1st. On your arrival in west Tennessee (in February, 1862), the forces under command of General Polk were not properly brigaded and organized, and I know that you felt seriously the want of suitable experienced brigade and division commanders. I cannot recall individual instances of excellent officers and well-drilled troops, such as Bowen's Missouri regiment, but the want of organization was perceptible, and the contrast with the army we had left in Virginia marked; and you often wished for some of the officers of the latter, whoso merits and abilities were known to you, to aid in the task of organizing the material at hand.

2d. The evacuation of Fort Columbus was ordered by you.

od. As was also the concentration of the forces in west Tennessee at Corinth.

4th. You called for the available forces (including sixty and ninety days men) of the States of Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana.

5th. You recommended the concentration of the forces under General Albert Sidney Johnston with your own at Corinth. I was, as your aide-de-camp, tho bearer of despatches from you to Governor Harris of Tennessee, at Murfrecsboro (where he was with General Johnston), making a call upon him for all the State troops he could spare to be sent to Corinth. At the same time I took a written despatch, or verbal message (I don't now recollect which, for on that occasion I committed all my despatches to memory), requesting General Johnston to change; his proposed lino of retreat on Stevenson and Chattanooga, to Hunts-ville and Decatur, so as to be better able to concentrate with you when occasion might require.


9th. From the time that we left Virginia to come to Tennessee, until I left your stall', after the affair at Farmington, it was the belief among all your staff that the War Department was very unfriendly to you, and their action on several occlusions was such as to induce that belief in those who knew, as we did, the circumstances of the case. It was a source, not only of annoyance to you, but of deep regret, as in many instances your efforts were, you thought, paralyzed, and the success of well-digested measures imperilled, by the action

of the War Department, based upon the evident hostility felt towards yourself.

* # * * * * *

Yours very truly, S. W. FERGUSON.


JACKSON, TENN., Feb. 21*/ ; 180J. General SAMUEL COOPER, Adj. and Insp. Gcul.:

General, —I regret profoundly to have to acquaint the War Department that iny ill-health has made it improper for me as yet to assume tho command assigned me.

In accordance with instructions, I repaired, with as little delay as practicable, to Bowling Green, Ky. ; and reported to General A. S. Johnston, commanding tho

department, on the night of the 4th instant. After several interviews with him, and the fall of Fort Henry, an informal conference was held at my lodging on the 7th instant, at which General Johnston, Major-General Hardee, and myself were present, for the consideration of the military exigencies. On that occasion it was determined that, Fort Henry having fallen, and Fort Donelson not being long tenable, preparations should be made at once for the removal of the army on that line in rear of the Cumberland River at Nashville, while a strong point on that river, some few miles below the city, should be fortified forthwith against the approach, by that way, of gunboats and transports.

The troops then at Clarksville were to be thrown across to the southern bank of the Cumberland, leaving only a sufficient force in the town to protect the manufactories and other property in which the Confederate government was interested.

In the event a further retrograde movement became inevitable, Stevenson was chosen as a suitable point for a stand, and subsequent movements were to be determined by circumstances.

It was likewise determined that the possession of the Tennessee River by the enemy, consequent upon the capitulation of Fort Henry, must break the direct communication between the army at Bowling Green and the one at Columbus, which, henceforward, must act independently of each other, until they can again be brought together.

Meanwhile, the first must defend the State of Tennessee along the line already indicated, the second that part of the State included between the Tennessee and Mississippi rivers.

But as the possession of the Tennessee River by the enemy had also rendered the communications of the army at Columbus liable to be cut off at any time from that river, by an overpowering force of the enemy, rapidly concentrated from various points of the Ohio, it had become further necessary to guard and provide against such a calamity. To which end it was decided that the main force iu occupation of Columbus should fall back upon Humboldt, and thence, if need be, to Grand Junction, so as to protect Memphis from either point, and still secure a line of retreat to the latter place or Grenada, Mississippi, or even to Jackson, of that State.

Finally, at Columbus, left with a sufficient garrison for the defence of the works there, assisted by Hollins's gunboats, a desperate defence of the river was to be made. But, at the same time, transports were to be collected and held near by, for the prompt removal of the entire garrison, when the position was no longer tenable, in the opinion of the commanding officer. Meanwhile, Island No. 10 and Fort Pillow would be fortified for defence to the last extremity, assisted by the naval gunboats, which, as a last resort, would retire to tho vicinity of Memphis, when another resolute stand should be made.

Five days later, in view of existing conditions, I addressed to General Johnston a paper, a copy of which I now transmit, for the information of the War Department.

On reaching here, I received information that confirmed my views, iu great part, as set forth in that letter, and satisfied me, that to attempt to hold Colum-

bus with any force now at my disposition could only result in an early fate like that of Fort Donelson, and the loss of the Mississippi Valley, as a necessary consequence. Unfit physically to visit Columbus, I requested General Polk and Governor Harris to meet me here. They did so; meantime, your reply to my telegraphic despatch, touching the further occupation of Columbus, had been received. Arrangements were made for the prompt defence of Island No. 10, a position naturally of great strength, and New Madrid, for the early evacua tion of the position at Columbus, and removal of the largo stores of supplies and munitions now there, in such a way as to avoid publicity. These new lines can be made of great strength with a garrison of about five thousand men, thus leaving free iny main force, for manoeuvre and defensive active operations against the enemy, as he shall penetrate the country by the avenues now un fortunately in his possession. Respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Gcul. C. S. A.


JACKSON, TENN., March 4/A, 13G2. S. COOPER, Adj. and I. Genl., Richmond, Ya.:

We arc much in need of two able major-generals; also two brigadiers for Gen eral Polk, two for General Bragg, and one for cavalry. Please order them to report forthwith. New levies will soon be in the field.


JACKSON, TF.NN., March Gth, 18G2. S. COOPER, Adj. and I. Gcnl., Richmond, Va.:

For the sake of our cause and country send, at once, Mackall as major-general, and three brigadier-generals recommended by me. Colonel Ransom to com mand cavalrv. Organization here much needed. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

JACKSON, TENX., March f>/J», 18G2.

Dear (lourdl, —I received through Colonel Olivier your letter of the 4th in stant, enclosing report of the gallant repulse of the enemy's troops and gunboats at Pittsburg, by a part of Colonel Mouton's regiment, the 18th Louisiana. You will please express to him my thanks, at this brilliant success on his first en counter with the enemy. I hope it is only the forerunner of still more gallant deeds on the part of his regiment.

Being still unwell, I have requested General Bragg to furnish you with all necessary instructions. 1 remain, yours very truly,

G. T. BKAUREGARD, Geul. C. S. A.

Brig.-Genl. DANIEL RUGGLKS, Comdg. at Corinth, Miss.

JACKSON. TENN., March ~tli, 1862. S. COOPER, Adj. and I. Geul., Richmond :

17;;ioir no one here to recommend. Bragg recommends Ruggles and Sam. Jones for major-generals; Colonels Slaughter, Yillepigue, and Shepard for brigadiers.

Polk recommends Colonels E. W. Gantt, M. L. Walker, Lieutenant-Colonel M. J. Wright. There is no cavalry colonel here to recommend. I consider Ran-soin indispensable. He should be sent at once. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

JACKSON, TEXX., March 8th, 1862. S. COOPER, Adj. and I. Genl., Richmond:

Please order forthwith, to join me as Chief Commissary, Colonel Lee or Major Williams. No officers here to select from. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

JACKSOX, TEXX., March 8th, 1862. S. COOPER, Adj. and I. Genl., Richmond:

Will Major Brent be sent me or not ? I need him hourly. My Quartermaster is a Captain Clement Young. He ought to be made a ma jor; a common grade in that department here, I find.


Unofficial. JACKSOX, TEXX., March 8th, 1862.

Genl. S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.:

If officers applied for yesterday cannot be ordered to report immediately to me, I can but foresee most disastrous consequences here; for part of this army is in a state of chaos.

My health being still bad, T am not able, unaided, to establish order here, and would then request to be relieved from my present command.


JACKSOX, TEXX., March llth, 1862. Genl. S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.:

Has my telegram of the 8th. been received, relative to appointment of gener als ? If so, what answer ? G. T. BEAUREGARD.

JACKSOX, TEXX., March llth, 1862. Genl. S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.:

We have called for ten generals as indispensable; four are granted, and only two of these are present, the enemy being already engaged with our left at New Madrid. I do not hold myself responsible for the results.

Commissary Department entirely out of funds. Nothing can be had without them. One million in hands of collector at Mobile can be had. Will depart ment issue necessary orders at once ? G. T. BEAUREGARD.

JACKSOX, TEXX., March 6th, 1862.

Dear General, —Colonel Mackall's letter, through Lieutenant Otey, has just been received. I send you, by the same officer, information just obtained through one Dr. Minturn, just in from Cairo, on his way to Houston, Texas. He was anx ious, he said, to visit your headquarters to get some papers left with Mr. Bay lor ; but his manners appearing rather suspicious, I preferred sending him direct to Texas. His information may be true or not; you will have to judge for your-

self. We believe Iiere there is a great deal of truth in it; if so, you must be careful not to be separated from us by the enemy's forces getting between us, at or about Tuscuinbia. Hence, you must spread the rumor that the main body of your forces is going to Chattanooga by railroad, ria Decatur, to deceive the enemy at Nashville; for we must try to keep Buell away from us until we can get through with Grant and Halleck's other forces.

I send you, herewith, my notes of reference, to give you a clear insight into our position here. McCown is at Island No. 10 and New Madrid, with about 7000 effectives. Polk has at Humboldt and Union City about 7000 more. Bragg will have soon at Corinth about 10,000, at Grand Junction about 5000, and at Fort Pillow about 2500. Kuggles, at Corinth, about 3000; and Chalmers, at Itika, about 2500. In all, nominally, 37,000 men, less 9500 on river, leaves for the field about 27,500, possibly 30,000 men ; but not all very efficient. / cannot get competent brigadier-generals from the department, although I have written and telegraphed four times on the subject.

I am still unwell, but am doing the best I can. I nominally assumed the command yesterday. Yours truly,

G. T. HEAUUEGAiin, Genl. C. S. A.

Gcnl. A. S. JOHNSTON, Decatur.


JACKSON, TEXX., March C>fh, 1802.

Dear Sir, —As my neighbor, as the Senator representing my State and section, I take the liberty of addressing you this note; and beg, for the good of our com mon cause and the safety of our country, that you will use what influence you possess, with the government at Richmond, to see that my general (General Beauregard) receives some support from that quarter.

Before leaving Manassas, by his dictation, I wrote a letter which he afterwards copied and signed, in which ho informed the Secretary of War that he would require good officers to be appointed as brigade commanders, suggesting certain officers whom ho knew to be competent; not one of whom have been appointed or any others ordered to report to him.

Of what service can the very best of generals be if he has not those under his command who are competent to carry out his orders?

The different brigades of the division of the army under General Polk are commanded by senior colonels, who themselves have only recently taken up the profession of arms. Those regiments require all their time and attention ; and they themselves, in many instances, do not feel competent to the command. This has been strikingly illustrated in the recent evacuation of Columbus. Of ficers commanding brigades and regiments have become entirely separated from the main body of their commands, and knew not where to find them; they, themselves, running to the commanding general when they should have been with their men.

The following officers arc some of whom he desired as brigadiers: Colonel Charles Winder, Gth South Carolina regiment; Colonel Samuel Garland, llth Virginia regiment; Colonel A. P. Hill, 13th Virginia regiment; Coloucl ivuusom,

1st regiment North Carolina Cavalry; Colonel Pegram, 1st Maryland regi ment.

Generals Polk and Bragg have made the same efforts to procure the proper officers to command under them.

It is with the utmost difficulty, even with competent general officers, that a volunteer army can he kept under proper discipline; and without those officers it hecomes a rahhle.

A fearful responsibility rests upon the general's shoulders ; and I honestly be-lieve that if he did not consider the country in great danger, he would not re tain the command of this array for twenty-four hours; hut he knows the value of his name, and is willing and anxious that its power and influence should he used to the fullest extent. The numbers of this army have been more than doubled since his arrival here; but of what avail is this immense host if he can not get the proper officers to put it in a condition by which he can make its numbers effective, instead of being an encumbrance. The only way he can counterbalance the inexperience of the regimental commanders is to place com petent generals over them.

I trust, sir, that this grave subject will receive your attention ; and if you have any influence with the "powers that be," that you will use it for the coun try's good; for if we are defeated in the rapidly approaching combat, it will be difficult for us again to rally, and the Mississippi Valley will be lost to the Con federacy, and the cause we are contending for also lost forever.

I remain, dear sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


P. S. The general considers the appointment of Lieutenant-Colonel W r . W. Mackall, C. S. A., and Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles, as major-generals, abso lutely necessary, and that the} 7 should be ordered by telegraph to report to him. You are at liberty to make whatever use you see fit of this letter. A. R. C.

Private. JACKSON, TENX., March IGth, 1862.

My dear Colonel, —Can you not wake up the authorities to the great danger of our army here, and necessarily of the Mississippi Valley, from lack of proper organization—all due to a want of brigadiers ? I have been trying for the last month and over, indeed, before I left Centreville, to have a certain number of them appointed, but all to no purpose. Are we, for the sake of a little ecouomy in the pay of said officers, to jeopardize all we have at stake in this contest? Why, then, not authorize generals in the field to appoint acting brigadier and major generals, when in their judgment required, but without additional pay, until approved of by the President or Congress?

Bragg, Polk, and myself applied, a few days ago, for ten general officers; to day we are informed that four are appointed, of whom two can't be hero for one week! in the meantime apart of this army is in a state of chaos, and fifteen thousand new levies will soon be in the field! What in the world shall I do with them ? Will not Heaven open the eyes and senses of our rulers? Where in the world are we going to, if not to destruction ? Time is all-precious now ; the enemy will soon bo upon us, and, to cap the climax, I cannot get well. I

am Letter, but the least excitement throws ine back. We must cheer up, how ever. With good troops and enough of them, there is a chance, at this niomeut, of making a beautiful ten strike, but it would be risking too much in the pres ent condition, of affairs; we would lose too much if I failed. The problem here is very difficult. I have to look to the safety of this army and yet keep the Mississippi River closed; the latter a most difficult undertaking with our pres ent means. By-the-bye, there were six brigades in Polk's army without brig adier-generals, commanded by colonels according to rank. You may imagine what kind of commanders some of them make, and what kind of brigades they have!

I enclose you copy of a telegram sent this day to the War Department. My kind regards to friends. Yours truly, G. T. I3EAUREGARD.

Col. W. P. MILKS, Member of Congress, Richmond, Va.

JACKSON, TENN., March 1st, 1802. Brig.-Genl. RUGGLES, Corinth, Miss.:

Subsequent information leads mo to believe Bethel station preferable to Mc-Xairy's. Pittsbnrg, on Tennessee River, is a good point of observation.


JACKSON, TENN., Man-h l»t, 1802. Gov. I. G. HARKIS, Memphis, Tenn.:

Substitute Bethel for McNairy's station as rendezvous.


JACKSON, TENN., March 2d, 1HG2. To Genl. A. S. JOHNSTON, Stevenson, Ala. (or on road from Murfreesboro):

See Memphis Appeal of yesterday for movement of enemy's troops per steam boats, taken from Cincinnati Enquirer. Hurry on your troops per railroad to Corinth. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

JACKSON, TENN., MurcJi 2rf, 18G2. To Genl. A. S. JOHNSTON, Stevenson, Ala.:

Send 9th and 10th Mississippi and 5th Georgia regiments, if possible, under Brigadier-General J. R. Jackson, to Corinth, so as to reunite the Pensacola army under Bragg here. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

SIIELBYVILLE, TENN., March 3(7, 1832. To Genl. BEAUREGARD :

Telegrams of 2<1 received. Send 10th Mississippi by rail from Chattanooga. This army will move as rapidly as it can march. Can't obtain Memphis papers of 1st. W. W. MACKALL, A. A. Genl.


FAYETTEVILLE, March 5M, 1802. General, —Your letter of 2d inst. has been received by Gcucral Johnston. IIo


replies: the army advancing, bad reached this place; will move on to join you as fast as possible; on arriving at Decatur, he will decide on the promptest mode. Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, A. A. Genl.

RICHMOND, March Gth, 1862. To Genl. BEAUREGARD :

Send recommendations for general officers ont of your own forces. Colonel Mackall has already been nominated for brigadier-general.

S. COOPER, A. and I. Genl.

RICHMOND, March QtJi, 1862. (Received at Jackson, Term., March llth, 1862.) To Genl. G. T. BEAUREGARD :

The following officers have been nominated for your command, viz., J. P. McCown, as major-general, and J. M. Hawes, J. E. Slaughter, and L. M. Walker, as brigadiers—Hawes for cavalry. Ransom appointed brigadier-general, and sent to North Carolina, where his presence at this time is of the first importance. S. Jones is also nominated as major-general, but he cannot bo spared from Mo bile. S. COOPER, A. and I. Genl.

RICHMOND, March Wlh, 1862. To Genl. BEAUREGARD :

Major Brent has been ordered to report to you. Captain Clement Young is ap pointed assistant quartermaster, July 19th ; not having given the bond required by law, he was, with several other disbursing officers, similarly situated, dropped from the army in Special Orders, February 24th. He can be appointed major quartermaster when he furnishes his bond for thirty thousand dollars.


RICHMOND, March 12th, 1862. To Genl. G. T. BEAUREGARD :

I telegraphed you on the 9th that McCown was made major-general, and Hawes, Slaughter, and Walker, brigadiers. Since then Cheatham has been nominated major-general for your command. S. COOPER.

RICHMOND, March 18th, 18C2. (Received at Jackson, Tenn., March 21st, 1862.) To Genl. G. T. BEAUREGARD :

Win. II. Jackson has been appointed to temporary rank of colonel, and ordered to report to you for duty ; the appointment sent to you by this day's mail.


RICHMOND, March 18th, 1882. (Received at Jackson, Tenu., March 21st.) To Genl. BEAUREGARD :

Lieutenant-Colonel R. B. Lee is this day ordered to report to you at Jackson, Tenn. S. COOPER, A. and I. Genl.

RICHMOND, March 21sf, 1861. To General BEAUREGAUD :

The following gentlemen Lave been confirmed by the Senate to take rank in the order in which they are named : Major-Generals B. F. Cheatham and John I*. McCown; Brigadier-Generals W. W. Mackall, Sam. B. Maxey, J. M. Hawes, J. L. Slaughter, L. M. Walker; not yet confirmed, J. B. Villepigue, John S. Bowen, and B. II. Helm. S. COOPER.


JACKSON, TENN., March 3rf, 1R62.

Xotcs of Reference.

I. Island No. 10 and New Madrid are fully prepared, according to means and circumstances.

II. Brigadier-General Withers, with 1st, 2d, and 21st Alabama regiments, to go forthwith to Fort Pillow, with proper ammunition. About fifteen (15) guns from Columbus are ordered to Fort Pillow, where sixteen (16) guns are already in position. Said fifteen (15) guns are not probably provided with carriages, but their platforms are in position. Ten (10) shell-guns from Pensacola, complete, are also ordered to Fort Pillow; also one company of sappers and miners from New Orleans. Troops from New Madrid and Island No. 10 to fall back to Fort Pillow in ease of necessity. Fort Pillow can be reinforced by railroad from Humholdt to Memphis and the military road from Mason's depot — twenty-eight miles from Fort Pillow.

III. The main body of General Polk's command is to be at Hnmboldt, which is central to Memphis, Jackson, Grand Junction, Henderson, Corinth, and Fort Pillow.

IV. A rear guard of two (2) regiments and five hundred cavalry to be sta tioned at Union City.

V. A battalion of infantry to be stationed at Paris, from Ilumboldt, with say five hundred cavalry, which, together with the other cavalry, will guard all avenues of approach from the Tennessee to the Mississippi River, in front of Paris and Union City.

VI. All the above-named forces and positions to be under the command of Major-General Polk, and to be called the 1st Grand Division.

VII. The balance of the cavalry, say two hundred men, to report at these headquarters.

VIII. Two regiments of infantry (4th Louisiana and 7th Mississippi), at present here, to remain ready to move.

IX. The balance of new troops from Louisiana and Mississippi to rendezvous at Grand Junction.

X. Rnggles's brigade, with troops from Alabama, to rendezvous at Corinth.

XI. Chalmers's to rendezvous at luka.

XII. Troops from Tennessee (new levies) to rendezvous at Henderson and Bethel Stations, with proper advance guards along Tennessee River.

XIII. Columbus and Grenada, Mississippi, to be grand depots of supplies of all kinds for this army.

XIY. All heavy baggage, etc., to be sent to said depots forthwith.

XV. One regiment of unarmed troops (except with lances) to be sent to Memphis, as a guard to that city.

XVI. The Governor of Mississippi to send unarmed troops to Columbus and Grenada, Mississippi, as a rendezvous.

XVII. All troops of this army not included in General Polk's command as above named to be under the command of Major-General Bragg, under the denomination of 2d Grand Division; ho will resume, in addition thereto, the command of his former department.

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Genl. C. S. A.

Confidential. JACKSON, TEXX., March 4tf/, 18G2.

Notes of Reference.

Provisions, grain, etc., in western Tennessee, to be collected as rapidly as possible and sent to Columbus and Grenada, keeping on hand provisions and forage as follows, viz.:

At Union City, for 1,500 men, about 3 weeks. " Humboldt, " 5,000 " " 3 "

" Jackson, 900 infantry " 3 "

" Jackson, 400 cavalry " 3 "

" Corinth, " 15,000 men for 4 "

" Henderson, " 800 " " 2 «

" luka, " 2,500 " " 2 "

" Grand Junction, " 10,000 " " 4 "

The regiment now at Trenton to be ordered forthwith, by General Polk, to Fort Pillow, via Memphis.

Captain Robertson's cavalry to remain at Henderson ; the remainder of troops now there, viz., Lea's and Browder's regiments, and stragglers collected, to bo ordered by General Polk to report to General Ruggles at Corinth, forthwith.

The 7th Mississippi regiment, now at Jackson, Tennessee, to be ordered by Bragg to Henderson.


Three or more regiments, or about twenty-five hundred effective men, to a brigade.

Two brigades to a division.

To each brigade one battery of six guns, either four smooth-bore and two howitzers, or four rifles and two howitzers, or six rifled-guns.

Each Grand Division should have a reserved battery as largo as practicable. There should be a chief of artillery for light batteries on the General-in-Chief s staff.


Depots to bo established at Columbus and Grenada, Mississippi.

Ammunition for Distribution.

100 rounds per man, for infantry and cavalry with each regiment. 200 rounds per piece with each company of artillery.

The requisite amount, in the same ratio, for an army of thirty-five thousand men, to be held in depot at Grand Junction, ready for shipment at a moment's notice.


One Chief of Ordnance, Captain Oladowski.

Ordnance officer at Columbus, Mr. W. R. Hunt.

<; " " Grenada, Captain Gibbs.

" " " Grand Junction, Mr. Tonneaii.

Powder manufactory to be established at Meridian, Mississippi, and sulphur, etc., to bo collected there.

Percussion-cap manufactory to be established at Columbus, and, if possible, at Grenada.

Prisoners of war now at Memphis to be removed to Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Troops to be prepared for active operations in the field, and their baggage to be reduced to a minimum.

Transportation shall be from ten to fifteen wagons per regiment, if prac ticable.

Rear-guards must, as they retire, destroy bridges behind them, especially on ordinary roads, by felling trees, etc., if practicable; for this purpose they must be provided with axes.

Each fort and light battery must be provided forthwith with an ample sup ply of rat-tail files. General Polk will please issue necessary orders to that effect. The, 1th Louisiana regiment, at Jackson, will report to Major-General Bragg for orders.


JACKSON, TENX., March &th, 1862.

Dear Genera/, —I think it would be well to establish your headquarters at or about Humboldt as soon as possible, so as to infuse some order and discipline among the troops assembled there and at Union City. Please carry into effect, at once, the instructions contained in my letter of the Gth instant, for I feel very anxious at the condition of things in our front, due greatly to the want of the-general ofticers wo have applied for.

I think it would be well to inquire strictly into the non-compliance of your first orders relative to those cars at and above Humboldt, and arrest whoever is responsible for that neglect. Let the heavy baggage bo separated at onco in every company, regiment, and brigade, to be sent to the rear as soon as wo can dispose of the cars for that object. I am informed the enemy has threatened to destroy the property of all inhabitants on this side of the Tennessee River who should send away any cotton, pork, or forage to prevent the same from falling into his hands. If so, a mounted company or two must be sent there to

compel them, under written orders, to send those articles of provision and forage to the railroad, and the cotton to be ready to be burned whenever the enemy shall be disposed to take it.

Have the goodness to detail on your staff a corps of active and intelligent officers, whose duty it will be to sec that all your orders are immediately carried into effect—that is the plan I am going to pursue.

Yours very truly,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Genl. C. S. A. Maj.-Geul. L. POLK, Comdg., etc., Humboldt, Tcnn.


JACKSON, TENX., March 8th, 1862.

Dear Sir, —I am happy to hear, through the letter of your Adjutant-General, dated March 6th, and addressed to Captain Young, of my staff, that during the coming week a considerable number of your state troops will begin to assemble at Henderson. But permit me to suggest that instead of collecting two thou sand men at Memphis, you should assemble there about five hundred, the rest to rendezvous at Bethel Station, on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad.

The proper orders will be issued for their equipment and subsistence, to the utmost degree within my power.

I hope the enemy will give us time for some efficient steps towards organiza tion of these new levies. I trust, too, that the people will be thoroughly aroused to a true sense and appreciation of the crisis upon us, and of their own duties in the hour of trial. If so, I shall feel no doubt of our ability to rid the soil of Tennessee, at no remote date, of all invaders.

Yours very truly,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Genl. C. S. A. ISIIAM G. HARRIS, Governor of the State of Tenu., Memphis.

Bcauregard's Order Respecting Bell-metal.


JACKSON, TEXX., March 8th, 1862. To the Planters of the Mississippi Valley :

More than once a people, fighting with an enemy less ruthless than yours, for imperilled rights not more dear and sacred than yours, for homes and a land not more worthy of resolute and unconquerable men than yours, and for interests of far less magnitude than you have now at stake, have not hesitated to melt and mould into cannon the precious bells surmounting their houses of God, which had called generations to prayer. The priesthood have ever sanc tioned and consecrated the conversion, in the hour of their nation's need, as one holy and acceptable in the sight of God.

We want cannon as greatly as any people who ever, as history tells you, melted their church bells to supply them; and I, your general, intrusted with the command of the army embodied of your sons, your kinsmen, and your neigh bors, do now call on you to send your plantation-bells to the nearest railroad

depot, subject to my order, to be melted into canuon for the defence of your plantations.

Who will not cheerfully and promptly send me Ids bells under such circum stances?

Be of good cheer; but time is precious.

G.T. BEAUREGARD, Genl. Comdg.


JACKSOX, TEXX., March 10//», 18G2.

Dear Sir, —You will remember it was arranged with your Excellency, as best for the service and all concerned, that a certain portion of the new levies from your State should be scut to fill up the several Tennessee regiments under Gen eral Polk, and to take the arms of the sick or other non-effectives of those reg iments. I have now to submit a list of the number of men -wanted under that arrangement, and I beg that you will cause the necessary orders to issue, at once, so that the services of that number of men may be available at the earli est possible moment.

General McCown will need 740 men—that is: 103 for 4th Tennessee, Colonel Neely, Island No. 10; 195 for 5th Tennessee, Colonel Traverse, New Ma drid ; 75 for 4Gth Tennessee, Colonel Clark, Island No. 10; and 227 for 31st Tennessee, Colonel Bradford, Island Xo. 10; West Tennessee Battalion, 140 men.

General Polk will need, at Humboldt, fifteen hundred (1500) men—that is: C7 for 2d Tennessee regiment, Colonel Walker.

G5 " 9th Douglas.

100 " 22d Freeman.

132 <• 154th Sr. " Smith.

220 " Gth Stephens.

144 " 12th Russell.

1GG " 33d Campbell.

At Union City, Colonel Vaughan, 13th Tennessee regiment, will need 100 men, and Colonel Picket!, 21st Tennessee regiment, will need GO men.

At Lexington, Colonel Carroll, of the 15th Tennessee regiment, will need G5. At Fort Pillow, for the 40th Tennessee regiment, there are 125 needed to fill up the ranks, and at Trenton, the 47th regiment Tennessee Volunteers needs 30 men.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

G.T. BEAUREGARD, Genl. Comdg. ISIIAM G. HARRIS, Governor of the State of Tenn., Memphis.

JACKSOX, Miss., August 3d, 1S76.

General, —Your last was forwarded to me hero. On reflection, I am sure that General Chalmers remembers correctly, and that the guns were 24-pounders. There were but two of them, and they were put in i^osition side by side in tho same battery, and within a stone's-throw of the corporate limits of the little

town of Eastport, ami this was the only battery we had. This identical bat tery had the contest with the gunboats.

Very respectfully,

S. S. CALIIOUN. Gcnl. G. T. BEAUREGARD, New Orleans, La.

BELEN, Miss., September 28th, 1878. Genl. G. T. BEAUREGARD :

Dear Sir, —Yours of 10th instant received, and I answer your questions as put by you.

1st. I was ordered to luka by General Sidney Johnston about the 1st of Feb ruary, 1862.

2d. I went there with eight companies of the 9th Mississippi, was reinforced by Colonel R. F.Loouey, 28th Tennessee, and Colonel (afterwards General) Max-ey, of 9th Texas, and Baskewith's battalion of cavalry.

My infantry was located at luka, except two companies with two 24-pounders located at old Chickasaw on Tennessee, under Captain S. S. Calhoun. These companies had been trained in heavy artillery at Peusacola, and drove back the gunboats that came up to burn Bear Creek bridge—as stated by General Sher man. The cavalry was watching the Tennessee River, and one company, un der Captain (afterwards General) Rodney, went across the Tennessee River to watch the movements of the enemy.

* # * * # :|: :£

Yours truly,


JACKSON, TENN., March Wth, 1862. To Governor I. G. HARRIS, Memphis, Tenn.:

I consider shot-guns, with bayonet attachment of Memphis, superior to ordi nary muskets.


This telegram was repeated to the Governors of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

JACKSON, TENN., March Wth, 1862. To General A. S. JOHNSTON, Decatur :

Please send me immediately B. Johnson and Mackall, if possible. Do not collect more cars and engines from western part of road than absolutely neces sary, lest they be cut off at Tuscumbia.


JACKSON, TENN., March llth, 1862.

General, —Knowing the importance of having all our orders faithfully and promptly executed at this critical juncture, I have to request that you will mark on my "notes of reference " of the 3d and 4th instants, and my instruc-

tions of the Cth instant, all the items and orders referring to your command, which you have reason to believe have not yet been executed, and then select; one or more officers to see that they are forthwith carried into effect. My ex perience with volunteers teaches me that, with the best intention imaginable, they seldom execute one half of the orders they receive ; hence it becomes our imperative duty to see that all orders given are complied with. Your special attention is called to this fact.

Have you called yet for those new flags from General Lovell? Remember there are three sizes, for infantry, artillery, and cavalry.

Have you distributed those printed orders for advanced guards, etc., to your several brigades? If not, please do so at once. I think it advisable to send back, as soon as possible, all your heavy baggage to Columbus or Grenada—the latter would probably be preferable at present, on account of means of trans portation, but decide for yourself, after proper inquiry. I believe all the neces sary arrangements are being made for the sick at Okalona. Your despatch on the subject has been referred to General Bragg. I send you the copy of a tele gram from General Withers at Fort Pillow. I am disappointed at the informa tion it contained. I have ordered him to commence forthwith a system of de tached works to protect his rear. The intelligence from General McCown is also quite sad, but I do not see how we can reinforce him at present; our forces have not yet half arrived from the South, and then we must guard our rear, threatened from the Tennessee River. With the small force at our command, we cannot present a strong front everywhere.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BKAUREGARD, Gonl. Comdg.

Maj.-Gcnl. L. POLK, Comdg. 1st G. Division, at Ilumboldt, Tenn.

JACKSOX, TEXX., March 14//i, 18G2. To Gcul. S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.:

Enemy has landed in force about twenty thousand at Crump's Landing, op posite Savannah. My forces preparing to meet him. Am much in need of generals.


JACKSOX, TEXX., March 1G//J, 18G2. To Genl. S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.:

Must again apply for a Chief Commissary of experience, such as Colonel R. B. Lee, or Major Blair, or Williams, otherwise millions' worth of property, not to be replaced, will be lost.


JACKSOX, TEXX., March 17th, 1862. To Maj.-Genl. BRAGO, Corinth :

Have requested Mr. Fleming to inform you of the transportation capacity of adjoining railroads, so that you can determine and order up the means (as far

as practicable) called for by General Johnston. Please let General Johnston know what can be done to meet his wishes, and how.


JACKSOX, TEXX., March I~th, 1862. To Mjij.-Gcnl. BRAGG :

General Johnston wants four hundred cars, with locomotives, at Decatur. What can be done from Corinth ?


JACKSOX, TEXX., March 18th t 1862. L. J. FLEMING, Corinth :

What chance to get cars and locomotives from Memphis, Mississippi Central, or other roads ? Where are the cars, etc., of the Memphis and Charleston, and those from the Nashville Road? General Johnston asks for cars. How are they to be got for him ?


JACKSOX, TEXX., March IStJi, 1862. To Genl. A. S. JOHNSTON, Decatur:

General Bragg at Corinth. Have asked him to answer your question about cars. Very large supply there. Enemy threw six hundred shells at Island No. 10, without damage to any one, or anything, yesterday.


JACKSOX, TENX., March IStJi, 1862. To General L. POLK :

What number of your troops remain at Humboldt? Troops must be sent as fast as practicable, with means of transportation, to Corinth.


JACKSOX, TEXX., March 18t1i, 1862. General A. S. JOHNSTON, Decatur:

One hundred and sixty cars with locomotives will be sent you from Mississippi Central Railroad; more will be quickly sent from other roads.


JACKSOX, TEXX., March 21st. Maj.-Genl. BRAGG, Corinth:

The General wishes an armed reconnoissance made, of say (3) three regiments infantry, some cavalry and artillery, to feel the enemy. Must be cautiously made with advance guards, and all due military precautions.


JACKSON, TENN., March 22rf, 1832. A. S. JOHNSTON, Genl. Comclg., Courtland :

Following despatch just received from Van Dorn :

" VAN BUREN, ARK., March 21st, 1862.

" I march my first brigade to-morrow towards Jacksonport, Arkansas. All the troops here will march in a few days to the same point. I will probably have, on White Kiver, by 10th or 12th April, twenty thousand men or more, and about seventy pieces of artillery. It was my intention to attack the forces near New Madrid and Point Pleasant from the north by Greenville. What do you now advise? There is an army of about twenty thousand. Enemy north of this in Arkansas, but they cannot subsist there; nor do I think they can do much harm in the West. We cannot subsist here. I think it more important to save the Mississippi liiver. Answer me at once. I start for Little Kock day after to-morrow. EARL VAN DORN."

I shall try to sec you to-morrow, unless you prefer to come here.


JACKSON. March r>2</, 9 h. r. M. Major-General E. VAN DORN, Little Kock, Ark. :

Despatch received. 'Tis important to join our forces for defence of valley by shortest route. Could yon not come to Memphis, via river? There we will operate to best advantage. I will send you all the boats yon may require. Sidney Johnston will be with us. Yon might come ahead for conference. We still hold Island No. 10 and Fort Pillow. G. T. BEAVREGARD.

JACKSON, TI:NN., March 21s/, 18G2. D. B. HARRIS, Engineers, Fort Pillow:

Look, as soon as practicable, to land defence of fort. Construct detached works first, then cremaillere. Total garrison about three thousand men; de fensive lines must not be too extensive. G. T. BEAVREGARU.

JACKSON, March 22J. 1802. Major-General J. P. McCowN, Comdg. Madrid Bend. Care Colonel PICKETT,

Union City:

Van Dorn proposes to attack enemy in reverse at New Madrid. Be of good cheer and hold out. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

JACKSON, TENN., March 22J. General A. S. JOHNSTON, Decatur, or wherever he may be :

I consider presence of Major Gilmer indispensable at Fort Pillow for a few days. Safety of the place and Mississippi Valley may depend upon it.


JACKSON, TENN., March 22d. Major-Gcncral B. BRAGG, Corinth, Miss.:

When can you spare Oladowski to attend to the making of guns from bells.



CORINTH, Miss., March 27th, 1862. General S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.:

Headquarters established here (on 26th). Want officers Quartermaster's De partment greatly; recommend Thomas Clark, W. R. Bennett, J. W. Crocker, and Addison Piles, as Assistant Quartermasters. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

CORINTH, Miss., March 28th, 1862. General S. COOPER, Adj. and Insp. Genl., Richmond, Va.:

Where are Generals Hawes and Brown, Colonel R. B. Lee, and Captain Wam-pler? All greatly wanted. Spare me General Lawtoii \vith one brigade from Georgia, if possible, for here a great battle is certain. I greatly want a general of artillery. Lieutenant-Colonel W. R. Calhoun very competent.



Extracts from Lieutenant A. E. Chisolnis Report of the Battle of Shiloh.


General, —In accordance with your order, I have the honor to submit the fol lowing report of orders conveyed by me on the 6th and 7th instants, during the battle of Shiloh ; also a few of my observations during those two days.

A few minutes before 5 o'clock, on the morning of the 6th instant, the move ment was commenced by General Hardee's command. At 6^ h. I inquired of General Bragg where his ammunition wagons were stationed; he informed me, at a convenient distance on the Pittsburg and Hamburg roads. 6^- A. M. firing ceased. 5 m. of 7 h. General Polk's command moved past Headquarters No. 1, at intersection of Pittsburg and Hamburg roads. 7 h. 5 m. the first can non was fired on our left. From 7 to 7£ A. M. heavy musketry at intervals. 30 min. of 8 h. rear of General Polk's command passed headquarters and commenced moving forward. 8 A. M. ordered General Polk to throw two brigades on tho left of the one moving along the road, so as to strengthen the left and rear of General Bragg. In conveying this order I was accompanied by Lieutenant-Colonel Ferguson. I then proceeded on to General Bragg and communicated the same order to him, in order that he would understand the movement. Re turned, and while on the way requested General Polk to place himself in com munication with General Bragg. General Bragg directed me to say to you that he was ready to support General Hardee when he should require it; that ho was in line, but not engaged, except with his artillery, which was shelling tho enemy's camps. Returned and reported at 8£ A. M. 9^ A. M. a surgeon of Gen eral Hardee's corps reported to me that the General's command w r as within (50) fifty yards of the enemy's camps. Reported this to you.

#*•**# * *

I found Colonel Hill with his former command near him. I requested Colonel Pond to take command of the whole force. I made a reconnoissance \vith Colonel Pond ; he discovered the position of the, enemy near a log-house on the left of General Hardee's command. Colonel Pond, wishing some cavalry to protect his left, I ordered a squadron I found near by to support him. Colonel Pond had under his command the Orleans Battalion, 16th and 18th Louisiana, besides Colonel Hill's command (two regiments). I requested these two officers to act in concert, which they said they would do, and it was agreed that Colonel Pond should command the whole. Keturned and reported to you.


5J-, was ordered by you from in front to find General Ilardee, and see how he was getting along, but to return and report to you before dark. I found his command engaging the- enemy—the General with his men, cheering them on. Nothing could exceed his coolness and gallantry. He was always in the thickest of the tight. It was useless to look for him elsewhere. His answer, to my question if he wished anything, was, "Tell the General we are getting along very well, but they are putting it to us very severely.'' Not once did he ask for assistance.

None of his staff being then with him, I offered to act as his aide-de-camp, and to bring up two regiments which were in rear of him and place them on his left. This I accomplished with one of them, and was bringing up the second, when a tremendous lire was opened upon us from, I think, two field-pieces and the heavy guns of th'? gunboats. The Tennessee regiment, which I was bring ing into position, broke in disorder and fell back. Major White (formerly of General Hardee's staff, now commanding cavalry) assisted me in rallying them and inducing them to lay down behind the crest of a hill. After sundown Gen eral Ilardee withdrew his command beyond the range of the guns of the gun boats. There were many orders which I bore from you during the day which it is impossible for me now to recall to mind.

******* I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. K. CIIISOLM, 1st Lieut, and A. D. C., C. S. A.

Extracts from Colonel Hrcnt's Report of the Lattlc of Slilloli.


COIUXTII, April 13th, 1862. General G. T. HEAUREGARD :

General, —In pursuance of your instructions, to give you a statement of the several orders borne by me in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th and 7th instant, I beg leave respectfully to submit the following report:

After assuming your position with your staff in the angle formed by the in tersection of the Pittsburg and Hamburg roads, I was, at 45 minutes past 5 o'clock A.M., directed to order the 1st Tennessee regiment, which was then moving towards the rear on the Pittsburg road, to countermarch, and, with right in front, to form along the Hamburg road, its left resting thereon, which was executed.

At twenty-three minutes past 7 o'clock was directed, in conjunction with Colonel Augustin, to move on the Hamburg road towards our right, and as certain the condition of affairs in that quarter.


About this time, fifteen minutes to 8, the sharp rattle of musketry was heard along the centre and left, and in a minute the enemy, on General Gladden's right, and at a distance of about two hundred and fifty yards, opened a heavy fire. Colonel Adams behaved with coolness and gallantry, our right pressed on, and the second line of battle was moving rapidly up to the support of the first. At twenty-five minutes past 8 o'clock I reached your headquarters and reported. At twenty minutes past 9 wo moved from Headquarters No. 1, and I was directed to advise Drs. Choppin and Brodie thereof, and where you could be found. At five minutes past 10 was ordered to direct General Trabue to send forward two regiments of his brigade to the centre, which was executed at thir teen minutes past 10. I having reported, was then directed to General Trabue to have an additional regiment sent forward to the same point. At twenty minutes to 11 o'clock, it having been ascertained that the enemy had planted a battery on our left, I was directed to ascertain its position, and have established a counter-battery.


At fifteen minutes past 11 there was another report of an enemy's battery threatening us 011 the left. I was directed to go forward, and, if additional support w r ere needed, to order forward two regiments, w r hich w r ere supposed to be in reserve. I immediately went forward, and, at 11^ o'clock, found that while our line was engaged, yet it was not hotly pressed. I found Colonel Hill in his old position, and immediately directed him to advance to this position, which he immediately did.


At 12|- o'clock I was ordered by you to collect all stragglers, and organize them into a battalion and send them forward, and that a company of cavalry would report to assist me. No company of cavalry reported, but, with the as sistance of Majors Haines and Juge, I succeeded in organizing a battalion of two hundred and seventy men. with a complement of officers, and reported with them to you at the cross-roads (I suppose your Headquarters No. 2), some dis tance to the left and in advance of Shiloh church; under your direction, it marched to the front, under Majors Haiues and Jngc.

At 2|- o'clock another battalion was formed, under Major Moore, and I was ordered to march it to the front to put it under the command of General Bragg. I proceeded immediately to General Bragg's command, but could not find him; but saw Colonel Gardner. I moved this battalion to the right and formed it on the left of two regiments which had been ordered forward a few minutes be fore, and the whole placed under Colonel Gibson.

At this point I saw the staff of our brave General A. S. Johnston, and was ad vised for the first time of his death, and was requested by Colonel O'Hara to communicate it to you. I returned and did so, but found it had alreadj' been

communicated to yon. At fifteen minutes to 4 was directed to accompany Colonel Jordan to the left front, and at 4^ o'clock found the enemy in full re treat. On my return (to Headquarters No. 4) was directed to establish a police guard to protect the property, aided by Captain Curamiugs, as well as to prevent stragglers, whom we arrested. Although aided by the assiduous efforts of Cap tain Cummings to accomplish this, I am afraid that not much was effected. *******

I am, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEORGE WM. BRENT, Acting Insp.-Gen.

Extracts from the Report of Colonel Ferguson, A. I). ('. to General Beanreganl.


CORINTH, April 9//j, 18G2.

General, —In obedience to your instructions, I have the honor to submit the following report of the orders conveyed by me, and of the operations of our troops on the Gth instant, as far as my observation enables me.

At 4 h. 55 m. A. M., firing along our front commenced.

At G h. A. M., conveyed order to General Polk to advance the centre of his lead ing brigade to intersection of Hamburg and Pittsburg roads.

At G h. 40 m., General Johnston and staff advanced from Headquarters Xo. 1 to the front.

At 7 h. 4 m., Polk's advance brigade passed Headquarters No. 1.

At 7 h. 9 m., first cannon fired on our left.

At 7 h. 33 m., General Cheatham's advance brigade passed Headquarters No. 1.

At 7 h. 35 m., ordered General Breckinridge to deploy, in column of brigades, centre of leading brigade near cross-roads.

At 7 h. 52 m., ordered General Polk to advance his 3d and 4th brigades to loft and front, to strengthen Bragg's left.

At 9.10, ordered General Polk to send one brigade by flank to support our ex treme right; accompanied the brigade detailed, that of General Bnshrod John son, part of the way, and returned to Headquarters No. 1 at 9 h. 30 A. M.

At 9 h. 35 m., loft Headquarters No. 1 with yourself and staff for more ad vanced position. Between time of arrival at Headquarters No. 2 and 11 h. A. M., carried orders to infantry on our loft and front, to advance two regiments to front and right as a support to our batteries there massed. Order to Captain Hodgson, of Washington Artillery, to make a recounoissance to front and left, where a four-gun battery of the enemy was reported in position; and, if the ground admitted it, to advance his battery in that direction and silence them. Visited one of the captured camps and then reported to you the straggling there going on for the purpose of plunder. You then ordered Captain Dreux, of your escort, witli part of his company, to clear the camps. Was employed collecting stragglers, and men leaving field with wounded, and sending them back to the front.

At 11 h. 10 m., by your order, took command of the 27th Tennessee rc^i-

meut, reported without a field-officer and without ammunition. Reorganized the regiment, and, while trying to procure ammunition, caused them to rest and refresh themselves with coffee, etc. Having distributed ammunition, and find ing the major lit for duty, with your consent I turned over the command of tho regiment to him and resumed my staff duties, about 1 h. P. M. Continued with yon, placing troops and hurrying forward reserves, etc. Carried an order to Cap tain Bankhead to advance his battery to the front. This he executed by tho Pittsburg road. At the time the enemy were being rapidly driven to the river along our centre and right flank. Soon afterwards, part of General Anderson's brigade, and then a Louisiana brigade—I think that of Colonel Gibson—were advanced in the same direction.

Some time after this, a staff officer having reported a brigade without a com mander, you directed me to assume command of and lead it into action. Pro ceeding with said officer to the point designated, I met General Hardee, who commanded that portion of the field, and reported my orders to him. He di rected me to lead the brigade by the left flank as far as possible to the rear of a camp of the enemy in front of our left, and, if possible, to take it in reverse. At tho same time he placed under my command Captain Hodgson's battery, Washington Artillery of New Orleans, already in position, to shell the said camp, and reply to a battery of the enemy there in position. After assuming command of the brigade, which I found to consist of the ICth and 18th regiments Louisiana Volunteers, and tho battalion of Orleans Guards, all under the com mand of Colonel Pond, I made a recounoissauce by which I found that the camp I was ordered to carry was in a strong position, separated from the ground we had already gained by a deep ravine, a branch of which extended to our front, along our left of said camp. A considerable extent of open ground to the left of this ravine contained another camp of the enemy, who could be seen drawn up in line of battle in large force, at the edge of the woods still farther to the left and front.


In this connection, while noticing the general gallantry of the officers and men I had the honor to command, I wish to call particular notice to the bravo and efficient services of Lieutenant E. Puech, Adjutant of the Orleans Guards, and of Lieutenant C. M. Sheppard, Acting Adjutant of the 18th regiment Louis iana volunteers, who acted as my staff; also of Major F. Dumonteil, a volun teer with the Orleans Guards ; and of Father E. Turgis, who, in the performance of his holy offices, freely exposed himself to the balls of the enemy. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. F. FERGUSON, Lieut.-Col. and A. D. C.

Genl. G. T. BEAUREGARD, comdg. Army of the Mississippi.

Extracts from Colonel JV. Augustirfs He-port of tJtc Battle of Sliiloh.


CORINTH, Miss., April 10th, 18(52. General, — I have the honor to report, in obedience to your orders, the follow-

ing notes and orders as taken by me during the engagements with the enemy of the Gth and 7th instant.

Headquarters No. 1. At five minutes of 5 o'clock A. M., on the Gth, we heard the first lire from skirmishing on our right towards Lick Creek ; at half-past 5 we heard a volley of musketry; at G o'clock A. M., the engagement appeared to be becoming general; at half-past G the lire slackened, and ceased at a, quar ter of 7.

At twenty minutes of 8 I went, by your order, to the right, and reported, at twenty minutes of 9, a brisk engagement on the right, and recommended send ing troops to the right to support and extend our lino in that direction; re marked that our men fired at too long a distance, and too high; danger of the enemy flanking our right. At twenty minutes of 9 received your order to ac company General Breckinridge's division to reinforce the right and to follow the movement of the right in front, extending as much as possible his own right towards Lick Creek, and to follow the general movement forward.

At 10 o'clock, reported that the preceding order had been executed, and that General Breckinridge and division had arrived in position in good time, at about four hundred yards in rear of General Dan. Adams's command. General Beaure-gurd moved to Headquarters No. 2; went to meet him.


From 3 to 4 o'clock was occupied in collecting together and organizing strag glers, to march them as reinforcements to General Bragg; placed one battalion thus formed under command of W. W. Wood of Mississippi.

At dusk, about G, sent by General Beauregard to the front, to order " to arrest the conflict and fall back to the camps of the enemy for the night.'' Transmit ted this order to Generals Bragg, Polk, and Ilardcc ; returned, and was happy to congratulate the general upon the success of our army on that day. Encamped in one of the enemy's tents near Shiloh.


Yours very respectfully, N. AUUUSTIN, V. A. D. C.

Extracts from the statement of facts relative to the first and second days of (he battle of *V/u7o//,7>;vpamZ by Major J>. B. ll'addcll, volunteer A. D. C. of General Lcaurcyard.

ST. Louis, Nov. &th, 1878. Geiil. G. T. BEAUKEGAKD :


On the night of the 3d of April I received an order from you to select such guides from my escort as I desired, and report to General Hardec, early on the morning of the 4th, and to go with General Hardec, via the Bark road, to a ridge in front of the enemy at Pittsburg, at or near the junction of the Hamburg and Pittsburg roads.

I reported early to General Ilardee; but one cause and another prevented his movement as early as had been ordered, and it was near noon before his en tire command was in motion.

We moved out to the Monterey road, taking the Bark road at the fork, and at


nightfall bivouacked at a spring to the right of tho Bark road. To reach tho spring the command \vas moved off of tho Bark road, on a blind road which made a cut-off across the head-waters of a creek, while the Bark road followed the ridge around the spring and small "branches of the creek.

Late at night General Polk's command came along, following his order, the command of General Hardee, and, the Bark road being unoccupied, moved on it until he reached a picket which I had posted, over a mile in advance of General Hardee's bivouac. Ou the morning of the 5th General Hardee moved on early ; and when we got back into the Bark road we found it occupied by General Polk's command, which was in our front. The road was too narrow to admit of a passage of Hardee's train, so it became necessary to lift General Polk's train to one side of the road, which was effected by the aid of soldiers and teamsters. This accident occasioned some delay and confusion, and may, to some extent, account for a tardiness in General Polk's arrival at the point designated for the formation of the lines of battle.

In justice to General Polk, I will say that I do not think he discovered that General Hardee had gone out of the Bark road until he had passed General Har dee's command. Knowing that he was in its rear, he naturally enough had no advance guard out, and no means of discovering the condition of affairs. I joined you on the morning of the 5th at Monterey, and rode with you to Head quarters No. 1. Judging of time by what I had done that morning, I am of opinion that it was after noon before you and General Johnston reached tho ridge where the front line was formed and Headquarters No. 1 was established.

After a conference of the general officers was held, at a point in the road, at which I witnessed a very marked deference on the part of General A. S. John ston for your opinions and plans of conducting the battle, it was suggested by General Hardee that you should ride in front of his line of battle to show yourself to his men, giving them the encouragement which nothing but your presence could do. I well remember your modest hesitation at tho proposi tion; your plea of sickness was urged (a more delicate reason existed, no doubt —your esteem for tho chief in command); but when the request was made unanimous, General Johnston urging, you consented, on condition that the men should not cheer as you passed, as cheering might discover our position to the enemy. An order was sent quickly along the lines, informing tho men that you would ride in front of them, and that no cheering should bo indulged in. You passed in front of the lines, and never was an order so reluctantly obeyed as was this order — "No cheering, men" — which had to bo repeated at every breath, and enforced by continuous gesture.

General Johnston's prestige was great, but the hearts of the soldiers were with you; and your presence awakened an enthusiasm and confidence magical in its effect.

The formation in proper line was later than the original calculation; but I heard no complaint except of a tardiness on the part of General Polk.

The determination was to strike the enemy at daybreak on the 6th; and the general commanders received instructions for the attack. Officers and soldiers slept on their arms in hearing of the enemy, who, unconscious of our presence,

were cooking supper only a short distance beyond common range of our lines of battle.

At daylight on tho morning of the fith of April, 1862, our lines moved in good order, and, like an avalanche, struck the enemy left, right, and centre, so nearly simultaneously as to surprise his entire camp.

My first order received from you was early in the morning, after the firing on the right had indicated tho propriety of directing Colonel Maury, I think (who had been located with a small regiment on a road leading to a ford on Lick Creek), to leave that position and go to tho heaviest firing, and to inform Gen eral Forrest (then Colonel), who was guarding a ford on Lick Creek, of the re moval of Colonel Maury's force. This order was promptly delivered, and I re turned to yon at Headquarters No. 2, about a quarter of a mile in advance of Shiloh meeting-house; time required to make this trip, judging from distance, two hours. I found you there, and received an order to go into an encamp ment which had been captured, stop the pillaging which was going on, and or ganize stragglers and send them forward into line. I executed the order by clearing the camps, placing a guard over them, and mustering into line forty or fifty stragglers, and went with them to the nearest line.


I rode rapidly on by your Headquarters No. 2, where I had left you, as near as I can now estimate, about 12 M. I found you had gone, or moved your head quarters. I searched some time for you, and in tho search, as near as I can now estimate, went to your right and somewhat in advance of tho point at which I found you. My recollection is that I saw or met General Bragg not far from you ; and, learning that ho was going to you, went with him, or after him, to you. at what I understand was Headquarters No. 3, in advance of General Wallace's captured camps. The sun was above tho trees; heavy, broken clouds were passing in tho west; and I would say it was not far from 5 o'clock p. M. Tho battle was raging in front at a terrible rate, and I was hopeful, which was bor rowed, no doubt, from the hope which your face expressed, that we were rushing on them to complete the victory of the day. My recollection is that at this time General Bragg expressed a difficulty he experienced in forcing his men across a-depression by which gunboats were firing shells; it was regarded as important that tho desired point should bo carried. Ho left you with the order to press forward, using his discretion as to the possibility of carrying tho point, and as to the sacrifice of men in tho effort. He left you to make this important effort. *******

At that time the struggle seemed to be an artillery duel, at least, tho artillery predominated over tho firing of musketry.

Although the great confusion of our own forces was and had been, for some time, plainly apparent, as indicated in front and the great number of stragglers in rear, yet tho hope was justified that the enemy was more confused.

Two contingencies were looked for, at this critical period, with great caro and anxiety. It was known that Buell, with a largo force of fresh troops, had had time to reach, at least, the opposite bank of the Tennessee River; and you had had no positive proof that Lew. Wallace, whoso command was at a point on the

river several miles below Pittsburg Lauding, Lad readied the battle-field. Our left Lad advanced beyond the point at whicL General Wallace would Lave been expected to cross Owl Creek, in a marcL by tLe west side of tLe Tennessee, leav ing our army and position sadly exposed in tLe event of sucL a movement on Lis part. I stated to you my fears tliat Buell Lad arrived; tLat I Lad been able to see, from an elevated point, on my trip from Lick Creek, wLat I believed to be tLe smoke of transport boats crossing or coming up tlie river.

Every resource and eifort on your part was exerted at tLat critical point witL tLe sLattered forces at your command.

TLe word was " Onward, onward! a few more minutes, men, and tLe field is ours."

TLe struggle was, for a wliile, furious; but niglit came, and tLo weary, worn-out soldiers wLo Lad been in line for the past tLirty Lours, and under incessant lire for the past twelve hours, without food or water (many of whom had seen their 'brothers or comrades fall on that bloody field), with coming darkness ceased their efforts, and the rattle of musketry ended.

I was engaged with the removal to the rear of a large number of prisoners, captured with General Prcntiss, until about sunset or after, and until late at night, giving the best direction I could to soldiers who had lost their respective commands.

I saw you at Headquarters No. 4, near the Shiloh meeting-house, about dark, from which time I did not see you until early Monday morning; but I have al ways be«n under the impression that I heard you come to tLe tent in wLicL you slept, if you slept at all, late at night. It rained torrents during tLe nigLt.

Monday, the lili. —I was awakened early in tLe morning by tlie rattle of mus ketry. TLe enemy was advancing steadily on our forces in front. I was soon in tlie saddle, and you directed me to go to tLe rear and find General Polk, and order Lim to come forward as rapidly as possible. Captain Clifton Smith, I tliink, accompanied me.

For some reason, I did not meet General Polk until I Lad gone to or near tlie place to wLicL Le Lad fallen back tLe previous nigLt. He Lad gone to tLo front; and wLen I found Lim ho was in line and under fire, executing in a most beautiful manner the order I had for him. I reported to you the fact, and was then sent to the rear to arrest and organize iu companies and squads the strag glers and men who had lost their commands. At this I was engaged, I tliink, until noon or later.

I tlien went forward, found a number of your staff under sLelter at tLe meet ing-house (a log-house) near Headquarters No. 4. I learned afterwards you Lad ordered your staff to that shelter, and had gone forward. Keeping as well us I could under shelter of the elevation in front, until I got near you, I joined you on the hill, where you were giving direction to troops which were, I think, lying down, with a view to reserving their fire for the enemy, then in full view.

After remaining Avith you in this exposed condition a short time, we rode to gether down the hill, not far from the log-house, probably crossing the depres sion, about which time, say 1 o'clock r. M., you directed me to Lave the muskets and arms about the camps in rear loaded into wagons and taken to the rear.

I put wagons and men at this work and returned to yon. Yon then directed me, about 2 r. M., to find and locate a field battery at a point in rear, near the corner of a field on the west side. I did so, under the fire of which and other batteries our troops retired deliberately, the enemy not advancing.

I was more or less engaged, gathering guns and other property into wagons, until you were ready to start back to Corinth, when I accompanied yon, with Governor Harris, by the shortest road to Corinth, where we arrived late at night. Very truly,

B. 13. WADDELL, ex-Vol. A. D. C.

Extracts from Colonel Jacob Thompson's Report of the Battle of Shiloh.


CORINTH, April Uth, 18G2. To Cenl. G. T. BEAUREGARD :

General, —In pursuance of your directions, I beg leave to submit this as my report of the battle of Shiloh.


Soon after this, General Hardee, accompanied by his staff, came forward and pressed you to ride along his line and show yourself to his men. Ho believed it would revive and cheer their spirits to know that you were actually in the field with them. You accepted the invitation, though then complaining of feeble ness, on condition there should be no cheering. On your return from the review, with your staff, every ono was stopped for the coming np of General Folk's corps. The whole army was not in position until about three o'clock, and then, upon consultation, it was decided to postpone any further movement until morn ing. The troops slept on their arms, and the front lines were allowed no fires, although the night was quito chilly.

Next morning, Sunday, Gth, the sky was without a cloml, and the sun arose 1 with cheering brilliancy. About five o'clock the first firing was heard in tho centre down the Pittsburg road. In less than three minutes firing was heard on the left. Intermittent firing in the centre and on tho right of our lines was continued until five minutes after six o'clock. At half after six I bore order from you to General Brcckinridge, who commanded the reserve, that ho must hurry forward his troops, inasmuch as General Polk was in motion. This order was promptly delivered. Soon after this General Johnston called on you and expressed himself satisfied with tho manner in which tho battle had been opened. The greatest enthusiasm prevailed both with officers and men. When you established your headquarters on the high point between the Pittsburg and Hamburg roads, heavy firing was heard on our right. The first cannon was discharged on our left at seven o'clock, which was followed by a rapid discharge of musketry. About half-past seven I rode forward with Colonel Jordan to the front, to find General Johnston, and ascertain how the battle was going. There I was informed, by General Johnston, that General Ilardec's lino was within half a mile of the enemy's camps, and bore from him a message to you that he advised tho sending forward strong reinforcements to our left, as he had just

then learned that the enemy -was there in great force. Under this advice, two of General Breckinridge's brigades were started to the support of the left, but before he proceeded far I bore a message to General Breckiuridge to send but oue to the left, and to order two brigades to the right, on Lick Creek. This change was made in consequence of information brought by a courier that the enemy was not strong on our left, and had fallen back. From eight to half-past eight the cannonading was very heavy along the whole line, but especially in the centre, which was in the line of their camps. It was about this time General Breckinridge and staff moved by your headquarters with two brigades. When his troops had passed, you broke up your headquarters at this point and moved forward with your staff, and halted on the Pittsburg road, about half n mile west of the enemy's camps. Here we met large numbers of wounded men and stragglers from our ranks. Immediately your whole staff was ordered to rally the stragglers and send them forward to their regiments. I was charged with the duty of hurrying forward the ammunition wagons to a point of safety in the rear of our lines. Several loads of ammunition were conducted to a point of safety beyond the first encampment, to a point just outside of the firing. After passing over the second ridge, where the conflict was maintained with the greatest intensity, and remaining till I observed the enemy give back before our troops, I returned to your quarters, which had then been moved up to the old house on the ridge, where we first entered the enemy's encampment.

******* With high respect and esteem, your obedient servant,


Extract from General Hardens Report of the Battle of Shiloh.


February, 1863.

General, — * * * * *

The order was given to advance at daylight on Sunday, the Cth of April. The morning was bright and bracing. At early dawn the enemy attacked the skirmishers in front of my line, commanded by Major, now Colonel, Hardcastle, which was resisted handsomely by that promising young officer, and the battle, in half an hour, became fierce; my command advanced. Ilindinau's brigade engaged the enemy with great vigor, on the edge of a wood, and drove him rapidly back over the field towards Pittsburg, while Gladden's brigade on the right, about eight o'clock, dashed upon the encampments of a division under the command of General Preutiss. At the same time, Cleburue's brigade, with the 15th Arkansas deployed as skirmishers, and the 2d Tennessee en echelon, on the left, moved quickly through the fields, and, though far outflanked by the enemy on our left, rushed forward under a terrific fire from the serried ranks drawn up in front of the camp. A morass covered his front, and, being difficult to pass, caused a break in the brigade. Deadly volleys were poured upon the men from behind bales of hay and other defences as they advanced, and, after a series of desperate charges, the brigade was compelled to fall back. In this

charge the Gth Mississippi, under Colonel Thornton, lost more than three hundred killed and wounded out of an effective force of four hundred and twenty-five. ******* I remain, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Lieut.-Genl. To General S. COOPER, Adj.-Geul.

Extract from Dr. NotCs lettei' to General Beauregard, relative to the withdrawal of troops on the first day of the Battle of Shiloh.

NEW YORK, Xorember 6th, 1869.

Afy dear General, —Your letter of 30th October, enclosing a copy of one from G. Humphries, Esq., of Mobile, relative to a conversation of his with mo touching a point in the history of the battle of Shiloh, has just been received, and I reply without a moment's delay.

I must commence by saying that, although I rode by the side of General Bragg through the greater part of that day, carried several of his orders myself to different parts of the field (all the other members of the staff being absent on duty), was with him up to the close of the battle, and rode off with him to his tent after the order to recall the troops was given, the General never said to mo by whose authority the order was given.

I can only say that, at the close of the day, when beside him on horseback, I heard him give an order to withdraw the troops from the field, and also for their disposition for the night. My impression at the time was, that General Bragg gave the order on his own responsibility. "We were immediately in the rear of our line, the enemy had fallen back to Pittsbnrg Landing, and their gunboats were keeping a furious shelling. Our men, immediately in front of where we were standing, were much demoralized, and indisposed to advance in the face of the shells which were bursting over us in every direction ; and my impression was (this was also the conclusion of General Bragg), that our troops had done all that they would do and had better bo withdrawn.

The scene in front of General Bragg and myself (in the direction of the enemy's lire) was one of considerable confusion, and up to the time he gave the order I had seen 1:0 messenger from you, and believed that it emanated from him. I heard him give it, and I rode with him from the battle-field, some two miles, to his camp for the night. If he had received and disapproved such an order, it is probable that something would have been said about it.


Very respectfully and truly yours, J. C. NOTT, M. D.*

Infracts from a letter of Colonel Jacob Thompson, Volunteer A. D. C. to General Beauregard, relative to the Battle of Shiloh.

MEMPHIS, TKXX., July 20th, 1880. To Genl. G. T. BEAUREGARD:

My dear General, —I have been absent from home for more than three months,

* Dr. Nott was Medical Director of General Bragg 1 s corps, and stood at the head of his profession in Mobile. He ranked among the first surgeons of the United States.

and have but lately returned. On my arrival I find your letter, which had been duly received.

I shall answer the several points to which you call my attention, with readiness.

On the evening and night of the Cth April, the first day of the battle of Shiloh, after the order had been given to cease firing, and all was quiet along our lines, all, or nearly all, of the general officers came to headquarters, where I mingled freely among them ; heard from them accounts of the many moving in cidents of the day, the death of many good and brave men, the capture and ilight of the enemy. But on that evening, although all admitted the victory was not complete, yet I heard no one express the slightest discontent with your order to cease firing. On the contrary, the impression left on my mind, of which I have a vivid recollection, by their conversation, was, that our troops had all done Avell, and had accomplished all that could have been expected, and that we were masters of the field. I certainly heard no one say that if he had not been called off he could have won for himself and his troops any additional laurels. On that evening I heard no criticism of the order to cease firing, and I feel con fident there was none in any quarter. I am further satisfied now, and always have been, that all complaints of your drawing off the troops on theevening of the Gth were after-thoughts, and especially with the general officers. Because, until the fact was well established that the enemy, during that night, received an additional aid of more than twenty thousand fresh troops, no such thought seemed to have occurred to any one. After that, however, many began to say it would have been far better for us to have attempted to complete our work on the day before. Some of the general officers began to say wo could have done more. But I have never thought that such was their opinion the day be fore. The exhausted condition of our troops, their disorganization, derangement, and straggling were fearfully great, and I have never believed that their wor ried, hungry, and disorganized bands, though flushed with victory, could have silenced General BuelPs batteries, w T hich were brought into the action on the evening of the Gth, and I do not think any of our generals thought so then. * * * * * # sjs

My object in this letter has been to give you as frank and direct replies as possible to your inquiries.

I shall be happy to hear from you at all times.

Very truly, your obedient servant, J. THOMPSON.

Extract from a Letter of ex-Governor I. G. Harris of Tennessee to General Bcaurcgard, relative to the death of General Albert Sidney Johnston.

MEMPHIS, April 13th, 1370. Genl. G. T. BEAUREGARD, New Orleans:

My dear Sir, —Your letter of 5th instant came to hand a few days since. In answer to which I beg to say that your letter of last autumn did not reach me. or it should have been promptly answered.

About 1^ h., an hour before his fall, General Johnston moved around to about the centre of General Breckinridge's division, upon our extreme right, and for about three quarters of an hour occupied a position immediately in rear of Gen-

oral Breckinridge's line, where a very hard fight was going on. Exposed to a galling lire, our lino held its position steadily, but at very considerable cost, until finally General Johnston decided to order and lead a charge from that po sition upon the line of the enemy that confronted us. He rode to the front, talked to the troops a moment or two, ordered and led the charge. The ene my's line gave away before us, and we advanced, I should think, three quarters of a mile, and established our lino on a ridge parallel to the one we had left, meeting a galling fire from the enemy while thus re-establishing our line.

Just as our lino had been established and dressed, General Johnston called my attention to the fact that the sole of one of his boots had been cut by a ball. I asked him, somewhat eagerly, "Are yon wounded; did the ball touch your foot?" He said, "Xo;" and was proceeding to make an additional remark, when a battery of the enemy opened fire from a position to our left, which enfiladed our line in its then position, when ho said to me, "Order Colonel Statham to wheel his regiment to the left, charge, and take that battery." I galloped immediately to Colonel Statham, about two hundred yards distant. and gave the order, and galloped immediately back to General Johnston, who was sitting upon his horso where I had left him, a few feet in rear of our line of battle. Riding up to his right side, I said, " General, your order is delivered, and Colonel Statham is in motion." As I was saying this, ho leaned from me in a manner that impressed me with the idea that ho was falling from his horse. I instantly extended my left arm around his neck, grasping his coat-collar, and pulling him towards me until I righted him up in the saddle ; and. stooping forward so that I could look him in the face, I asked him, "General, are yon wounded ?" He said, " Yes, and I fear seriously." At this moment his rein dropped from his hand. Holding him with my left hand, I caught up his rein with my right, in which I held my own, and guided both horses to a de pression about one hundred yards in rear of the line, where I took him off his horse, having asked Captain Wickham, just as I was leaving the line, to bring mo a surgeon at the earliest moment possible. I am satisfied that General Johnston did not live exceeding thirty minutes after he was taken from his horse. I did not look at my watch at the time,but my best impression is that it was 2i or 'A o'clock P.M. when he died.


Just as he was breathing his last, and when ho was unconscious, General Win. Preston joined me, and General Preston and I agreed that General Preston should remain with the remains and attend them back to headquarters, and that I should go immediately to yon and report the fact of his death. My own horse having run oft'when I dismounted, I took one of General Johnston's horses from his orderly, who was near by, and galloped to yon near Xorth Shiloh church, and reported to you the fact of his death. Having reported to you the fact, I rode on", but returned in a few moments and said to you, "I came here as a vol unteer aid to General Johnston ; as he has fallen, I no longer have any duties to perform. I intend to remain until the battle is over, and would like to be useful, if there are duties that you can assign me to." You answered, " I shall be pleased to have you with me," and from that time I reported to you.

From this somewhat detailed, but hurried, statement, you will see what my recollection is of the time and place of his fall.

Very truly, your friend, ISHAM G. HARRIS.

Extracts from a Letter of Captain Clifton H. Smith, A. A. G. Confederate Army, to General Bcaurcgard, relative to the Battle of Sldloh.

My dear General, —Replying to the questions contained in your note of the 30th ultimo, I beg to state, 1st. The order which you. sent to General Bragg, on the afternoon of Suuday, April Cth, 1862, through me, was couched in the fol lowing language, namely : " Ride to the front and instruct General Bragg to ar rest the conflict and reform his lines." 2d. I found General Bragg in a slight ravine in the immediate rear of Rnggles's division, accompanied by his staff and escort. The distance from Shiloh church, where I left yon, I should judge was between one and two miles. He had evidently but just retired from some por tion of his line of battle. General Ruggles himself was immediately at hand. My impression is that they were, or had been, conferring about the disposition of the troops when I rode up and joined them.

I cannot say what brigade of Ruggles's division was in our immediate front, but I am confident none of the troops in that immediate quarter were in offen sive action at that moment; for I only remember hearing a dropping fire of musketry, and not the regular roll of a line of battle in action—which, once heard, is ever after easily recognized.

I communicated your order to General Bragg in the exact words I had re ceived it. Without one syllable of comment, he transmitted same to his divis ion commanders, Withers and Ruggles; to the first through his aide-de-camp, and possibly in person to General Ruggles, who was only a few yards off. After the order had been thus communicated to the division commanders, General Bragg, turning to me, asked," Can you conduct mo to the place where General Beauregard is at present ?" I replied in the affirmative, and we left the front, riding towards the point where I had parted with you, and where I had left you in conversation with General Prentiss (Federal prisoner, lately captured) be side the rivulet which flowed at the base of the hill, in rear of Shiloh chapel. ##*####

After giving him the order, as before remarked, I remained by his side until we started together to join you. I met some broken bodies of troops retiring from the conflict, as I went forward; one I remember especially, which some of the men informed me was a Kentucky regiment, without ammunition, and its organization almost lost. When I reached General Bragg, the troops appeared to me to be substantially at a standstill, judging from the character of the firing and the condition of things presented to my view.


After transmitting your order to his division commanders, wo left the front together. From some cause or other, which I cannot at present call to mind, I became detached from General Bragg during our ride ; but I have a distinct recollection of again joining him before ho met you, for I perfectly remember

walking with him, after dismounting, to the spot where you were standing, and culling his attention to the fact that he was in your presence. It was quite dark, and he was at first unable to distinguish you. The darkness settles in my mind the time of our return to your headquarters.


The distance from Shiloh chapel to the point where I joined General Bragg (as stated) must have been between one and two miles. I recollect, in carry ing the order to him, that I crossed the line of fire of the Federal gunboats, both going and returning. They were shelling the woods at the points where they supposed our people were engaged with their comrades. I should judge that our front must have been quite a half a mile in advance of this line of fire, which seemed to me harmless, and doing no hurt beyond scaring horses and unsteady ing a few men unaccustomed to heavy artillery fire.

Ceaseless comment has turned upon the execution and propriety of this mo mentous order. Were it necessary, it would not be difficult to show that, at that particular juncture, a proper alignment of our own disordered columns was essential, yea, of vital necessity to the existence of that army; and that the strictures and innuendoes which have for years been spread broadcast through out this land, blaming you for the lo?s of that battle, are unjust and without any real foundation.

Hut why speculate upon the probable result? It is in evidence, from the re ports of division, brigade, and regimental commanders, that every effort to dis lodge the enemy from their last stronghold, defended by fort}' guns, placed in position by Colonel Wrbsfi-r, of the Regular (Federal) army, and fought under his immediate eye, proved abortive.


I remain, my dear General,

Ever sincerely your friend and well-wisher,

CLIFTON H. SMITH, Capt. and A. Adj.-Gen. in the late Confederate Army.

Preliminary Report of the Ilattle of Shiloh.


General, —On the 2d ultimo, having ascertained conclusively, from the move ments of the enemy on the Tennessee River, and from reliable sources of infor mation, that his aim would bo to cut off my communications in West Tennessee with the Eastern and Southern States, by operating from the Tennessee River between Crump's Landing and Eastport, as a base, I determined to foil his de signs by concentrating all my available forces at and around Corinth.

Meanwhile, having called on the governors of the States of Tennessee, Mis sissippi, Alabama, and Louisiana, to furnish additional troops, some of them, chielly regiments from Louisiana, soon reached this vicinity; and, with two divisions of General Folk's command from Columbus, and a fine corps of troops from Mobile and Peusacola, under Major-General Bragg, constituted the Army

of the Mississippi. At the same time, General Johnston, being at Murfreeshoro', on the march to form junction of his forces with mine, was called on to send at least a brigade by railroad, so that we might hope to fall on and crush the enemy should he attempt an advance from under his gunboats.

The call on General Johnston was promptly complied with. His entire force-was also hastened in this direction, and, by the 1st of April, our united forces were concentrated along the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, from Bethel to Corinth, and on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, from Corinth to luka.

It was then determined to assume the offensive and strike a sudden blow at the enemy, in position under General Grant, on the west bank of the Tennessee at Pittsburg, and in the direction of Savannah, before he was reinforced by the army under General Buell, then known to be advancing for that purpose by rapid marches from Nashville via Columbia. About the same time, General Johnston was advised that such an operation conformed to the expectations of the President.

By a rapid and vigorous attack on General Grant it was expected ho would be beaten back into his transports and the river, or captured, in time to enable us to profit by the victory, and remove to the rear all the stores and munitions that would fall into our hands in such an event, before the arrival of General Buell's army on the scene. It was never contemplated, however, to retain the position thus gained and abandon Corinth, the strategic point of the campaign.

Want of general officers, needful for the proper organization of divisions and brigades of an army brought thus suddenly together, and other difficulties in the way of an effective organization, delayed the movement until the night of the 2d instant; when it was heard from a reliable quarter that the junction of the enemy's armies was near at hand. It was then, at a late hour, determined that the attack should be attempted at once, incomplete and imperfect as were our preparations for such a grave and momentous adventure. Accordingly, that night, at one o'clock A. M., the preliminary orders to the commanders of corps were issued for the movement.

On the following morning the detailed orders of movement, a copy of which is herewith annexed, marked "A," were issued, and the movement, after some delay, commenced, the troops being in admirable spirit. It was expected we should be able to reach the enemy's lines in time to attack him early on the 5th instant. The men, however, for the most part were unused to marching, the roads, narrow, and traversing a densely wooded country, became almost impas sable after a severe rain-storm on the night of the 4th, which drenched the troops in bivouac; hence our forces did not reach the intersection of the roads from Pittsburg and Hamburg, in the immediate vicinity of the enemy, until late Saturday afternoon.

It was then decided that the attack should be made on the next morning at the earliest hour practicable, in accordance with the orders of movement. That is, in three lines of battle, the first and second extending from Owl Creek, on the left, to Lick Creek, on the right, a distance of about three miles, supported by the third and the reserves. The first line, under Mnjor-General Hardee, was con stituted of his corps, augmented on his right by Gladden's brigade, of Major-

General Bragg's corps, deployed in line of battle, with their respective artillery following immediately by the main road to Pittsbnrg, and the cavalry in rear of the wings. The second line, composed of the other troops of Bragg's corps, followed the first at a distance of five hundred yards, in the same order as the first. The army corps under General Polk followed the second line at the dis tance of about eight hundred yards, in lines of brigades, deployed with their batteries in rear of each brigade, moving by the Pittsburg road, the left wing supported by cavalry; the reserve, under Brigadier-General Breckiuridge, fol lowed closely the third line, in the same order, its right wing supported by cavalry.

These two corps constituted the reserve, and were to support the front lines of battle, by being deployed, when required, on the right and left of the Pitts-burg road, or otherwise, according to the exigencies of the battle.

At 5 A. M. on the Gth instant, a reconnoitring party of the enemy having become engaged with our advanced pickets, the commander of the forces gave orders to begin the movement and attack as determined upon; except that Trabuc's brigade of Breckinridge's division was detached to support the left of Bragg's corps and line of battle when menaced by the enemy, and the other two brigades were directed to advance by the road to Hamburg, to support Bragg's right, and at tho same time Manuey's regiment of Polk's corps was advanced by tho same road to reinforce the regiment of cavalry and battery of four pieces, already thrown forward to watch and guard Grier's, Tanner's, and Borland's fords of Lick Creek.

Thirty minutes after f> o'clock A. M. our lines and columns were in motion, all animated, evidently, by a promising spirit. The front line was engaged at once, but advanced steadily, followed, in duo order, with equal resolution and steadiness, by the other lines, which were brought successively into action with rare skill, judgment, and gallantry, by the several corps commanders, as the ene my made a stand with his masses rallied for the struggle for his encampments. Like an alpine avalanche our troops moved forward, despite the determined resistance of the enemy, until after 0 o'clock p. M., when wo were in possession of all his encampments between Owl and Lick Creeks but one, nearly all of his field artillery, about thirty (30) Hags, colors, and standards, over three thousand prisoners, including a division commander, General Prcutiss, and several bri gade commanders, thousands of small arms, an immense supply of subsistence, forage, and munitions of war, and a large amount of means of transportation— all tho substantial fruits of a complete victory, such, indeed, as rarely have fol lowed the most successful battles, for never was an army so well provided as that of our enemy.

The remnant of his army had been driven in utter disorder to the immediate vicinity of Pittsburg, under tho shelter of the heavy guns of his iron-clad gun boats, and wo remained undisputed masters of his well-selected, admirably pro vided cantonments, after over twelve hours of obstinate conflict with his forces, who had been beaten from them and the contiguous covert, but only by a sus tained onset of all the men we could bring into action.

Onr loss was heavy, as will appear from the accompanying return, marked

"B;" our Commander-iu-Chief, General A. S. Johnston, fell, mortally wounded, and died on the field at 2.30 p. M., after having shown the highest qualities of the commander, and a personal intrepidity that inspired all around him and gave resistless impulsion to his columns at critical moments.

The chief command then devolved upon me, though at the time I was greatly prostrated, and suffering from the prolonged sickness with which I had been afflicted since early in February. The responsibility was one which in my phys ical condition I would have gladly avoided, though cast upon me when our forces were successfully pushing the enemy back upon the Tennessee River, and though supported on the immediate field by such corps commanders as Major-Generals Polk, Bragg, and Hardee, and Brigadier-General Breckinridge commanding the reserve.

It was after 6 o'clock p. M., as before said, when the enemy's last position was carried, and his forces finally broke and sought refuge behind a commanding eminence covering the Pittsburg Landings, not more than half a mile distant, and under the guns of the gunboats, which opened on our eager columns a fierce and annoying fire, with shot and shell of the heaviest description. Darkness was close at hand, officers and men were- exhausted by a combat of over twelve hours without food, and jaded by the inarch of the preceding day through mud and water; it was therefore impossible to collect the rich and opportune spoils of war scattered broadcast on the field left in our possession, and impracticable to make any effective disposition for their removal to the rear.

I accordingly established my headquarters at the church of Shiloh, in the enemy's encampments, with Major-General Bragg, and directed our troops to sleep on their arms, in such positions in advance and rear as corps commanders ehould determine ; hoping, from news received by a special despatch, that delays had been encountered by General Buell in his march from Columbia, and that his main force, therefore, could not reach the field of battle in time to save Gen eral Grant's shattered, fugitive forces from capture or destruction on the follow ing day.

During the night the rain fell in torrents, adding to the discomforts and har assed condition of the men; the enemy, moreover, had broken their rest by a discharge, at measured intervals, of heavy shell thrown from the gunboats; therefore, on the following morning the troops under my command were not in condition to cope with an equal force of fresh troops, armed and equipped like our adversary, in the immediate possession of his depots, and sheltered by such an auxiliary as the enemy's gunboats.

About G o'clock on the morning of the 7th of April, however, a hot fire of musketry and artillery, opened from the enemy's quarter on our advanced line, assured me of the junction of his forces, and soon the battle raged with a fury which satisfied me I Avas attacked by a largely superior force. But from the onset our troops, notwithstanding our fatigue and losses from the battle of the day before, exhibited the most cheering, veteran-liko steadiness. On the right and centre the enemy was repulsed in every attempt he made with his heavy columns in that quarter of the field. On the left, however, and nearest to the points of arrival of his reinforcements, he drove forward line after line of

his fresh troops,-which were met by a courage and resolution of which our country may be proudly hopeful. Again and again our troops were brought to the charge, invariably to win the position already in issue, invariably to drive back this foe. But hour by hour, thus opposed to an enemy constantly rein forced, our ranks were perceptibly thinned under the increasing withering fire of the enemy, and at 12 meridian, eighteen hours of hard fighting had sensibly exhausted a large number, my last reserves had necessarily been disposed of, and the enemy was evidently receiving fresh reinforcements after each repulse. Accordingly, after 1 p. M., I determined to withdraw from so unequal a conflict,so-curing such of the results of the victory of the day before as was then practicable.

Officers of my staff were immediately despatched with the necessary orders to make the best disposition for a deliberate, orderly withdrawal from the field, and to collect, and post, a reserve to meet the enemy, should he attempt to push after us. In this connection I will particularly mention my Adjutant-General, Colonel Jordan, who was of much assistance to me on this occasion ; as he had already been on the field of battle, on that and the preceding day.

About 2 o'clock P. M. the lines in advance, which had repulsed the enemy in their last fierce assault on our left and centre, received the orders to retire. This was done with uncommon steadiness, and the enemy made no attempt to follow.

The lines of troops established to cover this movement had been disposed on a favorable ridge, commanding the ground of Shiloh church ; from this position our artillery played upon the woods beyond for a while, but upon no visible enemy, and without a reply. Soon satisfied that no serious pursuit was, or would be, attempted, this last lino was withdrawn, and never did troops leave battle-field in better order; even the stragglers fell into the ranks, and marched off with those who had stood more steadily to their colors. A second strong position was taken up about a mile in rear, where the approach of the enemy was waited for more than one hour, but no effort to follow was made, and only a small detachment of horsemen could be seen at a distance from this last po sition, merely observing our movements.

Arranging through my staff officers for the completion of the movements thus begun, Brigadier-General Breckiuridgo was left with his command, as a rear guard, to hold the ground we had occupied the night preceding the first battle, just in front of the intersection of the Pittsburg and Hamburg roads, about four miles from the former place, while the rest of the army passed in the rear, in ex cellent order.

On the following day General Breckinridge fell back about three miles, to Mackie's, which position wo continue to hold, with our cavalry thrown consid erably forward, in immediate proximity to the battle-field.

Unfortunately, towards night, on the 7th instant, it began to rain heavily: this continued throughout the night. The roads became almost impassable in many places, and much hardship and suffering here ensued, before all the regi ments reached their encampments.

But, despite the heavy losses and casualties of the two eventful days of the 6th and 7th of April, this army is more confident of ultimate success than before its encounter with the enemy.


To Major-Generals Polk, Bragg, and Hardee, commanding corps, and to Briga dier-General Breckinridge, commanding the reserve, the country is greatly in debted for the zeal, intelligence, and energy with which all orders were exe cuted ; for the foresight and military ability they displayed in the absence of instruction in the many exigencies of the battle, on a field so densely wooded and broken; and for their fearless deportment as they repeatedly led their com mands personally to the outset upon their powerful adversary. It was under these circumstances that General Bragg had two horses shot under him, that Major-General Hardee was slightly wounded, his coat cut with balls, and his horse dis abled, and that Major-General Breckiuridge was twice struck with spent balls.

For the services of their gallant subordinate commanders, and their officers under them, as well as for the details of the battle-field, I must refer to the re ports of corps, division, and brigade commanders, which shall be forwarded as soon as received.

To give more in detail the operations of the two battles resulting from the movement on Pittsburg, than now attempted, must have delayed this report for weeks, and interfered with the important duties of my position; but I may be permitted to say, that not only did the obstinate conflict of Sunday leave the Confederates masters of the battle-field and our adversaries beaten, but we left that field on the next day, only after eight hours' successive battle with a su perior army of fresh troops, whom we had repulsed in every attack upon onr lines; so repulsed and crippled, indeed, as to leave it unable to take the field for the campaign for which it was collected and equipped at such enormous ex pense, and with such profusion of all the appliances of war. These successful results were not achieved, however, as before said, without severe loss; a loss not to be measured by the number of the slain or wounded, but by the high social and personal position of so large a number of those who were killed or disabled, including the commander of the forces, whose high qualities will be greatly missed in the momentous campaign impending.

I deeply regret to record, also, the death of the Hon. George Johnson, Pro visional Governor of Kentucky, who went into action with the Kentucky troops, and continually inspired them by his words and example. Having his horse shot under him Sunday, he entered the ranks of a Kentucky regiment on Mon day, and fell mortally Avouuded towards the close of the day. Not his State alone, but the whole Confederacy, will mourn the death of this brave, upright, and noble man.

Another gallant and able soldier and captain was lost to the service of the country when Brigadier - General Gladden, commanding 1st brigade "YVithers's division, second army corps, died from a severe wound, received on the Cth in stant, after having been conspicuous to his whole command and army for cour age and capacity.

Major-General Cheathani, commanding 1st division 1st corps, was slightly wounded, and had threj horses shot under him.

Brigadier-General Clark, commanding 2d division of the 1st corps, received a severe wound, also, on the first day, which will deprive the army of his valuable services for some time.

Brigadier-General Ilindman, engaged in the onset of the battle, was conspicu ous for a cool courage in leading his men, even in the thickest of the fray, until his horse was shot under him, and he was so severely injured by the fall that the army was deprived the following day of his chivalric example.

Brigadier-Generals B. K. Johnson and Bowen, most meritorious officers, were also severely wounded in the first combat, but it is hoped will soon be able to return to duty with their brigades.

To mention the many field officers who died or were wounded, while gallantly leading their commands into action, and the many instances of brilliant indi vidual courage displayed by officers and men in the twenty hours of battle, is impossible at this time ; but their names will be made known to their country men.

Tin; immediate staff of the lamented Commander-in-Chief, who accompanied him to the field, rendered efficient service, and, either by his side, or in carrying his orders, shared his exposure to the casualties of a well-contested battle-field. I beg to commend their names to the notice of the War Department, namely: of Captains II. P. Brewster and A. Wickliffe, of the Adjutant and Inspector General's Department; Captain Theodore O'Hara, Acting Inspector-General, Lieutenants George Baylor and Thomas M. Jack, Aides-de-camp ; Volunteer Aides-de-camp Colonel William Preston, Major D. M. Hayden, E. W. Munford, and Calhoun Beuham ; Major Albert J. Smith and Captain - —, C^uaiter-master's Department.

To these gentlemen was assigned the last sad duty of accompanying the re mains of their lamented chief from the field, except Captains Brewster and Wickliffe, who remained, and rendered valuable service as stati' officers, on the 7th of April.

Governor Isham G. Harris, of Tennessee, went into the field with General Johnston, was by his side when ho was shot, aided him from his horse, and re ceived him in his arms when he died. Subsequently the Governor joined my stall', and remained with me throughout the next day, except when carrying or ders, or employed in encouraging the troops of his own State, to whom he gave a conspicuous example of coolness, zeal, and intrepidity.

I am also under many obligations to my own general, personal, and volunteer stall', many of whom have been so long associated with me. I append a list of those present on the field on both days, and whose duties carried them con stantly under fire; namely, Colonel Thomas Jordan, Captain Clifton II. Smith, and Lieutenant John M. Otey, Adjutant-General's Department; Major George W. Brent, Acting Inspector-General; Colonel II. B. Lee, Chief of Subsistence, whose horse was wounded; Lieutenant-Colonel S.W.Ferguson and Lieuten ant A. II. Chisolm, Aides-de-camp; Volunteer Aides-de-camp, Colonel Jacob Thompson, Major Numa Augustin, Major II. E. Peyton, Captain Albert Ferry, B. B. Waddell. Captain W. W. Porter, of Major-General Crittenden's staff, also reported for duty, and shared the duties of my volunteer staff on Monday.

Brigadier-General Trndeau, of Louisiana Volunteers, also, for part of the first conflict, was with me as volunteer aid.

Captain E. II. Cummins, signal officer, also was actively employed as a stafT I.—35

officer both days. Nor mast I fail to mention that Private W. E. Goolsby, llth regiment Virginia Volunteers, orderly to my headquarters since last June, re peatedly employed to carry my verbal orders to the field, discharged the duty with great zeal and intelligence.

Other members of my staff were necessarily absent from the immediate field of battle, intrusted with respective duties at their headquarters, viz.: Major Eu gene E. McLean, Chief Quartermaster; Captain E. Deslondes, Quartermaster's Department. Lieutenant-Colonel Ferguson, A. D. C., early on Monday, was as signed to command and direct the movements of a brigade of the 2d corps.

Lieutenant-Colonel Gilnier, Chief-Engineer, after having performed the im portant and varied duties of his place, with distinction to himself and material benefit to the country, was wounded, late on Monday. I trust, however, I shall not long be deprived of his essential services.

Captain Lockett, Engineer Corps, Chief Assistant to Colonel Gilmer, after having been employed in the duties of his corps on Sunday, was placed by me, on Monday, in command of a battalion, without field officers. Captain Fre-ineaux, Provisional Engineer, and Lieutenants Steel and Helm, also rendered material and even dangerous service in the line of their duty. Major-General (now General) Braxton Bragg, in addition to his duties as Chief of Staff, as has been before stated, commanded his corps, much the largest in the field, on both days, with signal capacity and soldiership.

Surgeon Foard, Medical Director, Surgeon R.L.Brodie, and Surgeon D.W.Tan-dal, Medical Director of the Western Department, with General Johnston, were present in the discharge of their arduous and high duties, which they performed with honor to their profession. Captain Thomas Saunders, Messrs. Scales and Medcalf, and Mr. Tully of New Orleans, were of material aid on both days, ready to give news of the enemy's positions and movements, regardless of exposure.

While thus partially making mention of some of those who rendered brilliant, gallant, and meritorious service on the field, I have aimed merely to notice those whose position would most probably exclude their services from the reports of corps or subordinate commanders.

From this agreeable duty I turn to one in the highest degree unpleasant; one due, however, to the brave men under me. As a contrast to the behavior of most of the army, who fought so honorably, I allude to the fact that some of ficers, non-commissioned officers, and men, abandoned their colors on the first day, to pillage the captured encampments, others retired shamefully from the field on both days while the thunder of cannon and the roar and rattle of mus ketry told them that their brothers \yere being slaughtered by the fresh legions of the enemy. I have ordered the names of the most conspicuous of these cow ards and laggards to be published in orders.

It remains to state that our loss in the two days, in killed outright, was 1728; wounded 8012, missing 957; making an aggregate of casualties 10,691). This sad list tells in simple language of the stout fight made by our countrymen, in front of the rude log chapel at Shiloh, especially when it is known that on Monday, from exhaustion and other causes, not twenty thousand men on our side could be brought into action.

Of the losses of the enemy I have MO exact knowledge. Their newspaper report is very heavy. Unquestionably it was greater, even in proportion, than our own, on both days, for it was apparent to all that their dead left on the field outnumbered ours two to one. Their casualties, therefore, cannot havo fallen many short of 20,000, in killed, wounded, prisoners, and missing.

Through information derived from many sources, including the newspapers of the enemy, wo engaged, on Sunday, the divisions of Generals Prentiss, Sher man, Hurlbut, McClernand, and Smith, of 9000 men each, or at least 45,000 men. This force was reinforced Sunday night by the divisions of Generals Nelson, McCook, Crittenden, and Thomas, of Major-General Buell's army, some 25,000 strong, including all arms; also General L. Wallace's division of General Grant's army, making at least 33,000 fresh troops; which, added to the remnant of General Grant's forces on Monday morning, amounting to 20,000, made an ag gregate force of at least 53,000 men arrayed against us on that day.

In connection with the results of the battle, I should state that most of our men who had inferior arms exchanged them for the superior arms of the enemy ; also, that most of the property, public and personal, of the camps from which the enemy were driven on Sunday, was rendered useless, or greatly damaged, except some of the tents.

With this are transmitted certain papers, to wit :

Order of movements, marked "A."

A list of the killed and wounded, marked '' B."

A list of captured Hags, marked " C."

A map of the fit-Id of battle, marked " P.''

All of which is respectfully submitted through my volunteer Aide-de-camp, Colonel Jacob Thompson, of Mississippi, who has the Hags in charge; also the standards and colors captured from the enemy.

I have the honor to be. General, your obedient servant,

G. T. HEAUKEGAKD, Genl. Comdg.

To General S. COOPER, Adj. and Insp. Genl., Richmond.


1. Colonel Joseph Wheeler, in his Report, to be found in "Confederate Re ports of Battles," p. 27G, says:

" But after passing through the deep ravine below the lowest camps, we were halted within about four hundred yards of the river, and remained ready to move forward for about half an hour, when niylit came o», and we were or dered to the rear, and were assigned to bivouac by General Withers. During all this movement, the regiment was under a heavy lire from their gunboats and other artillery."

2. General Ruggles, in his Report, p. 2H3 of the same work, says:

" I received from Colonel Augustin notice of General Beauregard's orders to withdraw from the further pursuit, and finding, soon afterwards, that the forces

were falling back, I retired with them, just as night set in, to the open field in rear j" etc.

3. Colonel Hodge, 19th Louisiana, in his Report, same book, p. 288, says :

" After the enemy were driven from this stronghold, we, with several bri gades, moved towards the river. It \vas then nigh sunset. In accordance with your order [Colonel Gibson's] we commenced falling lack about dusk, and being sep arated from the brigade, I conducted the regiment to the camp of the enemy, where I had established a temporary hospital in the day."

4. Colonel Fagan, 1st Arkansas, in his Report, p. 294 (same book), says :

" It was late in the afternoon w T heii the enemy were repulsed, and were fol lowed up in the direction of the river. That night we slept in the enemy's tents, worn with fatigue, decimated in numbers, but elated that such a hard-fought day had such a glorious close."

5. General Patton Anderson's Report, p. 305 of the same work, says:

" ... It was now twilight. As soon as we had placed a hill between us and the gunboats, the troops moved slowly, and apparently with reluctance, from the direction of the river. It was eight o'clock at night before ive had reached a biv ouac near General Bragg's headquarters, and in the darkness of the night the 20th Lou isiana, and portions of the 17th and Confederate Guards, got separated from that portion of the command in which I was, and encamped on other ground."

G. Colonel \V. A. Stanley, 9th Texas, in his Report, p. 312 of the same work, says:

"At this point, niglit put a close to the action for the day of the Gth. We retired

from this point to form our encampment for the night, our troops being more

or less scattered, some having been completely exhausted from the fatigues of

the day."

7. Colonel Augustus Reichard, 20th Louisiana, in his Report, p. 320 of the same work, says:

". . . My regiment was separated from the rest of the brigade, and, as night set in, I led the remnants of the regiment to our hospital, where we bivouacked."

8. Colonel Pond, commanding brigade, Ruggles's division, in his Report, (same work), p. 330, says:

"At night, after the battle ceased, acting in obedience to orders received through the day from a great variety of sources, I formed my infantry line considerably in advance of our general front."

9. General Chalmers's Report (same work), p. 260, says:

". . . Our men struggled vainly to ascend the hill, which was very steep, making charge after charge without success, but continued the fight until night closed the hostilities on both sides."

10. Colonel Z. C. Deas (commanding Gladden's brigade after Colonel Adams was wounded), in his Report, p. 245 of the same work, says:

"Here, in the hot pursuit,the 21st and 25th Alabama became separated from me in the woods, and, before I had time to find them, I received an order from General Withers to form on the extreme left, where I remained until niyht came on, and then attempted to get back to the camp I had left, but got into a differ ent one."

11. General Withers, commanding division, in his Report,-p. 239 of the same work, says :

"... The cavalry was thrown to our front. Thus we remained until dark, the entire army, with the exception of the cavalry, having retired from the field, when we received an order from General Bragg that, holding the command in readiness to form line of battle at any moment, we would fall back to Mickey's."

12. In his Report, Colonel John D. Martin, commanding 2d Confederate regi ment, and Bowen's brigade, of General Breckinridge's division, says:

" When within three hundred or four hundred, yards of the river the ene my opened on us with their gunboats and two batteries, in position near the bank of the river, which sounded trouble and looked ugly and hurt but few. Our men began to discover this fact. Being now nearly niyht, I fell back, by order of General Bragg, to the first encampment in the tents farthest from the river, where we stayed all night, feasting upon stores of the enemy, visited oc casionally by a shell from their gunboats. Major-General Hardee and General Withers came to our encampment, where they remained all night."

13. Colonel R. P. Trabue, commanding 1st Kentucky brigade, Breckinridge's division, in his Report, says:

"From this position, when it teas nearly dark, we were ordered to the rear to encamp, which movement was effected in good order. I followed, in the darkness of (he niyht, the Purdy Road, after having reunited to my command Byrne's battery and the others of my troops who had been detached to the right, not including, however, Cobb's battery."

14. Colonel John C. Moore, 2d Texas regiment, says (''Confederate Reports of Bat tics," p. 271):

"Seeing this state of things, wo made a rapid retreat from our unpleasant position, and proceeded back to the camp last taken, having been told that wo would hero receive further orders. It was dark when we readied the eamp, and af ter waiting an hour or so, we bivouacked near the encampment, in a drenching rain."

!.">. General J. K. Jackson, commanding 3d brigade, Withers's division, in his Report (same work), p. 260, says :

"... I proceeded to obtain orders from General Withers; but, before seeing him, was ordered by a staff oflicer to retire. This order was announced to me as coming from General Bean regard, and was promptly communicated to my cotnnnnd. In the darkness of the niyht, tchich had then fallen upon us, my regiments became separated from each other," etc.

16. General Chcatham, in his Report, says :

". . . My command and other commands came rapidly forward, but many regiments Laving exhausted their ammunition, a halt of some time was neces sary for the purpose of replenishing. The day was now far advanced, and be fore proper preparations were made, darkness prevented further operations that day, and all commands were withdrawn for the riight, out of range of the shells from the enemy's gunboats."

17. General Grant, in his Report of the Battle of Shiloh, published in the " Record of the Rebellion," vol. iv. p. 356, says :

l( The battle soon waxed warm on the left and centre, varying at times to all parts of the line. There was the most continuous firing of musketry and artillery ever heard on this continent, kept up until nightfall."

18. General Buell, in his Report (" Record of the Rebellion," vol. iv. p. 410), says:

" General Nelson arrived with Colonel Ammen's brigade at this opportune mo ment. It was immediately posted to meet the attack at that point, and, with a battery of artillery, which happened to be on the ground and was brought into action, opened fire on the enemy and repulsed him. The action of the gunboats also contributed very much to that result. The attack at that point was not renewed. Night having come on, the firing ceased on loth sides"

19. General Nelson (" Record of the Rebellion," vol. iv. p. 413), in his Report, says:

" The gallantry of the 36th Indiana, supported by the 6th Ohio, under the able conduct of Colonel Ammen, commanding the 10th brigade, drove back the enemy and restored the line of battle. This ivas at half-past six p. M., and soon after Hie enemy withdrew, owing, I suppose, to the darkness."

20. From a narrative of the battle of Sliiloh, entitled "Account by a Partici pant," to be found in the " Record of the Rebellion," vol. iv. p. 415, we take the following passage:

" On the top of the bank we were cheered by a sight of Nelson, with his well-known overcoat and feathered hat. ' Sixth Ohio, I expect a good account from you!' ' Yes! Yes! Hurrah!' and without an order our walking pace was changed into a double quick. We only went a few yards, and were ordered to support a battery. Darkness soon dosed in, and compelled the belligerents to cease hostilities for the night."

21. Colonel Tattle, commanding 1st brigade, 2d division (W. H. L. Wallace's), in his Report (" Record of the Rebellion," vol. iv. p. 406), says :

" . . . I assumed command of the division, and rallied what was left of my brigade, and was joined by the 13th Iowa, Colonel Crocker ; 9th Illinois, Colonel Mersey ; 12th Illinois, Lieutenant-Colonel Chottain, and several other fragments of regiments, and formed in line on the road, and held the enemy in check un til the lino was formed that resisted the last charge just before dark of that day."

22. Colonel M. M. Crocker, loth Iowa, commanding brigade, in Lis Report, says ("Record of the Rebellion," vol. iv. p. 379):

" The fire of the enemy's guns ceased at dark, and during the night we remained under arms in that position."

Extract of a letter from Colonel David Urqnhart, of General Bray (fit staff, to Gener al Thomas Jordan, late A. A, G. of the united Confederate forces at and around Corinth.

NAHRAGAXSETT, R. I., August 25//J, 1SSO.

Dear General, — * * *

During the first day of the battle of Shiloh, I was with you a good deal of the time, and repeatedly helped you to bring up and put the troops into action, particularly, as I remember, those of Polk. I remember, further, that in conse quence of an obstinate resistance made to General Bragg's advance by some Federal batteries, he,having been told by me that you were near by, sent mo to ask you to find and push forward a strong force to Hank those batteries on our right; further, that meeting you (Colonel Win. Preston, A. D. C. to General Johnston, being with you), I made known to you General Bragg's desire, and that after some little conversation on your part with Colonel Preston as to the propriety of putting the reserves into action, you gave the order to General Breckinridgc to advance and turn the batteries in question. Immediately after you gave this order, and while General Breckinridgo was proceeding to execute it, you, accompanied by Colonel Preston and mj'self, withdrew rearward into n narrow ravine, which separated the ground upon which we found General Breckinridgo from a higher ground, to which we went for the purpose of over looking the movement. In tlio ravine, however, Colonel Preston concluded to attempt to find General Johnston, and left us, and, as you will remember, a few moments later, found General Johnston.

The hill to which you and I went, as you will recollect, had been occupied as an encampment by the Federals, whose tents were standing full of baggage, and there was a fine Federal battery of six pieces abandoned there. From this ground we saw General Breckinridgo advance, engage, and drive the Federal forces in his front, whoso bullets reached the ground we occupied. I should have mentioned that the order to Breckinridgo was given by you about half-p«st 2 o'clock.

Subsequently I rejoined General Bragg, whom I found engaged with the Federal troops, who were now disputing every inch. At about sunset, an or der came from General Beauregard to withdraw, collect, and reorganize the troops, all of which had become greatly broken and intermixed. This order reached the division commanders. At the time this order was given, the plain truth must be told, that our troops at the front were a thin line of exhausted men, who were making no further headway, and were glad to receive ordeis to fall back. At tho same time, as I had myself previously reported to General Bragg, over one third of tho army were scattered in different parts of the field, loading themselves with plunder from the abandoned Federal encampments. Nobody can realize the condition our army was in, after 4 o'clock P.M. on Sim-

day, "without having been an eye-witness. Brigades, regiments, and companies began to disperse at that hour and move more or less distantly to the rear. Several years of subsequent service have impressed me that General Beaure-gard's order for withdrawing the troops was most timely; otherwise the collec tion and reorganization of troops that took place that night could not have been made, and the array would not have been in condition to make the obsti nate head which it did on the next day, against Grant's and Buell's combined armies, up to the moment in the afternoon when it was withdrawn, carrying off so considerable a part of the enemy's captured artillery, and in such good or der that Buell's and Grant's armies did not venture to follow.


To Genl. THOMAS JORDAN, New York.

For Genl. G. T. BEAUREGARD, New Orleans, La.




JACKSON, TEXX., Feb. 21st, 18G2. General L. POLK, Columbus :

Can you spare General McCown for one day to come here ? Let him bring Trudeau's drawing of Island No. 10 and vicinity, taken back by Captain Harris.




Your telegrams of 5th and 7th noted. Every effort is being made to remedy the Battery No. 1. Ordnance was sent here from Columbus in such confusion that I don't know what I can spare. I shall exercise my best judgment in all masters. Peremptory orders to save a battery from overflow might require all my force for weeks. The enemy is erecting a battery at Point Pleasant. A gun boat went down to shell them out. I have not heard the result. I have not yet placed the salient in advance of the works at New Madrid; the position it would occupy is raked by the gunboats. I have not force enough to occupy it. I shall erect it as soon as I can. From what I learn, I fear the enemy can get guns down as low as Tiptouville, on the Missouri shore. The railroad to Sykes-ton is being rapidly repaired. Can soon be laid to New Madrid, as no grading is required. The least estimate of the force of the enemy on Madrid plain is thirty thousand, with sixty guns.

You express confidence in my holding the place. With my present force I can only hold Island No. 10 and the Bend by holding New Madrid. How long I can hold New Madrid with my small force against such odds is a question. I be lieve the enemy will soon be fifty thousand strong. He occupies position from where lie can't retreat. In iny humble opinion, it is the place to inflict a great

overthrow npon the enemy. If this falls, the river is open. I place the facts before you. I am determined to hold my position at every hazard. Shall en gage in no field risks. I see my danger. My men are confident and in good spirits. We have fifty guns, all told, mounted. Some of our best guns have no carriages. I will despatch as often as practicable.

Yours, etc., J. P. McCowx, Brig.-Gen. Comdg.


JACKSOX, TEXX., March 9//<, 18G2. HUMBOLDT, March 9th, 1862. To General BEAUREGARD :

I send you the following despatch received from General McCown.


"Houses burned and torn down as necessity required. Captain Hallum, 5th Tennessee regiment, wounded yesterday; also three men on the Polk (steamer), and one scout. A lively skirmish yesterday. During a heavy demonstration this afternoon, on New Madrid, they were driven back by Captain Baukhead's guns and the, gunboats. The enemy have established a battery at Point Pleas ant, of small rilled guns. The river would be closed if New Madrid was aban doned. A large force would be required to hold Island No. 10 if New Madrid was in tho hands of the enemy. It is necessary to hold the place until forces are thrown hero to defeat the enemy—the quicker the better. I see no other course to pursue.. If I had twenty thousand more men, such would be my course. McCowx.

" P. S. Shall I look for reinforcements ? I want commanders Trudeau, March, Walker, and Gantt. It is important."


General,--! send you herewith enclosed a slip from the X. Y. Herald, to show you that the enemy's gunboats are not invulnerable to our heavy guns, so that I have strong hopes now you will be able to keep them out of Madrid Bend. I think they themselves have lost all confidence in them. They will hardly at tack you on the water before their mortar-boats are ready. This is a very un certain mode of firing against small works at long ranges. Small traverses in every direction there and at New Madrid will guard your garrisons against any bad effects, the main forces being kept, as much as practicable, away from their ranges, but still within supporting distance.

Without the enemy's gunboats, I consider New Madrid impregnable in daylight, having our gunboats to sweep the ground in front and around them. At night you must guard against surprises by strong advance guards and pickets, and piles of wood, to which you can set fire on tho approach of the enemy, to assist the fire of the fort and gunboats. If you can get tar-barrels and light-balls, do so by all means. I have just ordered Captain Adams to send you some from Memphis.

Should the enemy endeavor to command the river below you with their'light

artillery, gunboats must drive them away, winch they can easily do. But by all means do not waste your ammunition, for we have to bo careful with it. Should circumstances compel you to abandon New Madrid, be careful to take away all the heavy guns, spike them, or destroy them ; and destroy the gorge of your works, to allow our gunboats to play into them night and day occasional ly, so as to prevent the enemy from using them to command the river below Island No. 10.

I am having Fort Pillow put in order, under General Withers, and about two thousand five hundred men for the present, to fall back upon in case of neces sity. In a few days it will be ready. Should we be forced to give up Island No. 10, we will have to save from there, or destroy, as many of our heavy guns as practicable.

Under the present circumstances, it is impossible to send reinforcements, as the enemy is threatening our rear in great force along the Tennessee River; and to diminish any more our forces here would be total annihilation every where. But if, by combining with General Johnston's army, we can defeat them, then we can come and treat as you desire those in your front. I have ordered gun-spikes or rat-tail files to be sent you from Memphis. Be of good cheer, and do for the best, is all I and the country can ask or expect from you. In case of any retrograde movement, do so with system and order, saving what can be saved and destroying the rest; but leave no guns behind without being spiked or permanently injured by knocking off the trunnions, bursting, or throw ing into the river, etc. But, by all means, endeavor to save the largest and best guns for Fort Pillow.

The country expects us all to do our duty with a fearless heart, and we must do it or die in the attempt.

Yours truly, G. T. BEAUREGARD, Gcnl. Comdg.

Brig.-Genl. J. P. McCowx, New Madrid Bend, Tenn.


JACKSON, TEXX., March 10th, 1862. Maj.-Genl. M. LOVELL, New Orleans:

Ram Manassas indispensable at present, but will send her if you need her ab solutely. I think blockaders won't try the forts.


JACKSOX, TEXX., March Wth, 1862. Brig.-Genl. WITHERS, Fort Pillow, Tenn.:

Reconnoitre road from Fort Pillow to Mason Station, Memphis and Ohio Road, and other features of country, and send report.



JACKSOX, TEXX., March Wth, 1852. General, —I am instructed, by the general commanding, to inform you that he

•wishes you to despatch to Fort Pillow, as soon as possible, all guns now at Mad rid Bend for which you chance to have no carriages. It is hoped that the gun boats will be able to convoy any transport safely beyond that part of the river which can be approached by the enemy.

In connection with any effort to save Battery No. 1, at Madrid Bend, from the encroachments of the river, the General expects you to exercise your own judg ment in the face of the exigency. You must determine what may bo best to be done.

He instructs me, however, to suggest, if practicable at the time this may reach you, that you should construct some rille-pits in front of your position at New Madrid, and as far in advance as may be practicable.

Transports must always bo held convenient for the certain, prompt removal of your troops, if driven to that extremity by an overwhelming force, which the gunboats, at any time, shall prove unable to keep from an assault of your posi tions.

Reinforcements cannot be sent you without the risk of fatal consequences in this quarter. Our dependence, as long as possible, must be mainly on the gun boats and their ability to hold the enemy at bay and hinder any effective onset upon your forces. When that shall be no longer possible, in your judgment,and in that of Flag-Officer Hull ins, you must evacuate, in accordance with the Gen eral's instructions of the 9th instant.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,


Brig.-Genl. JOHN P. McCowx, Comdg. C. S. Forces, Madrid Bend.

MADRID BE xi>, March 13/A, 18G2. To Col. THOMAS JORDAN, A. A. G.:

Colonel, —Commodore Hollins says that he cannot dispense with the Manassas. Let General Lovell know it. Batteries were planted last night, and opened at daylight against the lower fort. Dr. W. 8. Bell, Medical Director, both legs shot off, one man killed, and one wounded, when I left. As far as I know, I think the object is regular approach. J. P. McCowx, Brig.-Genl.

JACKSOX, TEXX., March l-Wt, 1662. Maj.-Genl. M. LOVKLL, New Orleans:

Commodore Hollins says he cannot dispense with Manama*.



JACKSOX, TEXX., March 1-Wi, 18f>2. Capt. D. B. HARRIS, Corps of Engineers, Madrid Bend :

Captain, —Your letter of the 9th instant was this day received and laid before the general commanding, who directs me to write, in reply, as follows :

lie approves of your suggestion to postpone construction of redoubts at Mad rid Bend. You will first complete the crfaiaillere line of which you speak, and place that line in defensive condition ; of course, however, first making the river

front as nearly impregnable as your means will permit, and looking carefully to timely provision for the caving in of the river shore, so as to avoid, if possi ble, either loss of guns, or a substantial diminution, at any time, of our powers of defence on that line or front.

Erect substantial traverses in abundance. The General is particularly anx ious that this shall be done.

You may dispense with any abatis on the Missouri shore at present.

The lunette, at a salient work at New Madrid, may also be relinquished, as the gunboats appear able to cover the front effectively, and to keep off the enemy.

A special messenger will be sent to Memphis to procure the tools you call for, and additional laborers Avill be sent you, if practicable.

Our forces are being concentrated rapidly to meet the enemy landing from the Tennessee River, nearly opposite Savannah ; and we hope to throw there a force competent to beat them decisively. If so, then a relief force will be thrown into New Madrid with the utmost celerity, and the enemy may find himself in our toils. Meantime, the General confidently relies on your sagacity, industry, and energy to render the position of Island No. 10, and the mainland, impregna ble to any means of attack the enemy may be able to wield against us.

Show this communication to General McCown.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,



JACKSON, TENN., March 15th, 1862. Brig.-Gcnl. JOHN P. McCowx, Comdg. Madrid Bend:

General, —The general commanding fully approves the projected evacuation of your position of New Madrid, and trusts that it has already been safely ac complished, if determined upon.

That step determines an immediate reduction of your force to the artillery necessary to the efficient service of the batteries at Island No. 10 and Madrid Bend, with an infantry support and reserve of three regiments, under the com mand of Brigadier-General Walker, to whom you will assign the command and honor of defending that Thermopylae of the Mississippi Valley. You Avill also leave a light battery of six guns. It is suggested that one of the infantry regi ments shall be stationed on Island No. 10, the other two on the mainland; two of the light gnus, also, to be with the troops on the island.

General Trndeau will remain w r ith General Walker in charge of the batteries, as Chief of Artillery; and, from his past distinguished services and skill, the Gen eral confidently expects the guns will be served with all possible efficiency and honor to the country.

The remainder of your command you will withdraw to Fort Pillow, with all possible celerity, by water, from Tiptonville, where ample transportation will bo sent you. Should an unforeseen casualty, however, leave you unprovided with sufficient transports for all your troops at once, you will send as many as prac ticable to Fort Pillow, with orders that the transports shall return for the re-

maimler with the least possible delay. Leaving sixty days' provision for the garrison, and an ample supply of ammunition for a prolonged, desperate defence, including about three hundred rounds of small-arms ammunition for each infan try soldier, you will remove the remainder of your supplies, if practicable; oth erwise destroy what cannot be removed, in the most effective way practicable.

Transports, at all times, will be left at Tiptonville for the removal of the gar rison just prescribed, should General Walker, or officer in command at any sub sequent time, determine further defence of his position fruitless, or without pos sible beneficial issue.

Should this final evacuation become plainly proper and necessary, before tho troops retire all the guns must be either burst or thrown into the river, if prac ticable ; if not, they must be spiked.

Should it be deemed of service, you ore authorized to leave with General Walker one company of cavalry; the other companies, including the squadron of Logwood's battalion, will be sent to Fort Pillow.

A copy of this letter will be left with General Walker.

Captain Harris will be sent to Fort Pillow forthwith; and if you deem the services of the other engineers not required, you will detach them also. Respectfully, your obedient servant,



JACKSON, TEX.V., March 15M, 16G2. Maj.-Genl. BRAXTOX BRAGG, Comdg. forces A. M., Bethel, Trim.:

(icncral, —Your despatch of this date, 11 A. M., duly received. Was laid be fore the General, who directs me to say, that ho entirely accords with your views as to the movements of the enemy, and approves your arrangements in tho premises, as he would have written you personally but for his continued indis position, especially since a prolonged interview to-day with Major-General Polk.

The movement of General Polk's command will be hastened as much as may be practicable with troops of that character. As his brigades come under your command, of course* you will be able to give them such directions as you may find best.

The General confidently relies on your judgment, sagacity, and skill; and your presence in tho field is a great comfort to him at this time. Should his health debar him from being with you, he will take care that the command shall effectually rest in your hands, as was agreed upon with General Polk.

New Madrid has been evacuated. This was done under the belief that an overwhelming force had been collected, which, aided by heavy guns, must make the early fall of the place inevitable. Most of the ammunition is said to have been saved, but all guns in position were lost. The General awaits the official report of the affair. This step, of course, made another a military consequence —that is, the immediate reduction of the force at Island No. 10 and Madrid Bend to the artillery to servo the guns in position, and enough infantry to support them with a reserve. Hence, the General, to-day, directed all the forces in that quarter to be withdrawn, save the foot artillery, three regiments of infantry, a