the rice which you will have washed well, into the remaining boiling broth. Let it cook well for twenty minutes, and then add two tablespoonfuls of butter to the rice. Butter the bottom of a dish, and put upon it one-half of the rice, spreading out nicely. Lay upon it the chickens, which have been disjointed and buttered. Add the remaining chicken broth, pouring over the chickens. Then cover the fowls with the other half of the rice. Make the top perfectly smooth. Spread over it the yolks of two eggs, which have been well beaten. Sprinkle with bread crumbs, and dot with little bits of butter here and there. Set in the oven, let it brown, and serve hot.

Chicken With Rice.

Poulet au Riz

1 Young Chicken. 1-2 Cup of Rice.

This is a most delightful Creole way of preparing chicken and rice. It is highly recommended. Prepare and cook the chicken as in Poulet au Riz, only do not cut up the chicken, but stew whole. When three-fourths done, add the rice, and in serving place the chicken in the center of the dish and heap the rice around. Young chickens are best for this dish. An old chicken may be cut up and cooked till tender, as in

Poulet au Riz. (See recipe Poulet au Riz, under chapter on Meat Soups.)

Pilaff of Chicken

Pilaff de Volaille.

1 Chicken About Four Pounds.

1-2 Cup of Rice. 1 Tablespoonful of

Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Clean and cut the chicken as you would for a fricasse. Put in a stewpan and cover well with water. Add salt and pepper again to taste, having, of course, previously rubbed the fowl with salt and pepper. Let the chicken simmer gently for about an hour. Then take a half cup of fice and wash it thoroughly. Add it to the chicken. Salt again to taste. Cover and let all simmer for about twenty minutes longer. Then make a Tomato Sauce (see recipe). Dish the chicken and rice together setting the chicken in the center of the dish and the rice around for a border. Serve hot. This dish can be nicely made from the remains of cold chicken or mutton.

How to Make a Rice Border.

Bordure de Riz.

1 Cup of Rice. 1 Quart of Boiling Water.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt to Taste.

Boil the rice according to recipe given above, using one cup to one quart of boiling water. Boil rapidly for fifteen minutes. Pour off any water that remains on top. Set in the oven to dry for about ten minutes, then drain. Season with salt and pepper, and press into a well-buttered border mold. Put it in the oven and let it bake ten minutes. Take out. Place a dish on the mold. Turn it upside down, and remove the mold. The hollow space in the center can be filled with a White or Brown Fricassee of Chicken or Curry or Crawfish.

Curry of Crawfish.

Ecrevisses au Kari.

1 Cup of Rice. 3 Dozen Crawfish.

2 Ounces of Butter. 1 Clove of Garlic.

2 Sprigs of Thyme. 2 Sprigs of Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf. Juice of Half a Lemon.

1 Teaspoonful of Curry Powder.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour. 1 Quart or

Water.

Salt and Pepper to Taste. A Dash of Cayenne.

Boil the crawfish according to the recipe given. (See Boiled Crawfish.) Clean and pick the crawfish the same as for a fricassee. Put two ounces of butter in the frying pan. Cut one onion iln slices, add it to the butter, letting it brown nicely. Then add the well-seasoned crawfish, and fry them to a golden brown Add one clove of garlic, finely minced, and miniced thyme, parsley and bay-leaf. Let this brown. After five minutes add a quart of boiling water. Stir well. Season to taste with salt, pepper and a dash of Cayenne. Simmer gently until the crawfish are very tender. When done add the juice of half a lemon, and mix one even tablespoonful of Curry Powder and one of flour with a little water. Bring it to a smooth paste by rubbing well, and add it to the crawfish. Stir constantly, and let it boil five minutes longer. Serve wth a border of boiled rice heaped around it. Curry of Chicken is made in the same manner, by adding the Curry Powder.

Boiled Rice, Italian Style.

Riz Bouilii a I'ltalienne.

1 Cup of Rice. A Slice of Breakfa.sl

Bacon.

1 Tablespoonful of Grated Parmesan.

1 Pincli Saffron. Salt and Pepper to

Taste.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Wash one cup of rice. Take boiling water, using about a quart. Add a slice of bacon and a tablespoonful of grated Parmesan cheese, and a pinch of saffron. Let it boil well for five minutes. Then add the rice gradually, continuing to cook according to the recipe for boiled rice. When done, remove the bacon, dot the top with bits of butter, set in the stove to dry for ten minutes, and serve hot.

CALAS.

"Belle Cala! Tout Chaud!"

Under this cry was sold by the ancient Creole negro women in the French Quarter of New Orleans a delicious rice cake, which was eaten with the morning cup of Cafe au Lait. The Cala woman was a daily figure in the streets till within the last two or three years. She went her rounds in quaint bandana tignon, guinea blue dress and white apron, and carried on her head a covered bowl, in which were the dainty and hot Calas. Her cry, "Belle Cala! Tout Chaud'" would penetrate the morning air, and the olden Creole cooks would rush to the doors to get the first fresh, hot Calas to carry to their masters and mistresses with the early morning cup of coffee. The Cala women have almost all passed away.

But the custom of making Calas still remains. In many an ancient home the good housewife tells her daughters just how "Tante Zizi" made the Calas in her day, and so are preserved these ancient traditional recipes.

From one of the last of the olden Cala women, one who has walked the streets of the French Quarter for fifty years and more, we have the following established Creole recipe:

1-2 Cup of Rice. 3 Cups Water (boiling).

3 Eggs. 1-2 Cup of Sugar.

1-2 Cake of Compressed Yeast.

1-2 Teaspoonful ot Grated Nutmeg.

Powdered White Sugar. Boiling Lard.

Put three cups of water in a saucepan and let it boil hard. Wash half a cup of rice thoroughly, and drain and put in the boiling water. Let it boil till very soft and mushy. Take it out and set it to cool. When cold, mash well and mix with the yeast, which you will have dissolved in a half cup of hot water. Set the rice to rise overnight. In the morning beat three eggs thoroughly, and add to the rice, mixing and beating well. Add a half cup of sugar and three tablespoonfuls of flour, to make the rice adhere. Mix well and beat thoroughly, bringing it to a thick batter. Set to rise for fifteen minutes longer. Then add about a half teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, and mix well. Have ready a frying pan, in which there is sufficient quantity of lard boiling for the rice cakes to swim in it. Test by dropping in a small piece of bread. If it becomes a golden brown the lard is ready, but if it bums or browns instantly it is too hot. The golden brown color is the true test. Take a large deep spoon, and drop a spoonful at a time of the preparation into the boiling lard, remembering always that the cake must not touch the bottom of the pan. Let fry to a nice brown. The old Cala women used to take the Calas piping hot, wrap them in a clean towel, basket or bowl, and rush through the streets with the welcome cry, "Belle Cala! Tout Chaud!" ringing on the morning air. But in families the cook simply takes the Calas out of the frying pan and drains off the lard by laying in a colander or on heated pieces of brown paper. They are then placed in a hot dish, and sprinkled over with powdered white sugar, and eaten hot with Cafe au Lait.

Rice Waffles.

Gaiettes de Riz.

11-2 Cups of Softly Boiled Rice.

2 Ounces of Butter. 1 Pint of Scalded

Milk.

3 Eggs. 1 Teaspoonful of Baking

Powder.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Salt.

1 Tablespoonful of Wheat Flour.

The rice must be cold and well mashed. Melt the two tablespoonfuls of butter into the milk, which has been allowed to cool. Beat the yolks of the eggs and the whites separately, making the latter come to a stiff froth. Mix the rice and milk. Beat thoroughly, and then add a half teaspoonful of salt and one of baking powder, and the flour. Put the yolks into the batter, first blending well, and lastly add the whites, and beat well again. The waffle iron should be very hot, and well greased in every part. Always have a little brush with which to grease the waffle irons. Pour the batter into a pitcher, so that you may more easily fill the irons. Open the irons, pour the batter from the pitcher and fill the iron quickly. Then close quickly and set on the fire. As soon as the edges are set, turn the iron and bake on the other side. Two minutes should be all the time required to bake a waffle nicely. The waffles must be baked evenly. Always select the simple waffle baker with four compartments in preference to the more elaborate designs. Better results will be achieved. When the waffles are baked, remove them carefully, place on a hot dish, piling them in double rows, and butter them generously. Rice waffles are generally served with ground cinnamon and sugar mixed and sprinkled over. But this is a matter of taste. They are very delicious when served with butter and Louisiana Syrup or Molasses.

Rice Griddle Cakes.

Gateaux de Riz.

1 Pint of Milk. 11-2 Cups of Cold Boiled

Rice.

11-2 Cups of Flour. 2 Eggs.

2 Heaping Teaspoonfuls of Baking

Powder.

1 Large Teaspoonful of Salt.

Scald the milk and set it to cool. Press the rice through a sieve, and then add the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, then the salt, yeast powder and flour, blended, and beat well. Then add the milk, blending thoroughly, and finally the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Mix thoroughly and bake on a hot griddle.

Rice Bread.

Pain de Rix.

1 Cup of Cold Boiled Rice.

2 Cups of White Indian Meal. 3 Eggs.

1 Tablespoonful of Melted Butter.

2 Heaping Teaspoonfuls of Baking

Powder.

11-4 Pints Milk. 1 Teaspoonful Salt

Beat the yolks and whites of the eggs together until very light, and then pour in the milk, mixing gradually. Add the well-prepared meal, into which you will have mixed the salt and baking powder. Beat well. Then add the melted butter and the rice, which you will have pressed through a sieve. Mix all thoroughly and beat till very light. Then grease the and the rice, which you will have pressed bottom of a shallow pan and turn the mixture in and bake half an hour in a hot oven. Serve hot, buttering the slices freely. This is a delicious breakfast bread, and, as in any of the above recipes, cold rice left over may be utilized in its making.

Rice Croquettes With Parsley.

Croquettes de Riz au Persil.

1 Cup of Rice. 1 Quart of Milk.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

The Yolks of 4 Eggs.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Wash the rice well, and put it on to boil in a farina boiler with the milk, or use cold boiled rice, and set it to boil with the milk, after pressing through a sieve. If the rice has not been cooked, let it boil about an hour. If it has already been cooked, twenty minutes will suffice. When very thick take from the fire and beat until very smooth, mashing all the grains. Then add the well-beaten yolks of the eggs, and cook for about eight or ten minutes longer. Add the parsley and seasoning, using the white pepper. Take from the fire and mix well, and turn out on a plate, and let it cool. When cool, form it into pretty cylinders of about three inches in length and one and a half in thickness. Roll these in a beaten egg, to bind, and then in bread crumbs, and fry in boiling lard. Drain and serve with any daube, or with any meat cooked with gravy.

Rice Croquettes With Fruits.

Croquettes de Riz aux Fruits.

1-2 Cup of Rice. 1 Pint of Milk.

2 Large Tablespoonfuls of Sugar.

1-4 Cup of Currants. 1-4 Cup of Raisins.

1-4 Cup of Citron.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Vanilla Essence.

The Yolks of 2 Eggs.

Put the milk into a farina boiler, and add the rice which you will have washed well. Boil until very thick. Seed the raisins and prepare the other fruits. Beat the eggs well and add them to the rice, and then stir in the sugar. Beat until very smooth. Then take from the fire, and add the essence of vanilla, the rasins and currants, and the citron. Turn out all into a dish to cool. Then form into pretty pyramids, and dip first in a well-beaten egg, and then in bread crumbs. Fry in boiling lard. Drain well. When about to serve, put a small piece of Currant Jelly on the top of each croquette. Then dust the whole with powdered sugar, and serve with Sauce a la Vanille. (Vanilla Sauce, see recipe.)

Rice Flour Croquettes.

Croquettes de Farine de Riz.

1 Quart Milk. 1-2 Split Vanilla Stick.

6 Ounces of Ground Rice. 1-4 Pound of Sugar.

2 Ounces Butter. Yolks of 8 Eggs.

1 Ounce of Pineapple. 2 Ounces of Apricots.

3 Ounces of Cherries.

1 Ounce of Orange Peel. A Cream Sauce.

Boil a quart of milk, and add to it while boiling the split vanilla stick. Take out the vanilla after you have cut all the fruit and orange peel into small dice, throwing away the seeds. Drop the ground rice like a shower of rain into the boiling milk, stirring it continuously with a whisk of the hand. When it begins to soften, set it back, and let it cook for fifteen minutes longer. Then mix in the cut fruits, and add the butter, which you will have melted. Add the eggs, which have been beaten very light in the sugar. Mix thoroughly, and add the orange peel; cut into quarter dice. When the mixture is very light, set it to cool, by spreading it out on a baking sheet, covered with white paper. When cold, divide it into small balls, roll these in powdered Macaroons (see recipe Macaroons), dip in beaten egg, and then roll in white bread crumbs. Fry in boiling lard. Drain in a heated colander or on a piece of brown paper. Then dress the croquettes nicely on a dish, sprinkle with vanilla sugar, and serve each separately, with a Cream Sauce. (See recipe.) This is a delicious dish.

Rice Custard.

Riz au Lait.

1 Cup Rice. 3-4 Cup Sugar. 1-2 Grated

Nutmeg.

1 Teaspoonful of Vanilla.

The Peel of a Quarter of an Orange, Cut in Dice.

Boil the rice very soft, and then add the milk, and let it come to a good boil. Add the orange peel, cut in quarter dice. Beat the eggs and sugar well together till very light, and add to the boiling custard. Cook for one minute longer. Then take from the fire, and add the vanilla and one-quarter of the grated nutmeg. Place all in a dish to cool. Sprinkle the top with grated nutmeg, and serve cold. This is a famous Creole dish.

If you wish to have a baked custard, place the custard in a pan or in cups. Set in the oven to brown, and serve hot, with a Cream Sauce. The above amount will fill about eight cups.

Rice Dumplings.

Echaudes de Riz.

It was the old Creole negro cooks who first evolved that famous Creole dessert, Rice Dumplings. They are made as follows:

1-2 Cup of Flour. 3 Cups of Ground Rice.

8 Apples, Tart and Not Overripe.

2 Quarts of Milk. Sugar and Cinnamon.

1-4 of the Peel of an Orange.

1-2 of a Grated Nutmeg.

Pare the apples and take out the cores, leaving the apples whole. Take the ground cinnamon and sugar, and mix well, and fill the cores with this mixture. In the meantime boil the rice in milk till it comes to the consistency of flour, having added the grated peel of an orange and a half teaspoonful of grated nutmeg and a half cup of flour. Take off the fire, and let it cool. Then coyer each apple all over with a very thick coating of the rice, and tie each dumpling in a cloth very tightly, and put them in a pot of cold water. Bring the water to a quick boil, and boil the apples for three-quarters of an hour. When done, untie the cloth and place the dumplings carefully on a large dish. Sprinkle each with a little grated nutmeg, put on top of each a dot of butter, set in the oven for five or ten minutes to brown, and serve with a Hard or Cream Sauce. They are most delicious with a Hard Sauce. They may be served without setting in the oven, immediately after they have been taken from the water, or they may be served cold.

Again, in large families, the apples may be cut in halves or quarters, and boiled in the same manner, covering with the coating of rice, as in the following recipe:

Apples and Rice.

Riz a la Conde.

Take three large, fine apples, and cut in halves. Pare and core. Then bake in the oven until quite done and juicy. Make a Rice Pudding (see recipe), using only one cup of rice and other ingredients in proportion. When the apples are cold, set in a dish, placing each apple over a small bed of Rice Pudding. Plan the same quantity on top of the apple, so that it will be inclosed between the rice as in a ball. Serve in saucers, and pour over each riced apple two tablespoonfuls of Brandy or Cream Sauce. (See Sauces for Puddings, etc.)

Rice Meringne.

Meringue de Riz.

1 Cup Rice. 6 Creole Eggs. 2 Cups

Sugar.

1 Pint Milk. 2 Tablespoonfuls Butter.

The Grated Rind of a Lemon.

Wash the rice thoroughly, and boil it in a quart of boiling water. When very soft, drain the rice of all water by pressing through a colander, and add it o the milk. Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar together till very light and add the butter. Then add the juice and the grated rind of a lemon, and mix thoroughly. Place the whole mixture into a baking dish, and bake for half an hour in a quick oven. Beat the whites to a stiff froth, and add gradually six tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar (white), beating them well all the time. Continue beating till the whites are stiff enough to stand alone. Pour this over the top of the rice, and set it back in the oven a few minutes to brown. It may be served either hot or cold.

Rice Souffle.

Souffle de Riz.

1-4 Pound of Rice Flour. 1-2 Pound of

Sugar.

1-2 Pint Cream. 6 Fresh Creole Eggs.

1 Teaspoonful Vanilla. 1-4 Teaspoonful

Salt.

The Grated Peel of Half an Orange.

Boil the rice well, according to recipe, and when very soft add the half pint of cream, and let it come to a boil. Beat the butter and sugar and the yolks of the eggs together until very light. Then add the rice, which has been boiled in the milk. Set on the fire, and add the grated peel of a half orange, and stir continually till it thickens. Add the salt. Stir well. Then take from the fire, and add the vanilla. Have the whites or the eggs beaten to a stiff thick froth. Pour this over the rice. Set in the oven a few minutes to brown, and serve immediately while very hot, or it will fall.

Snowballs.

Riz a la Neige.

1 Cup Rice. 1 Pint Milk. 1-4 Cup White

Sugar.

The Whites of Six Eggs.

A Cream Sauce.

Boil the rice with the milk, and add the whites of three eggs, well beaten with the sugar. Stir well, and flavor with the juice of one lemon. The mixture should be white as snow. Take from the fire as it thickens well and set in a dish to cool. Form the rice into small balls of about two and a half inches square (little "boulettes," as the Creoles call them). Have the rest of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, with two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar. Cover the tops of the balls with the mixture and place in the stove to heat. Let the balls remain about four minutes, without browning. Take out, and serve with a Cream Sauce (see recipe Sauces for Puddings), or just as they are.

Rice Cream Pudding.

Pending de Riz a la Creme.

1 Cup of Boiled Rice. 3-4 Cup of Sugar.

1 Ounce of Pineapple. 2 Ounces of

Raisins.

2 Ounces of Currants.

1 Ounce of Grated Orange Peel.

1 Quart of Milk. The Yolks of 6 Eggs.

1-4 of a Grated Nutmeg.

Boil the rice well, and then drain through a colander and set to boil with the milk. When it has cooked for twenty minutes, add all the fruits, being careful to have the pineapple cut into dice, and the raisins seeded, and the currants picked, washed and dried. Then add the orange peel and grated nutmeg, and finally the eggs, which have been well beaten in the sugar till very light. Let all simmer for just one minute. Then take off the stove, place in a baking pan, and set to brown nicely in a quick oven for about twenty-five minutes. When well browned, have ready a meringue, which you will have made by beating the whites of two eggs to a froth (reserve the whites of two eggs), and add to this two tablespoonfuls of powdered white sugar. Spread all this over the pudding. Let it brown slightly in a hot oven, or the meringue will fall. Serve either hot or very cold. The pudding may be made without the addition of the pineapple.

Frozen Rice Custard.

Creme de Riz Glacee.

1 Cupful of Rice. 1 Quart of Milk.

A Pint of Cream. 1 Cup of Sugar.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt. 6 Oranges.

Prepare exactly as above, as far as boiled, but omit the fruits and use only the grated rind of an orange in making the pudding. When cold, add the juice of an orange and the cream, beaten or whipped to a froth. Four tablespoonfuls of wine or lemon juice may be substituted for the orange juice, according to taste. Then freeze, the same as you would ice cream, and serve with an Oranga Sauce, prepared as follows:

Boil together for ten minutes one cupful of water, one-half cup of sugar, the grated yellow rind or zest of two oranges. Add to this the strained juice of four oranges. Cool and set to freeze. Boil three tablespoonfuls of sugar with three of water for two minutes. Beat this into the white of one egg, which has already been brought to a stiff froth. Stir this meringue into the frozen mixture, and the sauce will be ready to serve with the pudding or custard.

Rice With Compote of Oranges.

Riz a la Compote d'Orangres.

3-4 Cup of Rice. 11-2 Pints Milk. 1

Quart Cream.

11-2 Cups Sugar.

Yolks of 8 Eggs. 1 Tablespoonful of

"Vanilla.

Tlie Grated Peel of an Orange.

12 Sweet Louisiana Oranges. 1 Pound

Sugar.

1 Gill Water. 1-4 of a Grated Nutmeg.

Wash the rice clean, and boil according to recipe in about a pint and a quarter of water. In half an hour take off and drain of all water, and press through a sieve. Then add it to the milk, and let it boil slowly a half hour longer without burning. Whip the cream to a stiff froth, and add the drain to the rice or milk, and set the whipped cream to cool until it is needed. Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar until they are very light. Add them to the boiling rice, stirring constantly and well, and let it cook for two minutes, adding in the meantime the grated peel of the orange. Take the mixture from the fire. Then add the tablespoonful of vanilla, and the grated nutmeg. Mix well and set out to cool. Remove the dasher from the ice cream freezer, and when the mixture has become very cool, turn it into the freezer and let it set packed in rock salt and ice for three hours.

In the meantime take a dozen sweet Louisiana oranges, and peel and cut them crosswise into halves. Take out the cores with the sharp point of a penknife, and set them in a dish ready for use. Put a round of sugar to boil with one gill of water, and after ten minutes add the juice of half a lemon. Put a few pieces at a time of the oranges into this boiling liquid, and lay them out side by side in a flat dish. Pour over them the syrup that remains from the boiling, and set the dish in the ice box to cool. When ready to serve, wipe thoroughly the outside of the can that contains the pudding, and all around the edges, so as to remote any traces of salt. Wet a towel in boiling water and stand the can upon it. Open the can. Put a round dish on top, and then turn quickly upside down, and remove the can. If the pudding adheres, repeat the applications of the hot towel at the bottom and around. Place the oranges on top and all around the pudding, and pour over them the syrup, which has become cool, but not frozen. Serve immediately. This is one of the most delicious, as well as one of the most typical of our Louisiana methods of serving rice as a dessert.

Left-Over Rice.

Enough has been said and written in these recipes to give an idea of the possibilities of Louisiana rice under proper methods of culinary preparation. It enters into many different combinations ia cooking, and among the poorer Creoles of large families it takes, in a great measure, the place of bread. A meal of boiled rice, with Grillades a la Sauce, and Red Beans or White Beans, is very popular among the Creoles, especially those of limited means, all of these being good, nourishing, as well as economical, dishes, the rice not only saving the expenditure of money for bread, but making a most welcome and palatble substitute. Tha family that uses rice daily will note the economy that follows in the purchase of bread.

Left-over rice may be utilized in almost any of the above dishes, but it is more generally used in the making of rice waffles or rice cakes for breakfast, Calas, etc. It is also fried or made into rice fritters, as follows:

Fried Rice.

Riz Frit.

Take the left-over rice from the day before, and cut it into slices of proper thickness, and fry to a nice brown, turning it carefully, to avoid breaking the slices. This makes an excellent breakfast dish, with Grillades a la Sauce. (See recipe.)

Rice Fritters.

Beignets de Riz.

Take the left-over rice and mash very fine. If you have only a cupful, take three eggs, a half cup of flour, one teaspoonful of yeast pcwder, and sugar to taste, and beat all into a light, thick batter. Cook by dropping a spoonful at a time into boiling lard. This is a sweet entremet, as also an excellent breakfast dish.

Parched Rice.

Riz Grille.

Rice may be parched in the same manner as popcorn. It is a method of cooking rice that came to New Orleans from the West Indies, and was brought into general use by the San Domingo refugees, who came to New Orleans in numbers after the great insurrection. When the culture of rice became general in the Southwestern parishes of our State, these old settlers began to give rice-parching parties, and they became very fashionable. The Creole children and the belles and beaux of eighty years ago enjoyed parching rice just as much as Northern children, youths and maidens enjoy roasting chestnuts or parching corn. Rice is parched in the same manner as the Creoles parch popcorn. The parched grain of rice becomes a beautiful open ball, which is eaten with salt or sugar, and is very delicious.

CHAPTER XXV.

CEREALS.

Under the heading of Cereals are classed Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Corn, Maize or Indian Corn, Buckwheat and Rice. Rice being one of our great Louisiana staples, and the proper methods of preparing it so little known, has been separately treated in the preceding chapter. The other Cereals are in general use in every section of our country, and will require less amplification.

WHEAT.

Du Froment.

On account of its universal consumption and great nutritive qualities, Wheat is considered the principal cereal. In the form of bread. It has long been distinguished as the "Staff of Life."

The structure of the grain, like that of other cereals, consists of a gritty, woody center covering, which is indigestible, and which is gotten rid of, after the grain has been ground, by "sifting." In the whole wheat grain is found a perfect food, for it contains all that is necessary to support life — starch, gluten sugar, nitrogenous and carbonaceous matter, water, salts, potash, soda, lime, phosphoric acid, magnesia, etc.

In what is called "whole meal," the bran and pollards derived from the outer covering are retained. From this wheat is made "Brown Bread," and though this kind of bread contains far more nitrogenous matter than white bread, it is not in general use, on account of its indigestibility. It should never be eaten by persons of weak digestion.

Wheat contains a gluten, which is a gray, elastic, tough substance. This gluten is especially abundant in wheat grown in warm climates. From this gluten paste Macaroni and Vermicelli are made.

Cracked Wheat.

Froment Creve.

1 Cut of Cracked Wheat.

1 Quart of Water.

1 1 easpoonful of Salt.

Under the name of "Cracked Wheat" there is sold in the markets whole wheat grains, which are cooked by boiling in a double boiler until the entire envelope of the grain bursts open. It will require four hours of good boiling, therefore, it is best to soak the grain over night in a quart of cold water. In the morning set the kettle containing the grain in another kettle of cold water, add the salt, and let it gradually heat and boil for at least an hour and a half. It should be thoroughly cooked. Serve with sugar and cream for breakfast.

FARINA.

Fecule.

1-2 Cup of Farina.

1 Quart of Water or Milk.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

Add the salt to the milk or water, and then sift in slowly sufficient Farina to make a thick gruel. Set in a double boiler, and let it cook for about a half hour, stirring frequently while it boils.

Farina Gruel.

Gruau de Fecule.

1 Cup of Boiling Water.

1 Cup of Fresh Milk.

1 Large Tablespoonful of Farina.

2 Tablesipoonfuls of White Sugar.

In preparing this splendid food for infants, take a cup of boiling water, one cup of milk, and a pinch of salt. Slightly salt the water. Set one boiler within another, the latter boiler being filled with boiling water. Stir the Farina into the cup of boiling water, and let it boil, stirring constantly, till it thickens. Then add the milk, stirring it gradually, and let it boil about fifteen minutes longer. Sweeten, and when it is cool give to the child. Enough may be made to last all day. Warm, when it is needed, with a little boiling milk.

RYE.

Seigle.

Rye meal, once such a common article of food in New Orleans, is still extensively used by the German population, both in making Rye Bread and in making Rye Mush. As regards nutritive quality. Rye ranks slightly less than flour.

Rye Mush.

Bouille de Seigle.

3-4 Cup of Rye Meal.

1 Quart of Boiling Water.

Sift the meal into the boiling water, and stir constantly while doing so. Add the salt, and continue stirring till the mixture begins to boil. Then cover and let it cook slowly for at least an hour and a quarter. Serve hot for breakfast, with sugar and cream.

OATS.

Avoine.

From Oats, which are used so extensively as food for beasts, is produced Oatmeal, which heads the list of flesh-producing and strengthening grains, being far richer than flour in nitrogen and fat, and, therefore, more nutritious. With oatmeal porridge for breakfast, oatmeal cakes for dinner, milk, potatoes and a few vegetables, the hard-working laborer or brain worker need require little else for sustenance from year's end to year's end.

Oatmeal.

Gruau d'Avoine.

1 Cup of Oatmeal.

1 Quart of Boiling Water.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

It is best to soak the oatmeal, when the coarse Scotch Oats are used, over night. Then cook for a half hour in the morning, boling constantly, and salt to taste if the oatmeal is not soaked, it will require at least an hour to cook. It bums very easily, and, therefore, it is always best to set in a double boiler. Serve with cream.

Steamed Oatmeal

Gruau d'Avoine a la Vapeur.

1 Teacupful of Oatmeal.

1 Quart of Boiling Water.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

Add the oatmeal to the water, and then add the salt, and set the steaming vessel over a pot of cold water, and let it gradually heat, and then steam for an hour and a half. Keep closely covered. When done, serve with cream.

Oat Flakes.

Flocons d'Avoine.

1 Teacupful of Oat Flakes.

1 Quart of Boiling Water.

1-2 Teaspoonful of Salt.

This delicate preparation from oatmeal is prepared by putting the quart of water into a porcelain-lined saucepan, and letting it come to a boil. Add the salt, and when it is boiling stir in gradually the oat flakes. Keep stirring to prevent burning. Let the preparation boil for about fifteen cr twenty minutes, and serve with sugar and cream, or simply cream or milk.

CORN.

Du Mais.

Under this heading are included Corn proper and our own Indian Corn, or Maize. From these come such staple dishes as "Grits," "Big Hominy," "Little Hominy," "Lye Hominy" or "Samp."

Corn contains far greater force-producing and fattening matter than Wheat. Scientists declare that cornmeal contains six times as much oil as wheat. Corn Bread is, therefore, an excellent winter diet, as also the delicate "Grits"

and "Big and Small Hominy." "Samp" or "Lye Hominy," is used throughout the summer, as it is less heating. Preparations of Corn are among the cheapest. If not the very cheapest articles of food, and considering their high nutritive value, are especially recommended to the families of the poor. But, whether rich or poor, there are few Creole families in New Orleans who sit to breakfast without a good dish of Grits or Hominy.

GRITS.

Du Gru.

Under the heading of Corn might properly be classed the white corn grits, without which no breakfast in Louisiana is considered complete. Grits is not only used for breakfast, but may appear on the table several times a day, the left-over grits from breakfast being utilized either in dainty cakes or entremets, or else warmed over and served with gravies. Grits is the ground dried corn. We have yellow grits, or grits from which the outer yellow covering of the corn has not been removed, and white grits, the latter considered the daintier preparation. From these comes the "Small Hominy," or corn ground to superfineness. Grits are always boiled. Left-over may be fried or warmed up again, or beaten with eggs and milk and baked. This is a most delicious dish.

Boiled Grits.

Du Gru Bouilli.

2 Cups of Grits.

2 Quarts of Water. 2 Teaspoonfuls of

Salt.

Wash the grits in fresh cold water, and throw off the refuse. Wash again and drain. Into two quarts of cold water put the grits. Add the salt, and stir frequently while they are coming to the boiling point. Then set back on the stove and let them cook slowly for about an hour. It must be of the consistency of a very thick starch, or drier, if preferred. For invalids it may be cooked like a cornmeal mush. Serve hot, with any meat, with gravy, or serve with milk, as oatmeal, as a preliminary to breakfast, or, again, simply eat with butter. In any manner in which they are served they are always relishable and palatable. If half imilk, instead of water, is added in cooking, the dish is all the more delicious.

Baked Grits.

Du Gru aux Oeufs.

1 Cup of Grits.

1-2 Quart of Water. 1-2 Quart of Milk.

2 Eggs. Salt to Taste.

Boil the grits in the water and milk, mixed. Season, and when quite dry, take off the stove and let it cool a little. Beat the whites and yolks separately, and when the grits is cool beat in the yolks, and blend thoroughly. Then add the whites, and beat till very light. Add a gill of cream. Set in an oven and bake to a beautiful brown, and serve hot. This is an ideal Creole breakfast dish. Cold grits may be thus utilized.

HOMINY.

Saccamite.

Hominy is called by the Creoles the older sister of Grits. It was the Indians abound Louisiana who first taught the use of hominy. They used to take all the dried Indian corn and thrash it till all the yellow, hardened outer germ or hull came off, the grain being left white. Then they would bring the large whitened grains into the city to sell. Hominy became a great industry, and was extensively manufactured and sold all over the South. It was the chief food of the Southern negroes. But it was also a standing dish on the most elegant tables. The little Creole children were reared on "La Saccamite." The hominy was boiled in water in the same proportions as grits, but, of course, allowed to cook much longer, till the great white grains of corn were very soft, and yielded easily to pressure. It is still cooked in the same way, and eaten with milk or with sugar, the latter being a favorite dish with the Creole children. It is also eaten with meat and gravy, or simply with salt and butter. Left-over hominy is utilized in making hominy griddle cakes.

We have also "Lye Hominy," or Hominy soaked in Lye till the coarse outer germ comes off. This is the great summer dish of the city and parishes. The hominy is made in the parishes, and shipped to New Orleans. It is also pounded and used for making "Lye Hominy Bread."

Boiled Hominy.

La Saccamlte Boulllie.

1 Pint of Hominy.

2 Quarts of Water. Salt to Taste.

Hominy should always be soaked over night in cold water. Wash the hominy, and put into two quarts of water to soak. In the morning turn both hominy and water into a saucepan, and let it boil slowly for three or four hours. Serve with sugar and cream. It may also ba eaten with butter and salt and pepper.

Hominy Croquettes.

La Saccamite en Croquettes.

These are made from the left-over hominy. They are prepared in exactly the same manner as rice croquettes. (See recipe.) Grits may be made into croquettes in the same manner.

Fried Grits or Hominy.

Gru ou Saccamite Frite.

To fry grits or hominy, after the grain is boiled, let it cool. Then season with salt and pepper, and spread on a biscuit board. When perfectly cold cut into slices and dust each slice with a little flour. Brush again with a beaten egg, and try in lard till a light brown.

Lye Hominy or Samp.

Saccamite a la Lessive.

This is an old-fashioned Creole way of preparing hulled corn. It is and has been much in vogue for many generations throughout rural Louisiana. The corn is allowed to get very ripe, put to dry, and then hulled. It is then allowed to lie for many days, spread out upon a cloth, till thoroughly dried. An immense pot is then filled with water, and a bag containing at least a quart or more of hardwood ashes is put into it. A good peck of the old, ripe, dry, hulled com is thrown in, and it is allowed to soak for at least twenty-four hours. The corn is then put to boil in these ashes till the husks or outer germs come off easily. Then the corn is thrown into the cold water and divested of the hulls by thorough rubbing with the hands. It is then washed in four or five waters, till every taste of potash disappears.

Another way the Creoles of rural Louisiana have of preparing Lye Hominy is to dilute the strong lye in water, and then boil the corn in this till the hull comes off. After thoroughly washing, the corn prepared after either way is sent in large quantities to New Orleans, as well as used for home consumption. In cooking Lye Hominy, it is either boiled in water until the kernels are soft, as in other recipes for Hominy, making a delicious dish when served with milk, or cream, or it is ground or pounded into a flour, from which is made that famous Louisiana breakfast offering, "Lye Hominy Bread." (See recipe under chapter on Breads.) This flour also finds a ready sale among the Creoles during summer.

Cornmeal Mush.

Bouillie de Farine de Mais.

11-2 Cups of Cornmeal.

2 Quarts of Boiling Water.

11-2 Teaspoonfuls of Salt.

Set the water to boil in a porcelain-lined or agate stewpot; add the salt, and when the light scum, comes on top skim it off. Then add the fresh, sweet white cornmeal, putting a handful at a time into the water, and stirring with a spoon or a pudding stick, round and round, as the meal falls lightly from the hand. When one handful is exhausted, refill it, and continue stirring and letting the meal fall by degrees, until the pudding stick will stand in it. This is the test. Continue stirring, and when sufficiently cooked, which will be in a half hour, as the bubbles begin to puff up, turn into a bowl, bring to the table (either hot or cold) and eat with milk, butter, sugar, syrup or with meat and gravy.

In preparing this as a gruel for infants, take one-half cup of cornmeal, a quart of water, and let it boil for at least one hour, stirring often. When done, soften with boiled new milk, sweeten to taste and feed the infant with a spoon.

Graham Meal Mush is prepared in the same manner as either of the above recipes.

Milk Porridge.

Bouillie de Lait.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Indian Meal.

1 Spoon of White Flour.

3 Cups of Milk.

11-2 Cups of Boiling Water.

A Pinch of Salt.

Bring the flour to a paste with a little cold water, and also scald the meal with a little hot water. Have the water boiling in the proportion given above; add the meal, and then add the flour, stirring constantly. Then let it boil for about twenty minutes, and add the pinch of salt and the milk, stirring almost constantly; then let all cook for ten minutes more, stirring often. Serve while hot, with sugar and milk. This is excellent for little children and invalids.

BARBLEY.

Orge.

Barley is extensively used by the Creoles, especially in summer, for making soups. A good barley soup is considered not only a most nutritious dish, but a very cooling one, and especially suited to a summer diet. A half cupful is thrown into the soup. (See recipe for Barley Soup.) Barley water is also extensively used to cool the system, and also for delicate infants, with whom very often even sterilized milk does not agree, and it is found absolutely necessary to substitute some other article of diet. The Creole mothers first soak two tablespoonfuls of barley in a little cold water for about an hour, and then, without draining, pour this into the boiling water, which has been very slightly salted. This water is stirred very frequently and allowed to simmer for at least an hour. It is then strained and sweetened before it is used. Barley thus prepared is used extensively for invalids. Barley must always be picked over and washed thoroughly in several waters before using, and soaked in a little cold water.

BUCKWHEAT.

Froment de Sarrasin.

Buckwheat is not by any means a nutritive food, being far inferior to wheat and corn. It is never eaten alone, but in combination with flour, is used in making that delightful breaKfast accompaniment, "Buckwheat Cakes." (See recipe, under Chapter on Breads.)

CHAPTER XXVI. MACARONI.

Macaroni.

Macaroni is a general article of food in New Orleans among the rich and the poor. It is very cheap, and is a most excellent dish. We have in New Orleans large Macaroni factories, where not only Macaroni is made by the Italians themselves, but the twin sisters of Macaroni, Spaghetti and Vermicelli, are also manufactured fresh daily. While there is no city in the United States in which Macaroni is cooked in real Italian style but New Orleans, which has long been a favored point of migration for the sons of sunny Italy, the Creole cooks have modified and improved upon the Italian methods, so that Macaroni a la Creole is just as famous a dish as Macaroni a l'Italienne, and by many considered far superior.

How to Boil Macaroni.

Avoid breaking the macaroni as much as possible. Immerse it whole in a large saucepan of boiling water; add a table-spoonful of salt and one of butter. Lot the macaroni cook from twenty to twenty-five minutes; remove from the fire and drain in a colander. If not intended for immediate use, cover at once with cold water. When cool, drain and use as needed.

Boiled Macaroni, Italian Style.

Macaroni a Tltalienne.

1-2 Pound of Macaroni.

1 Pound of Grated Parmesan Cheese.

1 Tablespoonful Flour.

1 Tablespoonful Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Break the macaroni into convenient lengths, and set to boil in a kettle filled with boiling water and in which you have thrown a spoonful of salt and black pepper. Be careful to keep the lengths of macaroni firm. When cooked till tender, take off and strain the water. Take one tablespoonful of butter and one of flour and put them on the fire, blending well. Have one pound of Parmesan cheese grated; add one-half of it to the flour and butter, and one pint of the water in which the macaroni was boiled; the mixture must not be allowed to brown; stir briskly. Place the macaroni by lengths into a dish, season well with salt and pepper, and warm a few minutes in the oven. When warm, take out the dish and sprinkle over it one-quarter of the pound of cheese that still remains; pour the hot sauce over this, and sprinkle the rest of the cheese on top; serve hot.

Boiled Spaghetti, Italian Style.

Spaghetti a I'ltalienne.

1-2 Pound of Spaghetti.

1 Pound of Grated Parmesan Cheese.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Spaghetti a I'ltalienne is prepared in the same manner as in the above recipe. Spaghetti is a more delicate form of macaroni.

The Italians in New Orleans also simply boil the macaroni or spaghetti as mentioned above, sprinkle it with grated cheese and salt and pepper, and serve with a rich tomato sauce (see recipe), and grated cheese, the latter served in separate plated. This latter is a very rich dish.

Macaroni or Spaghetti thus cooked is served with daube and is a very palatable dish.

Macaroni With Tomato Sauce.

Macaroni a la Sauce Tomate.

1-2 Pound of Macaroni.

1 Gill of Tomato Sauce.

1 Gill of Madeira Sauce or Wine.

1-4 Pound of Grated Parmesan Cheese.

1 Onion. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

A Dash of Cayenne.

Boil the macaroni in salted water for twenty minutes, adding a tablespoonful of butter and an onion, wiith two cloves stuck in it. Then drain the macaroni of all water; place it in a saucepan with a gill of Tomato Sauce and one of Madeira Sauce or Madeira wine. Add a quarter of a pound of grated Parmesan cheese; season well with salt and pepper; add a dash of Cayenne, and let the mixture cook slowly for ten or fifteen minutes, tossing frequently to prevent burning. Place the Macaroni on a hot dish, pour the sauce over it, and serve with grated Parmesan cheese passed in a separate dish. Spaghetti may be prepared and served in the same manner.

Macaroni, Creole Style.

Macaroni a la Creole.

1-2 Pound of Macaroni.

1-2 Can of Tomatoes, or 6 Fresh Ones.

1 Tablespoonful Butter.

1 Tablespoonful Flour.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the macaroni according to the recipe given above. When done, drain through a colander without breaking the lengths. Season well with salt and pepper. Put one tablespoonful of butter in a frying pan and add one tablespoonful of flour; blend well and as it browns add the tomatoes, which have been chopped fine in their own juice. Let this stew, after stirring well for about ten minutes, and when it begins to boil add the macaroni or spaghetti, mixing well without breaking the lengths. Let it boil up once, and then serve hot. The dish may be served with any meats.

Macaroni or Spaghetti, Milanaise Style.

Macaroni ou Spaghetti a la Milanaise.

1-2 Pound of Macaroni.

1-4 Pound of Cold Boiled Ham.

1 Pound of Grated Parmesan Cheese.

1 Onion. 2 Cloves of Garlic.

1 Can Tomatoes.

2 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf.

Salt, Pepper and Cayenne to Taste.

Boil the macaroni in water and salt as in the recipe given for Boiling Macaroni. When tender, drain well through a colander. In the meantime, while it is boiling, put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan, and as it melts add the grated onion. Let this brown, and then add the ham which you will have minced very fine. Let this brown; add the cloves of garlic, minced very fine, and the herbs, minced very fine. Then add almost immediately, as these begin to brown, for bay leaf burns quickly, a half can of tomatoes, or six fresh large tomatoes. To this, as it stews, add a half pound of grated Parmesan cheese, and let all stew for about ten minutes; then add the macaroni or spaghetti, and let all simmer gently for about twenty minutes longer. Serve hot, and pass at the same time a small plate of grated Parmesan cheese to each person.

Macaroni, Neapolitan Style.

Macaroni a la Napolitaine.

1-2 Pound of Macaroni.

1-4 Pint of Sauce Espagnole.

1-4 Pint of Tomato Sauce.

1-4 Pound of Grated Parmesan Cheese.

6 Mushrooms. 2 Truffles.

1 Ounce of Smoked Beef Tongue.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1-4 Bottle of Claret.

1 Carrot. 1 Herb Bouquet.

2 Sprigs of Celery.

Boil the macaroni, and cut into pieces of about two inches long, after draining thoroughly. Place it in a saucepan with a half pint of Tomato Sauce and Sauce Espagnole (see recipe), and add the cheese. Add the herb bouquet, tied together; cut the truffles and mushrooms and carrot into dice-shaped pieces; mince the celery and add; then add the beef tongue cut into small dice-shaped pieces. To this add the Claret. Let all cook for about fifteen minutes, tossing frequently in the meantime. When ready to serve, remove the herb bouquet and send to the table hot.

Macaroni au Gratin.

Macaroni au Gratin.

1-2 Pound of Macaroni or Spaghetti.

1 Pound of Parmesan Cheese (Grated).

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the macaroni by its length in water until soft. Do not let it cook too much, but just enough to be soft, and lift out of the water without breaking. This will require about a half hour of rapid boiling. When done, take out of the water in which it was boiled, and season well with salt and black pepper. Put a tablespoonful of butter, blended well with flour, into a pint of milk. Let it boil two minutes. Place a layer of the spaghetti or macaroni in the pan in which it is to be baked, seasoning again to taste, and mix in a layer of the grated cheese; sprinkle with pepper and salt; then put in alternately a layer of the macaroni and a layer of cheese, and so on until three-fourths of the cheese is used. Do not break the macaroni or spaghetti. Pour over this the boiling milk. Take the remaining quarter pound of cheese and sprinkle thickly on top, dot here and there with bits of butter, and put in a quick oven and let it bake to a nice brown. Serve in the dish in which it was baked. In cooking macaroni or spaghetti, cream or milk may be used always instead of water, using a pint of either in the above proportions. If you have not the milk, a pint of the water in which the macaroni was boiled will answer equally well. This recipe is highly recommended as the nicest way of i>reparing macaroni.

Macaroni or Spaghetti With Daube.

Daube au Macaroni ou au Spaghetti.

1-2 Pound of Macaroni.

A Veal or Beef Daube.

1 Pint of Hot Water or Broth.

This is a popular Creole dish, and a very good one, too. Prepare a daube. (See recipe, "Boeuf a la Mode ou Daube"). After it has cooked about an hour and a half, and is about two-thirds done, add the macaroni according to the number to be served, using between a quarter and a half pound for six, and cutting the macaroni into lengths of about five inches, to facilitate serving, let it boil for about three-quarters of an hour in the daube, and if you see, on adding it, that there is not sufficient gravy for it to cook well, add a half pint or a pint more of hot water or hot broth, according as the macaroni appears to absorb after it has been in the pot four or five minutes. Cook until very tender, and on serving place the daube in the center of the dish and heap the macaroni around.

Chicken and macaroni may be prepared in the same way. Both are excellent and favorite New Orleans ways of serving macaroni. They are also very healthy and nutritious family dishes.

Spaghetti may also be cooked in either of these ways, and makes a more delicate dish.

Timbale of Macaroni.

Macaroni en Timbale.

1-4 Pound of Macaroni or Spaghetti.

1 Head of Edam's Cheese.

1-2 Pound of Grated Parmesan Cheese.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Nearly every family keeps a head of Edam's cheese for general use. When you have finished scooping out the cheese do not throw away the head, but keep it to make a Timbale Macaroni. Boil a little over one-quarter of a pound of macaroni, or sufficient to fill the head, according to the above directions (Boiled Macaroni). When boiled, take out of the water and set in a dish. Take about half a pint of the liquor in which the macaroni was boiled, strain it and set it back on the stove; add the flour and butter blended, and three-quarters of the grated cheese, and let it boil five minutes. Then pour this sauce over the macaroni in the dish and mix well, seasoning with salt and pepper to taste. Fill the head with this mixture, and sprinkle on top the rest of the grated cheese. Set in the stove to bake, and, when nicely browned, serve hot from the shell of the cheese. The macaroni may also be baked in molds, but there is no comparison to the Timbale when made in the empty cheese head. This is a genuine Timbale of Macaroni, and the only way to really make the dish.

Macaroni Balls.

Bouiettes de Macaroni.

1 Cup of Cold Boiled Macaroni.

1 Cup Boiling Milk. 1 Tablespoonful Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls Flour.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Grated Cheese.

The Yolks of 4 Eggs.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Put the butter into a saucepan, and as it melts add the flour; do not let it brown. Add the cup of boiling milk and stir well. When it begins to thicken add the grated cheese, and let it simmer for a few minutes longer; then take from the fire and add the beaten yolks of four eggs. Have the macaroni cut into tiny bits and work it well into this mixture. Then set it aside to cool. When cold, take a little flour, rub it on your hands, and form the macaroni into small balls about two inches in length and one in thickness. Dip the balls into a well-beaten egg, roll well and then roll in grated cracker crumbs. Fry in boiling lard, and serve hot.

CHAPTER XXVII.

CHEESE.

Du Fromage.

Cheese is one of the most nutritious of all food substances, being not only substantial, but especially rich in nitrogenous matter. Among scientists it ranks very high as an article of food. The Creoles hold that cheese is a good aid to digestion, and if it is simply the Gruyere cheese or the plain "Fromage a I'American," you will always see it passed around as a proper finish to a meal just before the coffee is brought in.

So much for the cheese in its natural state. In cooking, the Creoles use some very delightful forms, chief among which is that old French preparation known as

Cheese Ramekine.

Ramequins de Fromage.

6 Tablespoonfuls of Grated Cheese.

11-2 Gills of Milk.

The Yolks of 3 Begs.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

2 Ounces of Bread.

1-2 Tablespoonful of Prepared Mustard.

The Whites of 3 Eggs.

Cayenne and Salt to Taste.

Put the milk on to boil, and add the bread, which you will have minced fine. Stir the milk and bread until very smooth, and then add the butter, stirring well, and finally the grated cheese. Stir this for five minutes, letting it boil, and then take off the fire and add the beaten yolks of three eggs. Have the whites ready, beaten to a stiff froth, and stir them in very gently. Season to taste. Grease a baking dish with butter and pour the mixture into the dish, set in a quick oven, and let it bake for a quarter of an hour. Serve hot.

Cheese Souffle.

Souffle de Fromage.

1-4 Pound of Grated Cheese.

1 Gill of Fresh Cream or Milk.

3 Creole Eggs. 1 Teaspoonful of Flour.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Pinch of Grated Nutmeg.

1 Pinch Cayenne. Salt to Taste.

Grate the cheese very fine and then add to it the boiling milk; add gradually the pepper, Cayenne and salt. Then add the butter and flour, rubbed well together. When the cheese is well dissolved, take the mixture off; then add nutmeg and the beaten yolks of three eggs and the whites of two eggs beaten to a froth; stir the whole well. Place all in a shallow earthen dish, add a little butter that has been well melted and put in the stove for a few minutes till it begins to solidify well; then take out and spread on top the white of one egg, beaten to a stiff froth. Set one minute in the stove, let it brown slightly and serve immediately.

Toasted Cheese.

Fromage sur Canapes.

1-2 Pound of Cheese. 6 Slices of Bread.

Salt and Cayenne to Taste.

Toast the bread nicely and butter it. Cut the cheese into very thin slices and hold to the fire, letting it toast nicely, first on one side and then on the other. Lay this upon the buttered toast and serve hot. This is a very nice delicacy for breakfast, or for an evening in winter when seated around the home fire.

Cheese Straws.

Pailles de Fromage.

1 Cup of Grated Parmesan or Gruyere Cheese.

1 Cup Flour. 1 Tablespoonful Butter.

Yolk of an Egg.

Salt and Cayenne to Taste.

Blend the flour and cheese together and add at the same time the salt and Cayenne; then moisten with a well-beaten egg and one tablespoonful of melted butter, and work all gently into a paste. Roll out on a biscuit board into thin strips of not more than an eighth of an inch in thickness, and cut into strips of four inches in length and one-eighth of an inch in width. Place on buttered sheets of paper and bake in a very hot oven until a light brown. It is very pretty to make little rings of some of the strips and pass the others through them in little bundles like gathered bound bits of straw. This is a very dainty dish.

Weish Rarebit.

Fromage Fondu a la Biere.

2 Cups of Grated Cheese (Very Rich).

1-2 Cup of Milk. The Yolks of 2 Eggs,

Salt and Cayenne to Taste.

Toast the bread nicely in square slices and cut off the crusts. Butter nicely while very hot and then plunge them into a bowl of boiling milk. Place them on a heated dish and stand in the oven to keep hot while you proceed to make the "Rarebit." Have a porcelain-lined saucepan; and set a half cup of milk in it over a moderate fire; when it is boiling hot add the cheese which has been finely grated; stir unceasingly till the cheese melts, and then add the salt, Cayenne and the yolks of the eggs and pour over the toasted bread. Serve hot. In making this "Delicatesse," the cheese must be very rich or it will be tough and stringy, because poor cheese will not melt.

Cheese Biscuits.

Biscuits de Fromage.

1-4 Pound of Butter. 1-4 Pound of Flour.

5 Ounces of Grated Swiss Cheese.

1-2 Tablespoonful of Mustard.

Tolks of 5 Eggs. A Dash of Cayenne.

Beat the butter to a cream; add the yolks of the eggs, well beaten, and mix well. Then add gradually the grated cheese, mustard and Cayenne. Add the flour gradually, beating in thoroughly,and make a stiff dough. Roll it out and cut into square or round biscuits. Bake in a rather slow oven for twenty minutes and serve.

Cheese Fondu.

Fromage Fondu.

1 Cup of Grated Parmesan or Gruyere Cheese

2 Tablespoonfuls of Sifted Flour.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 3 Creole Eggs.

1-2 Cup of Fresh Milk or Cream.

A Pinch of Grated Nutmeg.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Put the butter into a saucepan and melt, and add the flour, blending without allowing it to brown. Add immediately, the boiling milk, and let it boil for two minutes. Then remove from the fire and stir in the yolks of three eggs, well beaten; then salt, pepper, nutmeg and the grated cheese. Mix all thoroughly. Have ready a small pudding dish, or, better still, several small souffle dishes. Butter these well. Have the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, beat them into the mixture and fill the dishes about two-thirds full. Then bake in a moderate oven for about twenty-five minutes. Serve immediately, or the mixture which has risen to the top of the dishes will fall.

Cream Cheese

Fromage a la Creme.

Cream Cheese is always made from clabbered milk.

The clabber is placed in a long bag of muslin and put to drain, the bag being tied tightly and hung out over night in a cool place. When ready for use, the bag is opened and the cheese is taken out and beaten till light. It is then placed in these perforated molds, and when the time comes for serving it is taken out, placed in a dish, and sweet cream is poured over it. It is eaten with sugar or salt, more generally sugar.

Frozen cream cheese is a very delicious summer dish with the Creoles. Some persons, after skimming the cream from the sour milk, stand the pan on the back of the stove, and scald the clabber with about three quarts of boiling water before putting in the bag to drain. Again, some use only the perforated tins, instead of the muslin bag, but the best results are obtained by the former ancient Creole method, cream cheese corresponds to the German "Schmier Kase."

CHAPTER XXVIII.

CANAPES.

Canapes.

No book on Creole cookery would be complete without reference to the delightful "Canapes" that are so extensively used at breakfasts, luncheons, dinners or suppers, and whose methods of preparation, distinctively Creole, have added to the reputation of the Creole cuisine. "Canape" is a French term, literally meaning a "couch" or "bed." In the culinary sense it is used as a bed on which to rest savory foods. Usually the Canape is the form of sliced bread, or toast, or crackers, covered with finely minced meats, pastes, etc., and handsomely decorated. It is a term that is also applied to the ordinary "Sandwich."

Anchovy Canapes.

Canapes d'Anchois.

6 Slices of Dry Toast.

1 Ounce of Anchovy Butter.

2 Dozen Anchovies.

First prepare the Anchovy Butter by adding to one ounce of good regular butter one teaspoonful of Anchovy Essence. Mix well and set on ice till ready to use.

Prepare six slices of bread, slicing them about one-half an inch thick and toasting to a golden brown. Trim the edges nicely and spread over each a little Anchovy Butter, and then cover each with four Anchovies cut in halves, or pounded to a paste, according to taste. Place the toasts on a tin baking sheet in an oven for one minute, and then arrange neatly on a folded napkin on a dish and serve.

Anchovy Canapes With Hard-Boiled

Eggs.

Canapes d'Anchois aux Oeufs Durs.

6 Slices of French Toast.

1 Dozen Anchovies. 2 Hard-Boiled Eggs.

1 Ounce of Anchovy Butter.

Prepare six slices of French toast (see recipe), spread over each a little Anchovy Butter, and then spread over this buttered toast the Anchovies and hard-boiled eggs, which have been finely minced and mixed together. Place on a folded napkin in a dish and serve.

Anchovy Canapes, Creole Style.

Canapes d'Anchois a la Creole.

6 Slices of French Toast.

1 Dozen Anchovies. 1 Ounce of Grated

Ham.

6 Gherkins. 1-2 a Truffle.

1 Tablespoonful of Salad Oil.

1 Teaspoonful of Caper Vinegar.

1 Ounce of Aspic Jelly.

Prepare the French toasts (see recipe); trim the edges neatly. Chop the Anchovies very fine and mix with the ounce of grated boiled ham, and the truffle and gherkins, all minced very fine; moisten this with the salad oil and vinegar, which have been well mixed. Spread over the toast and sarnish nicely with the aspic jelly, ard place on a folded napkin and serve. The Anchovy preparation may also be used to fill very small patty cases; in this case, serve with a garnish of delicate pieces of toast and Aspic Jelly.

Anchovy Canapes With Gruyere Cheese.

Canapes d'Anchois au Fromage de Gruyere.

6 Slices of French Toast.

2 Ounces of Gruyere Cheese.

16 Anchovies.

6 Minced Gherkins. 1 Ounce of Anchovy

Butter.

Prepare the French toast (see recipe); pound the Anchovies to a paste with the Gruyere cheese; line very shallow gem pans with a pie paste. (See recipe.) When baked, set to cool, and then fill in with the Anchovy preparation. Then invert this on a circle of nicely buttered Anchovy toast; garnish with the minced gherkins and serve.

Cracker Anchovy Canapes.

Canapes d'Anchois aux Biscuit.

1 Dozen Soda Crackers or Butter

Crackers.

2 Dozen Anchovies.

1 Ounce of Anchovy Butter.

Cut the Anchovies into halves. Butter one side of six crackers with the Anchovy butter; lay on this four Anchovies sliced in half; cover each with a cracker; place on a folded napkin on a dish and serve. A very pretty conceit at luncheons is to tie the crackers across and around with narrow green ribbon, making a delicate knot in the center.

Swiss Canapes.

Canapes a la Suisse.

1 Ounce of Anchovy Butter.

3 Hard-Boiled Eggs. 6 Stuffed Olives.

3 Minced Green Gherkins.

6 Slices of Toast.

Prepare the French toast, and cut six delicate pieces into the shape of a triangle. Spread these with Anchovy butter; decorate along one side with the whites of the eggs, finely minced: along the second triangular edge with the minced yolks of the eggs and on the third with the minced green gherkins. Place a stuffed olive (see recipe) in the center, and arrange nicely on a folded napkin on a dish and serve.

Caviar Canapes.

Canapes de Caviar.

6 Slices of French Toast.

1-2 of a Box of Russian Caviar.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Cream.

Prepare the toast and cut in delicate circles. In the meantime put half the contents of a small box of Russian Caviars into a sautoire or saucepan; add two tablespoonfuls of cream and heat one and a half minutes on the stove. Be careful to stir constantly. Pour this over the toast: place on a dish on a folded napkin and serve. Again, the circles of toast may be used as a foundation, the edges being spread with Anchovy butter, with an onion ring at its base. Fill this decorated ring with the Caviars, place on a folded napkin on a dish and serve.

Canapes Hunters' Style

Canapes a la Chasseur.

6 Slices of Toast.

1 Cup of Forcemeat of Game (White Meat)

1-2 Cup of Forcemeat of Game (Dark Meat).

Prepare triangular-shaped pieces ot toast, butter nicely and spread over with a game forcemeat (Woodcock, Snipe, Reed Birds, etc.). Decorate the edges with a forcemeat of game of different color, for effect, and serve. The wild duck, the meat of which is dark, maybe utilized in this garnish. Left-over game also may be thus nicely utilized at luncheon or supper.

Crab Canapes.

Canapes de Crabes au Canapes Lorenzo.

6 Slices of Toast.

8 Hard-Shelled Crabs. 1 Ounce of Butter.

1 Small Onion.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Flour.

1 Gill of Broth or Water.

2 Ounces of Grated Parmesan Cheese.

2 Ounces of Grated Swiss Cheese.

For this recipe first prepare the "Deviled Crabs" as follows: Boil the crabs. (See recipe Boiled Crabs.) Then pick out all the meat from the claws and bodies, and season nicely with salt and pepper. Put one ounce of butter into the saucepan, and add a finely minced onion; let this cook on a slow fire for two minutes, but by no means allow either butter or onion to brown. Add a tablespoonful of flour, and stir constantly for a minute and a half, and then add a gill of broth or water, if the broth is not convenient. Stir well and let this mixture cook for five minutes, stirring constantly. Now add the crab meat and let it cook for fifteen minutes longer, stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon. Turn the mixture into a dish and let it cool for about a quarter of an hour. Put a tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan, and add immediately a tablespoonful of flour and blend well; let this cook for three minutes, stirring all the time, and then add two ounces of grated Parmesan and two ounces of grated Swiss cheese. Stir all well together, blending thoroughly, and then turn into a vessel to cool. Cut six slices of bread the full length and width of the loaf, using preferably the "Pan Bread," or delicate French loaf. Let the thickness of each slice be about a quarter of an inch; neatly trim off the crust, and fry the bread in a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter till they have reached a golden brown. Then let them cool, draining off all butter. Divide the crab forcemeat and the cheese separately into six equal parts; place a layer of the crab forcemeat one-quarter of an inch thick on each slice of toast. Take the six portions of cheese and roll each into a ball-shaped form about two inches ,in diameter, and arrange them on each portion of toast nicely and equally; place in a dish and brown in the oven for five minutes, and send the Canapes to the table hot in the same dish in which they were baked.

Chicken Canapes.

Canapes de Volaille.

6 Slices of Toast.

1 Cup of Chicken Forcemeat. Ounce of

Butter.

1 Gill of Cream.

The Whites of 2 Hard-Boiled Eggs.

2 Ounces of Parmesan Cheese.

Prepare a Chicken Forcemeat (see recipe), and then prepare six slices of toast, cut square or in circles. Add an ounce of butter and one gill of cream to the chicken forcemeat; work well together, and then set to cool. Spread the toast lightly with butter, and spread over each slice a portion of the chicken forcemeat to the thickness of one-quarter of an inch; sprinkle with grated Parmesan cheese, set in the oven and bake for five minutes, and then decorate in the center with delicately cut pieces of the white of hard-boiled eggs and serve.

Canapes of Chicken Livers.

Canapes de Foies de Volaille.

1 Dozen Chicken Livers. 1 Onion.

6 Slices of Toast.

Dash of Anchovy Essence. 1 Ounce of

Butter.

Salt and Red Pepper to 'Taste

Pimentos and Red Chili to Garnish.

Saute the Chicken Livers (see recipe) with a finely minced onion till tender; then pound them to a paste, adding first a dash of Anchovy Essence, one tablespoonful of butter, salt and red pepper to taste. Cut the bread the full width of the loaf and trim the edges nicely; then fry in butter to a golden brown; take out and drain, and place in a silver dish or in the dish in which they are to be served, and pile up the chicken liver preparation in pyramidal shape on top of the toast; smooth nicely all around with a knife and set in the oven for two or three minutes; then decorate the edges of the bread with slices of Pimentos and rings of Red Chilis and serve hot.

Creole Canapes.

Canapes a la Creole.

Cup of Grated or Minced Boiled Ham.

1 Onion. 1 Clove of Garlic.

1 Peeled Tomato. 1 Minced Green

Pepper.

6 Slices of Buttered Toast.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 2 Ounces of

Parmesan Cheese.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Grate and mince only the lean portion of ham till you have a cupful. Put this in a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter, and add the finely minced onion and garlic. Let this cook for three minutes, and then add the finely-cut tomato and minced green pepper. Season to taste with salt and pepper; add a dash of Cayenne, and let the preparation stew down dry: then spread on strips of buttered toaM and dredge with grated Parmesan cheese. Set in the oven in the dish in which it is to be served and bake for five minutes and send to the table hot.

Cheese Canapes.

Canapes de Fromage.

6 Slices of Swiss Cheese.

6 Slices of Toast.

1 Gill of Sauce Piquante.

Take six slices of bread cut the whole width of the loaf, one-half inch in thickness, and hollow out one-half of the inner portion. Toast this nicely and spray the inner part with Piquante Sauce. (See recipe.) Have ready six slices of toasted or baked Swiss cheese: fit a slice into each cavity in the sliced toast; set in the oven for a few minutes and serve very hot.

Codfish Canapes.

Canapes de Cabillaud ou de Morue.

1 Cup of Boiled Salt Codfish.

1 Green Pepper. 3 Young Onions.

1 Teaspoonful of Tarragon Vinegar.

Capers to Garnish.

Boil the Codfish (see recipe), or utilize left-over fish; mince finely and mix thoroughly with the minced green peppers and young onions, and season with one teaspoonful of Tarragon vinegar. Spread on triangular-shaped pieces of toast placed on a dish on a folded napkin. Decorate nicely with capers and serve.

Ham Canapes.

Canapes de Jambon.

6 Slices of Lean Ham.

6 Slices of Toast.

1 Tablespoonful of French Mustard.

1 Gill of Cold White Sauce.

1 Boiled Onion. 1 Cooked Garlic.

2 Ounces of Grated Parmesan Cheese.

Prepare the toast nicely, cutting the slices the full width of the bread, paring the edges nicely and toasting and buttering well. Lay on each piece of toast a thin slice of very lean ham, which has been lightly spread with French mustard. Spread lightly over this a cold White Sauce (see recipe White Sauce, Sauce Blanche), to which has been added while cooking a finely-minced onion and clove of garlic, and a dash of Parmesan cheese. Dredge the top of the Canape with Parmesan cheese, then sprinkle lightly with finely-grated bread crumbs. Set in the oven for five minutes and bake and send to the table hot.

Fish Canapes.

Canapes de Poisson.

1 Cup of Minced Left-Over Fish.

1 Tablespoonful of French Mustard

Dressing.

1 Gill of Sauce Piquante.

2 Ounces of Parmesan Cheese.

6 Slices of Toast.

Utilize in this form of Canape any kind of white-fleshed Fish, Red Fish, Red Snapper, Sheepshead or Trout, etc. Prepare a forcemeat (see recipe) and season with the French Mustard and the Piquant Sauce. Spread a layer one-quarter of an inch thick over delicate strips of toast, dredge with grated Parmesan Cheese, set in the oven, and bake for five minutes and serve hot.

Canapes of Potted Ham.

Canapes de Jambon en Conserve.

1 Box of Potted Ham.

2 Ounces of Grated Boiled Ham.

Thin Slices of Green Gherkins.

6 Slices of Toast.

Prepare delicate strips of Toast, spread with Potted Ham to a quarter of an inch in thickness, then sprinkle lightly with grated ham and decorate the edges, and cover, if desired, with thinly-sliced Green Gherkins. The grated Boiled Ham may be omitted.

Indian Canapes.

Canapes a I'lndienne.

1 Box of Potted Ham. 1 Ounce of

Chutney. 6 Slices of Toast.

2 Ounces of Grated Parmesan Cheese.

Cut six slices of brond into delicate circles, and fry in butter. Spread first with Potted Ham and then with Chutney. Sprinkle with grated Parmesan Cheese. Set in the oven to brown for five minutes, and serve hot.

Oyster Canapes.

Canapes d'Hultres.

3 Dozen Oysters. 6 Slices of Toast.

2 Tablespoontuls of Hollandaise Sauce.

Parsley Sprigs.

Blanch the oysters (see recipe) and then mince very fine. Mix with two tablespoonfuls of Hollandaise Sauce, and then spread over thin strips of buttered toast. Sprinkle lightly with Parsley, which has been grated so fine as to be almost a dust. Put a bit of butter on top of each Canape, set in the oven for a few minutes, and send to the table hot.

Olive Canapes.

Canapes d'Olives.

6 Stuffed Olives. 6 Slices of Buttered

Toast.

6 Anchovies.

Capers and Minced Olive to Garnish.

Prepare the toast and cut into delicate circles. Place on each circle a coiled Anchovy, and set a Stuffed Olive in the center of the coil. Decorate lightly with Olives and Capers minced very fine, and serve. Again, this Canape may be prepared by frying the circles of toast in butter, and spreading them with Anchovies pounded to a paste, and decorating on top with minced Capers or Olives.

Canapes of Potted Tongue

Canapes do Langue de Boeuf en Conserve.

1 Box of Potted Tongue.

Strips of Cooked Pork Tongue.

6 Slices of Toast.

Prepare the toast and cut into delicate circles. Spread with a layer of Potted Tongue one-quarter of an inch in thickness, and decorate with strips of cooked Red Tongue in lattice forms — that is, with strips laid one over the other, like a lattice work.

Louisiana Canapes.

Canapes a la Louisiane.

Two Breasts of Chicken. 1-4 of a Red

Tongue.

2 Ounces of Grated Lean Boiled Ham.

A Dash of Curry Powder.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Thick Veloute Sauce.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Grated Parmesan

Cheese.

Mince very fine the cooked breasts of the chicken, and cut the ham and tongue into small dice shapes; mix well with the chicken, and season with salt and a dash of Cayenne. Add a dash of Curry Powder, and then work the entire forcemeat well with two tablespoonfuls of thick Veloute Sauce. (See recipe.) Spread the mixture in layers one-quarter of an inch thick on each slice of delicate circles of toast, dredge lightly with Parmesan Cheese, set in the oven for five minutes and bake. Send to the table hot.

Sardine Canapes.

Canapes de Sardines.

6 Triangular Slices of Toast.

1 Box of Sardines. 3 Hard-Boiled Eggs.

The Juice of 1 Lemon. 6 Anchovies.

A Dash of Red Pepper.

Pound the sardines and the hard-boiled eggs to a paste, season with a dash of Red Pepper and the juice of a lemon and spread the buttered toast with the mixture. Decorate in the center with a coiled Anchovy. Or, simply pound the sardines to a paste, season with a dash of red pepper and the juice of a lemon, and spread on the slices of buttered toast.

Spanish Canapes.

Canapes a i'Espagnole. 6 Circular Pieces of Buttered Toast.

1 Cup of Finely Minced White Flesh

Fish. 3 Sweet Pickles.

1 Tablespoonful of Madras Chutney.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Hollandaise Sauce.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Parmesan Cheese.

Prepare circular pieces of buttered toast, make a mixture of a cup of any white-flesh fish, the Madras Chutney moistened with the Hollandaise Sauce and minced pickles, all pounded together. Spread this over the toast and dredge with grated Parmesan Cheese. Set in the oven and bake for five minutes.

CANNELONS.

Cannelon is a term applied to peculiar boliow lengths of puff paste or noodle paste, made by taking a piece of piping or tubing and cutting the paste into strips and twining around the tubing or piping. Bake or fry this preparation, remove the tubing and fill in the cannelons with a forcemeat of sausage, chicken croquettes mixture, preserves, jellies or creams.

CHAPTER XXIX

VEGETABLES

Des Legumes

Louisiana is peculiarly favored in respect to the variety of vegetables that can be grown on her soil. Almost all the sturdier varieties of vegetables and all the more delicate land recherche are grown here in abundance. The soil is so rich and fruitful that it has been said that if you simply scatter the seed over the ground, without any effort at cultivation, it would still take root and a good crop would follow. Our climate also admits of two seasons of planting, so that we have both an early spring and autumn crop; the one extends far into the summer and verging upon the autumn, and the other till late in the winter and verging upon the early spring. Consequently, vegetables are always to be found in abundance in our markets.

ARTICHOKES.

Des Artichauts.

Artichokes are of two kinds: The French or Green Globe Artichokes, which have large scaly heads, like the cones of a pine, and the Jerusalem Artichokes. The latter are little esteemed by the fastidious, the preference being always given to the former, which is a more delicate and tender variety, and a popular favorite. In Louisiana the Jerusalem Artichoke is cultivated principally for its tubers, which are very valuable for stock and hog feeding, owing to their fattening properties. But, if boiled or made into a puree, these artichokes will be found not only a pleasant, but most nutritious food. French Artichokes may be boiled or stuffed or fried.

To tell if a French Artichoke is tender, lift up one of the scales that lie near the body of the vegetable. If it breaks without effort, the vegetable is young; otherwise, the artichoke will be tough and disagreeable to eat.

French Artichokes Boiled.

Artichauts Francais Bouillis.

6 Tender Fresh Artichokes. 1 Table-spoonful of Vinegar.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt. Sauce, according to Taste.

Strip off the coarse outer leaves, or, better still, cut the stalks close with a pair of scissors, and trim the sharp points from the leaves, removing about a quarter of an inch of each. Cut the stalks about an inch from the bottom. Throw in cold water and wash well, adding a little vinegar to draw out any lurking insects. Have on the stove a pot of boiling water, and add a teaspoonful of salt. Throw in the artichokes and boil gently until it is possible to draw out a leaf easily, or until the outer leaves are tender. Take from the fire and drain upon a dish, placing them upside down, so that the water may all run off. Stand on their stalks in another dish when thoroughly drained, and serve hot with a Drawn Butter Sauce, Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel or a Sauce a la Hollandaise.

The time for boiling an artichoke depends entierly on the age and size of the vegetable, and requires all the way from twenty-five minutes to an hour.

Jerusalem Artichokes Boiled.

Topinambours Bouillis.

6 Jerusalem Artichokes. Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel or a la Creme.

Wash the artichokes in cold water, and scrape them. Then throw them into cold water, and let them soak for an hour or so. Take out and drain. Put them in a saucepan; cover with boiling water, and let them boil slowly until tender; watch carefully, as they will easily harden again. Serve with a Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel or a Cream Sauce. (See recipes.)

Puree of Jerusalem Artichokes.

Puree de Topinambours a la Creme.

6 Artichokes. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Wash and skin the artichokes, and boil until tender in a pint of water. Press them through a colander, and return to the fire in a saucepan in which you have placed a tablespoonful of butter, salt and pepper. Stir well, and let them simmer for five minutes longer, and serve with a Cream Sauce. (See recipe.)

Fried Artichokes.

Artichauts Frits.

6 Artichokes. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

Pluck off the coarse scales of the artichoke, and then throw the vegetable into cold water. Let it stand for an hour. Then drain. Cut the meat into delicate slices, and fry in butter, just as you would potato chips. Serve with Filet of Beef, Veal Saute, Smothered Chicken, etc.

Artichokes Sautes.

Artichauts Sautes.

6 Fine Tender Artichokes. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Vinegar. Any Sauce Desired.

Take six fine artichokes and cut into quarters. Remove the choke entierly. Trim the leaves neatly and parboil in hot water for five minutes, being careful to add a teaspoonful of salt and a tablespoonful of vinegar to the water. After five minutes remove the artichokes and drain thoroughly. Place in a saucepan or sautire, with two good tablespoonfuls of butter. Cover the pan tight and set to cook in a moderate oven for twenty-five minutes. Then take the artichokes from the pan and place in a deep serving dish and serve with a Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel, a Drawn Butter Sauce, a Hollandaise Sauce, or any sauce desired.

Artichokes a la Vinaigrette.

Artichauts a la Vinaigrette.

6 Fine, Tender Young Artichokes. 3 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Vinegar. 1 Shallot.

The Yolk of a Hard-Boiled Egg.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Prepare and boil the artichokes as in recipe for French Artichokes Boiled (see recipe). Serve with the following sauce: Take the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, dilute it with two teaspoonfuls of vinegar blend well, season to taste with salt and pepper; chop the shallot very, very fine, add to the mixture, and then add gradually three tablespoonfuls of Olive Oil. Mix all together well. Place the artichokes on a folded napkin on a dish, and send to the table with the sauce in a separate dish.

Stuffed Artichokes

Artichauts Farcis a la Barigoule.

3 Quarts of Boiled Artichokes.

1 Onion, Minced. 2 Cloves of Garlic.

1-2 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1-4 Can of Mushrooms.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Clean and boil the artichokes according to recipe. (Boiled Artichokes.) When the leaves begin to be tender and it is possible to pull out a leaf without difficulty, take the artichokes off the fire. Pull off a few of the coarse leaves, and then scoop out the artichoke, without touching the "fond," or bottom meat, and without breaking the outer scales or leaves from the sides and around. The artichoke must be apparently whole and undisturbed. Then chop an onion, or, rather, mince it very fine, and mince two cloves of garlic and half a square inch of ham very, very fine. Take a quarter of a can of mushrooms and mince them fine. Mix all this together as a stuffing, and season well with salt, pepper and Cayenne. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a frying pan, and fry the dressing in it for about five of ten minutes. Take off the fire, and stuff each artichoke from the center, which you will have scooped, beginning just above the heart or "fond" of the artichoke. Pour over each a spoonful of broth or consomme, or water; sprinkle lightly with bread crumbs; put a dot of butter on each. and set in the oven and bake for five minutes, till the crumbs are nicely browned. Serve immediately, using, if you wish, a Drawn Butter Sauce but it is unnecessary. (See Beurre a la Maitre d'Hotel.)

ASPARAGUS.

Des Asperges.

Asparagus is a vegetable of very delicate flavor, and is much sought after and highly esteemed by epicures. It is a dainty accompaniment to the most elegant feast.

Boiled Asparagus.

Asperges en Branches.

1 Can of Asparagus or 2 Bunches of

Fresh Asparagus.

1-2 Pint of Hollandaise or 1 Gill of

Drawn Butter Sauce.

When it is possible to get fresh asparagus, carefully wash it in cold water, and cut off the tough white ends. Scrape the white part well, and throw it into cold water, to soak for half an hour. Then tie it in small bundles, and put it in a saucepan lined with porcelain. Pour over boiling water, and let it cook for twenty minutes. Add a teaspoonful of salt and cook ten minutes longer. Take the asparagus up nicely. Drain off all water. Lay on a folded napkin, and serve with a Drawn Butter Sauce. (See recipe.) Asparagus is generally bought in New Orleans in cans, being very nicely prepared. It requires simply to be set on the stove and allowed to heat, as it is already cooked. Take out of the can by turning it downward in a dish, letting the asparagus slide gently out. Drain off all water, and place on a folded napkin, and serve with a Drawn Butter Sauce. (See recipe.)

Asparagus Vinaigrette Sauce.

Pointe d'Asperges a la Sauce Vinaigrette.

1 Can of Aspargus. 1-2 Pint of Vinaigrette Sauce.

Prepare the asparagus as in the above recipe. Drain and set to cool Serve with a half, pint of Vinaigrette Sauce. (See recipe.)

Asparagus Tips With Green Peas.

Pointes d'Asperges aux Petit Pols.

1 Can of Asparagus or 2 Bunches of

Fresh Asparagus. 1 Can of Green Peas or 1 Pint of Fresh

Green Peas. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 6 Tablespoonfuls of Cream Sauce.

6 or 8 Buttered Croutons.

Cut the tender parts of the asparagus into pieces of about one inch in length. Take the asparagus water, in which they were put up, and set on the stove to heat, and add the canned green peas to the fresh peas that have already been boiled. Throw in the asparagus tips, and add water sufficient to cover. Boil rapidly for ten minutes; then drain very thoroughly and return to the fire, having added one tablespoonful of butter, salt, pepper and six tablespoonfuls of Cream Sauce. (See recipe.) Stir carefully, so that you may not break the tips, and serve on neat Croutons of buttered toast, or place in a dish and bring piping hot to the table as an entre. The coarse ends of the asparagus must not be thrown away, but may be utilized in a very nice Cream of Asparagus Soup. (See recipe.)

BEANS.

Des Haricots.

Beans, whether white or red, are among the most nutritious of food substances. In all the ancient homes of New Orleans, and in the colleges and convents, where large numbers of children are sent to be reared to be strong and useful men and women, several times a week there appear on the table either the nicely cooked dish of Red Beans, which are eaten with rice, or the equally wholesome White Beans a la Creme, or Red or White Beans-boiled with a piece of salt pork or ham. String Beans a la Sauce de Maitre d'Hotel, or boiled with a piece of salt pork or ham, are also classed among the especially nutritious beans. The Creoles hold that the boys and girls who are raised on beans and rice and beef will be among the strongest and sturdiest of people.

String Beans With Butter Sauce.

Haricots Verts a la Maitre d'Hotel.

2 Quarts of Fresh, Tender String Beans.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. Salt and

Pepper to Taste.

Always select tender beans. Break the blossom end, and pull it backward, removing the string. Then be careful to pare the thin strip from the other end of the bean pod. It is only in this way that you will be sure that every inch of string is removed. Split the larger beans down the pod, and let the younger and more tender remain whole. Wash them in clear, cold water, letting them stand about ten minutes. Then drain off the water, put the beans into a saucepan, cover well with boiling water, and let them boil for forty minutes or an hour, according to the tenderness of the beans. Just before serving drain off water, put a large tablespoonful of butter into the beans, mix well, salt and pepper to taste, and serve hot.

String Beans With Cream Sance.

Haricots Verts a la Creme.

2 Quarts of Fresh String Beans. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour. 1-2 Cup of Fresh Milk or Cream.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

String and wash the beans according to the first recipe. Place in a saucepan and cover with boiling water. Let them boil for an hour. Then drain off the water. Take a tablespoonful of butter and one of flour, and blend well. Add a half cup of fresh milk or cream, or one-half pint of the water in which the beans have been boiled. Season nicely with salt and pepper. Stir in the beans; set them back on the stove for several minutes: let them simmer gently. Season again with salt and pepper to taste, and serve hot. The flour may be omitted, and. Instead, dilute the milk with the yolks of two eggs, but do not boil after adding the eggs.

String Beans, Brittany Style.

Haricots Verts a la Bretonne.

2 Quarts of Fresh String Beans.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Pint of Chicken Consomme or Water.

1 Medium-Sized Onion.

Chopped Parsley to Garnish. Salt and

Pepper to Taste.

Take a medium-sized onion, peel and cut into small dice-sbaped pieces. Put the onion in a saucepan with the butter and let it saute to a golden brown. Add the flour gradually,, blending well, and moisten with the consomme or water. Let the mixture come to a boil and skim the broth: then add the string beans, which have already been boiled and drained. Let them simmer for ten minutes, adding in the meantime one finely-minced clove of garlic. After ten minutes place the beans in a hot dish, sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve hot.

String Beans a la Vinaigrette

Haricots Verts a la Vinaigrette.

2 Quarts of String Beans.

A Sauce a la Vinaigrette.

Boil the string beans according to recipe. (See recipe String Beans with Butter Sauce.) When done, drain and serve with a Vinaigrette Sauce. Garnish the dish with sliced lemon dipped in parsley, which has been chopped very fine, and small gherkins cut in fan shapes.

String Beans a la Poulette.

Haricots Verts a la Poulette.

2 Quarts of String Beans.

A Sauce a la Poulette.

Boil the beans as in the recipe for String Beans with Drawn Butter Sauce. Drain and serve with a Sauce a la Poulette poured over.

String Beans Boiled With Ham.

Haricots Verts au Jambon.

2 Quarts of String Beans.

1 Pound of Lean Ham or Salt Pork.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Proceed to prepare the beans in exactly the same manner as mentioned above. Throw them into cold water, and let them stand for about ten minutes. Have ready a large saucepan of boiling water in which you will have placed a pound of salt pork or ham, and allowed to boil for almost an hour. Strain the beans and put them into this, and let them boil forty minutes or an hour longer. Season with pepper only, and serve, placing the salt pork or ham in the center of the dish, and heaping the beans around. This is an excellent way of utilizing the ham bone which is left over from the boiled ham. The Creoles like the flavoring of ham or salt pork in vegetables. A bit of fine herbs, nicely minced, and one onion, minced fine, greatly add to the flavor of this dish.

String Beans Panaches.

Haricots Verts Panaches.

1 Pint of String Beans.

1 Pint of Lima Beans. 2 Tablespoonfuls

of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the string beans and cut them into pieces of about three-fourths of an inch in length; mix them with an equal quantity of boiled Lima beans (see recipe); put them in a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of butter; let them saute for five minutes, and toss continually while cooking. Season with salt and pepper to taste, place on a hot dish, sprinkle with finely-chopped parsley and serve hot.

RED BEANS.

Haricots Rouges.

Red Beans is the favorite dish among Creole families, the great amount of sustenance to be found in this and the White Bean commending it especially as a food for growing children and adults who labor hard. The beautiful color and excellent flavor of the Red Bean has won for it a place among the most highly esteemed legumes.

Red Beans, Plain Boiled.

Haricots Verts au Naturel.

1 Pint of Dried Red Beans.

1-2 Spoonful of Lard or Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

This is an excellent way of preparing Red Beans for Fridays and fast days. Soak the beans in cold water over night, or at least five or six hours, and drain off the water, and place them in a pot of cold water, using at least a quart of water to a pint of beans. Let them boil for at least an hour and a half or two hours, and then season nicely with salt and pepper. Add a half tablespoonful of lard or butter, let them cook for fifteen minutes more, and serve in their own juice. This dish is excellent with boiled rice.

Bed Beans Burgundy Style.

Haricots Rouges a la Bourguigonne.

1 Quart of Red Beans.

1 Ounce of Butter. 1 Onion. 2 Cloves.

1 Herb Bouquet.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1 Glass of Claret Wine. 6 Small Glazed

Onions.

Pick and wash the beans and let them soak in cold water for six hours. Drain thoroughly, and put in a saucepan, with sufficient fresh cold water to cover. Add a tablespoonful of butter, and a medium-sized onion, with two cloves stuck in it. Boil for about twenty minutes, and then add a glass of Claret. Stir well, and let the beans cook for three-quarters of an hour longer, stirring frequently to keep from scorching. Then remove from the fire, take out the herb bouquet and onion, pour the beans into a hot dish, and decorate the edges with a half dozen small glazed onions. (See recipe.) Serve hot.

Bed Beans a la Conde.

Puree a la Conde.

See recipe under heading "Soups." This is a most nutritious dish.

Bed Beans and Rice.

Haricots Rouges au Riz.

1 Quart of Dried Red Beans.

1 Carrot. 1 Onion. 1 Bay Leaf.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Pound of Ham or Salt Meat.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Wash the beans and soak them over night, or at least five or six hours, in fresh, cold water. When ready to cook, drain off this water and put the beans in a pot of cold water, covering with at least two quarts, for beans must cook thoroughly. Let the water heat slowly. Then add the ham or salt pork, and the herbs and onion and carrot, minced fine. Boil the beans at least two hours, or until tender enough to mash easily under pressure. When tender, remove from the pot, put the salt meat or ham on top of the dish, and serve hot as a vegetable, with boiled rice as an entree, with Veal Saute, Daube a la Mode, Grillades a la Sauce, etc.

Puree of Bed Beans.

Puree d'Haricots Rouges.

1 Quart of Dried Red Beans. 1 Carrot. 1 Onion. 1 Bay Leaf.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1-2 Pound of Ham or Lean Salt Pork.

1-2 Pint of Cream or Milk.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Prepare the beans as in the preceding recipe if it is desired to make a puree (not a soup). Remove the beans from the fire as soon as they will mash very easily under pressure. Take out the bits of ham. Press the beans through a colander. Add a tablespoonful of butter as you return them to the pot in which they have been boiled, and a half pint of cream or milk, or sufficient according to quantity to make the puree of the consistency of thick starch or mashed potatoes. Season with salt and pepper, and serve.

Bacon and Beans a la Creole.

Haricots au Petit Sale a la Creole.

1 Quart of Dried Red Beans. 1 Pound

of Bacon.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Soak the beans over night. Drain off all water. Place in a pot and cover well with cold water, in the proportions already mentioned. Add the bacon, leaving it in a single square piece. When both have boiled about two hours, season well with pepper and a little salt, if necessary, and place the bacon in the center of a baking dish. Drain the beans and put them around the bacon. Fill the pan to the top with liquor in which the beans have been boiled, arid bake one hour and a half, or until the liquor is nearly all absorbed. Then serve hot. White beans may also be cooked in this fashion.

Bean Polenta.

Polente d'Haricots.

2 Cups of Dried Beans.

1 Tablespoonful of Molasses. 1-2 Tablespoonful of Mustard.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 1 Tablespoon-

ful of Vinegar.

Juice of 1 Lemon. Salt and Pepper to

Taste.

Use either white or red beans. Wash two cupfuls of dried beans, having previously soaked them over night. Pour off the water. Put the beans in the stew-pan and cover with fresh cold water, and cook the beans until tender. Pour into a colander, and press the beans through. Put this pulp into the stewpan, and add one tablespoonful of ready-made mustard, one tablespoonful of molasses, one of butter, one of vinegar, the juice of an onion, and salt and pepper to taste. Serve very hot, as a vegetable.

WHITE BEANS.

Des Haricots Blancs.

White Beans may be prepared in exactly the same manner as Red Beans, using any of the above recipes. By many the White Bean is preferred as the more delicate bean.

White Beans a la Maltre d'Hotel.

Haricots Blancs a la Maitre d'Hotel.

1 Quart of WTiite Beans.

2 Sprigs of Minced Thyme and Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf.

Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel.

Prepare the White Beans and cook in exactly the same manner as Red Beans a la Maitre d'Hotel. Before adding the butter, however, add a minced sprig of thyme, bay leaf and parsley, and salt and pepper to taste. Let them simmer for a few minutes on the fire, and then take off and add the juice of a lemon.

DRIED PEAS.

Des Pols Sees.

All dried peas, whether the Black-eyed Peas. Lady Peas, etc. may be cooked according to any of the above recipes. Be careful to soak them over night in cold water, or at least six hours from the early morning, before beginning to cook.

COWPEAS.

Pois Congrris.

These peas are utilized by the Creoles in making that famous dish, "Jambalaya au Congri." (See recipe under heading "Louisiana Rice.") On Fridays the rice and peas, which are always boiled separately, must not be cooked with meat. If this day is kept as a fast day. The peas and rice are mixed well together and are eaten with butter.

BUTTERBEANS.

Feves Plates.

1 Pint of Butterbeans. 2 Pints of Water.

1 Tablespoonful (Heaping) of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

The Butterbean is one of the most recherche and delicate of our Louisiana vegetables. Soak the Butterbeans for about a half hour in water. Pour off this cold fresh water, and then put them in a porcelain-lined saucepan, or one of agate, and cover with two pints of water. Let them boil well for about an hour, or less, if they are very tender. As soon as they crush easily under pressure take off the fire, drain off water, season well with salt and pepper. Butter well with a heaping tablespoonful of butter, add a teaspoonful of parsley, minced very fine, and serve hot.

LIMA BEANS.

Haricots a Rames.

1 Pint of Lima Beans. 3 Pints of Water.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 1-2 Pint of

Cream.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Soak the small ones over night. Drain the water when about to cook, and put in a porcelain or agate saucepan, and cover with three pints of boiling water. Boil them until very tender, which will require at least two hours. After they have boiled one hour, add a teaspoonful of salt, or salt to taste. When done, drain the beans and return to the saucepan. Add a half pint of cream or milk, a tablespoonful of flour, blended well with butter, salt and pepper to taste, a sprig each of thyme and parsley and bay leaf minced very fine. Let all simmer for ten minutes, and then serve hot. Or the beans may be served without the cream, simply buttering well and adding salt and pepper to taste. All shelled beans, such as the Kidney and the small French bean, may be cooked in the same way.

Bean Croquettes.

Haricots en Croquettes.

1 Pint of Beans. 1 Tablespoonful of

Butter.

S'alt and Cayenne to Taste.

Any remains of left-over beans may be nicely utilized in this way. Mash the beans well by pressing through a colander. Then add salt and pepper to taste, a teaspoonful of vinegar, and a tablespoonful of melted butter. Form into small boulettes, or balls, and dip in a raw egg, well beaten, and then roll in the bread crumbs. Fry in boiling fat, and serve hot.

BEETS

Des Betteraves.

We have in New Orleans two crops of beets, the winter beet and the summer beet. Summer beets require less time to boil than the winter. Good Judgment must always be the guide.

Beets may be kept several days when boiled, and make a beautiful garnish.

The small winter beets may be served aux Beurre Maitre d'Hotel, or they may be sauted in butter or served Sautees a la Creme or a la Bechamel. Beet roots are generally served as a salad or garnish. Always cut off and save the green tops of the beets. These may be boiled with salt meat, or made into a puree, or used in the famous Creole Gumbo aux Herbes.

Boiled Beets.

Betteraves Bouillis.

6 Beet Roots. 2 Quarts of Water.

A Plain French Dressing (if served as a,

salad).

Cut off the beet tops and save for boiling or puree or gumbo. Soak the beets in cold fresh water, and wash well, taking off every particle of earth that may adhere. Wash them carefully, without scraping them. If the beet is very tender, it will cook in an hour. Older beets require all the way from three to four hours according to size. If the beet is wilted or tough, no amount of boiling will ever make it perfectly tender. If you break the skins of the beets before cooking, the flavor will be lost, as well as the color, when boiled. Put the beets into a pot of cold water, covering well, and boil until tender. Then set them to cool. When cold, slice nicely and sprinkle with salt and pepper to taste, and add vinegar, and set aside for an hour, for the vinegar to penetrate thoroughly. Serve as a salad.

Buttered Beets.

Betteraves au Beurre.

6 Beet Roots. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

The small winter beets may be served aux Beurre Maitre d'Hotel, by cooking very tender and then slicing nicely, and pouring over them a tablespoonful of melted butter, and sprinkling nicely with salt and pepper. Vinegar may also be added at the table, according to the taste.

Beet Boots Santed in Butter.

Betteraves Sautees au Beurre.

6 Beets. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

A Pinch of Black Pepper.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Powdered Sugar.

Boil the beet roots as in recipe for Boiled Beets. (See recipe.) When cooked, peel neatly and cut up into dice-shaped pieces. Put them in a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter, season with a little pinch of black pepper and salt to taste and sprinkle the powdered sugar over them. Let them cook for five minutes, tossing them lightly and almost constantly. Send to the table hot as a vegetable.

Beet Boots Saute a la Bechamel ou a la Creme.

Betteraves Sautees a la Bechamel ou a.

la Creme.

6 Beet Roots. 1 Ounce of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1-2 Pint of Bechamel or Cream Sauce.

Prepare the beets exactly as in the preceding recipe, and about five minutes before serving add half a pint of hot Bechamel or Cream Sauce. Serve as a vegetable.

Borecole or Curled Kale.

Chou Vert.

This is a vegetable cultivated by Louisiana truck farmers principally for family use. It requires frost to make it good for the table. It is treated and served in the same manner as cabbage; all recipes for cooking cabbage may, therefore, be used in preparing Chou Vert.

BBOCCOLI.

Chou Broccoli.

Broccoli is a vegetable of the same order as the Cauliflower, and resembles it very much, only the plant does not form such compact heads, and is not quite so white, being of a greenish cast. It is prepared and served in all ways in which Cauliflower is served. (See recipes for Cauliflower.)

BBUSSELS SPROUTS.

Choux de Bruzelles.

1 Quart of Brussels Sprouts.

1-2 Gallon of Water. 1 Tablespoonful of

Salt.

Pick the sprouts carefully, rejecting all loose, dead leaves, and then throw the sprouts into cold fresh water, so that any lurking insects may be drawn out. Wash and pick carefully after the sprouts have remained about twenty minutes in the water. Then put them into half a gallon of boiling water, and add immediately a tablespoonful of salt and a quarter of a spoon of bicarbonate of soda (cooking soda). Let the sprouts boil (uncovered) for twenty minutes, or just long enough to make them tender all through. By no means must they be soft, or go to pieces. Boil rapidly. Then drain in a colander, season well with pepper and salt, and serve in a heated dish with a Drawn Butter Sauce poured over. (See sauces.)

Brussels Sprouts Sauted In Batter.

Choux de Bruxelles Sautes au Beurre.

1 Quart of Brussels Sprouts.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 1 Teaspoonful of Chopped Parsley.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Prepare the Brussels Sprouts carefully as in the preceding recipe. After washing, drain thoroughly and boil them in salted water for ten minutes. Take out of the hot water, drain and put into cold water. Drain again and put them in a saucepan, with two tablespoonfuls of butter. Season according to taste with salt and pepper, and add a teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Let them cook slightly for ten minutes more, or less if very tender, and serve hot.

Brussels Sprouts a la Creme.

Choux de Brussels a la Creme.

1 Quart of Brussels Sprouts.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Teaspoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1-2 Cupful of Cream or Milk.

A Pinch of Nutmeg.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Prepare and boil the Brussels Sprouts as in the preceding recipe. Drain thoroughly, and put in a saucepan, with two tablespoonfuls of butter, and season with salt and pepper to taste, and a pinch of nutmeg. Add a half cup of cream or milk, and toss lightly for five or ten minutes, but do not let them boil. Place on a hot dish, garnish nicely and serve hot.

CABBAGE.

Du Chou.

Cabbage is said to be the most nutritious of all vegetables. It enters largely into the daily life of the Creoles, not only in the boiled and creamed and stuffed states, but also in that most delightful Creole dish. Gumbo Choux. We have two crops of cabbage in New Orleans, the summer and winter. It is said that when cabbage is cooking the odor fills the house. But the Creoles overcome this by using a very large pot when boiling cabbage, dropping in a bit of charcoal, and not filling it too near the brim, as the old darkies say it is the boiling water that forms into steam and causes the odor. Again, they tie a piece of bread in a very fine and thin white piece of cloth. After it has been in the pot about twenty minutes remove it and burn, for the odor of the cabbage has clung to it. Repeat the process with a fresh piece of cloth and bread for about three-quarters of an hour.

Boiled Cabbage.

Chou Bouilli.

A Fine Head of Green and White

Cabbage.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt. 1 Red Pepper

Pod.

1 Teaspoonful of Chill Pepper.

For boiling, select a fine head in which the green and white are prettily mingled. The white makes the prettiest dish. Remove all the outside leaves and reject them. Then cut the cabbage head into quarters, and let it soak in cold water for about an hour. Then drain well, and pull off each leaf separately to discover any lurking insects, and throw each leaf into a pan or fresh water. Drain thoroughly, and put into a large pot of boiling water with a pound of ham or salt pork, and let it cook for an hour or more, until render. After it has been in the water ten minutes add a teaspoonful of salt and a red pepper pod, cut in two. Add a teaspoonful of Chili Pepper. Cover the cabbage and boil for one hour, if the cabbage is very young and tender; boil for two hours or more if not. When done drain well of all water, and place in a dish with the salt meat or ham on top, and serve hot Cabbage is always eaten with a little vinegar. The Creoles serve boiled cabbage with the pepper vinegar which they put up themselves.

Cabbage and Corned Beef.

Chou et Boeuf au Mi-sel.

1 Fine Head of Cabbage. 1 Pound of

Corn Beef.

1 Red Pepper Pod.

1 Teaspoonful of Chill Pepper.

To boil corned beef and cabbage, wash the meat in cold water and put it in a large kettle; cover with cold water. Let it simmer gently for two hours. Then add the cabbage, which you will have prepared according to directions in the above recipe, and let all boil for two hours longer. When done, put the cabbage in a dish, with the meat in the center, and serve with tomato catsup or horseradish or mustard sauce. The cabbage may be put in the pot after having been cut in four quarters and soaked, but it is always safer to pick over each leaf, for fear of insects.

Stewed Cabbage.

Chou Etouffe.

1 Head of Cabbage. 1 Pound Ham or

Salt Pork.

Salt to Taste. Pinch of Red Pepper Pod.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard.

Parboil the cabbage after cutting into quarters. Let it boil well about half an hour. Then take it out of the water and drain nicely, separating the leaves down to the heart as it cools. Cut the ham into pieces of about two inches long. Take a tablespoonful of lard, and put in a stewing pan, which must be very deep, or a pot. Put into this the ham or salt meat, and let it fry well. Add two chaurice, or sausage. As these brown well moisten witn half a cup of boiling water, and let simmer gently for fifteen minutes. When well browned add, little by little, the cabbage, stirring it well, and let it simmer gently for an hour and a half or longer, covering well, and stirring frequently to prevent burning. Add an inch of red pepper pod, cut fine, and salt to taste if you use ham, and none at all it you use salt meat. Serve hot.

Cabbage Stewed With Sausage.

Saucissons aux Choux.

2 Dozen Fine Sausage. (Chaurice Pre-

ferred).

1 Head of Cabbage.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard. Salt to Taste.

1 Inch of Red Pepper Pod.

1 Pound Fresh Pork.

This is a famous Creole dish, for many generations in vogue in New Orleans, and dearly loved by the little Creole children. Wash the cabbage well, after having cut it into quarters and allowed it to soak half an hour. Cut the cabbage into shreds of about one inch in width and five in length, according to the leaf. Then scald the cabbage with boiling water for about fifteen minutes. Throw off this water, and cover it again with boiling water, and let it boil for twenty minutes. In the meanwhile prick each sausage in several places, and cut the meat into pieces of about two inches in length and one in thickness; put the lard in the frying pan and fry the sausage and meat until they are about half done; then drain the cabbage and turn into the sausage and meat and the fat drippings. Cover and stew gently where it will not scorch, for at least forty minutes; season with salt, and add, immediately after turning in the cabbage, an inch of red pepper pod. Let all simmer till the cabbage is quite done, and then put in a dish with the sausage and meat piled in the center, and the cabbage heaped around as a border.

Creamed Cabbage.

Chou a la Creme.

1 Head of Tender White Cabbage.

A Cream Sauce.

Take a fine delicate head of white cabbage; cut it in quarters and soak in cold water for an hour. Then remove all the hard parts, and cut the remainder into fine shreds. Put it into the stewing pan and pour over boiling water enough to cover; season with salt and pepper; let it boil at least thirty minutes, and then drain in a colander. Have ready a heated dish; turn the cabbage into this and pour over a Cream Sauce. (See recipe.)

Cabbage Sauted With Cream.

Chou Saute a la Creme.

A Fine Head of White Cabbage.

1 Cupful of Cream or Milk.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

A Pinch of Black Pepper. Salt to Taste.

Prepare the cabbage according to recipe. Blanch in hot water for ten minutes, then drain and throw into cold water. Drain again, and chop up the cabbage and put into a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of butter; add the salt to taste, and the black pepper. Take a tablespoonful of flour and blend well with a little milk, and then mix well with a cup of cream or milk. Add this to the cabbage and mix well, and let all cook for three-quarters of an hour or an hour, till done; arrange neatly on a hot dish and serve.

Stuffed Cabbage.

Chou Farci.

1 Head of Fine White Cabbage.

1 Dozen Fine Chaurice. 2 Onions. 1

Tomato.

1 Clove of Garlic.

1 Square Inch of Ham. 1 Spoonful of

Butter.

Thyme, Parsley and Bay Leaf.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Select a fine head of cabbage. Take away the big, green leaves, and select about twelve of the finest and nicest of the large white leaves. Put them in cold water for about an hour; then parboil for about twenty minutes in boiling water. In the meantime prepare a stuffing with a dozen fine chaurice, one onion (chopped fine), a tablespoonful of butter and a tomato. Mince the sausage meat very fine after taking out of the cases, and also the onion and tomato. Mince fine one sprig each of thyme, parsley and bay leaf; add one square inch of finely-minced ham. Put the butter in the frying pan, and as it browns add the onions; let these brown, and add the sausage meat and the ham. Mince four or five of the tender white leaves of the cabbage very fine and add; then add the minced clove of garlic and onion; let these brown for five minutes, and then let all simmer for about ten minutes. Take out, and take each leaf by leaf of the cabbage and drain dry; lay open on the table and put in each leaf equal quantities of the stuffing; fold over and close nicely. Then take slender strips of bacon and lay at the bottom of a wide and deep frying pan; place the stuffed leaves on top of these, and place other strips of bacon on top; cover and let them cook for a half hour, or until the cabbage leaves are very tender. Take out of the pan and lay in a heated dish and serve very hot. The Creoles also have a way of making a nice sauce to serve with these. After laying the stuffed cabbage leaves in the frying pan, add one square inch of ham, minced very fine; two carrots, sliced fine; one onion, chopped very fine, and sprigs of thyme, parsley and bay leaf. Moisten with a cup of good bouillon or water, a gill of White wine, and cover the pan and allow all to simmer well with the cabbage. At the moment of serving place the cabbage in a heated dish and allow the sauce to reduce for five minutes longer; then strain it through a fine sieve and pour over each stuffed leaf of cabbage as it is served. The stuffed cabbage leaves may also be thrown into boiling water for thirty minutes, after being tied together well, and served with a Cream Sauce. (See recipe.)

Stuffed Cabbage With Cream Sauce.

Chou Parci a la Creme.

1 Fine Head Cabbage. 1 Dozen Fine

Chaurice. 1 Onion.

3 Sprigs Bach of Thyme, Parsley and

Bay Leaf.

1 Square Inch of Ham.

1 Inch of a Red Pepper Pod.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Select a fine tender head of cabbage. Pick off the outer leaves, and let it soak in cold fresh water for an hour. Then throw the whole head into a pot of boiling water for about three-quarters of an hour. In the meantime make a stuffing by taking one dozen fine Chaurice, or sausage meat, one onion, and three sprigs each of thyme and parsley, and one bay leaf. Mince the herbs and onion very fine, and add to them one square inch of finely minced ham. Chop the sausage meat over, and mingle this with the ham and herbs, and then add the finely minced onion and add one clove of finely minced garlic. Mix these well together. Season to taste. Take the cabbage out of the water, and open carefully to the very heart, and put in a teaspoontul of the dressing. Fold over this two or three leaves, and then insert the mixture in between another layer of leaves, and so continue until each layer of leaves has been nicely stuffed. Press all firmly together, and then tie in the large leaves, which you will have boiled with the cabbage head. Put it into the kettle of boiling water, and add a little salt and two inches of a red pepper pod, thyme, parsley and bay leaf. Let it boil for two hours. When done carefully untie the larger leaves in which you have cooked the cabbage, and lay the head in a well-heated dish. Pour over all a Cream Sauce, and serve hot. (See Cream Sauce.)

SAUERKRAUT.

Chou-Croute.

1 Fine Head of Cabbage. 1 Pint of

Vinegar.

1 Bottle of White Wine.

1 Glass of Brandy or Whisky.

Salt in Sufficient Quantity to Allow 3

Ounces for Each Layer of Cabbage.

To prepare Chou-Croute, take a large head of cabbage, and take off the green leaves. Shred the cabbage into fine pieces, of about five inches long and one wide. Then get an earthen vessel or a keg, and line the bottom and sides with the green leaves of the cabbage. Put in a layer of salt, of about three ounces and lay over this a layer of cabbage leaves of about three inches in thickness. Cover again with a layer of salt, and pound down well, and so continue until you have used up the cabbage. Pour over this sufficient vinegar to cover, and also, if possible, a bottle of White wine and a glass of Brandy or Whisky. Take some boards or the cover of the keg and line them with cabbage leaves, and cover the keg closely. Put the cover on the keg, or the board over the bowl, with a fifteen-pound weight on top. Set it in a place of even moderate temperature. Bore a hole in the bottom of the keg, and insert a piece of wood. When the cabbage begins to ferment, take the piece of wood out, and let the liquor from the fermentation flow through this canal. This will be in about four or five days.

After this first operation open the keg and renew the vinegar and wine, skimming the fermentation from the top, and so continue until the cabbage is clear and without odor. The Chou-Croute should be placed in a cool place. When ready to use take it out and let it soak for two or three hours in cool fresh water, and when quite fresh-looking put it into a saucepan and cook as you would cabbage, with salt meat, pork, sausage or corned beef.

CAULIFLOWER.

Choux-Pleurs.

Cauliflower may be either boiled and served with various sauces or made into that delightful dish, "Cauliflower au Gratin."

Boiled Cauliflower, Cream Sauce.

Choux-Fleus a la Creme.

2 Medium-Sized Cauliflowers.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

A Cream Sauce. 2 Lemons Cut in

Quarters.

To boil the cauliflower, pick off the outer leaves, leaving only the one delicate row near the bottom of the flowerets. Cut the stem close to the flowerets. Wash the cauliflower well in cold fresh water, and then soak, with the head downwards, about twenty minutes, to drain off all possible insects. Have ready a pot of boiling water. Take a nice, clean piece of cheesecloth, and tie the cauliflower in it, to prevent breaking while boiling. Put the cauliflower in the kettle of boiling water, with the stem downwards. Add a teaspoonful of salt and cover the kettle. Let the cauliflower boil from thirty to forty minutes, according to size, or until the vegetable is tender. When cooked, lift it gently out by the cheesecloth, untie and set it in a dish, stem downward. Pour over it a Cream Sauce and serve hot. Place on each plate, when serving, a quarter of a lemon, nicely cut.

Cauliflower Boiled With Butter.

Chou-Fleur Bouilli au Beurre.

2 Medium-Sized Cauliflowers.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

A Tablespoonful of Salt. A Pinch of

Pepper.

1 Tablespoonful of Vinegar.

Prepare the cauliflower as in recipe Boiled Cauliflower, Cream Sauce. After picking and washing thoroughly put in a saucepan and cover with cold water. Add the salt and pepper and a tablespoonful of butter. Let it cook for a half hour and then take the cauliflower from the pan and drain through a colander. Place them on a dish and add a sauce made of one tablespoonful of butter, one of vinegar and a dash of salt and pepper, all mixed thoroughly, and serve hot.

Cauliflower With White Sauce.

Choux-Fleus a la Sauce Blanche ou au

Jus.

1 Large or 2 Small Cauliflowers.

A Teaspoonful of Salt.

A White Sauce or Sauce Allemande.

Separate the cauliflower, piece by piece, having taken off the outer leaves and cut off the rough stalk. Place them in a pot of boiling water, with a teaspoonful of salt, and let them boil rapidly for about half an hour, till the stalks are tender. When done, take them out gently with a skimmer, that you may not break them. Place in a bowl and pour over a Sauce Blanche or Sauce Allemande.

Cauliflower prepared in this manner may be served with a Hollandaise Sauce.

Cauliflower a la Vinaigrrette.

Choux-Fleurs a la Vinaigrette.

1 Large or 2 Medium-Sized Cauliflowers.

1 Tablespoonful of Vinegar.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the cauliflower as above, and serve "a la Vinaigrette," that is, with vinegar, pepper and salt. This is a common and pleasant way that the Creoles have of serving the vegetable.

Cauliflower a la Maitre d'Hotel.

Choux-Pleurs a la Maitre d'Hotel.

1 Large or 2 Medium-Sized Cauliflowers.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

A Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel.

Boil the cauliflower whole, as in the first recipe. Bring them to the table whole, like blooming flowerets, in a dish nicely garnished, and serve with a Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel and lemon cut in quarters.

Cauliflower au Gratin.

Choux-Fleurs au Gratin.

1 Ordinary-Sized Head of Cauliflower.

1 Pint of Cream.

1-2 Pint of Grated Parmesan and Gruyere Cheese, Mixed.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

Boil the cauliflower as in the first recipe. When boiled, take it off the fire and take out of the cheesecloth in which it was enveloped. Let it cool. Put a tablespoonful of butter into the frying pan, and as it melts add a tablespoonful of flour. Let these blend nicely, without browning, and add immediately half a pint of milk and half a pint of grated Parmesan or Gruyere cheese. Mix this thoroughly in the sauce, and let it cook well for about ten minutes. Put the cauliflower in a pan, or the dish tn which it is to be serired, having greased the disb with butter. Take some grated cheese, sprinkle well over the cauliflower, and then cover the cauliflower with the sauce, forcing it down into every nook and crevice. When these crevices are full, and the cauliflower seems to have absorbed all, wipe the edges and all around the dish with a napkin. Then add grated bread crumbs, sprinkling them over the cauliflower; dot it in about a dozen places with little bits of butter. Set it in the oven, let it brown, and serve hot. Let it bake about twenty minutes, or until brown.

CARROTS.

Des Carottes.

Carrots are among the most important of the vegetables used in seasoning. They enter largely into the making of soups, daubes, stews, etc., giving to all a delightful flavor, which no other vegetable can. Eaten "au jus" or in their natural state, they may be stewed, fried or smothered. Any one of these dishes makes a delightful and appetizing entree.

Stewed Carrots

Carottes a la Creme.

4 Carrots of Good Size.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful

Flour. 1-2 Pint of Milk.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Scrape the carrots and throw them into cold water for about a quarter of an hour. Then put them in a saucepan, and cover with boiling water. Add the salt, and let them cook for an hour and a half, boiling steadily. After this time expires take them out and drain off all water. Then cut neatly into one-half inch dice pieces, or slice thin. Put a tablespoonful of butter in the frying pan, and add the flour, blending well, but without browning. Then add the milk, and let it simmer to a rich cream sauce. Add the carrots to this, and let them simmer gently for about twenty minutes. Then add a little chopped parsley and sugar, and serve hot.

Carrots a la Maitre d'Hotel,

Carottes a la Maitre d'Hotel.

4 Good-Sized Carrots.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

3 Sprigs Each of Thyme and Parsley.

1 Bay Leaf.

Salt and Pepper.

Scrape the carrots and boil them at the same time that you are making your soup, or bouillon, leaving them whole. When done and ready to serve, skim out of the soup, and place in a dish. Cut them into pieces, more or less large, and then place them in a frying pan with a tablespoonful of butter, minced parsley, thyme, bay leaf. Add salt and pepper to taste, and when they have cooked for about ten or fifteen minutes pour over a Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel, and serve hot. The carrots may also be simply boiled, seasoned, and served with a Drawn Butter Sauce.

Carrots a la Lyonnalse.

Carottes a la Lyonnaise.

3 Carrots. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 1 Onion, Minced Very Fine.

Salt, Pepper, Thyme and Bay Leaf.

Boil the carrots according to recipe , given above, and then cut into thin slices. Fry an onion in butter, add the carrots. Sprinkle well with salt and pepper, and add minced thyme, parsley and bay leaf. Fry ten minutes, and serve hot.

Carrots Sautes a la Creole.

Carottes Sautees a la Creole.

9 Nice Tender Carrots. 1 Tomato.

1 Square Inch Ham. 1 Tablespoonful Butter.

6 Fine Chaurice or Sausages.

3 Shallots. 1 Onion. 1-2 Pint of Bouillon.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1 Gill White Wine.

Thyme, Parsley, Bay Leaf. 1-2 Clove Garlic.

Boil the carrots for one hour and a half. Then cut into dice or nice slices. Put the butter in the saucepan, and add the onions, minced very fine, and the shallots, greens and whites. Let these brown for a few minutes, and then add the half square inch of ham and three Chaurice whole, let these simmer for three minutes, and add the minced herbs. Then add the tomato and its juice, mincing it well. Let all simmer for three minutes more, till the tomato has browned, and add a half pint of bouillon and one gill of White wine, if you can afford it. Let all this simmer for ten minutes, and then add the carrots, nicely seasoned. Stir well. Cover and let them simmer for about half an hour. Serve hot. This is a true dish of Carrots a la Creole. Eat with Daube, Roast, etc.

CELERY.

Du Celerl.

Celery may be eaten "au naturel," that is, in its natural state; or in salad, or it may be cooked. When cooked, it is best a la Creme, or in a Puree of Celery. (See recipe.)

Celery an Naturel.

Celeri au Naturel,

Scrape and wash the celery nicely. Then cut off the long outer leaves, leaving the tips nice and crisp. Set in a celery glass or bowl, with about one inch of salt and water, and serve as an appetizer, or hors d'oeuvre, at the beginning of the meal.

Celery makes a pretty decoration for any table. The leaves that have been cut off should be saved and used as garnishes, and also for seasoning.

Creamed Celery.

Celeri a la Creme.

1 Pint of Cut Celery.

1 Cupful of Milk or Cream.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful

Flour.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Cut fresh, crisp celery into pieces of an inch, until you have a pint. Wash thoroughly, and put in boiling water and cook until tender, which will be in about twenty-five minutes or a half hour. Then put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan, and add the flour, blending without allowing to brown. When perfectly smooth, add the cream or milk and let it come to a boil. Then add salt and pepper to taste. Drain out the celery, and add it to the sauce, and stir gently, letting it cook twenty minutes longer. Serve hot. The dish should be kept covered while cooking.

Celery root and the green stalks of the celery, which you do not serve at table, may also be utilized in this way, making , a most acceptable and palatable dish.

Celery a l'Espagnole.

Celeri a l'Espagnole.

4 Stalks of Celery. 2 Hard-Boiled Eggs.

1 Onion.

Salt and Pepper and 1 Tablespoonful

Vinegar.

This is a form of celery salad. Wash and scrape the celery well, and then chop it fine. Chop an onion very fine, and also several sprigs of parsley. Take a hard-boiled egg and cut fine. Mix all these together, pour over a little Tarragon vinegar and oil, if desired, and serve as a salad.

Celery Salad.

Celeri en Salade.

See recipe for Celery Salad.

Celery aux Petit Pois.

Celeri aux Petit Pois.

6 Stalks of Celery. 1 Egg.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful

Flour.

1 Cup of Milk or Bouillon.

Cut the celery into pieces and blanch and boil for about thirty minutes. Then drain. Put a tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan, and add the flour, blending without browning. Add the milk and salt and pepper to taste. When it begins to boil add the chopped celery. Let all simmer for twenty minutes longer, and then take off the fire and add the well-beaten yolk of an egg. Season again to taste, and serve. Bouillon or water may be substituted for the milk.

Celery With Beef's Marrow

Celeri a la Moelle de Boeuf.

3 Fine Heads of Celery. 2 Dozen Slices

of Beef's Marrow.

1 Pint of Madeira Sauce.

Cut off the green leaves of the celery and pare nicely. Wash well and drain. Then tie each head near the end where the green portion has been taken away. Put them into boiling salted water and let them blanch for ten minutes. Take out of the water and drain through a colander. Make one pint of Madeira Sauce (see recipe), add the celery to this and let it cook for a quarter of an hour. Then take the celery, place on a dish and untie. Add to the sauce in the saucepan about two dozen slices of beef marrow cut half an inch thick; cook for two minutes; do not allow the marrow to break, put in the dish with the celery, pour the sauce over and serve hot.

Celery Patties.

Pates de Celeri.

The Hearts of 3 Heads of Celery. 1-2

Cupful of Grated Ham.

1-2 Cupful of Cream. 1-2 Cup of Fine Bread Crumbs.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the celery hearts till tender, then drain and pound to a paste, with a cupful each of grated ham, cream and fine bread crumbs; season to taste with salt and pepper and add a tablespoonful of butter. Steam the mixture till it thickens, then fill small patty cases with it and serve hot.

Celery Fritters.

Beignets de Celeri.

3 Hearts of Celery. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

2 Ounces of Parmesan Cheese.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Cut the celery into stalks three inches long, tie the stalks in bundles, allowing three to a bundle: boil till tender in salted water, then take out: remove the strings and drain; season with salt and pepper, and the grated Parmesan cheese. Dip in batter and fry and serve as a vegetable.

CEPS.

Ceps.

Ceps, the strongly flavored, flat-headed mushroom preserved in cans and imported to this country. They are much affected by Creole epicures. They are quite expensive, and are, therefore not as generally used in household cookery as the less expensive mushroom.

Ceps on Toast.

Ceps sur Canapes.

3 Ceps. The Juice of 1 Lemon.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

6 Slices of Toast.

Drain the Ceps from their oil, slice nicely and fry lightly in a frying pan. When thoroughly heated take from the pan, sprinkle lightly with chopped parsley and lemon juice, arrange daintily on slices of toast and send to the table hot.

Stewed Ceps.

Ceps Sautees.

3 Ceps. 1 Onion, Minced Fine. 1 Clove

of Garlic.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 1 Tablespoon-

ful of Flour.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1-2 Cup of Milk.

Drain the Ceps from their oil; slice nicely; put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan, add the minced onion and the clove of garlic minced very fine; moisten with a half cup of milk, let the mixture simmer gently for twenty minutes, then serve, the Ceps on slices of toast with the sauce poured around.

Broiled Ceps on Toast.

Ceps Grilles sur Canapes.

3 Ceps. 1-2 Pint of Sauce a la Maitre

d'Hotel.

Grated Bread Crumbs. Sliced Lemon and

Chopped Parsley to Garnish.

Drain the Ceps from their oil; season well with salt and pepper; roll in fresh bread crumbs finely grated, broil nicely on double broiler, arrange nicely on toast. Pour over each slice some of the Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel, garnish nicely with sliced lemon and serve hot.

CHERVIL.

Cerfeuil.

Chervil is an aromatic plant, resembling parsley, and much used for seasonings, especially in oyster soups. It is also considered a delightful salad herb, and is often cut and mixed between lettuce, and served as a salad. It is found in small quantities, chopped, in nearly all salads prepared to suit the taste of epicures. It is a plant little known in the North, but in this section there is scarcely a garden where it is not found. It is especially used by the Creoles as a flavoring for breakfast salads, a few leaves imparting a delightful flavor.

CHESTNUTS

Marrons.

Chestnuts are much used by the Creoles in stuffing for poultry and game. They are also stewed, boiled or made into purees. (See recipe Pure de Marrons.)

Stewed Chestnuts.

Marrons Sautees.

1 Pint of Chestnuts. 1 Pint of Milk.

1 Tablespoonful Flour. 1 Tablespoonful

Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Shell the chestnuts, and then throw them into a saucepan of boiling water for twenty minutes. Take them out, and remove the dark outer skin. Remove the boiling water in the saucepan, and add the chestnuts and let them cook for twenty minutes more, or until they may be easily pierced with a fork. Then take them out and drain, and put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan. Add the flour. Blend gradually, without browning. Add the pint of milk and then add the chestnuts, and let all cook for fifteen minutes longer. Season to taste.

Chestnuts With Brown Sauce.

Marrons Sautes a la Sauce Espagnole.

1 Pint of Chestnuts. 1 Pint of Brown Sauce.

The chestnuts may be cooked in the same manner as Stewed Chestnuts, as far as boiling. Then make a Brown Sauce (see Sauce Bspagnole), add the chestnuts to it, saute for fifteen minutes longer, letting all simmer gently, and serve hot.

Boiled Chestnuts.

Marrons Bouillis a la Sauce Maitre

d'Hotel.

1 Pint of Chestnuts. 1 Pint of Sauce a

la Maitre d'Hotel.

Prepare and boil the chestnuts according to above directions. When done drain and press through a colander. The chestnuts must be cooked very soft for this dish. Add a Drawn Butter Sauce, and sprinkle with salt and pepper or a Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel, and serve as an entree, like mashed potatoes.

CHIVES

Cives.

Chives are small bulbous plants of the onion tribe. The leaves are long and slender and impart a very pleasant flavor to soups, salads, etc. Chives are especially used in seasoning stews of rabbits and hare, hence the name "Civet," applied to these stews in particular, on account of the high seasoning.

COLLARDS.

This is a variety of cabbage which does not head, but the leaves are cooked and served in the same manner as other cabbage. But they are served, principally, as "greens." boiled with a piece of salt meat.

CORN.

Du Mais.

Corn in various ways is served on the Creole tables. The first young corn in the market is highly prized, but in a few days there is such an over-abundance that it can be had all summer and late in the fall at prices within the reach of all There is not a healthier or more nutritious vegetable. The following are some of the dainty ways of preparing this delightful dish:

Corn on the Cob.

Epis de Mais Bouillis.

6 Bars of Corn. 2 Quarts of Boiling Water.

1 Tablespoonful of Salt.

Only young and tender corn should be boiled. Have ready a pot of boiling water. Remove the green outside husks and the silk, as far as possible. Put the corn into the kettle of boiling water, and let it boil rapidly twenty or thirty minutes, if the ears are large. More than this will cause the corn to lose its sweetness. Serve immediately after removing again all the silk, which easily comes to the surface in boiling. Heap the corn on a platter, and serve to each person an ear, with a small butter plate of butter, pepper and salt.

Green Corn, Planters' Style.

Mais Tendre a I'Habitant.

6 Bars of Corn.

2 Quarts of Boiling Water.

1 Tablespoonful of Salt.

Husk the corn and pull off the silk, leaving one layer of leaves cloe to the kernels; put to cook in cold water. When the water begins to boil, after ten minutes, add the salt, but do not let the corn boil longer than five minutes after adding the salt, as boiling longer will harden it. Corn cooked in this manner preserves its sweetness and is most palatable and tender.

Roasted Corn.

Mais Rotis.

Place the ears of corn which have not been removed from the husks in a hot oven, or, better still, if you can, in hot ashes, and let them roast for a half hour or more, until tender. Then take out of the oven or hot ashes and remove the husks and silk and serve in the same manner as boiled corn.

Creamed Corn.

Mais a la Creme.

8 Fine Ears of Corn. 1 Pint of Milk Cream

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

1-4 Spoonful of Black Pepper.

1 Dessertspoonful Butter.

Score the corn down the center of each row of grains, and then cut from the cob. With the knife press out all the pulp from the cob, leaving the hull on the cob. Set a porcelain or agate saucepan on the fire, and put into this the corn cobs, which you will have cut into pieces. Cover with water, and let them boil until you have extracted all the juices. When the liquid is reduced to about one pint, add the corn, and let it boil for about twenty minutes. Then stir in a quarter of a pint of milk, season with salt and pepper to taste, add a teaspoonful of butter, and serve hot. Or, if you can afford it, boil the corn in the milk, using at least one pint, having first added a half cup of water in which the corn cobs were boiled. Let all simmer gently for about a half hour, and then add salt and pepper to taste, and a spoonful of butter, and serve. Some like the addition of a teaspoonful of sugar, but this is a matter of taste.

Corn Sauted With Butter.

Mais Tendrp Saute au Beurre.

8 Fine Ears of Corn.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

1 Cup of Milk or Water.

Boil the corn, and then cut the grains from the cob with a sharp knife. Put in a saucepan and add one tablespoonful of butter; add the milk, and season nicely to taste. Let the corn boil for about ten minutes and serve hot.

Corn Pudding.

Pouding de Mais.

1 Dozen Bars of Tender Corn. 1 Quart

Milk.

4 Eggs. 2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Tablespoonful of White Sugar.

Score the corn down each row of grains, and grate it from the cob. Beat the whites of the egg and the yolks separately. After beating the yolks, add them to the sugar and butter, which you will have rubbed well together. Beat all this very light, and then add the milk and a half teaspoonful of salt. Blend well, and add the grated corn. Beat again, and blend thoroughly, and add the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Stir in well, and set the mixture in the oven with a piece of brown paper on top. Bake slowly for about an hour, and serve hot. Corn thus prepared is delicious; it is served with daube or roast filet of beef. etc.

Baked Corn a la Creme.

Mais Roti a la Creme.

1 Dozen Large Ears of Toung Corn.

1 Pint of Milk. 4 Eggs.

1 Teaspoonful of Salt.

1-4 Teaspoonful of Black Pepper.

1 Dessertspoonful of Butter.

Score the ears of corn down each row with a knife, and then cut from the cob. With the knife press out all the pulp and corn juice, leaving the hulls In the cob. Beat the yollcs of the eggs well, and then add the corn. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Add melted butter, and then add the whites o the eggB beaten to a stiff froth. Stir in carefully and place the whole in a dish, which you will have buttered. Set in the oven and bake for an hour, slowly at first, more rapidly towards the end of the last fifteen minutes. Serve with roast beef, veal or lamb.

Fried Corn.

Mais Frit.

1 Dozen Ears Toung, Tender Corn.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

1 Minced Onion.

Score the corn along each row, and then cut from the cob with a knife. Press out all the pulp and corn juice from the cob. Mix all and season well with salt and pepper. Mince the onion fine, and blend with the lard, which you will have put into the frying pan. Add the corn when the onions begin to brown slightly, and keep stirring and stirring till the grain is cooked, which will be in about fifteen or twenty minutes. This is a very nice breakfast dish or dinner entree.

Corn Soup.

Puree de Mais.

This is a delightful summer soup in New Orleans. (See recipe Creole Summer Soup.)

Corn Fritters.

Beignets de Mais.

6 Ears of Corn. 1-4 Pint of Milk. 1 Egg.

1-2 Cup of Flour. 1 Tablespoonful

Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Grate the corn. Then beat the egg well, whites and yolks together, and by degrees add the corn, beating in thoroughly and very hard. Add a tablespoonful of melted butter, and then stir in the milk. Add a tablespoonful of flour, or just sufficient to thicken and bind, and then fry like fritters, in boiling lard, dropping in a deep spoonful at a time. Serve hot.

Corn Cakes.

Gateaux de Mais.

6 Ears of Corn. 1-2 Pint of Milk.

1 Egg. 1-2 Cup of Flour. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Prepare the batter in exactly the same manner as above, and bake on a griddle like batter cakes, and serve hot, with generous layers of butter between. These cakes are delicious.

Corn and Tomatoes.

Mais Sautes aux Tomates.

1 Pint of Corn, Cut from the Cob.

1 Pint of Fresh Tomatoes, Peeled and

Chopped.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Sprigs Each of Thyme, Parsley and Bay

Leaf.

Place the butter in a frying pan, and when it heats well without browning add the tomatoes. Let them simmer for about five minutes, stirring well, and then add the minced herbs. Let these stew for three minutes, and add the corn, which has been scored and cut from the cob. Mix all thoroughly. Add salt and pepper to taste, and a teaspoonful of sugar, or less, according to taste. Let all stew or saute for about twenty minutes, and then stir in a teaspoonful more of butter. Serve hot, after cooking ten minutes longer.

Corn Salad.

Mache ou Doucette.

This is a delicious variety of corn, and is much used for salads during the winter and early spring months in New Orleans. The Corn Salad, for that is the name given to the vegetable, is boiled and then served "a la Vinaigrette," that is, with vinegar, salt and pepper, or with a plain French Dressing; or with beets, sliced. Still again, it is served with hard-boiled eggs. (See recipe.)

CRESS.

Cresson.

This is one of the most popular Creole winter and spring salad plants, and is also considered a great appetizer, being served as an hors d'oeuvre, and eaten simply with salt. As a salad it is most cooling, refreshing and healthy. We have two varieties, the broad-leaved winter "Curled or Pepper Grass," and the "Watercress." The latter can only be planted by the side of running water, or near springs. It is delicious. It is found all through the Louisiana forests, along the streams especially in the vicinity of Abita Springs and Covington.

CUCUMBER.

Concombre.

The Creoles hold, and justly, that the only proper way to eat a cucumber is "en salade." No fashionable method of cooking this vegetable can ever make up for the delicate flavor that has been destroyed by submitting it to heat.

Cucumbers are best when freshly picked from the vine. When they are thrown around the market for a number of days and become whited they are not fit for table use. Cucumbers are extensively used by the Creoles for salad and pickling purposes. For salad preparations see special recipe under chapter on Salads. The word "Gherkin" is applied to all kinds of pickled cucumbers; properly, however, the term should be applied to the small prickly variety. Cucumbers, besides being served as salads and pickles, are used as relishes and as a garnish.

Cucumbers as a Relish.

Concombres Comme Hors d'Oeuvres.

4 Fine Cucumbers. A French Salad

Dressing.

Wash the cucumbers, cut off the bitter end, and pare the skin to a sufficient depth to remove the green portion. Then score them lengthwise with a table fork. Put them into a salad earthen bowl and sprinkle with salt. Set in an ice box for three hours; then cut into delicate slices and serve with a French Salad Dressing, the dressing being served in a separate dish. In preparing cucumbers to serve as a relish with fish this is the proper mode of preparation.

Cucumbers as a Garnish.

Concombres Comme Garniture.

3 Fine Cucumbers.

1 Tablespoonful of Vinegar. 1 Large

Onion.

Peel and slice three fine cucumbers, and then make a marinade of one teaspoonful of salt, one of black pepper and a tablespoonful of vinegar. Add one finely-sliced onion. Let the cucumbers marmate in this for an hour, and then dram and use as a garnish for cold meats, especially cold Bouilli.

CURRY.

Karl.

Curry is a condiment composed of pulverized Cayenne pepper, coriander seed, tumeric, onions, garlic, ginger root, cloves cinnamon, cardamon and salt, all pulverized together and thoroughly mixed. It is extensively used in the making of stews of fish meats and some vegetables.

DANDELION.

Dent-de-Lion.

The Creoles long ago discovered the possibilities of the dandelion under cultivation. The wild dandelion, as all know. Is a common and hardy perennial plant. It is found in luxuriance in the Louisiana meadows and pastures, the deeply-notched leaves closely resembling chicoree, so extensively used as a salad and as a green. Through cultivation the dandelion is now numbered among the best of the early spring salads. (For recipe for Dandelion Salad, see chapter on Salads.)

Dandelion Greens.

Dent-de-Lion Bouilli.

1 Quart of Dandelion Greens.

A Ham Shank.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. Salt and

Pepper to Taste.

Cut off the coarse roots; wash the leaves thoroughly; steep in salt and water for five hours to remove the bitterness. Boil a ham shank for two hours, throw in the dandelions, and cook gently for forty-five minutes; then drain, chop fine; season with butter, pepper and salt. Mince the ham very fine and sprinkle over the greens; spread over sliced hard-boiled eggs and serve hot.

EGGPLANTS.

Des Aubergines.

This is one of our most esteemed and useful vegetables, and is served in the following delightful ways:

Stuffed Eggplant.

Aubergines Farcies.

6 Eggplants of Good Size.

11-2 Cups of Bread, Wet and Squeezed.

1 Tomato. 1 Onion. 1 Clove of

Garlic.

Thyme, Parsley, Bay Leaf.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

Cut the eggplant in the middle, and put to boil in cold water for about half an hour, or until tender. Then take out of the water and set to cool. When quite cool take out the seeds and throw away. Then scoop out carefully the soft meat of the eggplant, and leave the skins unbroken. Set these skins carefully aside. Chop the soft eggplant fine, and then wet and squeeze one and a half cups of bread. Chop the onion and tomato fine, and mince the herbs and garlic very fine. Season the eggplant well with salt and pepper. Put the butter in the frying pan (use a tablespoonful of lard, if you have not the butter), and brown the onion in it slightly. Then add the chopped tomato and its juice, and let this fry for four or five minutes. Then add the minced herbs and the clove of garlic, and almost immediately the chopped eggplant. Then add the bread at once, and mix all well. Season again to taste, and let all fry for about five minutes. Take off and fill the shells with the stuffing, sprinkle the top lightly with bread crumbs, dot with butter and set in the oven to bake to a nice brown.

Fried Eggplant.

Aubergines Frites.

2 Young Eggplants. 2 Eggs.

Flour to Make a Light Batter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Lard.

Slice the eggplants very thin, paring them if large, and leaving the skin on if very young and tender. Make a light batter with the eggs and flour. Season the eggplant well with salt and pepper. Soak the slices in the batter. Lift out and fry in the boiling lard. When done on one side, turn on the other with a cake turner. Remove the eggplants. Drain them on brown paper in the mouth of the oven, and serve hot on a flat and open dish or platter.

Eggplant Fritters.

Aubergines en Beignets ou au Naturel.

2 Young Eggplants. 1-2 Pint of Milk.

Salt and Pepper. Flour.

Slice the eggplants nicely and thin. Roll them in milk in which you have put salt and pepper to taste. Pass the eggplant in flour, dusting lightly, and fry in boiling lard. The eggplant must float in the lard. Drain on brown paper in the mouth of the oven, and serve hot.

Stewed Eggplant.

Aubergines a la Creole.

3 Eggplants. 1-2 Can of Tomatoes.

1 Square Inch of Ham.

2 Cloves of Garlic. 2 Onions.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. Salt and

Pepper to Taste.

Parboil the eggplant for about thirty minutes. Take out of the boiling water and let cool slightly. Then skin and out into pieces half an inch square. Chop two onions very fine. Take one tablespoonful of butter, and brown the onion in it. As it browns add half a can of tomatoes, or six fresh, chopped fine. Add the square inch of ham, chopped very fine. Add then two cloves of garlic, minced very fine, and season with salt and pepper to taste. Let this simmer for three or four minutes, and then add the eggplant sufficient to make a pound. Let all cook, smothering slowly and well, keeping tightly covered, and stirring often to prevent burning. Season again to taste. After it has cooked for half an hour serve very hot.

ENDIVES.

De la Chicoree.

Endive, or Chicoree, is served both as a salad plant and as a vegetable. It is very popular among the Creoles, and is much cultivated for the market, especially for summer use. Chicoree as a salad is served in exactly the same manner as Lettuce Salad. (See recipe under chapter on Salads.)

Endive With Cream Saace.

Chicoree, Sauce a la Creme.

3 Heads of Chicoree. 4 Tablespoonfuls

Butter.

2 Glasses of Cream or Milk.

A Pinch of Nutmeg. Salt and Pepper to

Taste.

Pick nicely three heads of Chicoree casting away all the outer green leaves. Then wash the heads carefully in fresh cold water; drain and wash again, and blanch for ten minutes in boiling salted water; remove and throw into cold water to cool. Then drain off all the water, and chop the Chicoree very fine. Put in a saucepan with four tablespoonfuls of butter and let cook for a quarter of an hour. Pour two glassfuls of milk or rich cream over it; add a pinch of grated nutmeg, and salt and pepper to taste. Mix all thoroughly together for five minutes on the stove; then remove, put in a dish, garnish nicely with Croutons fried in butter, and serve hot.

Endives With Gravy.

Chicoree au Jus.

4 Heads of Chicoree. 1 Onion. 1 Carrot.

1 Herb Bouquet.

1-4 Pound of Bacon. Salt and Pepper to

Taste.

1 Pint of Veal or Chicken Consomme.

Clean and pick the Chicoree well, pare off all the outer leaves, and wash the heads well in several waters. Then drain and put to blanch in salted water for ten minutes. At the end of this time throw them in the cold water to cool; drain and cut into quarters. Put the piece of bacon in the bottom of a sau-toire or stewpan, and add an onion and carrot and herb bouquet, minced very fine. Lay the Chicoree on top of this, season with a teaspoonful of salt and a half teaspoonful of black pepper, and cover with a buttered paper. Then set the sautoire in the oven, and let the Chicoree cook for ten minutes, when it will be a golden brown. Moisten with half a pint of veal or chicken consomme, cover and again set in the oven for thirty minutes. At this point it will be ready to serve. Arrange the Chicoree on a hot dish; strain the sauce, pour over and serve.

GARLIC.

De l'Ail.

Garlic is a great Creole vegetable, a bulbous-rooted plant, with a strong penetrating odor, and highly esteemed as a flavoring for soups, stews, roasts and various other dishes. Garlic is a staple product of the lower Louisiana parishes, and is raised for home consumption and for shipping. More garlic is grown and used in Louisiana than in all the other states together. It is cultivated like the onion. In the spring the bulbs are taken up and plaited together in long strings. One of these strings contains from fifty to sixty heads in double rows. They are then hung up in a dry, airy place, or stored away. They will keep from six to eight months. Great strings of garlic adorn the stalls of the French Market daily.

HORSERADISH.

Raifort.

The roots of the horseradish are extensively used as an appetizer on Creole tables. They are an agreeable relish, with a fine, sharp, pungent taste. Scraped and grated very fine, and set on the table in small cups, they are used as a condiment. In cookery the horseradish is used in the preparation of sauces and salads.

KOHLRABI, OR TURNIP-ROOTED CABBAGE.

Chou-Navet.

This vegetable is used in making soup purees or vegetable purees, and is also prepared in the same manner as cauliflower. (See recipes Purees and also Cauliflower.) The finest variety, the "Early White Vienna," is the only variety planted and sold in New Orleans. It is an excellent table vegetable, very popular among the Italian and other European population of the city especially, and very largely cultivated.

LEEKS.

Poireau.

This popular vegetable is a species of onion, highly esteemed for flavoring soups, etc. It is used altogether as a seasoning.

LENTILS.

Des Lentilles.

Lentils are among the most nutritious of all vegetables. They may be made into a puree (see recipe under chapter on Soups), or may be cooked in every manner in which red and white beans are cooked. On Fridays and fast days they are simply boiled over a slow fire, with a little butter, salt and pepper, and a bouquet of parsley, and an onion cut in quarters. Again, the Creoles boil Lentils with sausage, or Chaurice. Still again, they are simply boiled in salt and water, and served with a Sauce a la Vinaigrette, Sauce Soubise, or a Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel. (See redipes.)

MUSHROOMS.

Des Champignons.

Mushrooms constitute one of the greatest flavoring vegetables known to the scientific cuisinier. They are used in all manner of sauces, and when veal, game or fish are cooked "en braise," or "en saute." They are used in "matelotes," and in nearly all forms of farcies. The Creoles, like the French, think it a crime to cook this vegetable in any form that would destroy its own peculiar flavor, or that which it is capable of imparting to the most ordinary dish.

Stewed Mushrooms on Toast.

Champignons Sautes sur Canapes.

1 Pint of Mushrooms.

i Tablespoonful of Butter. The Juice of

1 Lemon.

1 Teaspoonful of Chopped Parsley.

6 Slices of Toast.

Drain the mushrooms of their liquor, and place in a stewpan with the butter; season to taste with salt and pepper; cover and let them cool for ten minutes, tossing almost constantly. Add the juice of a lemon and the chopped parsley. Place six slices of toast on a dish, garnish these nicely with the mushrooms and serve. The toast may be omitted if it is desired simply to stew the mushrooms and serve as a vegetable.

Mushrooms With Cream.

Champignons Sautes a la Creme.

1 Pint Mushrooms. 1 Tablespoonful

Butter.

1-2 Cup of Cream.

The Yolk of 1 Egg. 1 Tablespoonful

Flour.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Put the mushrooms with their juice into a saucepan, porcelain-lined or agate. Let them simmer for fifteen minutes. Ihen add one tablespoonful of butter. Wended well with the same amount of flour, and mixed thoroughly with the cream. Season with salt and pepper. Stir well. Bring it to a good boil, and remove from the fire, and stir in the egg, which has been beaten with Sherry wine. Serve immediately in a very hot dish or bowl.

To stew canned mushrooms, drain them of their liquor. Melt the butter in a porcelain-lined saucepan, and gradually add the flour, without letting it burn. Blend smoothly. Add the boiling milk, and let it boil for about two minutes. Then add the mushrooms, salt and pepper to taste. Remove from the fire after five minutes. Serve on buttered toast or Croutons fried in butter. Again, the milk may be omitted, and the mushrooms stewed in their own liquor.

Stewed Mnshrooms, Spanish Style.

Champignons Sautes a l'Espagnole. 1 Pint or 1 Can of Mushrooms.

1 Tablespoonful of Olive Oil.

1 Tablespoonful of Chopped Parsley.

1 Clove of Garlic.

1 Teaspoonful of Chives. 1 Dozen Whole Peppers.

Salt and Black Pepper to Taste.

Drain the mushrooms of their liquor; cut them in lozenge-shaped pieces, and put them in a dish and sprinkle with a tablespoonful of olive oil, and salt and pepper to taste. Let the mushrooms soak in this marinade for two hours. At the end of this time take them out and put in a saucepan and let them stew for ten minutes. Make a sauce of three tablespoonfuls of olive oil, the clove of garlic, minced very fine, a tablespoonful of minced chives, and blend well. Add this to the mushrooms and let them saute for five minutes longer on a very slow fire, without boiling, and serve hot.

Fried Mashrooms.

Champignons a. la Bordelaise.

1 Pint Mushrooms. 1 Tablespoonful

Olive Oil.

6 Shallots, Minced Very Fine.

Thyme, Parsley and Bay Leaf. Minced

Fine.

1 Clove of Garlic, Minced Fine.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Put the oil into a frying pan, and, when heated, add the shallots, minced very fine. Let these brown slightly, and add the minced garlic and fine herbs. Let these brown for three minutes or so, and then add the mushrooms. Stir well and fry for about five minutes. Add one tablespoonful of White wine or Sherry, and serve the mushrooms on slices of French toast.

MUSTARD.

De la Moutarde.

Mustard is grown extensively in Louisiana, especially the large-leaved or curled, which has grown to a distinct Louisiana variety, quite different from the European. The seed is black, and is raised in Louisiana, and the plant is being more extensively cultivated every year. The large leaves are cooked the same as Spinach (see recipe), or they may be boiled with salt meat and served as greens.

Our Creole mustard seeds are famous, not only in making sauces, but for medicinal purposes.

OKRA.

Du Fevi.

Okra is a great summer dish with the Creoles. It may be made into Gumbo (see recipe Okra Gumbos), or boiled and served en salade.

Boiled Okra.

Fevi Bouilli.

1 Quart Young Okra. 1 Tablespoonful

Vinegar.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Wash the okra well in cold water, and put in a porcelain-lined or agate saucepan. Add a pint of water and a tea-spoonful of salt. Cover the pot, and let the okra simmer for about half an hour. Take from the pot, season with salt and pepper to taste, pour over a tablespoonful of Tarragon vinegar and set to cool. Serve as a salad, and with all meats, such as daube, roast, etc.

Stewed Okra, Creole Style.

Fevi Saute a la Creole.

4 Dozen Okras. 1 Tablespoonful Butter.

3 Nice Potatoes.

1 Onion. 1 Green Pepper. 1 Clove of

Garlic.

1 Teaspoonful of Chopped Parsley.

Wash the okras and pare the ends. Place in a saucepan with one tablespoonful of butter; add a finely-minced onion and clove of garlic and green pepper. Let all cook for six or eight minutes, and then add the three tomatoes, chopped fine; also add the juice df the tomatoes. Season to taste with salt and pepiwr; add a dash of Cayenne and a teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Now add the okras, and let all simmer slowly for twenty minutes. Place in a hot, deep serving dish, and cover and send to the table.

ONIONS.

De l'Ognon.

Onions have always been conceded by the Creoles, as also by all scientists, among the healthiest of food substances. The onion is indispensable in the kitchen. It is used in almost every kind of meat and fish or vegetable seasoning, and imparts a flavor that cannot be claimed by any other vegetable. Onions are also acknowledged as a great sedative. The onion juice, mixed with sugar, is largely used by the old Creoles in coughs and colds, and is almost an infallible remedy. The onion is used as a salad, or it may be cooked in some very delightful ways. There are those who, being over-fastidious, object to eating onions on account of the perceptible odor that clings to the breath, especially in eating the raw onion in salad. This should never interfere in the consumption of a vegetable that carries within it such important chemical juices that operate so largely in the upbuilding of the general system. A glass of milk, taken after eating a raw onion, will destroy every particle of odor or taste that remains in the mouth.

Boiled Onions.

Ognons Bouillis.

1 Dozen Nice, Small White Onions.

1 Tablespoonful Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Throw the onions in their skins into cold water, and peel them. Then put them into a saucepan of boiling water. Add a teaspoonful of salt, and let them boil about forty minutes, or until you can pierce them easily with a fork. Then put into a dish, and drain off all water. Sprinkle with salt and pepper to taste, and pour over a Drawn Butter Sauce (see Beurre a la Maitre d"Hotel), and serve hot. The large Spanish onions will require about an hour longer to boil tender.

Creamed Onions.

Ognons a la Creme.

1 Dozen Small, White Onions.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tableaspoon-

ful Flour.

1-2 Pint of Milk or Cream.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the onions as directed in the above recipe. When very tender, take off the fire and drain. Pour over them the following cream sauce, which you will have prepared when almost ready to serve: Put one tablespoonful of flour into a saucepan, and add a tablespoonful of butter. Set on the fire, and let all blend well together, rubbing very smooth, without browning. Then add half a pint of milk. Stir continually till it boils. Season with salt and pepper to taste, and pour over the onions, and serve hot. The young Creole onions are most delicious when prepared in this manner.

Fried Onions.

Ognons Frits.

1-2 Dozen Nice, Tender Onions.

1 Tablespoonful Butter. 1 Tablespoonful

Salt.

Pepper to Taste.

Throw the onions into cold water. Peel them, and cut them into thin slices. Cover them with boiling water, and let them boil about twenty minutes. Drain off the water thoroughly, and put them into a frying pan with a large tablespoonful of butter, and season to taste and let them fry slowly for about ten minutes. Turn frequently, to prevent them from burning. Again, the onions may be fried without previous boiling, some preferring this latter method, as it admits of the onion retaining its flavor. Simply peel and pare and slice into round-shaped pieces. Lay the pieces in milk, and then in grated bread crumbs or flour, and fry them in boiling fat for about ten minutes. Lift them out of the fat, drain well, and serve on a hot dish with fried parsley as a garnish. Toung shallots may be fried by washing well in cold water, cutting off the rough roots of the shallots, and then cutting the green and white together into half-inch dice. Season well with salt and pepper, and fry in butter for about five minutes. Garnish a dish with parsley sprigs. Lay the shallots on these and serve hot.

Smothered Onions.

Ognons Sautes.

1 Dozen Small Onions.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. 1 Quart of

Broth.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Put the onions into cold water, and remove their skins. Then put them into a saucepan, and cover with a soup stock (pot-au-feu or bouillon), if you have it, otherwise use water, and let them stew slowly for an hour and a half, till they are almost falling to pieces. Then drain the onions through a colander, and save the stock. Put a tablespoonful of butter into a frying pan, and add a tablespoonful of flour, and make a Brown Roux. (See recipe.) When brown, add a half pint of the broth in which the onions were boiled. Season well with salt and pepper and a dash of Cayenne. Put the onions into this and let them simmer gently for about twenty minutes longer. Serve hot.

Stuffed Onions.

Ognons Farcis.

1-2 Dozen Large Spanish Onions.

A Stuffing of Chaurice.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Take a half dozen fine, large Spanish onions, and put them in hot ashes to roast. When they are sufficiently cooked, which will be in about half an hour, take them out of the ashes, dust off and peel well. Then open the interiors and fill with a stuffing made as follows: Take a tablespoonful of butter and put in a frying pan, and add three Chaurice, which you will have taken out of the casings and chopped finely again. Add a cup of bread, which has been wet and squeezed, and mix well. Then add an inch of ham, finely chopped, and a sprig each of thyme and parsley and sweet marjoram, and one bay leaf, all finely minced. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Fry about fifteen minutes, and then stuff the onions as far down in the center as possible, and between the folds. Sprinkle the top with powdered bread crumbs, and put a little dot of butter on top of each. Set in the oven and let tbem bake for about thirty or forty minutes. Serve with roast beef.

Another nice way of stuffing onions is to peel the onion, scoop out the centers with a vegetable scoop, parboil them for ten minutes, and then fill the insides with the sausage forcemeat, as directed above. Line the bottom of a stew-pan with fine strips of bacon. Lay over these an onion and a carrot, both minced very fine. Place the onions on top of this and moisten with a pint of Chicken or Veal Consomme. Set in the oven to bake for about three-quarters of an hour and baste frequently. Serve in a hot dish, with baste sauce poured over.

Baked Onions.

Ognons Rotis.

1 Dozen Large Spanish Onions.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Trim the onions nicely, but do not peel them. Then put them into a kettle of boiling water, and let them boil rapidly for about an hour. Drain in a colander. Then put them in a baking pan, and let them bake slowly for about an hour. Take out and remove the skins, and place in a vegetable dish, and sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve with Drawn Butter Sauce. (See Beurre a la Maitre d'Hotel.)

After taking the onions out of the boiling water, if you wish to serve with "Roast Beef aux Ognons," peel the onions and place around the beef, roast in the oven. Baste them as often as you baste the roast, with the juices that come from it. Serve with the roast, using them as a garnish around the dish.

Glazed Onions.

Ognons Glaoes.

11-2 Dozen Small Onions of Uniform

Size.

1 Tablespoonful Sugar. 1 Cup Water.

1 Large Teaspoonful Butter.

Salt to Taste.

Select small Creole onions of uniform size, top the heads and the stems, and remove the skins, but not too closely, lest they should break up when boiling. Then take a frying pan, large enough for the onions to lie in it, side by side. Put the butter in it first, and when melted add the onions. Then sprinkle with the sugar and water, and season with salt to taste. Set on the back of the stove, where they can simmer gently for an hour. When nearly done, and tender all through, add a tablespoonful of flour, mixed in water, blended well. Then set in the oven, with a paper on top. Let them stand for about half an hour, and use as a garnish for beef, veal, etc. The onions will be nicely glazed, and will make the dish appear very beautiful.

SHALLOTS.

Echallottes.

Shallots are small-sized onions, grown in clumps. They are very delicate and mild in flavor, and much used in soups, stews, salads, etc. In the green state they are also chopped and fried in butter. (See recipe Fried Onions.)

PARSLEY.

Persil.

Parsley is one of the most important of all vegetable herbs, entering, as it does, into the seasoning of all soups, meats, fish and even vegetables. It is one of the most beautiful of all garnishes, and gives a pretty touch to the homeliest dish. The "Plain-Leaved, the "Double Curled," or the "Beautiful Garnish" varieties are always to be found in the New Orleans market.

Fried Parsley.

Persil Frit.

6 or 8 Sprigs of Parsley.

1 Tablespoonful of Lard.

Pick off the delicate leaves and branches of very young parsley, wash well, drain and put in a frying pan. In which you will have placed a tablespoonful of lard and allowed to reach a medium hot state. Fry slowly and drain and use as a garnish or as needed.

Chopped Parsley.

Persil Hache.

Wash the parsley in cold water, trim off the coarse stems and branches and leaves, immerse in very cold water again, drain, press dry and chop very fine. Use as needed.

Parsley Green.

Persil au Jus.

Take young parsley, wash well, strip of all coarse stems and branches, plunge into very cold water, chop very fine, squeeze in a strong kitchen towel and save the juice for coloring purposes.

Parsley for Garnishing Purposes.

Garniture de Persil.

Take several bunches of fresh parsley, trim off all the coarse stems, wash in slightly salted water, drain and place in a colander. Set over a watertight vessel. Shave some ice, cover the parsley with it and let it keep fresh and cool for table garnishes. Never lay parsley that is intended for garnishing purposes in water, as the freshness will be quickly destroyed, and it will become dark, discolored, limp and slimy and devoid of all beauty or crispness.

PARSNIPS.

Des Panais.

6 or 8 Parsnips.

1-2 Pint of Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel.

To boil parsnips, if they are young, simply scrape them and lay them in cold water. If the parsnips are old, pare them and cut them in quarters, or, better still, lengthwise. Let the young parsnips cook in salted boiling water in a porcelain-lined saucepan for forty-five minutes; let the older ones cook for an hour and a quarter. When done, take them out of the saucepan, and drain and serve on a heated dish with a Drawn Butter Sauce. (See Beurre a la Maitre d'Hotel.)

Boiled Parsnips With Cream Sauce.

Panais Bouillis a la Creme.

6 or 8 Parsnips. A Cream Sauce.

Proceed exactly as above in peeling and boiling the parsnips. When done, drain and put into a heated dish, and serve with a Cream Sauce poured over them. (See recipe Cream Sauce.) Serve the parsnips with boiled salt or fresh fish or boiled corn beef.

Fried Parsnips.

Panais Frits.

5 Parsnips. 1 Tahlespoonful Butter.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Drippings of Roast

Beef.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Chopped Parsley to Garnish.

Brush and scrape or peel the parsnips as directed above. Then boil as directed in salted water till tender. When done, drain off the water and cut the parsnips into slices lengthwise of about half an inch in thickness. Put two tablespoonfuls of the drippings of the roast beef in the saucepan, and add a teaspoonful of butter. When hot add the sliced parsnips. When they are brown on one side, turn on the other and let this brown also. Place on a hot platter, sprinkle with chopped parsley and salt and pepper, and serve with roast meats.

Smothered Parsnips.

Panais Sautes.

6 or 8 Parsnips. 2 Tablespoonfuls of

Butter.

Salt and Pepper lo Taste.

Chopped Parsley to Garnish.

Boil the parsnips as directed, and then cut into strips of the length of the parsnip, and half an inch in width. Put a big cookingspoonful of butter into the saucepan, and add the parsnips. Sprinkle well with salt and pepper. Cover and let them fry, but only slightly brown, on either side. Serve with chopped parsley as a garnish.

Mashed Parsnips.

Puree de Panais.

6 or 8 Parsnips. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Tahlespoonful of Flour. 1 Pint of

Milk.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the parsnips until so tender that they break easily under pressure. Then mash them well, after draining off all water. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan, and add a tablespoonful of flour. Blend, without browning, and add a half pint of milk or cream. Stir well, and as the mixture begins to boil, add the parsnips. Mix thoroughly, season with salt and pepper, and serve in a dish, heaping up the parsnips in pyramidal shape. Serve with veal cutlets.

Parsnip Balls.

Boulettes de Panais.

3 Large Parsnips. 2 Eggs.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Boil the parsnips as directed above until very, very tender. Then drain and mash through a colander. Beat two eggs very light, and add the parsnips, using proportions of three large parsnips to the eggs. Then form the parsnips into little balls or boulettes, and fry in boiling lard, or make into little cakes and fry on a griddle.

Parsnip Fritters.

Beignets de Panais.

5 Parsnips. 1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

1 Cup of Water. 2 Eggs.

1-4 Pound of Flour. 1 Teaspoonful of

Salt.

1 Teaspoonful of Pepper.

Boil the parsnips as directed above till very tender. Then cut into long, narrow strips. Make a batter by mixing the flour with the yolks of the eggs, beaten well. Then add the salt and pepper, and gradually one cup of water, till it is absorbed. Then add the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Mix thoroughly. Add the parsnips to the batter. Dip out one at a time, in a spoon of butter, and fry in boiling lard. Serve as an entree at dinner.

PEAS.

Des Pols Sees.

All dried, split, kidney or black-eyed peas may be cooked in the same manner as beans. (See recipe.)

GRFEN PEAS.

Des Pols Verts.

Green peas are abundant in our New Orleans market, with but a short respite, almost all the year. We have two crops, the spring and fall. The large peas, or older ones, are called "Des Pols Verts," and the smaller, or French peas, "Des Petits Pois." The latter are great delicacies when boiled and served with butter; the former may be utilized in making that most delectable dish, "Puree des Pols Verts." (See recipe in chapter on Soups.)

To Cook Canned Green Peas.

Petits Pois en Conserve.

The delightful preparations of French peas that come put up in cans do not require much cooking, being, like all canned vegetables, already cooked. To cook these drain the peas from all liquor after opening the can, and put them in a saucepan; add a tablespoonful of butter and pepper and salt to taste. Set on the fire, and, when thoroughly heated, serve immediately. Green peas are served with all roast, and broiled and sauted meats, fowls or game. There is scarcely a vegetable that admits of such various uses with entrees.

Boiled Green Peas.

Petit Pois au Naturel.

1 Pint of Fresh Young Green Peas.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Shell the peas, and when you have a pint (sufficient for six), put the peas into cold water, drain and put into a saucepan of boiling water; add a teaspoonful of salt, to prevent the peas from cracking, and let them boil rapidly for at least twenty minutes. To ascertain if they are done, take one out and press with a fork. The great art in cooking green peas properly is to have plenty of water, to cook the peas very rapidly, and not to let them boil a moment longer than necessary, if you would keep them from being soggy and preserve their fresh color and sweetness. Fresh peas should never be shelled until the moment when you wish to cook them. When cooked, they must be eaten immediately. As soon as done, drain off all water; put a large tablespoonful of butter into the saucepan with the peas, season with pepper to taste, pour into a vegetable dish and serve hot. This is the very nicest way of cooking this dainty vegetable.

As the peas grow older and larger, they may be made into purees, or cooked as follows:

Green Peas a la Bourgeois.

Pois Vertis Sautes a la Bourgeoise.

1 Pint of Peas.

11-2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter.

1 Ounce of Chopped Onion.

1 Herb Bouquet, Minced Fine.

1 Tablespoonful of Flour.

1-2 Pint of Cream or Milk or Wter.

Shell and boil the peas according to the above recipe. Add sprigs of parsley, thyme and bay leaf, finely minced. When done, which will be in about forty minutes, if the peas are large, or perhaps a few minutes longer (easily ascertained by taking out a pea and pressing it with a fork), drain off all water and add one tablespoonful and a half of butter. Then blend the flour, and add the milk, preferably, mixing together and stirring well, to prevent browning or burning. Serve hot. Some add the yolk of an egg, well beaten, after taking the peas off the tire, but this is a matter of taste; the flavor of the peas is more perceptible without it.

Green Peas, Country Style.

Petits Pois Verts a la Paysanne.

1 Pint of Green Peas. 3 Small Carrots.

1-8 of a Head of Green and White

Cabbage.

A Tablespoonful of Butter.

1-2 Pint of Consomme of Veal or Chicken.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Shell the peas; take three small carrots, and one-eighth of a head of cabbage, and one-quarter head of lettuce, and cut into small dice-shaped pieces. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a saucepan and let the dice-shaped vegetables smother for about fifteen minutes over a slow fire without browning. Add the green peas and the consomme, and let all cook for a half hour, stirring frequently to prevent burning. Season to taste with salt and pepper, and use a sprinkling of chopped parsley as a garnish.

Green Peas, French Style.

Petit Pois Verts a, la Francaise.

1 Pint of Fresh Green Peas, or 1 Can.

2 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 1-2 Cup of

Water.

1 Herb Bouquet. 1 Lettuce Heart.

1 Onion.

1 Teaspoonful of Powdered Sugar.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Shell the peas and wash and drain them. Put them into a saucepan, with one tablespoonful of butter; add the herb bouquet, the onion whole, and the lettuce heart, and cover with cold water, and let them simmer slowly for about twenty minutes, or until tender. Then drain off the water, remove the onion and herb bouquet, lay the lettuce heart on a dish, and add another tablespoonful of butter to the peas. Let them cook for five minutes longer. Pour the peas over the lettuce heart and send to the table hot, and serve with chops or cutlets as a vegetable.

Green Peas, Old Creole Style.

Petits Pois Verts a l'Ancienne Mode Creole.

1 Pint of Young Green Peas.

3 Tablespoonfuls of Butter. 1-4 Cup of

Cream.

The Yolk of 1 Egg.

1 Teaspoonful of Powdered Sugar.

Salt and Pepper to Taste.

Shell and clean the peas carefully. Put them in a saucepan with three tablespoonfuls of butter, and cover with a cup of water; season with a pinch of salt, and let them cook for twenty minutes, or until tender. Take three table-spoofuls of cream and beat with the yolk of one egg. Add a half pinch of white pepper, and mix thoroughly with the peas. Add a teaspoonful of powdered sugar, stir well, and let all cook together for five minutes and serve hot.

Puree of Green Peas a la Creole.

Puree de Pois Verts a la Creole.

1 Pint of Green Peas. 1 Cup of Milk or

Cream.

A Pinch of Salt and White Pepper.

1 Teaspoonful of Powdered Sugar.

Shell and clean the peas well; then put them in a saucepan with the cream and a half cup of water, and let them simmer till they become quite soft. Then remove the pan from the fire; rub the peas through a fine sieve; season well with the salt and pepper and sugar; add a tablespoonful of butter; beat the butter in well with the peas; set on the stove for five minutes and serve hot. Peas thus prepared are served as a vegetable with entrees and other meats.

Puree of Green Peas a la St. Germain.

Puree de Pols Verts a la St. Germain.

1 Pint of Green Peas. 1 Pint of Chicken

Broth.

1 Pint of Sweet Cream. 1 Herb Bouquet.

2 Sprigs of Mint.

A Pinch Each of Salt and White Pepper.

1 Teaspoonful of Powdered Sugar.

8 Chicken Quenelles to Garnish.

Shell and clean the peas and put them in a saucepan or sautoire, with one pint of chicken broth and one pint of sweet cream. Add an herb bouquet, in which you will have tied two sprigs of mint. Let the peas cool for twenty minutes, or until very tender, and then remove the herb bouquet and mint; take from the fire, and run the peas through a sieve. Season with salt and pepper and a little powdered sugar; add a tablespoonful of butter; set on the fire five minutes longer, and then serve on a hot dish with Chicken Quenelles (see recipe) to garnish. Make the quenelles from the chicken left over from the broth. This is a very recherche dish. Serve as an entree.

POTATOES.

De la Pomme de Terre.

Potatoes may be cooked in a greater variety of ways than any other vegetable. They are most nutritious and are always economical as well as a palatable dish on the table.

Steamed Potatoes.

Pommes de Terre a la Vapeur.

8 Nice Potatoes.

A Pot of Boiling Water. Salt.

Wash the potatoes well, scrubbing thoroughly, to take off every particle of earth that adheres. Then put them in a potato steamer, and set over a pot of boiling water. Cover tight and steam till you can pierce with a fork. Potatoes should never be boiled if you can steam them conveniently, as they are naturally watery. When done, remove the jackets, or skin, and sprinkle with salt and pepper; add a tablespoonful of butter in which you have mingled chopped parsley; and serve immediately. Or they may be served just as they are, in a covered dish. A potato should atwarys be mealy, and not sogged with water, if cooked properly. In cooking potatoes the time depends on the size of the potato. An unfailing test is to cook till the potato can be easily pierced with a fork.

Boiled Potatoes.

Pommes de Terre au Naturel.

6 Potatoes, of Uniform Size, if Possible.

Boiling Water.

Potatoes should always be boiled in their skins, or jackets, if possible. Never be guilty of paring a new potato before boiling. Towards the close of winter, Just before the new crop comes in, the potatoes may be pared, so that blemishes may be removed. But this is scarcely necessary in our state, unless the old potatoes have sprouted and shriveled.

Wash and scrub the potatoes well, and put them on in their jackets in a pot of boiling water, which has been well salted. Let them cook until they are soft enough to be pierced with a fork. Do not let them remain a moment longer, or they will become waxy and watery. Nothing is more disagreeable than a watery potato. When done, take them out and drain dry. Put into steamer, sprinkle with salt, and cover and let them stand over the kettle (lid open) on the fire for a few minutes fof the water to evaporate. After five minutes take off and peel quickly, and serve in a covered vegetable dish.

Potatoes With Drawn Butter.

Pommes de Terre aux Beurre Maltre

d'Hotel.

6 Potatoes.

1 Tablespoonful of Butter. Salt and Pepper.

Boil the potatoes according to the above recipe. Peel and pour over them a tablespoonful of melted butter, in which you have mingled chopped parsley. Salt and pepper to taste. Potatoes prepared in this way are delicious.

Or, if you wish to have mashed potatoes, or a "Puree of Potatoes," as a vegetable, mash the potatoes well, and add two tablespoonfuls of butter. Salt and pepper to taste. Place in a dish, mold prettily, and serve hot with meals, fish, poultry, etc. A half cup of milk or cream may be added to the puree with very delicious results. (For Puree of Potatoes as soup, see recipe under beading Soups.)

Creamed Potatoes.

Pommes de Terre a la Creme. 6 Potatoes. A Cream Sauce. Boil the potatoes as above, and pour over them (remembering always to keep them whole) a Cream Sauce. (See recipe.) Serve hot with fried chicken. Add the juice of a lemon.

Potatoes a la Maltre d'Hotel,

Pommes de