Before our arrival on the scene, General Jackson had moved forward with his brigade of five Virginia regiments, from his position in reserve, and had judi ciously taken post below the brim of the plateau, nearly east of the Henry house, and to the left of the ravine and woods occupied by the mingled rem nants of Bee's, Bartow's, and Evans's command, with Imboden's battery and two of Stanard's pieces placed so as to play upon the oncoming enemy, supported in the immediate rear by Colonel J. L. Preston's and Lieutenant-Colonel Echoll's regiments, on the right by Harper's, and on the left by Allen's and Cuinrnings's regiments.

As soon as General Johnston and myself reached the field we were occupied with the organization of the heroic troops, whoso previous stand, with scarce a parallel, has nothing more valiant in all the pages of history, and whose losses fitly tell why at length their ranks had lost their cohesion. It was now that General Johnston impressively and gallantly charged to the front, with the colors of the 4th Alabama regiment by his side, all the field-officers of the regi ment having been previously disabled. Shortly afterwards I placed S. R. Gist, Adjutant and Inspector-General of South Carolina, a Volunteer Aid of General Bee, in command of this regiment, and who led it again to the front, as became its previous behavior, and remained with it for the rest of the day.

As soon as we had thus rallied and disposed our forces, I urged General John ston to leave the immediate conduct of the field to me, while he, repairing to Portici (the Lewis house), should urge reinforcements forward. At first he was unwilling, but, reminded that one of us must do so, and that properly it was his place, ho reluctantly, but fortunately, complied; fortunately, because from that position, by his energy and sagacity, his keen perception and anticipations of my needs, he so directed the reserves as to insure the success of the day.

As General Johnston departed for Portici, Colonel Bartow reported to mo with the remains of the 7th Georgia Volunteers, Gartrell's, which I ordered him to post on the left of Jackson's lines, in the edge of the belt of pines bordering

the southeastern rim of the plateau, ou which the battle was now to rage so long and so fiercely.

Colonel William Smith's battalion of the 49th Virginia Volunteers having also come up by my orders, I placed it on the left of Gartrell's, as ray extreme left at the time. Repairing then to the right, I placed Hampton's Legion, which had suffered greatly, on that flank, somewhat to the rear of Harper's regiment, and also the seven companies of the 8th (Hunton's) Virginia regiment, which, detached from Cocke's brigade by my orders and those of General Johnston, had opportunely reached the ground. These, with Harper's regiment, constituted a reserve to protect our right flank from an advance of the enemy from the quar ter of the stone bridge, and served as a support for the line of battle, which was formed on the right of Bee's and Evans's commands, in the centre by four regi ments of Jackson's brigade, with Imboden's four G-pounders, Walton's five guns— two rilled, two guns—one piece rifled—of Stanard's, and two G-pounders of Rog-ers's batteries, the latter under Lieutenant Heaton ; and on the left by Gartrell's reduced ranks and Colonel Smith's battalion, subsequently reinforced by Faulk ner's 2d Mississippi regiment, and by another regiment of the Army of the Shcn-andoah, just arrived upon the field, the Gth, Fisher's, North Carolina. Confront ing the enemy at this time, my forces numbered, at most, not more than six thousand five hundred infantry and artillerists, with but thirteen pieces of artil lery and two companies (Carter's and Iloge's) of Stuart's cavalry.

The enemy's force, now bearing hotly and confidently down on our position, regiment after regiment of the best-equipped men that ever took the field, ac cording to their own official history of the day, was formed of Colonels Hunter's and Heintzelman's divisions, Sherman's and Keyes's brigades of Tyler's division, and of the formidable batteries of Ricketts, Griflin, and Arnold, Regulars, and the 2d Rhode Island, and two Dahlgren howitzers, a force of over twenty thou sand infantry, seven companies of Regular cavalry, and twenty-four pieces of improved artillery. At the same time, perilous, heavy reserves of infantry and artillery hung in the distance around the stone bridge, Mitchell's, Blackburn's, and Union Mills' fords, visibly ready to fall upon us at any moment; and I was also assured of the existence of other heavy corps at and around Centreville, and elsewhere within convenient supporting distances.

Fully conscious of this portentous disparity of force, as I posted the lines for the encounter, I sought to infuse into the hearts of my officers and men the con fidence and determined spirit of resistance to this wicked invasion of the homes of a free people, which I felt. I informed them that reinforcements would rap idly come up to their support, and that we must, at all hazards, hold our posts until reinforced. I reminded them that we fought for our homes, our firesides, and for the independence of our country. I urged them to the resolution of victory or death on that field. These sentiments were loudly, eagerly, cheered wheresoever proclaimed, and I then felt reassured of the unconquerable spirit of that army, which would enable us to wrench victory from the host then threat ening us with destruction.

Oh, my country! I would readily have sacrificed my life and those of all the brave men around me, to save your honor, and to maintain your independence

from the degrading yoke which these ruthless invaders had come to impose aud render perpetual, and the day's issue has assured mo that such emotions must have also animated all under my command.

In the meantime the enemy had seized upon the plateau on which Robinson's and the Henry houses are situated, the position first occupied in the morning by General Bee, before advancing to the support of Evans. Ricketts's battery of six rifled guns—the pride of the Federalists, the object of their unstinted ex penditure in outfit—aud the equally powerful Regular light battery of Griffin were brought forward and placed in immediate action, after having, conjointly with the batteries already mentioned, played from former positions with destruc tive effect upon our forward battalions.

The topographical features of the plateau, now become the stage of the con tending armies, must be described in outline.

A glance at the map will show that it is enclosed on three sides by two small watercourses, which empty into Bull Run within a few yards of each other, a half mile to the south of the stone bridge. Rising to an elevation of quite one hundred feet above the level of Bull Run, at the bridge, it falls off on three sides to the level of the enclosing streams, in gentle slopes, but which are furrowed by ravines of irregular directions and length, and studded with clumps and patches of young pines and oaks. The general direction of the crest of the pla teau is oblique to the course of Bull Run in that quarter, and to the Breutsville and turnpike roads, which intersect each other at right angles. Immediately surrounding the two houses before mentioned are small, open fields of irregular outline, not exceeding one hundred and fifty acres in extent. The houses, oc cupied at the time, the one by the Widow Henry, and the other by the free negro, Robinson, are small wooden buildings, the latter densely embowered in trees, and environed by a double row of fences on two sides. Around the eastern and southern brow of the plateau an almost unbroken fringe of second-growth pines gave excellent shelter for our marksmen, who availed themselves of it with the most satisfactory skill. To the west, adjoining the fields, a broad belt of oaks extends directly across the crest on both sides of the Sudley Road, in which, during the battle, regiments of both armies met and contended for the mastery.

From the open ground of this plateau the view embraces a wide expanse of woods, and gently undulating, open country, of broad grass and grain fields, in all directions, including the scene of Evans's and Bee's recent encounter with the enemy, some twelve hundred yards to the northward.

In reply to the play of the enemy's batteries, our own artillery, had not been either idle or unskilful. The ground occupied by our guns, on a level with that held by the batteries of the enemy, was an open space of limited extent, behind a low undulation, just at the eastern verge of the plateau, some five or six hun dred yards from the Henry house. Here, as before said, thirteen pieces, mostly G-pounders, were maintained in action. The several batteries of Irnboden, Stan-ard, Pcndleton (Rockbridge Artillery), and Alburtis, of the Army of the Shcnan-doah, and five guns of Walton's and Heaton's section of Rogers's battery, of the Army of the Potomac, alternating, to some extent, with each other, and taking

part as needed; all, from tlio outset, displaying that marvellous capacity of our people as artillerists, which has made them, it would appear, at once the terror and the admiration of the enemy.

As was soon apparent, the Federalists had suffered severely from our artillery, and from the fire of our musketry on the right, and especially from the left flank, placed under close cover, within whose galling range they had been advanced. And wo are told in their official reports how regiment after regiment, thrown forward to dislodge us, was broken, never to recover its entire organization on that field.

In the meantime, also, two companies of Stuart's cavalry (Carter's and Hoge's) made a dashing charge down the Brentsville and Sudley road upon the Fire Zou aves, then the enemy's right on the plateau, which added to their disorder wrought by our musketry on that flank. But still the press of the enemy was heavy in that quarter of the field, as fresh troops were thrown forward there to outflank us; and some three guns of a battery, in an attempt to obtain a posi tion, apparently to enfilade our batteries, were thrown so close to the 33d regi ment, Jackson's brigade, that that regiment, springing forward, seized them, but with severe loss, and was subsequently driven back by an overpowering force of Federal musketry.

Now, full 2 o'clock P. M., I gave the order for the right of my line, except my reserves, to advance to recover the plateau. It was done with uncommon reso lution and vigor, and at the same time Jackson's brigade pierced the enemy's centre, with the determination of veterans and the spirit of men who fight for a sacred cause; but it suffered, seriously. With equal spirit the other parts of the lino made the onset, and the Federal lines were broken and swept back at all points from the open ground of the plateau. Rallying soon, however, as they were strongly reinforced by fresh regiments, the Federalists returned ; and, by weight of numbers, pressed our lines back, recovered their ground and guns, and renewed the offensive.

By this time, between half-past 2 and 3 o'clock P. M., our reinforcements pushed forward, and, directed by General Johnston to the required quarter, were at hand just as I had ordered forward to a second effort for the recovery of the disputed plateau, the whole line, including my reserve, which, at this cri sis of the battle, I felt called upon to lead in person. This attack was general, and was shared in by every regiment then in the field, including the Oth, Fisher's, North Carolina regiment, which had just come up, and taken position on the immediate left of the 4 ( Jth Virginia regiment. The whole open ground was again swept clear of the enemy, and the plateau around the Henry and Robin son houses remained finally in our possession, with the greater part of the Rick-etts and Griffin batteries, and a flag of the 1st Michigan regiment, captured by the 2?th Virginia regiment (Lieutenant-Colonel Echolls), of Jackson's brigade. This part of the day was rich with deeds of individual coolness and dauntless conduct, as well as well-directed, embodied resolution and bravery, but fraught with the loss to the service of the country of lives of inestimable preciousness at this juncture. The brave Bee was mortally wounded at the head of the 4th Alabama and some Mississinpians, in the open field near the Henry house j and,


a few yards distant, the promising life of Bartow, while leading tlie 7tli Geor gia regiment, was queuclied in blood. Colonel F. I. Thomas, Acting Chief of Ordnance of General Johnston's staff, after gallant conduct and most efficient service, was also slain. Colonel Fisher, Cth North Carolina, likewise fell, after soldierly behavior, at the head of his regiment, with ranks greatly thinned.

Withers's 18th regiment, of Cocke's brigade, had come up in time to follow this charge, and, in conjunction with Hampton's Legion, captured several rifled pieces, which may have fallen previously in possession of some of our troops, but if so, had been recovered by the enemy. These pieces were immediately turned, and effectively served on distant masses of the enemy by the hands of some of our officers.

While the enemy had thus been driven back on our right, entirely across the turnpike, and beyond Young's Branch on our left, the woods yet swarmed with them, when our reinforcements opportunely arrived in quick succession and took position in that portion of the field. Kershaw's 2d and Cash's 8th South Carolina regiments, which had arrived soon after Withers's, were led through the oaks just east of the Brentsville-Sudley road, brushing some of the enemy before them, and, taking an advantageous position along and west of that road, opened with much skill and effect on bodies of the enemy that had been rallied under cover of a strong Federal brigade, posted on a plateau in the southwest angle, formed by intersection of the turnpike with the Sudley-Brentsville road. Among the troops thus engaged were the Federal Regular infantry.

At the same time, Kenipcr's battery, passing northward by the Sudley-Brents-villo road, took position in the open space, under orders of Colonel Kershaw, near where an enemy's battery had been captured, and was opened with effec tive results upon the Federal right, then the mark, also, of Kershaw's and Cash's regiments.

Preston's 28th regiment, of Cocke's brigade, had, by that time, entered the same body of oaks and encountered some Michigan troops, capturing their bri gade commander, Colonel Wilcox.

Another important accession to our forces had also occurred about the same time—3 o'clock p. M. Brigadier-General E. K. Smith, with some seventeen hun dred infantry of Elzey's brigade of the Army of the Shenandoah, and Beckham's battery, came upon the field, from Camp Pickeus, Mauassas, where they had ar rived, by railroad, at noon. Directed by a staff officer, sent in person by General Johnston, to the left, then so much endangered, on reaching a position in rear of the oak woods south of the Henry house, and immediately east of the Stulley road, General Smith was disabled by a severe wound, and his valuable services were lost at that critical juncture. But the command devolved upon a meritorious officer of experience, Colonel Elzey, who led his infantry at once somewhat far ther to the left in the direction of the Chinn house, across the road, through the oaks skirting the west side of the road, and around which ho sent the bat tery under Lieutenant Beckham. This officer took up a most favorable position near that house, whence, with a clear view of the Federal right and centre fill ing the open fields to the west of the Brentsville-Sudley road and gently sloping

southward, he opened fire with his battery upon them with deadly and dismay ing effect.

Colonel Early, who by some mischance did not receive orders until 2 o'clock, which had been sent him at noon, came on the ground immediately after Elzey, with Kcmper's 7th Virginia, Hays's 7th Louisiana, and Barksdale's 13th Missis sippi regiments. This brigade, by the personal direction of General Johnston, was marched by the Holkham house across the fields to the left, entirely around the woods through which Elzey had passed, and, under a severe fire, into a posi tion in line of battle, near Chinn's house, outflanking the enemy's right.

At this time, about 3.30 r. M., the enemy, driven back on the left and centre, and brushed from the woods bordering the Sudley road south and west of the Henry house, had formed a line of battle of truly formidable proportions, of crescent outline, reaching, on their left, from vicinity of Pittsylvania, the old Carter mansion, by Matthcws's and in rear of Dogan's, across the turnpike near to Chinn's house. The wowls and fields were filled Avith their masses of infan try and their carefully preserved cavalry. It was a truly magnificent, though redoubtable, spectacle, as they threw forward, in fine style, on the broad, gentle slopes of the ridge occupied by their main lines, a cloud of skirmishers prepara tory for another attack.

But as Early formed his line and Beckhain's pieces played upon the right of the enemy, El/ey's brigade, Gibbons's 10th Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart's 1st Maryland, and Vaughn's 3d Tennessee regiments, Cash's 8th and Kcrshaw's 2d South Carolina, AYithers's 18th and Preston's 26th Virginia regiments advanced in an irregular line, almost simultaneously, with great spirit, from their several positions upon the front and flanks of the enemy in their quarter of the field. At the same time, too, Early resolutely assailed their right flank and rear. Un der this combined attack the enemy was soon forced, first, over the narrow pla teau in tho southern angle made by the two roads so often mentioned, into a patch of woods on its western slope, thence back over Young's Branch and the turnpike into the fields of the Dogan farm, and rearward, in extreme disorder, across the country in all available directions, towards Bull Run. The rout had now become general and complete.

About the time that Elzey and Early were entering into action, a column of tho enemy, Reyes's brigade, of Tyler's division, made its way across the turnpike between Bull Run and the Robinson house, under cover of a wood and brow of the ridges, apparently to turn my right; but was easily repulsed by a few shot from Latham's battery—now united and placed in position by Captain D. B. Har ris of tho Virginia Engineers, whose services during tho day became his charac ter as an able, cool, and skilful ofticer—and from Alburtis's battery, opportunely ordered by General Jackson to a position to tho right of Latham's, on a hill commanding the lino of approach of tho enemy, and supported by portions of regiments collected together by the staff officers of General Johnston and my self.

Elzey's brigade, meanwhile, joined by the 19th Virginia regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Strange, of Cocke's brigade, pursued the now panic-stricken, fugitive enemy. Stuart, with his cavalry, and Bcckhani, had also taken up tho pursuit

along the road by which the enemy had come upon the field that morning, but, soon cumbered by prisoners who thronged his way, the former was unable to attack the mass of the fast-fleeing, frantic Federalists.

Withers's, R. T. Preston's, Cash's, and Kershaw's regiments, Hampton's Legion, and Kemper's battery, also pursued along the Warreuton road by the stone bridge; the enemy having opportunely opened a way for them through the heavy abattis which my troops had made on the west side of the bridge several days before. But this pursuit was soon recalled in consequence of a false re port which unfortunately reached us, that the enemy's reserves, known to be fresh and of considerable strength, were threatening the position of Union Mills Ford.

Colonel Radford, with six companies Virginia cavalry, was also ordered by General Johnston to cross Bull Run and attack the enemy from the direction of Lewis's house; conducted by one of my aids, Colonel Chisolm, by the Lewis Ford to the immediate vicinity of the suspension bridge, he charged a battery with great gallantry, took Colonel Corcoran, of the 69th regiment New York Volunteers, a prisoner, and captured the Federal colors of that regiment, as well as a number of the enemy. He lost, however, a promising officer of his regiment, Captain Winston Radford.

Lieutenant-Colonel Muuford also led some companies of cavalry in hot pur suit, and rendered material service in the capture of prisoners, and of cannon, horses, ammunition, etc., abandoned by the enemy in their flight.

Captain Lay's squadron of the Powhatan Troop, and Utterback's Rangers, Virginia Volunteers, attached to my person, did material service under Captain Lay, in rallying troops broken for the time by the onset of the enemy's masses.

During the period of the momentous events, fraught with the weal of our country, which were passing on the blood-stained plateau along the Sndley and Warrenton roads, other portions of the line of Bull Run had not been void of action of moment, and of influence upon the general result.

While Colonel Evans and his sturdy band were holding at bay the Federal advance beyond the turnpike, the enemy made repeated demonstrations with artillery and infantry upon the line of Cocke's brigade, with the serious inten tion of forcing the position, as General Scheuck admits in his report. They were driven back with severe loss, by Latham's (a section) and Rogers's four 6-pouuders, and were so impressed with the strength of that lino as to be held in check and inactive, even after it had been stripped of all its troops but one company of the 19th Virginia regiment under Captain Duke, a meritorious officer. And here it is worthy of notice, that in this encounter of our 6-pounder guns, handled by our volunteer artillerists, they had worsted such a notorious adversary as the Ayres's, formerly Shermans, battery, which quit the contest under the illusion that it had weightier metal than its own to contend with.

The centre brigades, Bonham's and Longstreet's, of the lino of Bull Run, if not closely engaged were, nevertheless, exposed for much of the day to an annoy ing, almost incessant, fire of artillery of long range. But by a steady, veteran-like maintenance of their positions, they held virtually paralyzed, all day, two strong brigades of the enemy, with their batteries (four) of rifled guns.

As before said, two regiments of Bonham's brigade, 2d and 8th South Carolina Volunteers, and Kemper's battery, took a distinguished part in the battle. The remainder, 3d, Williams's, 7th, Bacon's, South Carolina Volunteers, llth, Kirk-land's, North Carolina regiment, six companies 8th Louisiana Volunteers, Shields's battery, and one section of Walton's battery, under Lieutenant Garnett, whether in holding their post, or taking up the pursuit, officers and men dis charged their whole duty with credit and promise.

Longstreet's brigade, pursuant to orders prescribing his part of the opera tions of the centre and right wing, was thrown across Bull Run early in the morning, and, under a severe fire of artillery, was skilfully disposed for the as sault of the enemy's batteries in that quarter, but was withdrawn subsequently in consequence of the change of plan already mentioned and explained. The troops of this brigade were 1st, Major Skinner, llth, Garland, 24th, Lieutenant-Colonel Hairston, 17th, Corse, Virginia regiments, 5th North Carolina, Lieuten ant-Colonel Jones, and Whitehead's company Virginia cavalry ; throughout the day these troops evinced the most soldierly spirit.

After the rout, having been ordered by General Johnston in pursuit, in the direction of Centreville, these brigades advanced nearly to that place, when, night and darkness intervening, General Bonham thought it proper to direct his own brigade, and that of General Longstrcet, back to Bull Run.

General D. R. Jones, early in tlio day, crossing Bull Run with his brigade, pursuant to orders indicating his part in the projected attack by our right wing and centre on the enemy at Centreville, took up a position on the Union Mills and Centreville road, more than a mile in advance of the Run. Ordered back in consequence of the miscarriage of the orders to General Ewell, the retrograde movement was necessarily made under a sharp fire of artillery. At noon this brigade, in obedience to new instructions, was again thrown across Bull Run to make a demonstration. Unsupported by other troops, the advance was gal lantly made until within musket-range of the enemy's force, Colonel Davies's brigade, in position near Rocky Run, and under the concentrated fire of their artillery. In this aftair the- 5th, Jenkins's, South Carolina, and Captain Foun tain's company of the 18th Mississippi regiment, are mentioned by General Jones as having shown conspicuous gallantry, coolness, and discipline, under a combined fire of infantry and artillery. Not only did the return-lire of the brigade drive to cover the enemy's infantry, but the movement unquestionably spread through the enemy's ranks a sense of insecurity, and danger from an at tack by that route on their rear at Centrcville, which served to augment the extraordinary panic which wo know disbanded the entire Federal army for the time. This is evident from the fact that Colonel Davies, the immediate ad versary's commander, in his oflicial report, was induced to magnify one small company of our cavalry, which accompanied this brigade, into a force of two thousand men, and Colonel Miles, the commander of the Federal reserves at Centreville, says the movement " caused painful apprehensions for the left flank" of their army.

General Ewell, occupying for the time the right of the lines of Bull Run at Union Mills Ford, after the miscarriage of my orders for his advance upon Ccu-

treville in the afternoon, was ordered by General Johnston to bring up his bri gade into battle, then raging on the left flank. Promptly executed as this movement was, the brigade, after a severe march, reached the field too late to share the glories, as they had the labors, of the day. As the important position at the Union Mills had been left with but a slender guard, General Ewell was at once ordered to retrace his steps and resume his position, to prevent the pos sibility of its seizure by any force of the enemy in that quarter.

Brigadier-General Holmes, left with his brigade as a support to the same position, in the original plan of battle, had also been called to the left, whither he marched with the utmost speed, but not in time to join actively in the battle.

Walker's rifled guns, of this brigade, however, came up in time to be fired with precision and decided execution at the retreating enemy, and Scott's cavalry, joining in the pursuit, assisted in the capture of prisoners and war-munitions.

This victory, the details of which I have thus sought to chronicle as fully as were fitting an official report, it remains to record, was dearly won by the death of many officers and men of inestimable value, belonging to all grades of our society.

In the death of General Barnard E. Bee the Confederacy has sustained an irreparable loss, for, with great personal bravery and coolness, he possessed the qualities of an accomplished soldier, and an able, reliable commander.

Colonels Bartow and Fisher, and Lieutenant-Colonel Johnston of Hampton's Legion, in the fearless command of their men, gave earnest of great usefulness to the service, had they been spared to complete a career so brilliantly begun. Besides the field-officers already mentioned as having been wounded while in the gallant discharge of their duty, many others also received severe wounds after equally honorable and distinguished conduct, whether in leading their men forward, or in rallying them when overpowered and temporarily shattered by the largely superior force to which we were generally opposed.

The subordinate grades were likewise abundantly conspicuous for zeal and capacity for the leadership of men in arms. To mention all, who, fighting well, paid the lavish forfeit of their lives, or at least crippled, mutilated bodies, on the field of Manassas, cannot well be done within the compass of this paper, but a grateful country and mourning friends will not suffer their names and services to be forgotten and pass away unhonored.

Nor are those officers and men who were so fortunate as to escape the thick-flying, deadly missiles of the enemy less worthy of praise for their endurance, firmness, and valor than their brothers-iii-arms, whose lives were closed or bodies maimed on that memorable day. To mention all who exhibited ability and brilliant courage, were impossible in this report; nor do the reports of brigade and other subordinate commanders supply full lists of all actually deserving of distinction. I can only mention those whose conduct came immediately under my notice, or the consequence of whoso actions happened to be signally im portant.

It is fit that I should in this way commend to notice the dauntless conduct and imperturbable coolness of Colonel Evans; and well, indeed, was he support ed by Colonel Sloan and the officers of the 4th South Carolina regiment, as also

Major Wheat, than whom no one displayed more brilliant courage, until carried from the field, shot through the lungs, though, happily, not mortally stricken. But in the desperate contest to which these brave gentlemen were for a time necessarily exposed, the behavior of officers and men, generally, was worthy of the highest admiration; and assuredly, hereafter, all there may proudly say: We were of that band who fought the first hour of the battle of Manassas. Equal honors and credit must also be awarded, in the pages of history, to the gallant officers and men who, under Bee and Bartow, subsequently marching to their side, saved them from destruction and relieved them from, the brunt of the enemy's attack.

The conduct of General Jackson also requires mention, as eminently that of an able, fearless soldier and sagacious commander—one fit to lead his efficient brigade. His prompt, timely arrival before the plateau of the Henry house, and his judicious distribution of his troops, contributed much to the success of the day. Although painfully wounded in tin; hand, he remained on the tield to the end of the battle, rendering invaluable assistance.

Colonel William Smith was as efficient, as self-possessed, and brave ; the influ ence of his example and his words of encouragement was not confined to his immediate command, the good conduct of which is especially noticeable, inas much as it had been embodied but a day or two before the battle.

Colonels Harper, Hunton, and Hampton, commanding regiments of the re serve, attracted my notice by their soldierly ability, as with their gallant com mands they restored the fortunes of the day, at a time when the enemy, by a last desperate onset, with heavy odds, had driven our forces from the fiercely contested ground around the Henry and Robinson houses. Veterans could not have behaved better than those well-led regiments.

High praise must also be given to Colonels Cocke, Early, and Elzey—brigade commanders—also to Colonel Kcrshaw, commanding, for the time, the 2d and 8th South Carolina regiments. Under the instruction of General Johnston, these oflicers reached the field at an opportune, critical moment, and disposed, handled, and fought their respective commands with sagacity, decision, and successful results, which have been described in detail.

Colonel J. E. 13. Stuart likewise deserves mention for his enterprise and abil ity as a cavalry commander. Through his judicious reconnoissauce of the coun try on our left flank, he acquired information both of its topographical features and of the positions of the enemy, of the utmost importance in the subsequent and closing movements of the day on that flank ; and his services in the pursuit were highly effective.

Captain E. P. Alexander, C. S. Engineers, gave me seasonable and material as sistance early in the day with his system of signals. Almost the first shot fired by the enemy passed through the tent of his party, at the stone bridge, where they subsequently firmly maintained their position in the maintenance of their duty—the transmission of signal messages of the enemy's movements—for sev eral hours under fire. Later, Captain Alexander acted as my Aide-de-camp, in the transmission of orders and in observation of the enemy.

I was most effectively served throughout the day by my volunteer aids—


Colonels Preston, Manning, Chestnut, Miles, Rice, Hey ward, and Chisolui—to whom I tender my thanks for their unflagging, intelligent, and fearless discharge of the laborious, responsible duties intrusted to them. To Lieutenant S. W. Ferguson, Aidc-de-Camp, and Colonel Hey ward, who were habitually at my side from 12 noon until the close of the battle, my special acknowledgments are due. The horse of the former was killed under him by the same shell that wounded that of the latter. Both were eminently useful to me, and were distinguished for coolness and courage, until the euemy finally gave way and fled in wild dis order in every direction—a scene the President of the Confederacy had the high satisfaction of witnessing, as he arrived upon the field at that exultant moment.

I also received, from the time I readied the front, such signal service from H. E. Peyton, at the time a private in the London Cavalry, that I have called him to my personal staff. Similar services were also rendered me repeatedly, dur ing the battle, by T. J. Randolph, a volunteer Acting Aide-de-Camp to Colonel Cocke.

Captain Clifton II. Smith, of the general staff, was also present on the field, and rendered efficient service in. the transmission of orders.

It must be permitted me here to record my profound sense of my obligation to General Johnston, for his generous permission to carry out my plans, with such modifications as circumstances had required. From his services on the field—as we entered it together, already mentioned—and his subsequent watch ful management of the reinforcements as they reached the vicinity of the field, our countrymen may draw the most auspicious auguries.

To Colonel Thomas Jordan, rny efficient and zealous Assistant Adjutant-Gen eral, much credit is due for his able assistance in the organization of the forces under my command, and for the intelligence and promptness with which he has discharged all the laborious and important duties of his office.

Valuable assistance was given to me by Major Cabcll, chief officer of the Quar termaster's Department, in the sphere of his duties; duties environed by far more than the ordinary difficulties and embarrassments attending the opera tions of a long-organized, regular establishment.

Colonel R. B. Lee, Chief of Subsistence Department, had but just entered on his duties; but his experience and long and varied service in his department made him as efficient as possible.

Captain W. II. Fowle, whom Colonel Lee had relieved, had previously exerted himself to the utmost to carry out orders from these headquarters, to render his department, equal to the demands of the service; that it was not entirely so, it is due to justice to say, was certainly not his fault.

Deprived by sudden severe illness of the services of the Medical Director, Sur geon Thomas H. Williams, his duties were discharged by Surgeon R. L. Brodie to my entire satisfaction. And it is proper to say that the entire medical corps of the army present, embracing gentlemen of distinction in the profession, who had quit lucrative private practice, by their services in the field, and subse quently, did high honor to their profession.

The vital duties of the Ordnance Department were effectively discharged under the administration of my Chief of Artillery and Ordnance, Colonel Samuel Jones.

At one time, when reports of evil omen and disaster reached Camp Pickens with such circumstantiality as to give reasonable grounds of anxiety, its com mander, Colonel Territt, the commander of the intrenched batteries, Captaiii Sterrett, of the Confederate States Navy, and their officers, made the most effi cient possible preparations for the desperate defence of that position in exk-em-ity ; and, in this connection, 1 regret my inability to mention the names of those patriotic gentlemen of Virginia, by the gratuitous labor of whose slaves the iu-trenchcd camp at Manassas had been mainly constructed, relieving the troops from that laborious service, and giving opportunity for their military instruction.

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas II. Williamson, the Engineer of those works, as sisted by Captaiii D. 15. Harris, discharged his duties with untiring energy and devotion, as well as satisfactory skill.

Captain W. II. Stevens, Engineer C. S. A., served with the advanced forces at Fairfax Court-House for some time before the battle. He laid out the works there, in admirable accordance with tins purposes for which they were designed ; and yet, so as to admit of ultimate extension and adaptation to more serious uses, as means and part of a system of real defence when determined upon. He has shown himself to be an officer of energy and ability.

Major Thomas G. Khett, after having discharged for several months the labo rious duties of Adjutant-General to the commanding officer of Camp Pickens, was detached to join the Army of the Shenaudoah, on the eve of the advance of the enemy; but, volunteering his services, was ordered to assist on the staff of General Bonham, joining that officer at Centreville on the night of the 17th, be fore the battle of Bull Run, rendered valuable services until the arrival of Gen eral Johnston, when lie was called to the place of Chief of Staff'of that officer.

It is also proper to acknowledge the signal services rendered by Colonels B. F. Terry and T. Lubbock, of Texas, who had attached themselves to the staff* of General Longstrcct. These gentlemen made daring and valuable reconnois-Kanees of the enemy's positions; assisted by Captains Gorec and Chichestcr, they also carried orders on the field. And on the following day, accompanying Cap taiii Whitehead's troops, to take possession of Fairfax Court-House, Colonel Ter ry, with his unerring rille, severed the halliard, and thus lowered the Federal Hag found still floating from the cupola of the court-house there. He also se cured a large Federal garrison flag, designed, it is said, to be unfurled over our intrenchments at Manassas.

In connection with the unfortunate casualty of the day—that is, the miscar riage of the orders sent by courier to Generals Holmes and Ewell, to attack the enemy in flank and reverse at Centreville, through which the triumph of our arms was prevented from being still more decisive, I regard it in place to say: a divisional organization, with officers in command of divisions, with appropri ate rank, as in European services, would greatly reduce the risk of such mishaps, and wonl(J advantageously simplify the communications of the general in com mand of a field, with his troops.

While glorious for our people, and crushing in effect upon the morale of our hitherto overweening adversary, as were the events of the battle of Manassas, the field was only won by stout fighting, and, as before reported, with much

loss, as is precisely exhibited in the papers herewith marked " F," " G," and " H," and being lists of the killed and wounded. The killed outright numbered three hundred aud sixty-nine, the wounded fourteen hundred and eighty-three, mak ing an aggregate of casualties of eighteen hundred and fifty-two.

The actual loss of the enemy will never be known ; it may only be con jectured. Their abandoned dead, as they were buried by our people where they fell, unfortunately, were not enumerated; many parts of the fields were thick with their corpses, as few battle-fields have ever been. The official re ports of the enemy are studiously silent on this point, but still afford us data for an approximate estimate. Left almost in the dark, in respect to the losses of Hunter's aud Heintzelman's divisions—first, longest, and most hotly engaged— we are informed Sherman's brigade, Tyler's division, suffered in killed, wounded, and missing, six hundred and nine, that is, about eighteen per cent, of the bri gade. A regiment of Franklin's brigade (Gorman's) lost twenty-one per cent. Griffin's (battery) loss was thirty per cent., and that of Reyes's brigade, which was so handled by its commander as to be exposed to only occasional volleys from our troops, was at least feu per cent. To these facts, add the repeated references in the reports of the more reticent commanders to the "murderous" fire to which they were exposed, the ''pistol-range" volleys aud galling mus ketry of which they speak as scourging their ranks, aud we are warranted in placing the entire loss of the Federalists at over forty-five hundred in killed, wounded, and prisoners. To this may be legitimately added, as a casualty of the battle, the thousands of fugitives from the field who have never rejoined their regiments, and who are as much lost to the enemy's service as if slain or disabled by wounds. These may not be included under the head of "missing," because, in every instance of such report, we took as many prisoners of those brigades or regiments as are reported "missing."

A list appended, marked "I," exhibits some fourteen hundred and sixty of their wounded and others who fell into our bauds and were sent to Rich mond ; some were sent to other points, so that the number of prisoners, includ ing wounded, who did not die, may be set down as not less than sixteen hun dred. Besides these, a considerable number, who could not be removed from the field, died at the several farm-houses and field-hospitals withiu teu days following the battle.

To serve the future historian of this war, I will notice the fact that, among the captured Federalists, arc officers and men of forty-seven regiments of volun teers, besides, from some nine different regiments of Regular troops, detachments of which were engaged.

From their official reports we learn of a regiment of volunteers, six regiments of Miles's division, and the five regiments of Runyon's brigade, from which we have neither sound nor wounded prisoners. Making allowances for mistakes, we are warranted in saying that the Federal army consisted of at least fifty-five reg iments of volunteers, eight companies of Regular infantry, four of marines, nine of Regular cavalry, and twelve batteries (49 guns). These regiments, atone time, as will appear from a published list,* numbered, in the aggregate, fifty-four thou-

* Marked "K."

sand one hundred and forty, and averaged nine hundred and sixty-four each; from an order of the enemy's commander, however, dated July 13th, we learn that one hundred men from each regiment were directed to remain in charge of their respective camps; some allowance must further he made for the sick and details, which would reduce the average to eight hundred men ; adding the Regular infantry, cavalry, and artillery present, an estimate of their force may be made.

A paper appended, marked " L," exhibits, in part, the ordnance and supplies captured, including some 28 field-pieces, of the best character of arm, with over 100 rounds of ammunition for each gun, 37 caissons, G forges, 4 battery-wagons, G4 artillery-horses, completely equipped, 500,000 rounds of small-arms ammuni tion, 4500 sets of accoutrements, over 500 muskets, some 9 regimental and gar rison Hags, with a number of pistols, knapsacks, swords, canteens, blankets, a largo store of axes and intrenching tools, wagons, ambulances, horses, camp and garrison equipage, hospital stores, and some subsistence besides.

Added to these results, may rightly be noticed here, that by this battle an invading army, superbly equipped, within twenty miles of their base of opera tions, has been converted into one virtually besieged, and exclusively occupied for months in the construction of a stupendous .series of fortifications, for the defence of its own capital.

I beg to call attention to the reports of the several subordinate commanders, for reference to the signal parts played by individuals of their respective com mands. Contradictory statements, found in these reports, should not excite surprise, when we remember how difficult, if not impossible, it is to reconcile the narrations of by-standers or participants in even the most inconsiderable affair, much less the shifting, thrilling scenes of a battle-field.

Accompanying are maps, showing the positions of the armies on the morning of 21st July, and of three several stages of the battle, also of the line of Bull Run, north of Blackburn's Ford. These maps, from actual surveys made by Captain D. 1J. Harris, assisted by Mr. John Grant, were drawn by the latter witU an accuracy worthy of high commendation.

In the conclusion of this report it is proper, and, doubtless, expected, that I should acquaint my countrymen with some of the sufficient causes that pre vented the advance of our forces, and prolonged, vigorous pursuit of the enemy to and beyond the Potomac. The War Department has been fully advised, long since, of all those causes, some of which only arc proper to bo here com municated. An army which had fought as ours that day, against uncommon odds, under a July sun, most of the time without water, and without food, except a hastily snatched meal at dawn, was not in condition for the toil of an eager, effective, pursuit of an enemy immediately after the battle. On the fol lowing day an unusually heavy and unintermitting fall of rain intervened to obstruct our advance, with reasonable prospects of fruitful results. Added to this, the want of a cavalry force of sufficient numbers made an efficient pursuit a military impossibility.

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BKAUKKCAKD, Genl. Comdfr.



MANASSAS, July 22d, 1861. Special Orders, No. 146.

The command of General Beauregard, as it stood organized on the 20th instant into brigades or separate commands, will, for the present, return to that organi zation, with the following headquarters:

IST BRIGADE, Brigadier-General M. L. Bonham, at Ccntrcville.

SD BRIGADE, Brigadier-General Ewell, at or about Union Mills, in advance.

3o BRIGADE, Brigadier-General D. R. Jones, at a position on Union Mills and Centreville road, about half-way between Braddock's road and Union Mills Ford.

4Tii BRIGADE, Brigadier-General Lougstreet, at or about the crossing of the Centreville and Union Mills road and the Braddock's road.

5Tii BRIGADE, Colonel Cockc, at or about suspension bridge, over Cub Run.

CTII BRIGADE, Colonel Early, in position on Bull Run, one mile above Stone Bridge.

EVANS'S command, at or about Stone Bridge, except Hunton's regiment Vir ginia Volunteers, which will remain at these headquarters for the present.

Colonel RADFORD will concentrate such of his companies as are not specially detached, at a point on Bull Run to the left of Mitchell's Ford.

The commanders of all regiments will take immediate measures for collecting stragglers from other regiments, who will be then sent forthwith, under an officer and proper guides, to join the headquarters of the several brigades to which they belong.

By command of General Bcanregard. • THOMAS JORDAN, A. A. Gcul.


MANASSAS, July 22d, 1861. Special Orders, No. 147.

I. The President deeming it important that General Holmes shall return with his command to his former position, at an early moment, he will, accordingly, prepare to march in the morning.

II. The President regrets to be obliged, at this juncture, to require this move ment of General Holmes, after his remarkable march to the support of this army at a critical juncture. A march for which the general commanding has to express his sincere thanks, and also for the critical services rendered on tho field of battle yesterday, by that portion of his brigade which was called to tho immediate scene of action.

By command of General Beauregard. THOMAS JORDAN, A. A. Gcnl.


MANASSAS, July 23d, 1861. Special Orders, No. 140.

I. Brigadier-General Bonham will advance his command forthwith, and occupy Vienna Station. His command will consist of the troops of the 1st

brigade of this army, Hamper's and Shields's batteries, all cavalry at present attached, and as many companies of Colonel Radford's regiment of cavalry as are not assigned to other brigades.

II. The utmost degree of military precaution must be exercised in the execu tion of these orders, especially in approaching within several miles of Vienna Station; and no unnecessary exposure of our men to fire from intrenchmcnts must occur. The ground hi advance, therefore, must be carefully reconnoitred; but at the same time celerity of movement is of great importance.

By command of General Beauregard. THOMAS JORDAN, A. A. Genl.


MAXASSAS, July 25//1, 18C1. Special Orders, No. 169.

I. The subdivisions of this Army Corps will be organized at once, as follows

I ftt Brigade.

Genl. M. L. BOXIIAM, Commanding.

2d South Carolina regiment Volunteers, Col. J. B. KERSHAW. &1 " " " " J. II. WILLIAMS.

7th " " THOMAS G. BACOX.

8th " " E. B. CASH.

Genl. R. S. EWELL, Commanding.

5th Alabama regiment Volunteers, Col. ROBERT E. RODES. Oth " « J.J. SEIBELS.

i:5th " LitMit.-Col.TiiEO. O'NAUA.

12th Mississippi '• " Col. R. GRIFFITH.

Genl. I"). R. JONKS, Commanding.

5th South Carolina regiment Volunteers, Col. M. JENKINS. 4th « J. E.B.SLOAN.

0th " " " C.A.WIXDER.


4//t I>riyadc.

Genl. JAMES LONGSTREET, Commanding. 1st Virginia regiment Volunteers, Col. P. T. MOORE. 7th " " J.L. KEMPER.

llth " " " S. GARLAND, Jr.

17th " " " M. D. CORSE.

Genl. PHILIP ST. GEORGE COCKE, Commanding. 18th Virginia regiment Volunteers, Col. R. E. WITHERS. 19th " « Lieut.-Col. J. B. STRANGE.

28th " Col. R. PRESTOX.

49th " " " « WILLIAM SMITH.

Gth Brigade.

Geiil. J. A. EARLY, Commanding.

24th Virginia regiment Volunteers, Lieut.-Col. HAIRSTOX. f>th North Carolina regiment Volunteers, Col. D. K. McRAE. 13th " " " J.H.HoKE.

llth " " " « KlRKLAND.

7th Brigade.

Col. N. G. EVANS, Commanding.

7th Mississippi regiment Volunteers, Lieut.-Col. WILLIAM L. BRANDON. 13th " " " Col. WILLIAM BARKSDALE.

17th « " " « W. S. FEATHERSTON.

18th " " " " E. R.BURT.

8th Brigade.

Col. J. G. SEYMOUR, Commanding.

6th Louisiana regiment Volunteers, Col. J. G. SEYMOUR. 7th " " " « HARRY HAYS.

8th " " " " H.B.KELLY.

9th " " " " RICHARD TAYLOR.

1st " Special Battalion, Major C. R. WHEAT.

Separate Commands.

8th Virginia regiment Volunteers, Col. EPPA HUNTON, LeesLurg. Hampton's Legion.

II. The Horse Artillery, for the present, will he placed:

KEMPER'S Battery with the 1st Brigade. SIIIELDS'S " " 4th "

LATHAM'S " " 5th "

WALTON'S Battery will concentrate at or ahout the left of Mitchell's Ford for purposes of instruction.

III. The Cavalry, for the present, will he distributed in the following manner: Colonel RADFORD, with six companies, will he on duty with the 1st Brigade

while in advance.

The remaining four companies of Radford's regiment, with Lieutenant-Col onel MUNFORD, will report for service with the 4th Brigade.

IV. Such changes as are involved in these orders will he made without delay. By command of Gcnl. Beauregard. THOMAS JORDAN, A. A.-Geul.



MANASSAS, Aug. 8th, 1861. Special Orders, No. 212.

I. Colonel Evans will march with his brigade, with as little delay as practica ble, via Gum Spring and Ball's Mills, to Lecsburg, or its vicinity. He will as-

sume command of all the Confederate States forces in London County, and post them as may appear best calculated to protect that section from the incursions of the enemy, and for the repression of any disaffection among any class of the inhabitants.

II. The officers of the Quartermaster's Department will provide the necessary and ample means of transportation fur this movement.

By command of Genl. Beauregard. THOMAS JORDAN, A. A.-Genl.

MAXASSAS, VA., Aug. IltJt, 18G1.

Dear General, —In order to prevent any coup dc main from McClellan, as already communicated to yon, I have ordered Longstreet to Fairfax Court-I louse, Jonos to Germantown, and Bonham to fall back on or about Flint Hill, leaving a strong mounted guard at or about Vienna.

Cockc goes to Centreville.

E \vell to Sangsters Cross-roads.

Early and Hampton to intersection of Occoquan road with Wolf-run Shoals road.

Evans has gone to Lccsburg.

The Louisiana brigade remains, for the present, at or about Mitchell's Ford.

Will you permit me to suggest that Elzey should concentrate his brigade at or about Fairfax Station, and Jackson at or about the cross of Briuldock's road with the Fairfax Court-House and Station road ?

Stuart to remain where he is.

From those advanced positions we could at any time concentrate our forces for offensive or defensive purposes. I think, by a bold move, we could capture the enemy's advance forces at Annandale ; and, should he come out to their sup port, give him battle—with all the chances in our favor. But, for that object, we must have all our artillery ready in every respect.

Yours very truly, G. T. BEAUREGARD.

Genl. J. I]. JOHNSTON, C'ouulg. Manassas, Va.


RICHMOND, Aug. 13th, 1861.

Sir, —You are hereby informed that the President has appointed you, by and with the advice of Congress, a General (to take rank July 21st, 1861) in the Army of the Confederate States. You are requested to signify your acceptance or non-acceptance of said appointment. And should you accept, yon will sign before a magistrate the oath of office herewith, and forward the same, with your letter of acceptance, to this department. L. P. WALKER, Sec. of War.

Genl. G. T. BEAUREGARD, etc., Mauassas.

MANASSAS, VA., Aug. 14//», 1861.

Dear General,—In order to prevent the enemy from taking possession of your work and battery at Evausport, before assistance could be sent to it, I would

make it a strong profile redoubt (closed), with ditch, flanking arrangements, and the whole work large enough to contain a pretty strong garrison. If there be a height near by that commands it, I would make it less strong; but I would hold and fortify that height. I do not think they would attempt to storra such a work. If you have no Engineer, apply for one from Kichniond, otherwise I may, before long, be able to send you one; but prefer you should get one from the War Department.

Nothing new here j we are still organizing our forces.

Yours very truly, G. T. BEAUREGARD, Geul. Comdg.

Genl. T. II. HOLMES, Comdg. at Fredericksburg, Va.

P. S. Apply for Captain F. D. Lee, Corps of Engineers, South Carolina Volun teers, now with Major Trapier at Port Royal. B.


MANASSAS, VA., Aug. 17th, 1861.

Sir, —I have the honor to acknowledge the appointment of " General," con ferred upon me by the President of the Confederate States, with the advice and consent of Congress, to date from July 21st, 1861. I accept with gratitude said appointment, and will exert myself to the utmost to be deserving of so high a position. I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Geul. C. S. A. Hon. L. P. WALKER, Sec. of War, Richmond, Va.


MANASSAS, August 19th, 1861. To Col. THOMAS JORDAX, Adj.-Geul. 1st Corps Army of the Potomac:

Sir, —Knowing it to be General Beauregard's desire to increase his artillery force as far as practicable, I have the honor to submit the following:

Some time since a requisition was made by the Washington Artillery for three guns to complete their armament, and a caisson and some extra boxes to repair damages received in action. After some trouble and delay, unavoidable on my part, Colonel Pendleton promised to iill this requisition (which had been approved at these headquarters), and set aside, I believe with General John ston's consent, the necessary articles. On going to receive them to-day, I found that they had been issued yesterday, by direct order from General Johnston, to Captain Hamilton's battery—a company recently arrived from Georgia, without guns.

Two guns previously assigned to Lee's battery, of Hampton's Legion, have also been taken from another battery.

In view of these facts I have the honor to suggest that steps be taken at once to procure other guns, through either the War Department or the founderies where- they are cast. To make the increase as immediate^ effective as pos sible, I would also recommend that additional guns bo given to all of our already organized batteries capable of expansion, as follows:

To the Washington Artillery, three, making in all sixteen; to Lee's battery, of Hampton's Legion, four, making ten; to Latham's battery, two, making six.

The officers of these batteries say they can easily receive these increases.

Probably Kemper's, Shields's, and the London batteries might also be strengthened, but I have not seen their officers.

Authority has been obtained for armament, as light artillery, of Captain Bon-yer's company of the 28th Virginia regiment, and Captain Stribling's of the 49th Virginia, but their equipment must all be obtained in Richmond, as the follow ing disposition has been made of the captured artillery:

Xo. of cans rcc'd. No. of puns rct'd.

By General Johnston's command 18 3

" " Hohnes's " 5 0

Ik-uuregard's " _4 3

Total a? 6

The guns noted as returned, in place of some of the captured, are either in ferior, or damaged, except two small G-pounders turned in by Colonel Pcudleton and re-issued to Captain Hamilton.

Of the remaining four, one is an iron G-pounder, dismounted, and the other three have been lent to Captain Cutts's company for drill. I am, very respectfully yours,

E. P. ALEXANDER, Capt. Eng., and Chief Ord. and Arty.

MAXASSAS, August 23rf, 1861.

Dear General, —Longstreet had better look into this, and if there is such a force unsupported, take possession of it, or drive it off.

I do not want to make a war of outposts, neither do I wish that ours should be driven in just now. I had rather withdraw after driving back the enemy.

Yours truly, J. E. JOHNSTON, Geul.

Genl. BEAUREGARD, Comdg., etc.

MANASSAS, VA., August 2~tli, 1861.

Capt.,— I desire that you should call upon the Prest. with M;ijor Gorgas, to represent to him that I have but thirty-five pieces of light artillery for thirty-five regiments of infantry, or one piece per regiment, whereas I think wo ought to have at least three per regiment. Should wo not bo able to have additional light batteries, we must then supply their places with rocket bat teries, for the purpose of frightening the untrained horses of the enemy. Wo must also have an increase of cavalry, of which the enemy is very deficient. Wo ought to have here about four thousand, or even live thousand, mounted men, for the purpose, of charging on McClellan's batteries and raw infantry, after our rockets shall have put them in disorder. Colonels Preston, Miles, and Chestnut may be able to help you. Respectfully, your obedient servant,


Capt. E. P. ALEXANDER, care of Major J. GORGAS, Richmond, Va.

DUNCAN'S HOUSE, August 31s/, 18G1. Dear General, — ******

I enclose a letter from Stuart, received this morning. My apprehension in re-

gard to this post, is (lie being drawn into a serious action in its defence. So near them, and so far from our front, such a thing would he disadvantageous.

Wilcox goes to Winchester first to see if an adequate force can he raised, and will write or send thence to Evans. Yours truly, J. E. JOHNSTON.


MANASSAS, VA., Sept. 6lh, 1861.

Dear General, —I have heen reflecting much on our advanced positions since my visit to them, and I think, under the present circumstances, we can neither give them up, nor allow them to he taken from us by a coup de main, or an attack in force, for the effect on the morale of the enemy would be tremendous. From what I saw the other day, our reserves at Fairfax Court-House, and Sta tion (about eight miles back), are too far back to be able to come up in time to the assistance of those advanced positions; hence we must make up our minds, I think, to advance them, for the present at any rate, in which case I would propose the following arrangement and positions:

One brigade (Bouham's) to or about old Court-House, near Vienna.

Two brigades (D. R. Jones's and Cocke's) to or about Falls Church.

One brigade (Longstreet's) to Munson's Hill.

One brigade (of yours) to half-way (about) between Munsou's and Mason's hills.

One brigade (of yours) to Mason's Hill.

Two brigades (Walker's and Early's) to or about Aunaudale.

One brigade (Ewell's) to Springfield.

Some of your other brigades might be put at Ccntrevillo, Fairfax Court-House and Station, as a second reserve, which might occasionally be moved towards the Potomac to keep the enemy constantly alarmed for the safety of Washington, and to cross into Maryland should he send off a large force from Washington to any point on the lower Potomac. If these suggestions are ac cepted, I would then transfer my headquarters to Aunaudale, otherwise to Fair fax Court-House. Yours, very truly, G. T. BEAUREGAUD.

Genl. J. E. JOHNSTON, Duncan's House, Manassas, Va.


Dear General, —I cannot perceive the advantage of placing ourselves so near the enemy's works as you propose (the line of Munson's and Mason's hills, etc.). They seem to me too strong to be attacked by us with our present means.

We can rely upon sufficient supplies neither of ammunition, ordnance, nor provisions.

We should bring on a war of outposts and continual skirmishing, which would gradually improve the United States troops, and so diminish the difference now existing in our favor.

The line of Fairfax Court-House seems to me sufficiently forward for our pur poses, and on it our troops are more easily supplied than on the other. An approach to Washington must be by crossing the Potomac above. For that we

want the men and artillery I have asked for. That line, even, is too far from Evansport, which we must be in position to assist.

I confess that I do not like the present arrangement in front, at Munson's and Mason's hills. In authorizing their occupation I did not mean to have such posts—posts of such magnitude—established, and now nothing but reluc tance to withdraw—to go backward—prevents me from abandoning them.

Very truly yours, J. E. JOHNSTON.

1 desired Mnjor Khett to say to you, day before yesterday, that I propose to move my headquarters forward. J. E. J.



Sir, —I have the honor to state that the efficiency of the Ordnance Depart ment of this corps is at present much hindered from want of transportation for ammunition. In our present situation this should not be allowed for an hour, and yet my reserve ammunition has been ready, and only awaiting transporta tion, for upwards of a week. I made requisition, about the 20th ultimo, for a suitable train, but as yet only a fourth of it has been furnished. I have fur nished the Acting Chief Quartermaster of this corps (just appointed) with a statement of what is requisite, but at present the difficulty appears to be a lack of authority on his part to purchase where supplies can be obtained.

Respectfully submitting the case for the action of the General, I have the honor to bo, Your obedient servant,

E. P. ALEXANDER, Capt. Eng., Chief Ord. and Arty.

To Col. THOMAS JORDAN, A. A. Genl. 1st Corps.


FAIRFAX COURT-HOUSE, Sept. 13M, 1861. To His Excellency President JEFFERSON DAVIS, Richmond, Va.:

Dear Sir, — I have the honor to enclose you, herewith, copy of information just received from Washington, through a very good private channel, and which, no doubt, contains a great deal of truth mixed up with some exaggera tion. There is, however, little doubt but that the enemy is making Herculean efforts to increase his forces in infantry, artillery, and cavalry, for a last effort in or about these quarters, before the cold weather sets in. He probably has, at present, on both sides of the Potomac, and about Washington, not far from seventy thousand men, including a largo number of field-guns; but all in more or less disorganized condition, and still under the last impression of the battle of Manassas.

On the 11 th instant we had quite a brisk affair ffarant postc at Lewinsville, between about three hundred men and two pieces of artillery on our part, and on that of the enemy three regiments and eight pieces of artillery, which re sulted in their complete rout, with the known loss of about one dozen men killed, wounded, and prisoners. '• Nobody hurt" on our side, not even a horse! But I suppose General Johnston will transmit to-day the official reports of the affair, which does so much credit to Colonel Stuart, of the cavalry. lie and

General Longstreet are two very promising officers. The latter will be ordered to-day to advance with his brigade to Falls Church, and General Ewell to An-nandale, so as to be ready to support, at a moment's notice, the forces at and about Munson's and Mason's hills (the latter is called also Chestnut Hill). I transferred, yesterday, my headquarters to this place, so as to be nearer the scene of operations.

I am under the impression, from all I can learn, that the enemy, whenever ready, will make a strong demonstration in our front, and then endeavor to turn this place, either by Dumfries, on the lower Potomac, or by Leesburg, on the upper Potomac; in either case we ought to be prepared to strike him from Camp Pickeus as a centre, for which purpose we must have collected at that point a large depot of provisions and ammunition. But, to insure success, the Army of the Potomac ought to be under one head, with also one head to each of the two corps of said army; for the geueral-iu-chief of such a large force has too much to engross his time and attention, to be able to discharge also the important duties of chief of a corps cVarmee; and I take the liberty of presenting this important subject to your serious and immediate consideration, as I believe no time is to be lost in this matter. We still continue to have a great deal of sickness among the troops, but less so than when they were all on the southern side of Bull Run.

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


P. S. General McClellau is said, by the prisoners, to have been present at Lewinsville.


FAIRFAX COURT-HOUSE, Sept. 23d, 1861. Special Orders, No. 353.

I. First Lieutenant Edmund H. Cummins, Second Lieutenant G. T. Cox, and Private Walter Bowie, of the Beauregard Rifles, are hereby authorized to enlist a company for the war, for service with a rocket battery, with the 1st Corps Army of the Potomac.

II. They are authorized to open recruiting stations at Fredericksburg, Rich mond, and Lynchburg, and the assistant quartermaster of this corps will fur nish them with transportation to these points, and also to themselves and re cruits back to these headquarters.

III. The company will be mustered into service on the enrollment of not less than fifty privates.

By command of Gcnl. Beauregard,




FAIRFAX COURT-HOUSE, Oct. 8th, 1861.

Dear General, —Yours of the Gth has just been received. I regret I have not time to write all I could say on the subject of the defences of New Orleans and Louisiana. I will, however, give you the main points.

1st. Obstruct the navigation of the river up and doicn, particularly the latter, by means of rafts properly constructed, and anchored under the guns of shore batteries. Forts Jackson and St. Philip are the proper ones below the city. If you cannot construct such rafts as designed by Mr. John Roy and myself, anchor in the stream several separate strong rafts, with openings large enough for day navigation; be careful that the enemy does not cut them loose at night, hence they must be well guarded. Have hot-shot furnaces properly filled, etc., in all your water batteries.

2d. Look to the defences of Proctor's Landing, Tower Duprc's, Battery Bieu-• vcnu, Forts Macomb, Pike, and Livingston, and Berwick Bay. Their arma ments, provisions, ammunition, etc., must be complete. Garrison, seven or ten men to a gun.

oil. The land defences of the city must not be neglected ; they should be about three miles from the suburbs of the city, on both sides of the river. I prefer detached redans, closed at the gorge, with strong palisading, or redoubts, espe cially when you have artillery for them, with here and there infantry, parapets between them; otherwise & cremaillere line, or something on the plan ofRayni-art's "System," as given in Mahan's field fortifications. The great points are to be able to guard your lines with small forces, and not to be too far from your reserve or reserves, which should occupy the most central positions to the points threatened by the enemy.

My experience here teaches me that the weakest profiles will do—a command of about eight feet above the natural ground is, I think, sufficient; the crest-ought to be four feet three inches above the tread of the banquette; the latter three feet wide and slope one upon two.

4th. Whenever you will ascertain positively that an expedition is about to approach the, coast of Louisiana, you ought to have felled into the many bayous which lead from the Gulf Coast and Lake Borgne to the mainland, the trees which grow along their banks, so as to impede their navigation, except such as you may require for use yourself. Fishermen and oystermcn should then bo prohibited from going beyond half a mile of the shores, for fear of their being captured and made to act as pilots, which was the case when the British at tacked New Orleans in 1814-15. With regard to the persons who may be of use to you, I will suggest the following names:

1. Messrs. I. Freret, Philip Guesnon, Norton, McClusky; Corns. Fellows, Thomas B. Lee, W. C. C. Claiborne, Charles Denegre, and I. A. Deblanc, who arc merchants of high positions and means, and know all about the environs and resources of New r Orleans.

Wilkinson, and Charles J. Villerd (another brother-in-law), parish of Plaque-mines, ditto for their parishes.

3. Mr. S. K. Wharton, Superintendent of the Is". C. House, is very competent; J. M. Roy, assistant architect N. C. House, a practical mechanic, very superior and full of resources; J. II. Reid and son, and Henry Dart, for many years over seers and superintendents of the forts already named by me, are very reliable as military executive engineers; William Bally, chief-engineer Os. Railroad; these gentlemen (of par. 3) can give you all the information you may require about the localities they have worked at, and about the working men of New Orleans, as well as the resources of the place.

Wishing you success, I remain, yours very truly,


Maj.-Genl. MANSFIELD LOVELL, Fairfax Court-House.



RICHMOND, Oct. 22d, 1861. General Orders, No. 15.

I. A department is established, to be known and designated as the Depart ment of Northern Virginia. It will be composed of the three following dis tricts, viz.: the Valley District, the Potomac District, and the Aquia District. The Valley District will embrace the section of country between the Blue Ridge and the Allegheny Mountains; the Potomac District between the Blue Ridge Mountain and the left bank of Powell River; and the Aquia District between Powell River and the mouth of the Potomac, including the Northern Neck, and embracing the counties on cither side of the Rappahaimock River from, its mouth to Fredericksburg.

II. General J. E. Johnston is assigned to the command of the Department of Northern Virginia ; General P. G. T. Beauregard to the command of the Potomac Division ; Major-General T. II. Holmes to the command of the Aquia District; and Major-General T. J. Jackson to the command of the Valley District.

III. The troops serving in the Potomac District will be brigaded and formed into divisions as follows :

First Division, under command of Major-General Van Dorn :

First Brigade, Brigadier-General Clark, to consist of four Mississippi regiments.

Second Brigade, Brigadier-General Whiting, to consist of five Mississippi reg iments.

Third Brigade, Brigadier-General Stuart, to consist of the cavalry of this dis trict, to be united into one brigade.

Fourth, the Hampton Legion, under Colonel .

Second Division, under command of Major-General G. W. Smith :

First Brigade, Brigadier-General Exvell, to consist of four Virginia regiments.

Second Brigade, Brigadier-General S.Jones, to consist of four Virginia regiments.

Third Brigade, Brigadier-General Early, to consist of four Virginia regiments.

Fourth Brigade, Brigadier-General Crittenden, to consist of two Virginia reg iments, two Tennessee regiments, and one Kentucky regiment.

Fifth Brigade, Brigadier-General Cocke, to consist of four Virginia regiments.

Third Division, under command of Major-General Longstrcet:

First Brigade, Brigadier-General D. It. Jones, to consist of four South Carolina regiments.

Second Brigade, Brigadier-General Bonham, to consist of four South Carolina regiments.

Third Brigade, Brigadier-General Wilcox, to consist of four Alabama regiments.

Fourth Brigade, Brigadier-General Rodes, to consist of four Alabama regiments.

Fifth Brigade, Brigadier-General Taylor, to consist of five Louisiana regiments.

Fourth Division, under command of Major-General E. K. Smith :

First Brigade, Brigadier-General Walker, to consist of four Georgia regiments.

Second Brigade, Brigadier-General Toombs, to consist of four Georgia regiments.

Third Brigade, Brigadier-General El/ey, to consist of three Georgia regiments and one Maryland.

Fourth Brigade, Brigadier-General Evans, to consist of five North Carolina regiments.

Fifth Brigade, Brigadier-General Wigfull, to consist of three Texas regiments and one Louisiana regiment.

The particular regiments for these several brigades will be designated by the commanding general of the Department of Northern Virginia, in conformity to this programme, according to States.

The arrangement will be gradually carried into effect, as soon as, in the judg ment of the commanding general, it can be safely done under present exigencies.

By command of the Secretary of War. S. COOPKR, Adj. and Insp. Genl.




NEAR (,'KNTRKVILLK, Aor.Sd/A, 16G1. General Orders, No. 75.

A new banner is intrusted to-day, as a battle-flag, to the safe keeping of the Army of the Potomac. Soldiers : Your mothers,your wives, and your sisters have made; it. Consecrated by their hands, it must lead you to substantial victory, and the complete triumph of our cause. It can never be surrendered, save to your unspeakable dishonor, and with consequences fraught with immeasurable evil. Under its untarnished folds beat back the invader, and find nationality, everlasting immunity from an atrocious despotism, and honor and renown for yourselves—or death.

By command of General Beauregard.



Jan. '3d, Id72. Genl. BKAURKGARD :

Dear Sir, —In a letter recently received from my friend, Edward C. Anderson, Esq., of Savannah, whom, doubtless, you know, he says : " At the first battle of


Manassas, the regimental colors resembled, each, other so closely that each party accused the other of displaying its colors. On that account, an attempt was made by General Joseph E. Johnston to substitute State colors for those of the Confederacy ; but not being able to obtain them, except for Virginia regiments, designs were called for. Most of these were designs by Louisianiaus, and were presented by General Beauregard. That selected had a red ground with a blue diagonal cross."

Will you do me the favor to inform me who was the designer of the well-known battle-flag of the Confederacy thus introduced by you, and as much as may be convenient concerning it, and the other designs referred to f I am also very desirous of ascertaining the exact devices of the flag hoisted on the City Hall at New Orleans —the flag of Louisiana, when Farragut appeared before the city, iu April, 1862. My impression of it is that it had a blue Union blazoned with a single white star, and that its field was striped horizontally white, red, blue; but I do not recollect the number of the stripes or the order of their arrangement.

The enclosed prospectus will show you why I make these inquiries. I pro pose giving, as you see, some account of the flags of the Confederacy, and shall illustrate the account with a page giving a colored representation of eighteen varieties of flags. I wish to obtain, for that purpose, a correct drawing of the State flag of Louisiana.

Excuse my trespassing upon you in this matter, and I am Yours, respectfully,


MANASSAS, Sept. 5lh, 1861.

Dear General, —Colonel Miles informs me that the flag committee voted down any change of our flag by a vote of four to one, ho being alone in favor of it. I wrote to him then to propose that we should have two flags—a peace or parade flag, and a war flag, to be used onlj* on the field of battle—but Congress having adjourned, no action will be taken in the matter. How would it do for us to address the War Department on the subject for a supply of regimental, war, or badge flags, made of red with two blue bars crossing each other diagonally, on which shall be introduced the stars—the edge of the ziag to be trimmed all around with white, yellow, or gold fringe ? We would then, on the field of bat tle, know our friends from our enemies.

I send you, herewith, a letter written yesterday to General Cooper. It would seem that the small-minded politicians and newsmongers about Richmond can not understand that we should be able to get along harmoniously together. To prevent any evil consequences resulting therefrom, I thought it better to write said letter to Cooper. Yours truly, G. T. BEAUREGARD.

Genl. J. E. JOHNSTON, Ceutreville, Va.

P. S.—Perhaps the rumor is due to my having sent my ordnance officer to Rich mond to hurry up all the artillery and war rocket-batteries he could possibly get. Let us each get all that we can, of both, and then we will see about equalizing

them to our forces—the latter can be clone so likewise, if you desire it, when re i ii fore cine ri ts shall have stopped coming up. G. T. B.

MAXASSAS, VA., &>pt. 4 It, 1301.

Dear Colonel, —Your favor of the 2d instant was received last night. I am glad to hear of the probable success of my artillery raid. I hope the rockets (war) will also be forthcoming. I place much reliance upon them, for the pur pose of running off the field McClellan's bipeds and quadrupeds.

I regret to hear of the failure about the change of flag; but what can now 1)0 done is, to authorize commanding generals in the field to furnish their troops Avith a " field, or battle-flag," which shall be according to your design, leaving out, however, the white border, or rim, separating the blue from the red. I would have it simply a red ground with two blue bars crossing each other diagonal!}', on which shall be the white stars; a white or golden fringe might go all around the sides of the flag; we would then have two flags—a peace, or parade, flag, and a war flag. This would obviate all difliculties.

I will bo most happy to sec here your committee. I hope no dissensions be tween "the powers that be" will result from the action of said committee; for what we require most is the harmonious action of every department of our gov ernment. We have no time now for quarrels and bickerings; but there is no doubt it would bo a national good if one or two individuals of our acquaint ance could be sent "on a foreign mission,'' somewhere about the Celestial Em pire or to Japan. I send you, herewith, a letter to General Cooper, which I wish you to read and then send to him. I have thought it was best to stop the thing referred to therein, at once. Head it, also, to Colonels Chestnut and Preston. Yours truly,


Col. W. POIJCHEI: MILKS. Member of Congress, Richmond, Va.

SATURDAY, Jan. 13th, 1872.

Dear General, —Apologizing for not having communicated with you on the subject of your note of yesterday, I have to say that I presented several designs (colored, on pasteboard) which were prepared prior to my leaving New Orleans, with my command, in May, 1861.

The battle-flag which was adopted, as I remember, was a square flag with the bar of blue running diagonally from the corners, making a Greek cross of blue, with stars white on a red field. I do not recollect if there was any discussion involving the question of the character of the cross. The flag was adopted as the best to be recognized in battle, to distinguish our troops in action.

The time that has elapsed since we were at Fairfax, where these interesting occurrences took place, will excuse the absence of any precise, or even authori tative, statement. My memory is not as certain as I would desire.

I am, General, very truly yours, J. 13. WALTON.


FRANKFORT, KY., Jan. IStJi, 1872.

My dear General, —Your kind note of the llth instant, enclosing copy of letter to Captain Preble, in reference to Confederate " battle-flag," is received. Icon-cur with you in regard to your recollections of the circumstances connected •with its adoption, and have so endorsed upon the letter.

Caramba! what recollection the sight of your handwriting and reference to "Fairfax Court-House," " battle-flags," etc., brings swarming in my mind. But "What is done, is done," and can't be undone. My wife joins me in kind re gards to yourself and family. As ever, very truly, your friend,


SAVANNAH, Jan. IGth, 1872.

My dear General, —Your letter of the llth is received, and, as you request, I write my "recollections" of the origin of the " battle-flag."

It was generally believed by those with whom I was in the habit of convers ing, just after the battle of Manassas, that some of the Federal regiments bore Confederate colors in the action, and Northern papers contained similar accusa tions against us. This led to observation of the difficulty of distinguishing the colors of the armies from each other. On that account I attempted to procure, from the different Southern States, State flags for their regiments. Only the- Virginia regiments were supplied in this way, however, when, you and other leading officers concurring as to the necessity, I determined to have colors made by the Quartermaster's Department. Many designs, drawn by members of the army, were offered—most by you. All of them were oblong. I selected one of those you offered, but changed the shape to square, and fixed the size: colors of infantry to be four feet, of artillery three, and standards to be two and a half. They were then made by the Quartermaster's Department as soon as practicable.

I had no conference or correspondence with the AVar Department or civilians on the subject. My recollection is that it was an army affair, and, when ques tioned on the subject, I have always said so. I was not a party to your consulta tion with Colonel Miles, but heard long after, indirectly, from him, that he had corresponded with you in relation to a new design for colors.

I have no particular confidence in my memory, but this subject has been so often talked of in my presence, both during and since the war, that I believe that I am not far wrong in my recollection of my own agency in this matter, such conversations having prevented me from forgetting circumstances not im portant enough to be thought of otherwise.

There is no doubt that in this generation Southern troops will fight better under that than any other flag, as you say. Yours truly,



FRANKFORT, KY., Jan. 19//», 1872.

My dear General, —Yours of the 13th instant reached me yesterday. I en closed and scut the copy of letter to Captain Preble back to you on the 15th. I

concur in the amendments about tlie Latin and Greek crosses, and general recollection about Colonel Walton's proposed flag, and accept your amendments of the 13th.

With kind regards fur you and yours, from Mrs. S. and myself, I remain as ever. Very truly, your friend,


99 NASSAU STKEET, NKW YORK CITY, March 2lst, 1831. Genl. G. T. BEAURECIARD, New Orleans, La.:

Dear General, —In reply to your inquiry, I have to say, my recollection of the circumstances leading to the adoption of the Confederate battle-flag is, that you took the initiative in this matter, and directed the preparation of the various drawings, etc., which were submitted to General Johnston. The design which you preferred was approved by him, modified at his suggestion, by making the Hag square in form instead of rectangular, as originally drawn. In this shape it was acceptable to all who were consulted on the subject.

Yours truly, GUSTAVUS W. SMITH.

NKW ORLEANS, La., Jan. — 1872.

Dear Sir, —In answer to the inquiries contained in your letter of the 3d instant, relative to the origin of the Confederate battle-flag, and the devices of the Louisiana State flag, flying on the City Hall of New Orleans when Commodore Farragut appeared before this city in April, 18(52, I give you, with pleasure, the following information.

At the battle of Manassas, on the 2lst of July, 1801,1 found it difficult to dis tinguish our then Confederate flag from the United States flag, especially when General Early made the flank movement which decided the fate of the day, and I determined at that time to have adopted a "battle-flag" which would be en tirely different from any State or Federal flags. I submitted 1113* views on the subject to General Joseph E. Johnston, commanding, who approved of them, and to the Confederate States War Department, who made at first some objec tions to them, but finally consented. I then designed a diagonal red cross with white stars on a blue field, but. on consultation with General Johnston and Colonel W. Porcher Miles, Chairman of the House Military Committee, the latter gentleman suggested a red ground, with a blue cross, and the former a square flag, instead of the slightly oblong one devised by me; these suggestions were adopted, after colored drawings of the two flags had been made and discussed, as well as a nearly corresponding one from Colonel J. B. Walton of the Louisiana Washington Artillery. It had the merit of being small and light, and of being very distinct at great distances. Should we ever be compelled to have a for eign war, I trust that it will be adopted as our national battle-flag, to which Southern soldiers will always gladly rally in a just cause.

The State flag referred to by you contained thirteen stripes, four blue, six white, and three red, commencing at top with the colors as written. The union

was red, Avith its sides equal to the width of seven stripes; in its centre was a single pale-yellow star with five points. I remain, yours very truly,


Naval Rendezvous, Boston Navy Yard, Mass.

FRANKFORT, KY., Jan. 15th, 1872.

I was serving with the Confederate army, in front of Mauassas Junction, when the Confederate "battle-flag" was adopted, and took part in the discussions in regard to it.

My recollections on the subject fully coincide with those expressed within by General Beauregard. GUSTAVUS W. SMITH.

MEW YORK, Jan. 28th, 1872.

My dear General, —Your missing note of the llth instant has come to hand at last, with the copy of your note to Captain Preble, and, although I have already substantially answered it in my own note of the other day, I will state now that I distinctly recollect that the origin of our battle-flag was due to the trouble which arose, as you say, at the battle of Manassas, in consequence of the similarity between the Confederate and Federal flngs, on that occasion.

I remember that yon at once set to work to find a guard against a similar accident, and made the first suggestion which I heard upon the subject.

I recollect also that there was a good deal of discussion touching the form and precise style of the flag, and that it was finally settled to adopt the small square flag with the Greek cross.

You will doubtless recollect the ceremony of presentation of these flags, first to Longstreet's division, and afterwards to Van Dorn's division, at Fairfax Court-Housc, and the General Order that I read to the troops on both occasions.

It is strange how soon the details of such affairs become vague and unsettled in the memory of men. This should serve to show how uncertain the details of history must be.

You may recollect that at Shiloh we had three battle-flags. That of Bragg's corps was like the Virginia one—the model of which you furnished. Polk's corps differed in some way, although suggested by it; or designed to be, perhaps, precisely alike, but differing by accident; and the one of Hardce's corps, which was of a blue ground with a central white medallion—one that the corps had brought from Kentucky.

The whole idea of these battle-flags, however, came from the battle of Ma nassas, and was raised by you to obviate a repetition of the difficulty experienced then. I recollect myself that, after the battle was over, and I had ridden in advance, I sa\v a flag with a regiment well in advance of me, that I was for the time confident must be the Federal flag, and which I could not believe could bo ours from its appearance, even when very close to it. It was only the appear ance of the men that gave me confidence to approach.

IIow much of the history of the most curious details of that war will go uii-written!

I see Early, in a recent lecture or address, gives Longstreet a slap about slow ness and unreadiness, and laek of prompt obedience at Gettysburg, and attrib utes disaster there to him. But the fact is, the disaster was almost inevitable from the character of the campaign, although, doubtless, all that Early says is true. The campaign was one that ought never to have been made.

But will it ever be said in history, that Polk's, and even Bragg's, tardiness in quitting Corinth, and their slowness on the next day, kept us from reaching Shiloh in time to fight Saturday ? I presume I have approached as close to the allegation as will ever be done, in my chapter on the battle, in the work on Forrest's campaigns.

Were justice done Bragg he would figure very badly in several particulars, including gross duplicity and bad faith, both to Johnston and yourself. Proof of this is iu a valuable book called " Diary of a Clerk of the War Department " (Confederate), of which I wrote you once, and which yon ought to have if you do not have it.

The Federal side of the history is having all its own way; and it will be more and more so, year by year, until our great struggle will almost sink into oblivion, or leave little more trace behind than that of a pebble cast into a deep lake. Yours very truly, THOMAS JORDAN.



General, —It is the wish of the general commanding this corps to inaugurate a system by which leaves of absence shall be given to persons whose families or attain* actually need their early presence at home. For the present he has de termined to grant leaves, to begin after Christinas, to the extent of two captains and five lieutenants from a regiment, and say at the rate often men—non-com missioned officers and privates—from a company of average size. But he is anx ious that these leaves should at first be extended to those in each regiment to whom it will be of the most essential and manifest service. Therefore, I am instructed to say, he desires these leaves to be determined by the recommenda tion of the colonels or commanders of the regiments, after an examination of pressing applications within the limits just prescribed. Not to exceed thirty days will be granted at present.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,


SUMMERS HOUSE, Jan. 16//i, 18G2.

Dear General, —My horse is so smooth shod, and it is so slippery, that I am afraid of him—-fearful of a fall, as ho was near falling with me to-day.

I send over the paper, however, enclosed in the very envelope in which it came to this office. I saw General Johnston, and explained to him the design and effect of the publication of the order—ho seeming quite satisfied.

I was sorry to see Hill's note. The river will close soon under such cold as this afternoon.

General Cooper will not inspect. I asked him to inspect the books and pa pers, but lie said lie would not liave time. I had a long talk with him on gen eral subjects. He was surprised to find that but one copy of the Order No. 1 had been received. There is ail Order No. 2 out, he says, about sending persons to recruit up the companies.

Hoping that you are better to-day, I will ride over in the morning for your Orders. Thanks for the socks. Yours truly,


P. S. The endorsement does not order promulgation of Orders No. 1. It directs you, by name, to act in accordance with that order in case of Captain Fowler, whose company had re-enlisted.

SUMMERS HOUSE, Jan. I7th, 1862.

Dear General, —Under cover to you came this morning packages addressed to all the colonels of the Army of the Potomac, of both corps and the reserve, and which packages were severally addressed care of "General Beauregard." Now these packages I knotv to contain the orders about re-enlistments and recruit ment. I found in the package a number of loose copies of both orders—copies of which I enclose for your files.

This is another marked instance of the determination at Richmond to hold you as the commander of the A. P.

I think no copies of these orders have come either for General Johnston or Smith, G. W. and Kirby. It might bo well for me to enclose to General John ston (unofficially) the two orders, and state the circumstances of the receipt of these packages ; or, you could do it.

I send you a paper for General Hill. I also send a package of envelopes which I had ready done up to send you, when your message was delivered.

The pencils were sent at request of Colonel Chisolm.

Yours truly, THOMAS JORDAN.

SUMMERS HOUSE, Dec. 27th, 1861.

Dear General, —It is so bitter cold in the wind, to-night, that I shall not go over.

I would have gone over this morning, to consult your wishes as to some office matters; but, just as I was about to leave, I was informed you were not at home.

I submit to your consideration the rough note of a letter to General Johnston, on a subject really of importance. The War Department persistently ignore the existence of corps commands, and address you as Commander of the "Poto mac District." General Johnston does not give you the district command, and you cannot assume it; but he never, in orders, gave you the corps command. You took the designation yourself. In view of the action, and repeatedly ex pressed wishes, of the War Department, I submit that you should drop the des ignation of Headquarters 1st Corps, and inform General Johnston of the fact. It

is best for all. I sincerely believe that this should be done, otherwise some dif ficulty will grow out of it, though, as yet, the speck is not as "large as one's hand." Yours truly, THOMAS JORDAN.


RICHMOND, Jan. 20th, 1862. Genl. G. T. BEAUREGARD :

In my opinion you ought not to go to the Mississippi. I will explain to you when we meet. Your friend, 11. TOOMBS, Biig.-Geul.

CENTREVILLE, Jan. 21s/, 18G2. about 12 h. M.


Very well; please explain as soon as possible. I am anxious to do for the best. G. T. BEAUKEUARD.

Genl. R. TOOMBS.

RICHMOND, Jan. 20//J, 18G2. Cant. E. P. ALEXANDER :

Urge General Beauregard to decline all proposals and solicitations.


Private and confidential.

RICHMOND, VA., Jan. 23rf, 18G2.

Dear General,—

My reasons for venturing to send you the telegram I did were few, but very decided. In the first place, I think the line of the Potomac is by far the most important in the contest. It is at that point, by strong and energetic move ments, wo will be compelled to disentangle ourselves from our present difficul ties. I consider your presence there as of the highest possible importance to the success of those movements. And I think it will bo much easier for yon to get away from there than for the country to get you back there. Therefore you ought to stand firmly by it. You will not be ordered away; but, once away, you would not, in my opinion, be ordered back.

I am, very truly yours, etc., R. TOOMBS.


RICHMOND, Jan. 24M, 1862. Genl. BEAUREGARD :

Don't think Toombs's objections valid. Your letter not received. May I tell President you will go? Say go. ROGER A. PRYOR.

[Answered on the 25th at 11 A. M., as follows :]

Yes, I will go. May God protect our cause! G. T. BEAUREGAKD.



My dear Colonel, —I need not assure you that I am deeply gratified by the mark of consideration conferred by the gentlemen of Congress in the request of •which you have been the agreeable bearer; a request made, as you advise me, with the sanction of his Excellency the President, who has been pleased to ex press the desire that my own wishes should be consulted before any assignment to command should be made which shall separate me from the Army of the Potomac.

I am a soldier of the cause and of my country, read}', at this juncture and dur ing this war, to do duty cheerfully wheresoever placed by the constituted au thorities; but I must admit that I would be most reluctant to disassociate my fortunes from those of this army, and unwilling to bo permanently separated from men to whose strong personal attachment for arid confidence in me I shall not affect blindness. In view, however, of the season, and of the bad condition of the country for military operations, I should be happy to be used elsewhere, if my services are considered at all necessary for the public good, whether on the Mississippi or at any other threatened point of the Confederate States.

But, should it be determined to employ me at Columbus, as you have given me to understand is the wish of the President and Congress, I hope it will be regarded as entirely within my province to be anxiously heedful of the means of men and material to be placed at my disposition. In this connection I should be particularly anxious to secure all possible assistance, and should desire to take with me certain officers of my command, not indispensable to this army, in addition to my present general and personal staff, to aid me in the organiza tion of the forces which may be intrusted to me. But, even with their assist ance, time may be required to attain that degree of organization and discipline so essential to military success. I repeat, however, that I am entirely at the service of the country. Yours very truly, G. T. BEAUREGARD.

P. S. Should I be ordered to the Mississippi Valley, it would be advisable, I think, to request the newspapers not to publish it at present, for obvious reasons. G. T. B.

To Col. ROGER A. PRYOR, Richmond, Virginia.

PETERSBURG, August 15M, 1864.

General, —In answer to your note of yesterday, I have the honor to submit the following statement:

Some time in the winter of 1862, it was represented, at a meeting of the Mili tary Committee of the Provisional Congress, that the aspect of affairs in Ken tucky and Tennessee was discouraging to our cause, and that your presence in that quarter was extremely desirable, as well by reason of the confidence with which the circumstance would inspire the public, as the efficiency which it would probably impart to the operations of our forces on that theatre. Yield ing to these suggestions, the committee unanimously agreed that an effort should be made to procure your transfer to the Army of the West. To that

end, I was directed to consult the President on the propriety of the measure, and, in case he should approve it, I was requested to solicit your own. acqui escence in the transfer.

The President having avowed his readiness to order you West, on the condi tion that you were not averse to the change, I went to Centreville to obtain your consent. I remember you evinced the greatest reluctance to be detached from the Army of the Potomac, but, yielding at last to my earnest importunities, urged with an exclusive reference to the public interest, and supported by the written entreaties and arguments of representatives from the States chiefly concerned, you were pleased to give a qualified assent to the proposed transfer. What your conditions were, I find it impossible, after so long a lapse of time, to recollect with sufficient particularity to affirm with an absolute assurance of correctness. My impression, however, is that they were such as you repre sent. Whatever they were, I understood the Honorable Secretary of War to agree to them, and I telegraphed you accordingly. In reply you asked for orders.

As well as I am able to recollect the details of an affair so long past, and which, until the present moment, I have had no occasion to recall, this, General, is a correct statement of the circumstances of your transfer from the Army of the Potomac to the Army of West Tennessee and Kentucky.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


CKNTREVILLE, VA., Jan. 25//t, 1862.

Dear General, —Yours just received ; I will be on hand as directed. I have received a telegram from Pryor which says I must go temporarily to Columbus. Much fear is entertained of the Mississippi Valley. I have author ized him to say Yes. I will be back here as soon as possible. I will not leave until you are back.

Yours, etc., 0. T. BEAUREGARD.



RICHMOND, 26//t Jan., 18G2.

Sir, —Colonel Pryor has reported to the President, as the result of his inter view with you, that you would cheerfully accept the command of the defences at Columbus, Ivy., and that your absence from the Army of the Potomac, at the present time, would not seriously impair its efficiency.

He, therefore, desires that you proceed at once to report to General A. S. Johnston at Bowling Green, Ky., and thence proceed, as promptly as possible, to assume your new command at Columbus, which is threatened by a powerful force, and the successful defence of which is of vital importance.

You are authorized to take with you your present staff, or such members of it as you wish to accompany you. I am, your obedient servant,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Sec. of War. Geul. G. T. BEAUREGARD, Manassas.


CENTREVILLE, VA., Jan. 29th, 1862.

Sir, —I have this day received the War Department letter of the 26th instant, ordering me to assume "command of the defences" at Columbus, Ky. I will leave here, as soon as practicable, via Nashville and Bowling Green.

I remain sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Gcnl. Comdg. lion. J. P. BENJAMIN, Sec. of War, Richmond, Va.

CENTREVILLE, Jan. 29th, 1862.

My dear General, —I have just received the enclosed letter, much to my regret. I have been hoping that the views of the War Department might be changed.

Your transfer from this army is a great loss to it—a very great loss to me. The troops you have formed regard you as their general, and my confidence in you makes me feel weakened by our separation. You will take with you my best wishes. The best is that you may have fair opportunities; you know how to use them. Very truly yours, J. E. JOHNSTON.



Near CENTREVILLE, Jan. 29th, 1862.

General, —In addition to my staff, it is essential I should be allowed Major G.W. Brent, 17th regiment Virginia Volunteers, in Inspector-General's Depart ment. Captain S. W. Presstman, 17th Virginia, Captain J. M. Wampler, 8th Virginia, as Topographical and Military Engineers, under the recent Act of Congress. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Geul. Comdg. SAMUEL COOPER, Adj. and Insp. Genl., Richmond.

CENTREVILLE, VA., Jan. 30th, 1862.

Sir, —I have the honor to report that I shall hurry through to Bowling Green to report to General A. S. Johnston.

As it will be my object to have my command thoroughly organized as soon after my arrival at Columbus as possible, I hope I shall be excused for suggest ing to the War Department the following organization of the forces there, if not already made, to wit:

Brigades of four regiments, divisions of three brigades, with a light battery, at least, for each brigade.

Should officers of the proper rank and capacity be wanting, in part, for this organization, my anxiety for securing the efficiency of my command, to bo handled in a field unknown to me, must be my excuse, further, for respectfully recommending the following as officers whose services I would be glad to have, in case additional general officers are needed there, namely: Lieutenant-Colonel W. W. Mackall, Adjutant and Inspector General's Department, to command a divis-

ion; Colonels Charles Winder, Ctli South Carolina Volunteers, A. P. Hill, 13th regiment Virginia Volunteers, Samuel Garland, llth Virginia, John Pegrani (late 'Jd Dragoons ), and George H. Stewart, 1st Maryland, as brigade com manders, in the order mentioned, as they may be required.

It is proper for me to say, that personally I am but slightly acquainted \vith these officers, and have been induced to present their names from the confidence they have inspired, as soldiers, in those who know them well.

A certain number of engineer, or acting engineer, officers are also absolutely essential for the efficient defence of such a position as Columbus, as well as for any offensive operations from that point. I shall take Captain D. 13. Harris, Engineer Virginia forces, with me, but hope, in addition, I may be allowed the assistance of Captain J. M. "NVampler, 8th, and S. W. Presstman, 17th, Virginia regiments, and of Captain - — Frdmeaux, 8th regiment Louisiana Volunteers, to be appointed as officers in the Provisional Engineer Corps.

I am further desirous of having the assistance of Major G. "W*. Brent, 17th regiment Virginia Volunteers, to act as an Assistant Inspector-General to Lieu tenant-Colonel Polignac, whose health is delicate. Major Brent has shown capacity for the important duties of the place, and has had experience that would make him valuable to me.

A proper signal officer will be indispensable. The best I can do is to recom mend, for appointment, ex-Lieutenant Cummins, Maryland Volunteers, now in Ilichmond, warmly recommended by Captain E. 1*. Alexander, Engineers, who has trained him for the duties.

I trust competent ordnance and subsistence officers will be found already in place, as I have none to suggest ; and it is needless for me to say how impor tant that such duties shall be efficiently discharged.

Colonel Jordan, my Adjutant-General, will give in person, to the War De partment, any additional information that may be required in connection with an army of Volunteers in the field, based on nine months' experience with this army.

I have the honor to request that written instructions, for my guidance, may be sent me through Colonel Jordan, who will join me at Columbus without delay. IZespcct fully, your obedient servant,

G. T. Bi: AUREGARD, Genl. C. S. A.

SAMTEL COOPER, Genl. and Adj. and Insp. Genl., Kichmond.


Jan. '30tli, 1862. General Orders, No. 17.

In obedience to orders received from the Secretary of War, assigning him to an important position in another department, General Beauregard is relieved from the duties of his present command.

In losing the aid of this distinguished soldier, the commanding general can not withhold the expression of his sense of the eminent services by which he has achieved so much for our country, our cause, and the renown of our arms.

By command of General Johnston.

A. P. MASON, A. A. A.-Gcul.

Feb. 12th, 1862. Col. W. \V. MACKALL, A. A.-Geul. C. S. A., Bowling Green:

£ir } —My communication of the 7th instant, sent from Fort Henry, having an nounced the fact of the surrender of that fort to Commodore Foote, of the Fed eral navy, on the 6th iust., I have now the honor to submit the following report of the details of the action, together with the accompanying papers, marked A, B, containing list of officers and men surrendered, together with casual ties, etc.


The wretched military position of Fort Henry, and the small force at my dis posal, did not permit me to avail myself of the advantages to be derived from the system of outworks, built with the hope of being reinforced in time, and compelled me to determine to concentrate my efforts, by land, within the rifle-pits surrounding the 10th Tennessee and 4th Mississippi regiments, in case I deemed it possible to do more than to operate solely against the attack by the river. Accordingly, my entire command was paraded and placed in the rifle-pits around the above camps, and minute instructions given, not only to bri gades, but to regiments and companies, as to the exact ground each was to oc cupy. Seconded by the able assistance of Major Gilmer, of the Engineers, of whose valuable services I thus early take pleasure in speaking, and by Colonels Heiman and Drake, everything was arranged to make a formidable resistance against anything like fair odds. It was known to me, on the day before, that the enemy had reconnoitred the roads leading to Fort Donelson, from Bailey's Ferry, by way of Iron Mountain Furnace ; and at 10 o'clock A. M., on the 5th, I sent forward, from Fort Henry, a strong reconnoitring party of cavalry. They had not advanced more than one and a half miles in the direction of the enemy, when they encountered their reconnoitring party. Our cavalry charged them in gallant style, upon which the enemy's cavalry fell back, with a loss of only one man on each side.

Very soon the main body of the Federal advance guard, composed of a regi ment of infantry and a large force of cavalry, was met, upon which our cavalry retreated. On receipt of this news I moved out in person, with five companies of the 10th Tennessee, five companies of the 4th Mississippi, and fifty cavalry, ordering, at the same time, two additional companies of infantry to support Cap tain Red at the outworks. Upon advancing well to the front I found that the enemy had retired. I returned to camp at 5 P. M., leaving Captain Red rein forced at the outworks. The enemy were again reinforced by the arrival of a, large number of transports. At night the pickets from the west bank reported the landing of troops on that side, opposite Bailey's Ferry, their advance pick ets having been met one and a half miles from the river.

* * *****

To understand properly the difficulties of my position, it is right that I should explain fully the unfortunate location of Fort Henry, in reference to resistance by a small force against an attack by land co-operating with the gunboats, as well as its disadvantages in even an engagement with boats alone. The entire fort, together with the intrenched camp spoken of, is enfiladed from three or

four points on the opposite shore, while three points on the eastern bank com pletely command them both—all at easy cannon range. At the same time the intrenched camp, arranged as it was ill the best possible manner to meet the case, was two thirds of it completely under the control of the fire of the gun boats. The history of military engineering records has no parallel to this case. Points within a few miles of it, possessing great advantages and few disadvan tages, were totally neglected; and a location fixed upon, without one redeeming feature, or filling one of the many requirements of a site for a work such as Fort Henry. The work itself was well built; it was completed long before I took command, but strengthened greatly by myself in building embrasures and epaul-ments of sand-bags. An enemy had but to use their most common sense in ob taining the advantage of high water, as was the case, to have complete and en tire control of the position. I am guilty of no act of injustice in this frank avowal of the opinions entertained by myself, as well as by all other officers who have become familiar with the location of Fort Henry. Nor do I desire the de fects of location to have an undue influence in directing public opinion in rela tion to the battle of the Gth instant. The fort was built when I took charge, and I had no time to build anew.

*##**#* The case stood thus: I had, at my command, a grand total of two thousand six hundred and ten men, only one third of whom had been at all disciplined or well armed. The high water in the river, filling the sloughs, gave me but one route on which to retire, if necessary ; and that route, for some distance, in direc tion at right angles to the line of approach of the enemy, and over roads well-nigh impassable for artillery, cavalry, or infantry. The enemy had seven gunboats,

with &n armament of fifty-four guns, to engage the eleven guns at Fort Henry.


I argued thus: Fort Donelson might possibly be held, if properly reinforced, oven though Fort Henry should fall; but the reverse of this proposition was not true. The force at Fort Henry was necessary to aid Fort Donelson, either in making a successful defence, or in holding it long enough to answer the pur poses of a new disposition of the entire army from Bowling Green to Columbus, which would necessarily follow the breaking of our centre, resting on Forts Donelson and Henry. The latter alternative was all that I deemed possible. I knew that reinforcements were difficult to bo had; and that, unless sent in such force as to make the defence certain, which I did not believe practicable, the fate of our right wing at Bowling Green depended upon a concentration of my entire division on Fort Donelson, and the holding of that place as long as possible ; trusting that the delay, by an action at Fort Henry, would give time for such reinforcement as might reasonably be expected to reach a point suffi ciently near Donelson to co-operate with my division by getting to the rear and right Hank of the enemy, and in such a position as to control the roads over which a safe retreat might bo effected. I hesitated not a moment. My infan try, artillery, and cavalry, removed, of necessity, to avoid the fire of the gunboats, to the outworks, could not meet the enemy there. My only chance was to de lay the enemy every moment possible, and retire the command, now outside the

main work, towards Fort Douelson, resolving to suffer as little loss as possible. I retained only the heavy artillery company to fight the guns, and gave the or der to commence the movement at once. At 10^ o'clock Lieutenant McGavock sent a messenger to me, stating that our pickets reported General Grant ap proaching rapidly, and within half a mile of the advance work; and movements on the west hank indicated that General Smith was fast approaching also. *******

At 11.45 A.M. the enemy opened from their gunboats on the fort. I waited a few moments, until the effects of the first shots of the enemy were fully appre ciated. I Uw>n gave the order to return the fire, which was gallantly responded to by the brave little band under my command. The enemy, with great delib eration, steadily closed upon the fort, firing very wild until within twelve hun dred yards. The cool deliberation of our men told from the first shot, fired with tremendous effect. At twenty-five minutes of 1 o'clock p. M. the bursting of our 24-pounder rilled gun disabled every man at the piece.

This great loss was, to us, in a degree, made up by our disabling entirely the Essex gunboat, which immediately floated down stream. Immediately after the loss of this valuable gun we sustained another loss still greater, in the closing up of the vent of 10-inch Columbiad, rendering that gun perfectly use less, and defying all efforts to reopen it.


It was now plain to be seen that the enemy were breaching the fort directly in front of our guns, and that I could not much longer sustain their fire without an unjustifiable exposure of the valuable lives of the men who had so nobly seconded me in the unequal struggle. Several of my officers, Major Gilmer among the number, now suggested to me the propriety of taking the subject of a surrender into consideration.

Every moment, I knew, was of vast importance to those retreating on Fort Donelson, and I declined, hoping to find men enough at hand to continue awhile longer the fire now so destructive to the enemy. In this I was disappointed. My next effort was to try the experiment of a flag of truce, which I waved from the parapets myself. This was precisely at ten minutes before 2 o'clock p. M. The flag was not noticed, I presume from the dense smoke that enveloped it, and, leaping again into the fort, I continued the fire for five minutes, when, with the advice of my brother officers, I ordered the flag to be lowered, after an engagement of two hours and ten minutes with such an unequal force.

The surrender was made to Flag-Officer Foote, represented by Captain Stem-ble, commanding gunboat Cincinnati, and was qualified by the single condition that all officers should retain their side arms, that both officers and men should be treated with the highest consideration due prisoners of war, which was promptly and gracefully acceded to by Commodore Foote.


Confident of having performed my whole duty to my government in the de fence of Fort Henry, with the totally inadequate means at my disposal, I have but little to add in support of the views before expressed. The reasons for the line of policy pursued by me are, to my mind, convincing.

Against such overwhelming odds as sixteen thousand •well-armed men (ex clusive of the force on the gunboats) to two thousand six hundred and ten badly armed, in the field, and fifty-four heavy guns against eleven medium ones, in the fort, no tactics or bravery could avail. The rapid movements of the enemy, with every facility at their command, rendered the defence, from the beginning, a hopeless one. I succeeded in doing even more than was to be hoped for at first. I not only saved my entire command outside the fort, but damaged, materially, the flotilla of the enemy, demonstrating thoroughly a problem of infinite value to us in the future. Had I been reinforced so as to have justified my meeting the enemy at the advanced works, I might have made good the land defence on the east bank. I make no inquiry as to why I was not, for I have entire confidence in the judgment of my commanding general. ******* Kespcctfully, your obedient servant,

LLOYD TILGHMAN, Brig.-Geul. Comdg. Official. Ei>. A. PALFREY, A. A. Cenl.

A. and I. G. Office, Aug. 29//i, 13G2.

CLAKKSVILLE. TKNN., Feb. 12/7*, 1802. General JOHNSTON :

Sir, —There is but little known satisfactorily of the enemy or their move ments. Up to ten o'clock last night all was quiet as usual at the fort. General IJuekner is now there. I have thought the best disposition to make of the troops on this line was to concentrate the main force at Cumberland City, leav ing at Fort Donelson enough to make all possible resistance to any attack which may bo made upon the fort, but no more. The character of the country in the roar and to the left of the fort is such as to make it dangerous to concen trate our whole force there; for, if their gunboats should pass the fort and command the river, our troops would be; in danger of being cut off by a force from the Tennessee. In this event, their road would be open to Nashville with out any obstruction whatever. The position at Cumberland City is better; for there, the railroad diverges from the river, which would afford some little facility for transportation in case of necessity ; and from thence the open country south ward towards Nashville is easily reached. Besides, from that point we threaten the flank of any force sent from the Tennessee against the fort. I am making every possible effort to concentrate the forces here at Cumberland City. I have been in the greatest dread ever since I reached this place, at their scat tered condition. The, force is inadequate to defend a line of forty miles in length, which can be attacked from three different directions. We can only be formi dable by concentration. A strong guard is all that can be left here, and this no longer than your movement can be made. I shall begin to-day, if the engineers report favorably, to blockade the river at the piers of the railroad bridge. I have taken up an idea that a "raft," secured against this bridge, can render the-river impassable for the gunb;>ats. If this is possible, it will be an immense

T *>o 1.— oJ

relief to the movements above. I am quite sure this blockade can be made at a lower stage of water, but the present stage of water renders this experiment somewhat doubtful; still, I will make every exertion to eifect the blockade, if possible. I received by telegraph your authority to make any disposition of the troops which, in my judgment, was best, and acknowledged it by despatch immediately. I am acting accordingly.

I am, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. FLOYD, Brig.-Genl. C. S. A.

NASHVILLE, Feb. 16th, 1862. To General BEAUREGARD :

At 2 A. M. to-day Fort Donelson surrendered. We lost all.


NASHVILLE, Feb. 16th, 1862.

10 o'clock A. M. To General BEAUREGARD, Corinth:

At 2 A. M. to-day Fort Douelson surrendered. Wo lost all the army except half of Floyd's brigade, which crossed the river. The head of our column is about reaching Nashville. W. W. MACKALL, A. A. Genl.


No. 1. MEMPHIS, Feb. I8tlt, 1862,

To General BEAUREGARD and General POLK :

Inform me, at the earliest moment, of the plans adopted and movements con templated, that I may rally all the Tennessee forces possible. I will go with them myself. ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor, etc.

No. 2. MEMPHIS, Feb. 18th, 1862.


I telegraphed the President, Generals Johnston and Pillow, and yourself, this morning, to know the plans and movements of the future, stating that, as soon as informed, I would rally all the force possible from Tennessee, and place my self with it. I am compelled to know this, and issue orders accordingly, before leaving here. If you do not feel authorized to communicate by telegraph, write, and send a special messenger. I will see you as soon as I can.

ISIIAM G. HARRIS, Governor, etc.

JACKSON, Feb. IStli, 1862.

5 P. M. Governor I. G. HARRIS :

I am anxious to see you here with General Polk, to discuss and determine tho matters referred to by you. Am still too unwell to assume direct command.


MEMPHIS, Feb. 19//1,1862. To General BEAUREGARD :

I have ordered out every man in the State who is, and can be, armed. I re turn to Nashville in the morning. Regret I cannot see you.


RICHMOND, Feb. 19//i, 18G2. To General BEAUREGARD, Jackson, Tenn.:

Your despatch to General Cooper received. Evacuation decided on. Select defensive, position below. Look to safety of artillery and munitions. A fleet of boats should promptly be sent from Memphis, or other points, to aid the movement. J. P. BENJAMIN*.

MURFREESBORO, Fel. 2lst, 18G2. To General BEAUREGARD :

If not well enough to assume command, I hope that you, now having had tiinu to study the field, will advise General Polk of your judgment as to the proper disposition of his army, in accordance with the views you entertain in your memorandum, unless you have changed your views. I can't order him, not knowing but what you have assumed command, and your orders conflict. For General Johnston,


JACKSON, TENN., Feb. I 2lst, 18G2.

Answer. To General A. S. JOHNSTON, Murfreesboro:

I am not well enough to yet assume command. AY ill telegraph when I do so. Have communicated views to General Polk; he is preparing to execute them. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

Tiler/ram forwarded to Governors Moore, of Louisiana, Shorter, of Alabama, Harris of Tennessee, and Pettits, of Mississippi.

JACKSON, Ti: NX., Feb. 2l*t, 1862.

I shall despatch a messenger to you to-morrow morning, on important public business. G. T. HEAUREGARD.


JACKSON, TKNN., Feb. 2lst, 18(52.

Sir, —The general commanding directs that you will proceed, without delay, to Montgomery, Alabama, ria Atlanta, and deliver to Governor J. Gill Shorter the accompanying despatches, and thenco to Mobile with despatches for General Bragg, returning to these headquarters as soon as practicable. Respectfully, your obedient servant,

THOMAS JORDAN, A. A. Gcul. Lieutenant A. R. CIIISOLM, A. D. 0., Jackson, Tenn.

JACKSON, TEXX., Fd>. 23(7, 1?G2.

Dear General, —I was informed by General McCown that you desired his bri gade to move down at once to Island No. 10. I beg to remark it mi "lit be dan-

gerous to divide the forces under your command before the works at that island shall have been put in a defensible condition, and before we are ready to aban don Columbus, in pursuance of what has already been determined on that sub ject; hence the necessity of hurrying the construction of the works at Island No. 10 and at New Madrid. Meanwhile, all the necessary preparations can be made for the rapid evacuation of Columbus at the proper time.

The next most important question is, where shall we collect the balance of the forces at Columbus, which is not to form a part of the garrison at Island No. 10? Shall this be done at Union City, Humboldt, or Jackson? or shall it be collected temporarily about that island, depending on water transportation alone as far as Memphis, to effect a junction with Ruggles's forces now at Cor inth and Grand Junction, for ulterior operations?

I am not sufficiently well acquainted with the nature of the roads in western Tennessee, and with the means of transportation at our command, to be able to answer these queries; hence I would be most happy to have your views on the subject.

The great point is, as I understand it, to be able to support in time the garri son at Island No. 10, if attacked only by a force about equal to our own, or to be able to keep open our communications, either by water or railroad, with the States of Mississippi and Alabama, if attacked by an overwhelming force, which might endanger, not only the safety of the garrison referred to, but especially of its supporting force—intended, after having been driven out of western Ten nessee, for the defence, inch by inch, of the roads leading into the interior of the two States already mentioned.

Before concluding, I must call your attention to the necessity of making the works at Island No. 10 and at New Madrid as strong as circumstances will per mit ; and to bo armed with the heaviest guns that can be spared for that purpose. I would advise the gorges of the works at New Madrid to he^aZ/sadftZ merely, so that our gunboats might fire into them from the river if they were taken by the enemy. The defences must consist of three works with strong profiles, for about five hundred men each— two on the river, and one a little in advance of the others. The crcmaiUerc lines, on the right and rear of Isl and No. 10, must be provided with small redans for a few siege-guns, and the navigation of Black Lngoon obstructed so as to prevent the enemy's barges from getting into Reelfoot Lake, the shores of which, between the two cremail-Ib'e lines, were to be well guarded, and, if need be, properly defended. The isl and opposite Tiptonville was to be examined, to determine if it could be advan tageously fortified.

I would advise the garrison at Fort Pillow (excepting a strong guard) to be Bent, for the present, to New Madrid or Island No. 10. All the heav3 r ordnance, not required at these two points, should be sent, when removed, from Columbus to Fort Pillow, or to any other point on the river (above, and not too far from Memphis), which could be held by a small garrison.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGAKD, Genl. C. S. A.

Maj.-Gcr.l. L. POLK, Comdg. 1st Division Dept. of West, Columbus, Ky.

JACKSON, TEXX., Feb. 23J, 18G2.

General,— I have to submit, herewith, a copy of a circular I have felt called upon to address to the governors respectively of the States of Tennessee, Missis-nippi, Louisiana, and Alabama, which I hope may meet the sanction of the War Department. I shall be pleased to receive the instructions and views of the department as soon as practicable. It is presumed that the troops thus called into the field may be raised without difficulty or much delay, especially if I am authorized at ouce to receive them as parts of the quotas due from the several States mentioned.

In connection with the letter to Major-General Van Doru, I beg to submit, that all operations in States bordering on the Mississippi River should bo made subordinate to the secure possession of that river, which, if lost, would involve the complete isolation and destruction of any army west of it. Respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. REAL-REGARD, Genl. C. S. A.

SAMUEL COOPER, Gcnl. and Adj. and I. Genl., Richmond, Va.

JACKSON-, TEXX., Feb. 23rf, 1862.

Dear Ucneral, —You will remember it was agreed that certain subsistence stores, at Trenton and Jackson, should be sent as soon as possible to Columbus and Grenada, Mississippi. All at Trenton, and one half of the supplies here, to be stored at the former place, and the other half to be scut to Grenada.

It seems that the railroad officers, as yet, have received no orders in the premises.

On reflection, however, it would seem advisable, first, to relieve Columbus (Kentucky) of about one half of its subsistence supplies, to be divided equally between the two places above mentioned.

Yours very truly, G. T. REAL-REGARD, Genl. C. S. A.

M:ij.-Genl. L. POLK, Comdg. forces, Columbus, Ky.

JACKSON, TEXX., Ft*. 24th, 1862.

(letin'al, —As I had anticipated, before leaving Contreville, I find that the troops at Columbus have not been regularly organized, according to long-recog nized military usage founded on experience in all services.

It is true there is a nominal organization into ''divisions" formed of other subdivisions called "brigades," but upon no regular basis. For example : Gen eral McCown commands one of these so-called divisions, of but five regiments of infantry, that is, more properly, a brigade.

Another of these divisions consists of two brigades of three regiments each, commanded by colonels, Brigadier-General Cheat ham commanding the "divis ion." The other division, so called, really has had no division commander since the departure of Brigadier-General Pillow. It consists of some eight regiments, which form two brigades, I believe, commanded by their senior col onels respectively.

Brigadier-General A. P. Stewart commands an independent brigade of threo regiments and the heavy artillery, and is in immediate command of the works.

In addition, there are quite fourteen hundred cavalry, over whom there should he some competent commander.

These twenty-two regiments really ought to be subdivided into five brigades, two of them of four regiments and two of five regiments each, taking the weak est regiments for the latter. Larger brigades of Volunteers cannot be well han dled in action, and I prefer, on that account, brigades of but four regiments.

I regard the divisional organization as absolutely essential j my experience fully confirms the military practice in European services in this connection. Volunteers need these subdivisions even more than regular troops.

As reported in a previous communication, I have called upon the governors of Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama for additional troops. To-day I hear, by telegraph, that they will be furnished with the utmost alacrity and despatch. For their prompt organization, brigade commanders will be wanted.

At present the general officers at Columbus are Major-General Polk, Briga dier-Generals Cheatham, McCown, and A. P. Stewart. Under these circum stances, I must respectfully recall the attention of the department to my letter, written just as I was leaving Centreville, touching the organization of this army. I would, however, so far qualify that letter as to say, that officers serv ing now with the troops at Columbus, who may have been recommended by Generals Polk and Johnston for the command of brigades, should justly have precedence over those indicated by me as suitable for such commands. But some, at least, of those I recommended for division and brigade commands, I shall need at an early day for the organization and command of the new levies; and I trust the President may be pleased to appoint and send them to report to me with as little delay as practicable.

The services of Colonel Mackall, as a division commander, I consider as in dispensable at this critical juncture. My health is such as to make it essential for me to have as many trained, experienced officers to aid me as practicable. Respectfully, General, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Genl. C. S. A.

SAMUEL COOPER, Geul. and A. and I. Geul., Richmond.

JACKSON, TENN., Feb. 25M, 1862. To General S. COOPER, A. and I. Genl., Richmond:

Am offered service of Louisiana Legion in the emergency, under Act of Con gress, 21st July—August, 1861, for local defence. May I accept ? These troops greatly needed. Time precious. Please answer in duplicate to Governor Moore. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

JACKSON, TENN., Feb. 25*A, 1862. To Major-General POLK, Columbus, Ky.:

Cavalry at Paris best be distributed on outpost duty to watch all important roads from about Paris to as near south of May field as possible. Burn bridges

on advaucc of enemy, whom they will always keep iu sight and hinder from making reconiioissauces. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

RICHMOND, Feb. 26th, 1862. To General G. T. BEAUREGARD :

Certainly, accept services of the Legion. Duplicate sent Governor Moore.


JACKSON, TENX., Fib. 27th, 1862. Major-General BRAGG :

Send the gnus and ammunition via M. and O. Railroad to Hickmau, on Mis sissippi River. Thanks for the five rcgimeuts. The river shall be held.


JACKSON, TENX., Feb. 28/7*, 1862. To Governor J. J. PETTUS, Jackson, Miss.:

Do not send troops without three days' cooked rations and forty rounds am munition, if possible. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

[This telegram was repeated to the governors of Louisiana, Tennessee, and Alabama, and to Major-General Bragg.]

GRAND JUNCTION, Feb. 2Gth, 1862. To General BEAUREGARD :

What point have you fixed upon for rendezvous. Answer at Memphis.

ISIIAM G. HARRIS, Governor, etc.

JACKSON, TENN., Feb. 2Gth, 1862. Governor I. G. HARRIS, Memphis, Tenn.:

Henderson and McXairy Stations, on Mobile and Ohio Railroad, arc proper places of rendezvous. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

MONTGOMERY, ALA., Feb. 27th, 1862. To General BEAUREGARD:

Prospects for five regiments old troops (now in North Alabama), from General Bragg. I go to Mobile immediately with copy of your letter. If you approve, telegraph uie. No other to be had here. A. R. CHISOLM, A. D. C.

JACKSON, TENN., Feb. 27th, 1862. To Lieutenant A. R. CHISOLM, Mobile, Ala.:

Course approved. Get troops wherever you can.


COLUMBUS, Kv., Feb. 26th, 1862. To General G. T. BEAUREGARD:

I am carrying out your views as rapidly as possible. Some of the most im portant points you speak of in your letters and despatches it is difficult to

discuss at snch a distance, especially as time presses. Could you not come up to-day ? I can make you comfortable in my quarters.

L. POLK, Mrijor-Genl. Comdg.

JACKSOX, TEXX., Feb. 26th, 1862. To Major-General PoiK, Columbus, Ky.:

Colonel Jordan, A. A. G., has gone up to d-iscuss matters with you. Cannot telegraphic lino be established between Humboldt or Union City, and Island No 10 ? G. T. BEAUREGARD.

NEW ORLEANS, Feb. 24 tf, 1862. To General G. T. BEAUREGARD :

Mississippi three regiments in six days; balance (seven) shortly.


JACKSOX, TEXX., Feb. 24th, 1862. To A. N. T. BEAUREGARD, New Orleans:

All right; will prepare for them. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

NEW ORLEANS, Feb. 28th, 1862. To General G. T. BEAUREGARD :

Are you authorized to take any troops under Act 21st August ? Are you author ized, under that Act, to specify the length of time for which you will take them ? If you are, please state shortest time. I am doing everything I can. Answer quickly. It is useless to expect war men. T. O. MOORE.

JACKSOX, TEXX., Feb. 28lh, 1862. To Governor T. O. MOORE, New Orleans :

Will accept all good, equipped troops under Act 21st August, that will offer for ninety days. Let people of Louisiana understand here is the proper place to defend Louisiana. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

MOBILE, Feb. 28lh, 1862. To General BEAUREGARD :

Five regiments, four cavalry companies, and six field-guns, now loading. Five more regiments, heavy guns, and supplies coining from Pensacola. Will be with you myself next week. BRAXTON BRAGG.

JACKSOX, TEXX., Feb. 28lh, 1862. To Major-Ccneral BRAGG, Mobile, Ala,:

All right. Come yourself at once; I wish to sec you immediately. I am not well. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

JACKSON, TEXN., Feb. 2G/7i, 18G2. To General A. S. JOHNSTON, Murfrecsboro, Term.:

Appearance of early attack on New Madrid in force. Position of absolute necessity to us. Cannot you send a brigade at once by rail to assist in defence f


JACKSON, TENN., Feb. 25M, 1862. To General JOHNSTON, Murfrcesboro, Tenn.:

Did War Department sanction or disapprove call for sixty days' volunteers?


MURFREESBORO, TENN., Feb. 26th, 1862. To General G. T. BEAUREGARD :

******* The government neither sanctioned nor disapproved.


NEW ORLEANS, March 8///, 1862.

Dear General, —Your letter by Dr. Choppin came duly to hand, and I have spared no efforts to carry out your wishes. The doctor can explain to you everything that has transpired. Besides the regiments sent forward by General Lovell, you will get two or three thousand men from me, with two batteries of artillery. But for the lack of arms I could furnish a large force to you. Tho war spirit is very active all over the State, having extended to the lower par ishes, where, until very recently, it was quite quiescent. Your name, and well-earned reputation, I have no doubt, has materially contributed to rouse the enthusiasm of our people. We place great confidence in yon, and, when assured of your having the reinforcement asked for, feel convinced that the alarm which has prevailed here since the capitulation of our forces at Donelson will be greatly abated.

I enter into no particulars about our affairs here, not only because Dr. Choppin will bo able to tell you all you may desire to know, but because I am euro you have enough to occupy your attention, without troubling you about homo matters.

With the sincere hope and confident expectation that yon will win additional honors in your new field of exertion.

I remain, yours very truly, THOMAS O. MOORE, Governor.

To General G. T. BEAUREGARD, Jackson, Tenn.

LANGLEY, FAIRFAX COTNTY, VA., Sept. 25tk, 1878.

My dear General, —Your two letters of the 20th and 22d ultimo have reached me. Business and indisposition prevented an earlier reply.

******* I cannot recall the various visits of your aids to General J. en route. I do remember that a telegram was received from you, urging a speedy juuctiou.

Arc you not, however, mistaken as to where the message which you think in duced J.'s change of direction reached him I You say Mnrfreesboro.

My strong impression is, that as early as the night before we reached that point I was aware of the movement.

My impression was then, that the idea of uniting the Bowling Green forces with those of Columbus, for future operations, was yours, and by you impressed upon General J.; but I can give no proof that this was so.

I am afraid this will be to you an unsatisfactory letter, but it is all with which my memory supplies me.

Fully reciprocating your wish that we may meet and renew our old acquaint ance, I am, yours truly, W. W. MACKALL.


Extracts from a letter of ex-Governor I. G. Harris, of Tennessee, to General Beaurcgard.

WASHINGTON, D. C., April 13M, 1880. General G. T. BEAUREGARD :

Dear Sir, — *****

On the 20th or 21st, when I was prepared to return to Nashville, I received a telegram from you, asking me to come to Jackson to see you. I answered that I could not, as I would leave for Nashville within an hour or two. You answered, urging me to take a special train to come to Jackson and see you, and then by special train intercept the Nashville train at Corinth. This I did, and at Jackson had an interview of about an hour with you, in which you in formed me that you were concentrating your whole command on the line of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, extending from Jackson to Corinth, the principal points of the concentration, according to my recollection, being Bethel Station and Corinth. And you requested me to urge General A. S. Johnston to concentrate, as speedily as possible, the troops under his command at Corinth. Being fully satisfied of the wisdom of this policy, I promised to do so. I intercepted the Nashville train that evening at Corinth, and reached Nashville early the next morning. General Johnston being then in Murfreesboro, I remained in Nash ville until the morning of the 22d or 23d of February, when I went to Murfrees boro, where I met General Johnston for the first time since the IGth. I informed him fully as to the interview that I had with you at Jackson, and your sug gestion of the importance of concentrating the two armies at or near Corinth, when General Johnston promptly answered that he was preparing, as rapidly as possible, to move the army under his command to or near Corinth, as he re garded it as important, if not absolutely necessary, that the troops commanded

by you and himself should be concentrated in the country at or near Corinth.


Respectfully, ISIIAM G. HARRIS.

GREENVILLE, Miss., Jan. 24th, 1876. General G. T. BEAUREGARD :

Dear General, —In reply to your letter asking my recollection of certain events that transpired in the early part and Spring of 1862, I submit the following

answers to the questions, seriatim, -written entirely from memory, and without note or memorandum of my own :