There are Abundance of creeping Vines yifjgf; and others, that run up the Bodies and to the Tops of Trees, which bear plenty of Grapes, fiefhy and fharp, not to compare to the Delicacy of ours in Europe ^ but v^^e made Verjuice of them, which was very good in Sauce. Mulberry Trees are numerous along the Rivers, their Fruit is fmaller, but fweeter and more delicious than ours ^ their Leaves aje beautiful and large, which would be. of good Ufe for feeding of Silkworms.

The Plains are ftrew'd with a Sort offrtiall pj^tfits: Sorrel, the Leaf whereof is like Trefoil, and the Tafte of it fliarp like ours. There are A-B bundance

is6 Monfeur de la Sal e'^ Seconci Voyige

fe*. 1686 bundauce of fmall Onions, no bigger than the ^^''WJ Top of a Man's Finger, bat very well tafted, N and when the Heat has fcorch'd up the Plains, that Plant (hoots out firft, and produces Flowers, which look like an agreeable Enamel. Nothing is more beautiful than to behold thofe vaft Plains, when the BlofToms appear^ a thoufand Sorts ofdifFereftt Colours, whereof many have an agreeable Scent, adorn thofe Fields, and afford a molt charraing Objed to the Eye. I have obferved fome that fmelt like a Tuberofe, but the Leaf refembles our Borage. I have feen Primrofes, having a Scent like ours, African Giliiflowers, and a Sort of purple wind Flowers. The Autumn Flowers are almoft all of them yellow,lb that the Plains look all of that Colour. The Climate is mild and temperate, tho* we were in about 27 Degrees of North Latitude, and yet the Seeds I caufed to be fow'd did not thrive \ whether it was becaufe they had been foak'd in the Sea Water, or for any other Rea-foq. Some came up pretty well, as Pompions, Melons, Parfnips and Endive •, but the BeajRisand the Infefts, left us not much. When we come to the Cenis and have traverfs'd fo many Nations as lay between us and them, I Ihall fpeakof the Religion, Manners, Cloath-ing, Houfes and Cuftoms ofthe Natives, wher-in they differ but little from one another, tho' of feveral Countries.

Monfieiir de la Sale had been now long gone, and we began to be in Pain for him, when a-boui theMiddle of March i685, hapningto be on the Top of the Houfe, I fpied feven or eight Perfons coming towards us. I pre fen tly ordered eight arm'd Men to follow me, to



go meet them; and as foon as we drew near ^J^^^J' them, we knew Monfiear de la Sale, Monfieur /-v>^ CAvelier^ his Brother, Monfieur /Joranget^ his ^'^ Nephew and five or fix Men with them, the reft being gone another Way to find out the Bark la Belle^ to give Notice of Monfieur de la S^Ws Arrival.

They were in a bad Condition, their Cloattis ^f,f g^j^ ragged, Monfieur Cavelier's fhort CaiTock returns. hung in Tatters; moft of them had not Hats, and their Linen was no better ; however the Sight of Monfieur de la Sale rejoyc'd us a]]. The Account he gave us of his Jcurney reviv'd our Hopes, tho' he 'had not found the fatal 'River, and we thought only of making ourfelves as merry as we could. Only the Sight of the Sieur Duhaut interrupted it for fom* Time. Monfieur de la Sale ask'd me in an angry Manner, why I had rectiv*d him, and Duhaut having given his Reafons, as I and my Men did, we were all fatisfy'd.

The next Day, the Sieurs le Barhier^ Bihorelj 4e Petit, Cavelievj the Nephew, the Surgeon '^^ ^•ifi and others, whom Monfieur de la Sale had fent jgi^^^^ to find out and carry Advice to the Bark la Belle^ return'd, and faid they could not find her, which was another frefli Caufe of much Uneafinefs to Monfieur de la Sale. He had been guilty of the Fault of putting aboard her, his Cloaths, his , Linen, his Papers and all his beft Effects, of all which he was then in the utmoft Need. Be-fides, that Lofs broke all the Meafures he had concerted daring his laft Expedition, becaufe he had refolv'd to caufe the faid Bark to go up one of the Rivers he had difcover'd, to advance towards thofe Nations, with whonj he had F 2 con-.

68 Monfteur de la S A l e'^ Second J^oyage

Mi*cb contracted fome Friendfhip, and to fend me in

*^^^' the fame Bark* with his Nephew Moranget^ to

^^^^y^ the Iflands to feek for fome Affiftance, or elfe

to return by Sea to look for his River.

All thefe Defigns being difappointed, he rc-folv'd to ^ti out a fecond Time, and travel by Land, to find out his River. He ftaid to reft him awhile, and to provide for his Departure, but having neither Linen nor Cloaths, I fup-ply'd him with fome I had ^ I alfo afforded fome Linen to Monfieur^ Caveller, his Brother and MonfieurA/or^;?^ef, his Nephew. All I had was at their Service, and I depriv'd myfelf of all that was fit for thera, even to ten or twelve Pounds of Strings of Beads and fome Knives and Nails, which Monfieur de la Sale took.

The Sieur Duhaut^ having feveral EfFefts, as Linen, Hatchets and other Tools and Com-jnodities, which had been fav'd from the Shipwreck, Monfieur de la Sale took Linen to make Shirts, for fuch as wanted, as alfo the Tools they Itood in Need of. The Cloaths belonging to Mefileurs Thibault^ le Cros and Car^entier^ who were dead, were alfo diltributed. A great Belt I had, ferv'd to make Shoes for Monfieur de la Sale and Monfieur Caveller,

All Things being thus providecj, Monfieur de la Sale took twenty Men along with him, among whom were Monfieur Cavelier his Brother, F. Anaflafms a Recolet, Monfieur Morari' get his Nephew, the Sieurs Bihorel, le CUrk^Hu' delaSale ^'*^» ^"^^"^ the younger, Jdiens his Surgeon, fetsoHt and- his Servants. He left behind thofe, who upouano' were not fit to undertake that fecond Journey, therExpe- among whom were little Moniieuv Caveller his diim. Nephew, the Sieur Barbier^ Canadien and fome



others. Each of the Travellers made up his ^i^ Pack, and they fet out towards the latter End ^-^^ of Ai^ril 1686, after having given me the necef-fary Orders, and we parted without Ceremony, Monfieur de la Sale defiring it fhould be fo.

Some Days after he was gone, I heard a Voice towards the lower Part of the River, crying twice Ouivive^ or who are you for. I made that Way, and perceiv'd the SieurCW?-'Ville a Prieft, the Sieur de U Sahlonniere^ and fome others of thofe who had been put aboard the Bark la Belle, and were now in a Canoe. I ask'd abruptly what was become of the Bark, and was iaform'd, our continual Misfortunes ftill purfuingus, that it had run aground on the Whit was other Side of the Bay. I caufed the Canoe to f-ived of be unloaded, there being in it, among other J^'^p^'!!* Things, Monfieur de la Sale's Cloaths, Part *

of his Papers, fome Linen, a fmall Quantity df Beads and thirty or forty Pound of Meal, which was all they had left.

The next Day, Monfieur de Chedeville told me the Particulars of that Misfortune, and faid, ^°^ »** That having been fome Time with the Bark, in ^1[^ "■'* the Place where Monfieur de la Sale had ap-pointed them to wait, their Water falling fhort, they bad thought fit to fend the Boat afiiore, with four or five Casks to fill •, that the Sieur TUnterofe went in it with fix of the beft Men. That towards the Evening they faw the Boat coming back, but the Wind being contrary and Kight coming on, they put out a Light, which going out and the Captain negleding to put up another, in all Likelyhood the Boat could not fee the Bark, and they never heard of ii after, F 3 nor

yo Mofifeur- de la Sal e'^ Second Voyage

May 1686 nor of any of thofe in it, who it was probable

^-"'^W^ had all periOiM.

That neverthelefs, they continued fome Days in the fame Place, during which Time three or four of their Men died ; and at la ft, having no Water, they eat up their Swine, before they died with Thirft, and refolv'd to weigh Anchor and draw near to the Dwelling ^ bat having few Hands and thofe fpent, and to add to thdr Misfortune the Wind proving contrary, they were drove to the other Side of the Bay, where they run aground.

That having no Boat, nor Men enough to land their Effeds, they had endeavQur'd to make a Float with fome Casks and Planks, buE that being ill made and join'd together, the firft that went upon it had perifb'd. That having made another Float better faftned together than the firft, they had by that Means faved fome Sails and Rigging, feveral inconfiderable Things, Linen, Cloaths and Papers belonging to Monfieur de la Sale and others, and thea ftay'd Afhore,expeding to hear fome News, and bad found a Canoe, being the fame that was before loft on the Edge of the Bay, which had been drove to the other Side ^ and that Provi-iions at laft beginning to fall fhort, they went aboard the faid Canoe and came to us; fortunate in that they had not been difcover'd by the Natives, during their Stay Afhore, which was for the Space of three Months, and in finding the Canoe to bring them back.

When Monfieur de la Sale went away, the Sieur BarbUr had taken upon him to go a hunting, asaifo to provide Bark to cover our Hou-fes, inftead of Hides, becaulb the Sua drying



and contrading them, Part of the Top of onr ^unei6S6 Buildings was uncover'd. I farther enjoyn'd him ^>''VNJ JO cot Stakes, to make a Palifade about our Dwelling, and the Sieiir ChedevilU having told me they had bury'd feveral Things they could not bring away, I fent the Sieur Barbier with two Canoes and fifteen Men to the Place, where they found f6me Pedrei'oes, Rigging and Sails. The Natives having difcover'd the Concealment, had taken away fome Pieces of Linea and Iron Tools, which they very much covet.

The Sieur Barbier after his Return, continuing his Exercife of hunting, happen'd to meet with a Parcel of the Natives, fome of whom had Firelocks, which they had taken from our Eiicoumer Men, and with which they made fome Shots at ^^}^}^^ him,but very weak jand he firing three or four ^'*"^" Shot at them they retir'd. He was then in a Canoe on the River, and defign'd to have gone upwards j but that Rancounter having oblig'd him to take another Way, and the Savages perceiving it, eight of them fwam over the River, haftening to get before the Canoe, hid themfelves among the Weeds, near the Way he was to pafs, and when he was near enough, let fly their Arrows, which wounded feveral Men. One Shot the Sieur Barbier made, put them all to Flight again j he held on his Way and returned to our Habitation.

Some Days after, We perceivM a Herd of Bullocks flying, and guefs'd they were purfu'd by the Savages, which afterwards appear'd to be true. Some of them drew near to our Habitation, but a Cannon Shot, I pointed towards the Gang of them, and a Musket-fhot Mon-F 4 fitvir

72 > Monfieur de la S A l e'^ Secofjd Voyage ^me\6%6 fieur Barhier fired at the nearelt, made them ^-^^^^^^ all fly farther off

When the Sieur Barbier went out a Hunting, I commonly fent with him fome Women and Maids, to help the Hunters to drefs and dry the Flelh ^ but being inform'd that he usM to The Sieur flip afide from the Company, with a young Barbier jviaid he had a Kindnefs for, and which gave mantes. Q^cafion to fome well-grounded Railleries 4 the faid Barbier being told I was acquainted with that Affair, came and fpoke to me in private, deliring Leave to marry that young Woman, 1 made fome Difficulty of it at firfl:, ad-vifing him to ftay till Mondeur de la Sale re- j turn'd ^ bat at laft, confidering they might -^ have anticipated upon Matrimony, I took the Advice of the Recolet Fathers, and of Monfieur ChedeviHe the Prieft, and allowed them to marry. Monfieur le Marquis de la Sabloniere following this Example, ask'd the fame Liberty, being in Love with a young Maid, which I abfo-lutely refus'd, and forbid them feeing one another. , Some Time pafs'd in which Nothing hap- 3 pen'd to us worth obferving ; however, I will mention two Things which befell our Recolet Accidents Fathers. One was, That Father Anajiafiusy concerning being a hunting Bullocks with me, and coming thei^ecoiets ^qq ^egf one I had (hot, and was fallen, the Beaft, as much hurt as he was, ftarted up, at-tack'd and threw him down ^ he had much ado to get off, and I torefcue him, becaufe I durft not fhoot for Fear of killing him. The Bullock being weak, fell again •,the Father was delivered, but lay ill fome Months. The other was, That ¥athsv Maxinm h&d writ fame Me-... moirs

moirs concerning Monfieur de U Sale\ Condua, ^"^fj^ condemning him upon feveral Occafions. I was ^>^>/^ told of it, found Means to get thofe Memoirs, threw them into the Fire, and fo the Father came off.

About the fame Time, moft of our Men feeing Monfieur de la Sale did not return, began Duha^ to mutter. The Sieur Duhaut, who perhaps had ^"J^'^j^g,. been the firft Fomenter of thofe Difcontents, ^^jj^w <* back'd the Csmplaints of ths difgufted Panyy Mutiny. promis'd them great Matters under his Con-duft, and offer'd to fupply them with fuch Ef-feds as he had in PolTefllon, endeavouring, as I fuppofe, by thofe Means, to gain their Affedi-ons, for a mifchievous Defign, which it is likely he had even then conceiv'd.

It was not long before, 1 had Intimation of the whole Affair, and I had done Monlieur de la Sale a fingular Piece of Service, had I then put to Deith the Perfon, who was to be his Murderer*, but I relied fatisfy'd with giving him a fevere Reprimand, and threatening to caufe him to be fecur'd if he perfifted,being able CO do no other under my prefent Circumftan-ces. However, 1 talk'd to all concern'd, and put them in fuch Hopes of Monfieur ^^/^5<«/e's Return, and that Things v^^ould fo-in change to their Satisfadion, that they were all paci-fy^d.

But in Regard, that Idlenefs often occaflons Uneafinefs and Impatience, I us'd all poffible Means to keep them employ'd, in the moft o-bliging Manner I could, fetting fome to cue down theBiifhes about our Dwelling, others to hew down Trees, that hinder'd the Profped, o-ihers raow'd the Grafs, that frc/h might grow


74 Monjieur de la S A l e'^ Second Voyage

^une'6p up for our Cattle, and st Night I made them ^-''^'^'^"^ divert themfelves with Dancing and Singing.

Whllft we thus pafsM away the Time the M. de la ^^^ ^^ could, Monfieur de la Sale had pene-S^WsDif- trated very far up into the Country, incliniflg wxfhsf towards the Northern Part of/"/e.v/co. He had travell'd through feveral Nations, the Inhabitants whereof were, for the moft Part, fociable, and had concluded a Sort of Alliance with them, and particularly with the Cenis and o-thers whofe Names I fhall mention. He had difcover'd charming Countries abounding in all Things that could be wifh'd, as well for Suite-nance, as for making of eafy Settlements, and after he and his Nephew Moran^et had efcap'd two Dangerous Sickneifes, he return'd to our Habitation, with five Horfes he had purchas'd, and arriv'd at it inAugufi \6?,6.

Hearing of his Voice, I was one of the firfl: Sful^turn that ran towards the River: We took our Canoes to bring him,his Luggage and fome Pro-vifions over, and the Horfes fwam. We were extraordinary glad to fee our Commander ift Chief return fafe, tho' his Journey had notad-vanc'd his Delign. Moniieur de la Sale had not found out his River, nor been towards the Ijlinois as we had hoped. Only eight Men return'd with him of twenty he carry'd out, and all the vifibie Advantage of that Journey confilied in five Horfes, laden with Indian Wheat, Beans and fome other Grain, which was put into the Store.

Monfr. de U Sale askM« me, as foon as he 7 ileniod ^^^^1 wjiether the Sieurs Clerc, Hurie^Buhaut the InAA^il younger and two others were come, becaufe fm.' ' they

they not being able to endure the Fatigue of ■y''^»«i^S6 the Journey, he had given them Leave to '-'^VVi' return, and hearing they were not, he concluded the Savages had killed them. We were al-fo informed, that the Sieur Bihorel^ had ftray'd and was loft, fo that there had been no News of him llnce ^ that one of Monfr. ds U Sale*% Servants had been dragged down to the Bottom of the Water aad devour'd by an Alligator, and that four others had deferted and abandoned Monfieur de U Sale, when he was about the Country of the C«?wj.

This was a very dlTmal and deplorable Ac' M. dela count; but the even Temper of our Chief made ^^'^ ''^-all Men eafy, and he found,by his great Vivacity f,J//^^^' of Spirit,Expedients, which reviv'd the loweit pediuofi, ' Ebb of Hope. He rejoiced at the Return and Sight of M. Chedeville^hs was pleas'd at the Recovering of hisCloathsand Part of his Papers ; and after fome Time ot Reft, he propos'd to undertake a journey towards the 7/Z/w<7«/, and to make it the main Bufinefs, by the Way,to find the Mijfippi ^ but it was thought proper to let the great Heats pafs, before that Enterpiize was taken in Hand.

In the mean Time, he gave Orders to ftake about a Place to make a new Magazine, or Storehoufe. He put to thatUfe the Timber I had caused to be cut, and would have more provided for the fame UCe- Detachments being fent to work, feven or eight of our Men, who were fent with the Sieur Barhier^ were difco-ver'd by the Savages, who being fuperior in Number, made as if they would hem them in *, but each of our Men having taken a Ti^e upon their Shoulders aud fir'd their Pieces, which


0^. 1686. made one of* the Natives drop, the others took

^^^^"^^ him up and withdrew. Yet it was not long be-

Tvoo Men ^^^^ ^^^^ "^^^^ reveng'd, for they kill'd as two

liWi, M«i, one of them clofe by our Dwelling, and

the other, who had feparated from the reft of

the Company to gather Purflain, and could noE

be reliev'd.

There being every Day fome Difcourfe of the Journey to the IJlinois^ Monfieur de la Sale ask'd me one Day, whether 1 would make one of the Company, and go by the Way of Canada to France for Succours. I afiured him I was entirely devoted to his AA/ill, and would faithfully attend him. Then he began by Degrees to provide what he thought necefTary for that Expedition. I had two Pair of Sheets, which lie took, to make him Linen. Canvas Cloaths were made of the Sails of the Bark la Belle, The Sieur Duhaut having Linen, he took fome to diftribute among feyeral Perfons. Thus he halted on the Execution of his Delign, but aa Accident put it off. Nov.16^6 It was occafion'd by a Flux which troubled Monlieur de la Sale, who having told me he ccnld not perform that Journey, as long as he continu'd in fuch Condi Lion, I offerM to undertake it for him, if he would allow me his Indian^ and about fifteen Men •, but he anfwcr'd. That his Prefence was requilite among the IJlinois, and that it was requifite his Brother fhould go to France. Thus he refus'd my Offer, and could iiot fliun the ill Fate of that Journey. i?e;.i686 We fpent fome Time longer after this Manner, during the which, there arofe a Contro-verfy about the Privileges the King grants to tiae Firlt-born of the French Colonies in jimeri-


€a. The Siear Barbier\ Wife was with Child, ^^w-i^S;, and he claim'd the Privilege granted for that i^'^V^^ Child. The Widow Talon had a Child born ia the ?^i[dgc horn France to America^ and alledg'd, r^^J^^f that her Child, tho' born before our Arrival, privilege* ought to be preferr'd ^ but the Sieur Barbier*s Wife mifcarrying, the Difpute was not decided.

Monfleur de la Sale being recover'd of his In-difpofition, Preparations were again made for his Journey ; but we firft kept the Chrifimas Holy-Days. The Midnight Mafs was folemniy fung, and on Twelve-Day^ we cry'd, The King drinks^ {according to the Cuflom of France) tho' we had only Water: When that was over we began to think of Tettins our. MonfiQuv de U Sale gave the Command of the Settlement to the Sieur Barhier^ directing him what he was to do aad obferve in his Abfence.

There remained in that Habitation, the Fa- who were thers Maximus and Zenohius^ Recolets, MonHeur l^^ i»fi>e Chedeville, the Priefl:, the Marquis de U SahUn- •^'l"^^'^'^* niere^ the Sieur Barbier^ Commander, his Wife, ^ehSale a Surgeon and others, to the Number of twen- depxned. ty, among v^hom were fcven Wcmen,orIVlaids, and only the Sieur Barbiermirry^d ^ which is much lhort;of the Number fome have given out remain'd in the Dwelling, without any Ground ^ for the Truth is, there were no more, and particularly no Natives, Monfiair de la Sale having abfolutely forbid holding any Communication with them. As for Beafts, they amounted to feventy, or feventy five Swine, great and fmall, which was a good Stock ^ for Fowl, eighteen or twenty Hens j fome Casks of Meal, which


•78 Monfieur de la S A L eV Second Voyage

^an.iSSj, vras kept for the Sick ^ Powder, Ball, and eight ■^-^^V^^ Pieces of Cannon, without any Bullets.

» We fet out the 12th of January^ in the

thltfetout Y^®^ 1687, being Teventeen in Number, viz., wttbMAQ Monfseur de la Sale^ Monfteur Cavelier^ the la Sale. Priefr, his Brother, Father jina^ajms^ the Re-colet, Mefliears Moranget and Cavelier, Nephews to Monfieur de la Sale^ the Sieurs Dw hauty the Elder, /' ArcUveque^ Hiens^ Liotot^ Surgeon, young Talon, an Indian^ and a Footman belonging to Monfieur de la Sale^ &c. We carried along with us Part of the beft Things every Man had, and what was thought would be of Ufe, wherewith the five Horfes were loaded, and we took our Leavts with fo much Tendernefs and Sorrow, as if we had all prefaged, that we fliould never fee each other more. Father Zenobius was the Perfon who exprefs'd it to me mafl: fignifi-cantly, faying, He had never been fo fenfi-bly touch'd at parting with any Body. Jbe Way We went that Day to'the Place wecall'd theytra- le Boucon^ becaufe there, we had often dry'd vell'i, Flefh, (y!>hich the French call Boucanner from the Indian Word) This Place was not far from our Habitation. The 13th, wecrofs'd a Plain, about two Leagues over, where we faw feve-ral Herds of Beeves and Flocks of Goats, Turkeys, Buftards, and other Sorts of Wild Fowl. We met with Marihy Lands, which tired our Horfes, and came to a Wood that terminates the Plain, acrofs which, runs a Branch of a Pviver, full of Reeds, by Monfieur dela Sale call'd the Pr/wcc/jf'sRiver.That Branch joins the other, and they both fell together into ihc Bay of St. Lewis.


We kiird five Beeves at the Entrance into ^av,t6^7 the Wood, forded the River, and incampM L/'WiJ Half a League beyond it,vvhence MoniiGur de la Sale fent Men vvitli the Horfes, to briiig the Flefh of the Bullocks we had kill'd j the Hides of them, which ferv'd to cover us, being very ufeful againfl: ^ violent Shower of Rain that teU.

The 14th, the Rain ceafin^, we travelled c-ver another fpacious Plain, where there is a Multitude of Beeves and Wild Fowl. We faw feveral Tracks, leading every Way, made by the Bullocks, of which v/e faw feveral Herds, fome moving on haftily, and others running out-right, which made us fuppofe they were drove by the Native^. In fliort, having halted to help up one of our Horfes that was fallen, we faw an Indian following them very clofe. Monfieur de la Sde caused a Horfe to be immediately unloaded, which a Man nrount-ing, rode after, cvercook and brought the Indian,

When the Savage faw himfelf among us, he concluded he was a loft Man, he quak'd for Fear, and not without Reafon, for molt of our Men had refov'd to kill him \ Moniienr de la Sale opposed it, alledging, that we were but 2 fmall Number, that very few were left behind at the Habitation, and therefore we ought not to render our fclves odious to the Natives, buc to ufe them kindly, that we might have Peace ; an infallible Maxim, the Practice of which jnight have been fortunate to him, had he fol-Jow'd it fooner.


So Mof?fieur de Ja S A l eV Second. Voyage

^an.i6^7 He therefore caused a Fire to be made, gave ^^^^"/"^ him to Eat and Smoke, and afterwards a Bit of Roll-Tabacco, and fome other Trifles. Mon-lieur de la Sale gave him tounderftand, that he came not to hart any Man, but to fettle Peace in all Places, and fo difmifs'd him. The Indian recover'd himfelf a little of his Fright*, but feeing ftiil dubious, what his Fate might be, he at firfi: walk'd away gently, ftill looking about him, and when at a good Diltance, made off as fait as he could. We held on our Way, and foon after faw another//z^/4» running after the Bullocks. Monfieur de laStnle caus'd him to be taken, brought to us, and treated as the firft had been.

We had not gone far before we fpy'd a Company of Natives coming towards us,on our left, but we held on our Way, till they were over againft us,, when Monfieur de la Sale caus'd us to halt. The Savages feeing us halt, ftood ftill alfo, which Monfieur de /<« 6"^/e perceiving, he laid his Firelock on the Ground, and advanced towards them, making Signs to him that Commanded them, who was a handfome Man, to draw near. That Indian came forward, and was follow'd by the reft:, all of them Caref-ling us after their Manner, which we return'd the belt we were able, and then made them

mtmTin'i ^^^'^ Monfieur de la Sale gave them to un-derftand, that we were going towards the Cenis, that we defir'd to be atPeace with them all, and that we would return to our own Country, whence we would bring them all they had Oc-cafion for. Then we diftributed among them fome Bits of Roll-Tabacco, fome Strings of


Beads and Knives, which they feem*d to be ^^n.\62i pleas'd with, and all this was done by Signs. ^>''V"^ Then every Man went his own Way .• We advanc'd half a League farther, to get into a Wood, where Monfieur de la Sale had en-camp'd when he went that Way before \ we cut down Trees to fecure our Pofl, and lay there that Night.

Before our Intrenchment was finifh'd, wedii-cover'd, firit one Indian^ then two, and afterwards three, coming one after another *, which giving Monfieur de la Sale fome Jealoufy, he caus'd us to handle our Arms, with Orders to (tand upon our Guard, for fear of being fur-priz'd, and went towards them. They figni-fy'd to him, that their People had told them, we did not hurt any Body, which was very well, and thit they were come to fee us. They were entertained as the others had been, and then Signs were made them to withdraw, becaufe Night drew on, and having obferv'd, that they took Notice of our fortifying our felves, we kept a good Guard all the Night, without any Difturbance.

The Fifteenth, we march'd on, intending to find out aFord, in theRiver cill'd of the Princefs, where Monfieur de la Sale had pafs'd before 9 but mifling of it, and the River being fwollen, we were oblig'd to go up higher, fometimes crofllng curious Meadows, and fometimes Woods of tall Trees of feveral Sorts, but all j4 fins Young of the fame Thicknefs and ftrait, look- Coumrj, ing as if they had been planted by a Line. The River running through the midft ot thofe curious Ihady Groves, which were alfo vvater'd by G feveral

82 Mo^fieurdch Sale'^ Second Vojage

fiin.\6^7 feversil little Brooks of very clear and good '^^^^V^^ Water, afforded a moft delightful Landskip.

We alfo met with feme Woods ib thick, that

^'"'^^ that it was requifite to hew a PalTage for the

mods, Horfes. Towards the Evening we killM a

Bullock, and went to incamp in a little Cop^

pice, with our ufual Precautions.

The i5th, we continued our Journey, ftill following the River upwards, and from Time U'ildForol. to Time meeting the fame Sort of Pafture Grounds and the Obftacles of Woods, where we were fain to cut our Way through, which fatigued us very much ^ but the Plenty of wild Fowl, and particularly of Turkeys, whereof we killed many, was an Eafe to our Sufferings, and Help to bear our Toil with more Satif-faftion.

The 17th, was a very toilfome Day's Journey, by Reafon of the Woods and Rivulets we were Anlniim ^q crofs j after which we came to a little Hill, biiSm'L °^ which there were 2 or 300 Cottages of the Natives. Thofe Huts were like large Ovens, conlilling of long Poles ftuck in the Earth in a Circle, and joyning above to make the Dome or round Top. They had been a Dwelling of the Natives, Wfho being gone, had carry'd a-way the Hides that cover'd them, and the Mats which are us'd to hang the Infides, and to make their Beds of.

After a March of fome Hours, our Indian having found a Herd of Beeves, we kill'd fevenor eight, took the belt of the Meat, and held on our Way acrofs a Wood. We forded a Branch of the River,and proceeded to the Bank of another, the the Bottom whereof being foul, we in-catnp'd on the Edge of it, and the Rain falling



at Night and continuing all the next Day, were ^an.iS^-r obli^'d to ftay there. ^/V^O

The iptb, the Rain ceafing, we proceeded through a thick Fog, and over Places where the Water was often up to our Knees, and fometimes higher ^ which, together with our being forc'd to cut the Way athwart the Bufhes, with our Hatchets, gave us inexpreflible Trouble, and it had been much greater, had we not refolv/d to follow the Ways beaten by the Bullocks, whom a natural Inflinft always leads to thofe Parts which are eafiefl: to pafs.

We were not free from another Inconveni-cncy in thofe Tracks, which was their being full of Water and very rugged, a Thing no Way agreeable to our Shoes, which were no ^'^^^i*" »/ other than a Piece of Bullocks Hide or Goats -^T/.'-^'r Skm quite green, whereor we made a Sort ot shoa. Buskins, to ferve inftead of Shoes, but when thofe wretched Boots were dry'd by the Heat, upon our Feet, they hurt us very m^uch, and we were often oblig'd to fet our Feet in the the Water, to foften thofe Buskins. However, we march'd all the Day, notvvithftanding all thofe Inconveniences, without finding a proper Place to incamp, and at laft came to a Riv^er, whofe high Bank afforded us a Spot to reft on.

The 20th, a fmall Rain did not obltrud our March, and having crofs'd a Wood, half a League athwart, and a Marfh of the fame Extent, we came into a large Plain, cut acrofs by great Tracks of Bullocks, which went towards the Riveri and made us fuppofe there might be a Ford. We follow'd that Way, bat found the River fo fwoUen, and its Stream fo rapid, that it was impoflible to crofs it, but were o-G 2 blig'd

84 Mo/^jieur de la S a l eV Second Voyage

f aw. 1687 blig'd to halt upoa its Bank, whence we went to O^VX> hunt Bullocks, whereof we had no Want, nor of Turkeys and other wild Fowl.

The 2Uh, we proceeded up that River, and found a narrow deep Place, near whicl\ we hew'd down a Tree, making it fall fo as to reach from the one Bank to the other, in the Nature of a Plank, and handed cur Baggage from one to another over it. The Horfes fwam over and we incamp'd on the other Side, near . a very beautiful Plain. r

Heb3ba. ^hilH we were hewing down fome little a7uVution. Wood to intrench ourfelves, v^^e heard a Voice, whereupon handling our Arms and going to the Place where we heard it, we faw a Company of fifteen Savages, who were coming towards us, and made Signs to us to go to them, laying down their Bows, in Token of Peace. We alfo madeour Sign to them to draw near, they did fo and carefs'd us after their Manner. We made them lit down and fmoke, after which, Monfr. de la Sale began to converfe with them by Signs, and by Help of fome Words of the Language of the Cefiis, which he was skilful in, he underftood, that thefe were their Neighbours and Allies ^ that their Village, was not far off", and that their Nation was calVdHebahamo. Some fmallPrefents wer? given them and they vvithdrew,promiling to return the next Day.

The 22th, our Horfes being fpent and hurt, and we much tir'd, the Day was given to Reft, and the Natives did not fail to come, being twenty live in Number, fome of whom had Buck-, lers or Targets made of the ftrongft Part of the i^Bullocks Hides. They gave us to underftand, that they were ingagM in War towards the NIV,


and told us, they had feen Men like us, who ^^;;^;J^ were but ten Days Journey from that Place. Other Tokens they gave, made us fuppofe it was Nixo Spain that they talk'd of.

Monfr. deU Sale took feveral Words of their Language, which is very different from that or the Cenis, and more difficult. As for their Cu-ftoms, they are much alii<e. Infine, having (hewn us, that towards the N.IV. we fhould meet with Plains, where the Way would be eafier, and we fhould fhun the Woods, we gave them to ear, and fome Prefents, and they took Leave of us. A Rain falling and holding all the >^ight, we did not march the 24th. The 2$th, wc travellM not far, by Reafon of the Rains continuing, and that there were feveral Rivers in the Way much fwollen.

The 15th, we proceeded on our Journey, and came to the River call'd/<« Sablonisre^ from the many Sand Banks there are in it. The 27th, departing from it, we came to another little narrow River, but very deep •, going up higher we found a Ford, and went £0 iucamp beyond it, in a little Wood, where we had a very bad Night, becaufe of the Rain which fell agiin, and the o-verfiowingof the River,which oblig'd us to make a little Sort of Scaffold, to lay our Powder and Cloaths on, that they might not be wet. The next Day being the 28ih, obferving that the Water was dill riling, we decamp'd to go a League farther, to a higher Ground, where we made a great Fire to warm and dry us.

We took Notice the Country was very good, the Plains extending as far as theEyecould reach, and adorn'd with many little Coppices, affording a very agreeable Profped. Wc march'd over Part of them the zpth and 30th, after 3 Hours G 3 Travel,

86 Monfieur de ia Sal e'^ Second Vojdge '

Feb. T<5^7 Travel,found aWay full of Water,which oblig'd S'^'^y^^ us to incamp on' theBank of aRiver; pafsM it the 3Uh,and incamp'd in a Wood clofe by. The next Day, being the Firft of February r?w^'^' '<^^7' Monfieur d?U Sale left me to guard the habited, Q^^^^ and took along with him, Monfieur Ca-velier his Brother and feven Men, to go fee whether he could find any Body in feveral Cottages our Hunters had difcover'd. He found twenty four or twenty five of them, built round like thofe I have before mention'd, ftanding on arifmg Ground, almoft encorapafs'd. by the River, in each of which there were four or five Men, and feveral Women and Children.

The Savages were fomewhat furprizM at Monfieur de la Salens coming ^ however they received him in friendly Manner, and condudi-ed him to their Commander's Hut, which was immediately fill'd with People, who came to fee him. The Elders came together there, Bullocks Hides were laid upon the Ground, on which they made Monfieur de la Sale and his Company fit. They gave them hung Beef to eat, and then fignify'd to them that fomc of their Allies had given them Notice of our being in the Country, and that we were going totheCe»;/, and they had iraagin'd that we would pafs thro' their Country.

Monfieur de la 5i«/eprefented them with fome Knives and Bits ot Tabacco, and they gave him ^Bullocks Hides, very well drefs'd with the Hair^ they gave one for a Knife, and would have gi-» ven many more, but that we told to them, that we had no Conveniency to carry them and that if they had any Horfes, he would give ^ them Axes in £?:change. They anfwer'd, they \ bad but twOj which they could not part with. ■

It being late whea Monfieur de U Sale returnM, f^*- ^^^7 we ftaid there the reft of the Day, and feveral -y^C^ Indians came to fee us, in Hopes of receiving fome Prefent, offering us Bullocks Hides d re fled, which we would not burden our felves with.

The Second, we fet out again, and halted fome Time in that Village, where by the Way we bartered for fome Collars, or a Sort of Knots made of Bullocks Hides well drefs'd, which the Natives make Ufe of to carry their Burdens, whether of Wood, Utenfils, or the Meat they kill. They prov'd of Ufe both to us and our Horfes, becaufe the Thongs of thofe Collars ferv'd to make fafl our Burdens.

We proceeded on our Journey, through a Country pleafant enough, but Sandy, and hav- 'a Mf'* ing crofs'd a large Plain, came to the Bank of ^'^^^ ^^' a fine River, call'd U Maligne^ or the Mifchie-vous, becaufe in Monfieur de la SMe's former Journey, an Alligator devour'd one of his Servants, who was fwiraming over it. This River is as wide as the Seine at Roan^ feeras to be very navigable and has a very pleafant Country a-bout it. We incampM in a little Wood adjoining to it, and bark'd the Afpen Trees to hut.

Oar Hunters kill'd Beeves, wild Goats, Turkeys and other Wild-Fowl, and among the [ndian reft fome Creatures as big as an indifferent Cat, ^«j. very like a Rat, having a Bag under their Throat, in which they carry their Young. They htd upon I^ats and Acorns, are very fat, and their Flefh is much like Pig.

Hard by there, we found a Place where Monfieur de la Sale^ in his former Journey had hid fome Parcels of Strings of Beads in the Trunks of Trees, and we lefted there till the Eighth of the Month During that Time, no G 4 Day

Feb. 16S7 Day pafs'd without feeing fomeofthe Natii/es, '-^V"^ who fcmetimes fpent the whole Day with us, and faid they were of feveral Nations. We made them fmoke, and always gave them feme fraall Prefents. They admir'd that after we had writ down fome Words they fpoke to us, we repeated them, looking on the Paper. TortahJe Whilfl: we (laid, Moulieur ^e la S^le fet Men Canoe. at Work to make a portable Canoe, of long Poles, hew'd and joyn'd and then* cover'd with Bullocks Hides few'd together, having puii'd off the Hair or Woo!!, as it may be call'd there- That Canoe was of great Ufe to us, to crofs Rivers as well for our fehes as for our Baggage, but the Horfes fwam ov^r^

The Niatb,we put our Canoe iato the Water, and pafs'd the River in it, and incamp'd half a League from thence, on Account of the Grafs, which our Horfes flood in Need of to recover themfelves a little. The Tenth, we held on oar Journey, eroding feveral fpacious Plains, the Grafs whereof was burnt, whence Monfieur ^e la Sale concluded, that there were many Natives thereabouts. He thought it convenient to provide Store ofdry'd Flelh, for Fear wefhould jiot find Game in the Country we were going to enter upon, and accordingly canfed feveral Beeves to be kilfd for that Purpofc.

For that P^eafon, we continued there till the % 12th, when we went and incamped on the \ Bank of a River, which MonCitur de la Sale had in his former Journey call'd d'Eure. At Night there arofe a Storm, follow'd by Thunder and Rain, which fwell'd the Streams, and obliged us to flay there. The 13th and r4th we crofs'd four or five large Rivulets, and then a fine


curious Country, diverfify'd with feveral little Feb.\6^y Woods, Hills and fmall Brooks, affording a de- v^nTv; lightful Profpefl. That pleafant Country was terminated by a Wood, which we were to crofs, and were favour'd in it by a Way beaten by the Bullocks, and at Night we incamped there.

The 15th, we travel'd along a fine Meadow, then over Plains that had been bnrnt, and at Night went to take our Reft on the Bank of a fmall Rivulet, about which we faw feveral Foot-fteps of Natives, which made us conclude we were not far from them •, and therefore we doubled our Guard, to prevent being furpriz'd.

The i6th, Monficur de la Sale left me at the Guard of the Camp, and took MonHeur Cave-Her his Brother, and fcven Men with him, to -^^'l^^i^-go find out the Indians. They had not gone half a League before they fpied Horfes and a Namber of Cottages, without being themfelves itQ:i by the Savages. That Village ftood on the Side of a Hill, and contain'd about forty Huts, ftanding together, belides feveral others ftrag-ling;

When Monfieufisfe la Sale enter'd the Village, the Savages feeing him, came to meet and con- lAoijftcur . du(ft him 10 the Cottage of their Chief, where 'l'^|,^*3'« he and his Company were feated on Bullocks ^e/yv%«^ Hides. The Elders being come, he fignify'd the Nx-to them the Occafion of his Coming, as he had th-is, done to the other Nations, with which they feem'd to reft fatisfy'd. Some Prefents were m?.de them, according to Cullom, and they of-fer'd him a Qiiantity of Hides, which he re-fus'd, telling them, that when he return'd from the Cenis he would trade with, and furnilh them with all they had Occalloa for. They confirm'd


^o Monfieur de la S A l eV Second Voyage

teh.i6^7 what the others had told us, concerning a Na-

^•^'V*^ tion, where feme of them had been, the Mea

whereof were like us, meaning the Spaniards,

He nam'd to them the Kations we had pafs'd

through from our Dwelling of St Lewis, to the

River Maligns^ which we had lately pafs'd.

The Names of thofe Nations are as follows.

Ndfites of The SpicheatSy Kahayes^ ThecamonSy Theaure'

Nattovs fijsts^ Kiahoba^ Choumenes^ Kouans^ Arhan^ Ene-

' piahe^ Ahonerhopiheim^ Korenkake^ Korkont^ Omea'

ejfei Kereme?i^ Ahehoen, Maghai^ Thecamenes^ Oten^

marhewj Kavagan and Meracouman. Thefe are

the Nations that lay on our Road \ thofe on the

Weft and North Weil of the faid River, were

the Kannehonan^ Tohaka^ Tehir, CoyabeguXy Ona-

pien^ Pichar^ Tohan^ Kiaffes^ Chanz^es^ Tfera^ Bo'

crettes^ Tfepehoen^ Fercouteha^ Panego^ Petao^ Ptt-^

z^AYes^ Peifacho^ Peihoum and Orcampion.

Thofe we were with then, were call'd Te4(7, whom we had not before hear'd nam'd. They talk'd of a great Nation callM Ayona and Cano-hatinoj who were at War with the Spaniards^ from whom they Hole Horfes, and told us, that oae hundred Spaniards were to have come to joia the Cenis^ to carry on that War, but that having heard of onr March, they went back. Monfieur ds la Sale gave them to underftand, that we were at War With the Spaniards^ and that we fear'd them not \ and that he was (q\\^ on their Account by the great Captain of the World, who had charg'd him to do them all Good, and to affift them in their Wars againll fuch Nations as were their Enemies.

Thofe Savages gave Monfieur dela Sale Notice, that he would find three of our Men a-mong the Cenis^ which put him in Hopes they




were thofe he had given Leave to depart at his Tsh^e^j'^ former Journey, and of whom be had never fince ^ heard. He proposed to them to barter for Horfes ^ but they had caus'd them to be con-vey'd out of the Way, for Fear we fhould take them away, excepting only one Bay, which Monlieur de la Sale- agreed for and return'd to us.

The 17th, we pafs'd a final] River, with fome Difficulty, and incampM beyond it. The i8th, one of our Horfes going along the Edge of an upright Bank, fell into the Water, and came off with only a Hurt on the Shoulder •, but we were fain to unload him, and diftribute his Bar-den among OS, every one making a Pack^ and thus we crofs'd a curious Plain, diverfify'd witli Woods, Hills, Rivulets, and delightful Meadows.

The 19th, we travell'd along the Tops of thofe Hills, to avoid the Bottoms, and found a Difficulty to get down, by Reifon of the Rocks we met with at the End of them, and a River we were to crofs. Whilfl: we were paffing that River, we heard Dogs hunting the Bui, locks, two of which coming near us, one of them was fhot dead. The Natives who were hunting fpying us, fent out two of their Number, who creeping from Tree to Tree, drew near, and then ftood ftin,vvirhout daring to proceed any farther. We made Signs to them to come, which they did, and we made them fraoke, till Mor\^\z\xv de la Sale returned, being gone a little Way to obferve the Body ot thofe People*

When come, he told them, he would entertain Peace with them, that we were going to


Feb.\eS7- the Cenis^ and he believ'd, that thefe very Men ^yW^ were of their Nation, becaufe they had their Accent and fome of their Words. They told him their Village was near that Place, and bore us Company to our Camp, where after fome fmall Prefents givea them, they were dif-mifs'd. jcmtHt The 20Eh, Monfleur <5?*/^ 5^/e fent Monfieur given by a MorAngtt and fome others to the Village of i^mvs, thofe Natives, to try whether they could barter with them for fome Horfes. In the meaa Time two Savages came to us, one of them being the fame that was with us the Night before, and they exprefs'd much Friend (hip for as. That particular Indian told us, his Name was Vala-e^uichaune^ that they were Allies to the Cenis^ shat their Chief had been among the Choumans^ with the Spaniards ^ that the Choumans were Friends to the Spaniards^ from whom they got Horfes, and added fome farther Particulars, which the others had before fignify'd to us ^ fo that we had good Rcafoa to judge we were not hv {tora North Mexico.

He alfo told us, that the Choumans had given their Chief fome Prefents, to perfvvade him to coadud us to them *, that molt of the faid Nation had flat Heads •, that they had Indian Corn, which gave Monfieur de la Sale Ground to believe, that thofe People were fome of the fame he had feen upon his firft Difcovery. That fame Native had a very fine Goat's Skin, which I }jurchas'd of him for four Needles, after I had ihewn him how to ufe them, and that Skin was of good Ufe lo make us Shoes inftead of raw Bullocks Hides.


Some Time after, Moniienr Moranaet t^-Teb, \6^ji turn'd, gave Monfieur de la Sale an Account of ^-"^^V*^ his (hort Journey, and faid. That one of the ^^ ^^ Natives, Yvhofavv us the Night before, came to ranget's meet and condu^l: him to the Chief's Cottage, A^tmnu where forty ancient Indians were, by whom , .

he had been kindly receiv'd. That the Chiefs'V^V had in his Hand a Reed, at the End whereof was made fait a Leaf of a French Book, which he had an extraordinary Refpect for.^'That they had been made to fi;: on Bullocks Hides, and treated withdry'd Beef.

That after thefe firft Ceremonies, the Chief had given them to underftand, that fome of their People had been condudfed by a Man like us, to our Habitation, and that the faid Nlaw had promised to bring them to talk with us, ia order to treat of Peace ^ but that on the Contrary, we had fireJ on them and kill'd one of their Men, which had oblig'd them to kill the Man that led them, and that then they rc-turn'd. It is not improper here to put the Reader in Mind, that I have before mentioned this Accident, when the Sieur Barbier croffing the River in a Canoe, was call'd upon by fome Per-fon, who was among the Nitives on the Bank of the River, who had made two Shots, as ic had been only the Priming of a Piece, which the Sieur Barbier had look'd upon as an Infult, and therefore he had alfo fir'd,vvith all the o-ther Particulars, as mentionM before •, an Accident that happen'd for want of underftand-^ ing one another \ which, together with Monfr. de U Sale's forbidding us to have any Communication with the Natives, was very prejudicial to us afterwards.


94 Monjieur de la Sal e'^^ Second Voyage

Feb.i627 After much other Difcourfe, Monfieur Af^' L/^W> ranget having given them fome froall Prefents, they made their Retarn in Bullocks Hides, and Goats Skins well drefs'd. He ask'd them for fome Horfes to barter , they anfwer'd, they had no more than what they ftood in Need ofi We immediately proceeded on our Joarney,and that Day being the 21ft, went to incamp at the Edge of a Wood.

The iidy we-went up to an Eminence terminated by a Rock, at the Foot whereof ran a little River, the Bottom whereof was afl of flat Rocks, fit for Building. Thence we defcry'd two Natives driving of Bullocks, which made us ftand upon our Guard, and it appeared to be our Indian^ who had met another, with whom he had been acquainted among the Cenis^ and whom he had brought along'with him.

Monfieur de U Sale was very glad to fee him.

Three ioft ^^^ remember'd he was one of thofeof whom

Mentxrd ^^ ^^^ purchas'd a Horfe. He ask'd feveral

gx_ Queftionsof him, and among thereR:, whether

he had sot feen the four-Men who deferted in

his former Journey, or heaVd any Talk of the

others, to whom he had given Leave to return

to our Dwelling. He anfwer*d, he had feen

one among the Cenls^ and two others among

the uijfonis •, but that he had not heard of any

more, and that they mull needs be dead ■, as

alfothe S'lQMX Bihorely who was likcwife men-

tioa'd to him.

He further told us, that there were four or live Cottages thereabouts, in which about Fifteen Men redded. At Night he went away. Our Indian had kill'd a Cow at a great Diftance and ftioc her quite through, at which the other,


who had been aa E^e Witnefs to it, ftood a F^^. 16S7 long Time " amaz'd, without fpeaking one ^>^V^^ Word, admiring the EfFed of onr Pieces. That Cow was fent for, and the Flefii brought to our Camp.

The 23d, we pafs'd by the Cottages we had been told of, where the Natives were with their Wives and Children. Monfr. de la Sale caus'd us to halt in the Village. We were well lecciv'd, they prefented us with dry'd Beef, and we return'd it in fome Knives. We faw two Horfes, one of them a little grey, indifferent handfome. They told us they would foon depart that Place, to go join their Companions, who were in War with their Enemies. The reit of our Men being come up, we went on to incaajp a League from thence, on the Bank of a Rivulet, and at the Foot of one of the highell Mountains in the Country.

Unloading our Horfes, we perceiv'd there wanted a large Axe» which ferv'd us for hewing down of Trees. Monfieur de la Sale fenc his Indian to demand it, at the Village we came from laft, the Savages faid they had not feen it, and it was loft. He brought back Word, that the Savages had told him, that if we would flay for them, they would go along with, and ihew us the Way.

However, wc went on the 24th, and in* camp'd on the Edge of a Marfh. The 25th, the Rain hinder'd us from Marching. The 26th, Monfieur de la Sale perceiving how difficult and dangerous it was to crofs that Marfh, fent his Indian to the others, to know whether they really delign'd to go with us. They an-fwei'd, we muft^return thither to join them.


<)6 Monjieur de /a Sal eV Second Voyage

Mar.i6S7 The 27th. we decamp'd, in order to it ^ but took ^■-'^V^^ another Way to go meet the Indians. The 28th. we faw them marching at a Diftance. One of them was detached to come tell us, that he would Ihew us the Way to crofs the Marfh, and wewent on and incamp'd at the Foot of the high Mountain I have fpoken of.

The firft of Manh^ we join'd the Indians^ 01 the Edge of the Marfh, which we had jult crofs'd, where the Rains kept us till the Fifth, during which Time we went to find out where we might pafs a rapid Torrent, that difcharges it felf into the River call'd of Canoes^ which we pafs'd the 6th, in the Canoe we had made, and which did us good Service, to pafs other Rivers we met with the 7th and the 8th on our Way. The 9th, we did not ftir,becaufe of the Rain. i(iver 0/The loth, incampM on theBaakof a fmall Ri-Caaoes, ver, which we crofs'd the nth, and the fame Day another River, and incamp'd on the Bank of it, and found it adorned with very fine Mulberry Trees. The 12th we crofs'd an-.Jj other River, and incamp'd near it. The 13th, ^ came again to the River of Canoes, (o czWd by Monfieur de la Sale, becaufe he the firft Time put Canoes into it, at his former Journey. We pafs'd it the 14th, and incamped on the other Side where we again join'd the Indians.

The 15th, we held oa our Journey with thein and found a pleafanter Country than that we had pafs'd thro' ^ and Monfieur de la Sale having in his former Journey hid fome Indian Wheal Provifiotis ^"d Beans, two or three Leagues from that hid,fpoilt. Place, and our Provifions beginning to fall Ihorr, ■ it was thought fit to go to that Place. Accordingly he order'd the i)ieurs I>«Wf, Hiens^Lio- '

tot \

tot the Sargeon^ his own Indian^ and his Foot- Mir.i^Sy man, whofe Name was 54^ef, who were follovv- '-''''V^^ ed by feme Natives, to go to the Place he dc-fcribed to them, where they found all rotten and quite fpoih.

The i5, in their Return, they met with two Bullocks, which Monfieur de Li Sale's Indian kill'd, whereupon they fent back, his Footman, to give him Notice of v/hat they h.?d kiil'd, that if he would have the Flefb dry'd, he mi^ht fead Horfes for it. The 17th, Monfieur ^e/^ 5^/e had the Horfes taken up, and order'd the Sieurs Aiorarjc-et and de M^le and his Footman, to go for that Meat, and fend back a Horfe Load immediately, till the reft was dry'd.

Monfieur Moranget^ when he came thither, Difoy,un% found thev had fmoak'd both the Beeves, tho' '"4fi they were not dry enough •, and the faid Sieurs -jvtorai* Liotot^ Hiens^ Duh^ut and the reft had laid ailde gc\ the iVIarrow-Bones and others to roall them, and eat the Flefh that remain'd on them, as was ufual to do. The Sieur A4orattaet found fauk with it, he in a PafTion feiz'd not only the Fle(h that wasfmoak'd and dry'd, but alio the Bones, without giving them any Thing j but on the contrary, threatning they fhould uot t3it fo much of it, as they had imagin'd, and that he would manage that Flefh after another Manner.

This paffionate Behaviour, fo much out of (^orrfpiracy Seafon, and contrary to Reafon and Cuftom, Z '"«^-^^'' touch'd the Surgeon Llotot, Herns and Duhaut ijjjajj, to the QiJick, they having other Caufcs of Complaint againft Morn.nget. They withdrew, and refolv'd together upon a bloody Revenge •, they agreed upon the Manner of it, and concluded they would murder the Sieur Morangtt^ Mon-H fieur

98 Morjfieur de la S a l e'j Second Vojdge

AI4M6S7 (ieur de la Sale\ Footman and his Indian^ becailfe Ky^^T^^J he was very faithful to him.

They waited till Night, when thofe unfortunate Creatures had fupp'd and were afleep. Lictot the Surgeon was the inhumanExecutioner, he took an Ax, began by the Sieur Moranget^ Bloody giying him many Strokes on the Head % the Murderers ^^mt he did by the Footman ^ndii\\Q Indian^ killing them on the Spot, whilft his Fellow Villains, viz,, Duhaut^ Hiens^ Teijfier and Lav" -cheveque flood upon their Guard, with their Arms, to fire upon fuch as (hould make any Refinance. The Indian and the Footman never ftir'd, but the Sieur Moranget had fo much Vigour as to fit up, but without being able to fpeak one Word, and the AfTafins obliged the Sieur de Marie to make an End of him, tho' he was not in the Confpiracy.

This Slaughter had yet fatisfy'd but on% Part

of the Revenge of thofe Murderers. To finifli

Confuh it 3jjj fecure themfelves it was rcquifite to de-

/Sr. cie ^^°y ^^^ Commander in Chief. They confult-

ids'ale. ^^ about the fafelt Method to efFed it, and

refolve to go together to Moniieur dt la

Sale^ to knock out the Brains of the raoft refo-

lute immediately, and then it would be ealier to

overcome the reft-. But the River, which was

between them and us, being much fwollen, the

Difficulty of pafTing it made them put it ofFthe

i8ch and i^tii. On the other Hand Monfieur

dt la Sale was very uneafy, on Account of their

long Stay. His Impatience made him refolve

to go himfelf to find out his People and to

know the Caufe of it.

This was not done without many previous Tokens of Concern, and Apprehenfion. He


fecm'd to have fome Prefage of his Misfortune, -^'''•.1687

enquiring of fome, whether the Sieur Liotot, U-'V'V)

Uiens and Duhaut had not exprefs'd fome Dif- „

I I • -r-i • r • » lie poes to

content; and not hearing any Thing ot it, he fiekibm,

could not forbear fetting out the 20th, with FHher u4r7afiafius and an Indian^ leaving me the Command in his Abfence, and charging me from Time to Time to go the Rounds about our Camp, to prevent being furpriz'd, and to make a Smoke for him to direft his Way in C^'it of Need. When he came near the Dwelling of the Murderers, looking out fnarp lo diH-over fomething, he obferved Eagles fluttering about a Spot, not far from them, which made him believe they had found fome Carrion about the Mandon, and he fired a Shot, which was the Signal of his Death and forwarded it.

The Confpirators hearing the Shot, concluded it was Monlieur de la Sale, who was come to feek them. They made ready their Arms and provided to furprize him. Duhaut palTed the River, with Larckeveque. The firft of them fpying Monlieur de la Sale at a Diftance, as he was coming towards them, advanced and hid himfelf among the high \X^eeds, to wait his palling by, fo that Monlieur de U Sale fufpedting nothing, and having not fo much as charg'd his Piece again, faw the aforefaid Lurcheveque at a good Diltance from him, and immediately ask'd for his Nephew Moranget^ to which Larcheveque anfwer'd, That he was along the River. At the fame Time the Traitor Duhaut fired his l^^^^Y' Piece and fliot Monfr. de la Sale thro' the Head, fo that he dropp'd down dead on the Spot, without fpeakiiig one Word.

H 2 Father

100 Monfteur ds la Sal eV Second Voynge

Mar f6S7 Father AfaflafiuSf who was then by his Side^ '''^/"V^ flood ftock ftillina Fright, expecting the fame Fate, and not knowing whether he fhould go forwards or backwards • but the ?4urderer Duhaut put him out of thai Dread, bidding him not to fear, for no Hurt was intended him % that it was Defpair that had prevail'd with him to do what he faw j that he had long defired to be revenged on /Joranget^ becaiife he had deilgn'd to ruin him, and that he was partly the Occafion of his Uncle's Death. This is the exadt Relation of that Murder, as it was pre-fently after told me by F. uinafiajius.

Such was the unfortunate End of IVfonfieur de la Sale's Life, at a Time when he might en-Hh Chi' tertain the greateft Hopes, as the Reward of raacr. j^jg Labours. He had a Capacity and Talent to make his Enterprise fuccefsful •, his Conftancy and Courage and his extraordinary Knowledge in Arts and Sciences, which render'd bim fit for any Thing, together with an indefatigable Body, which made him furmount all Difficulties, would have procur'd a glorious IlTue to his Undertaking, had not all thofe excellent Qualities been counterbalanced by too haughty a Behaviour, which fometimes made him infupporta-ble, -and by a Rigidnefs towards thofe that were under his Command, which at lafi: drew on him an impLcable Hatred, and was the Occafion of his Death.

The Shot which had kill'd Monfieur dt la Sale,

was alfo a Signal of the Murder to the AlTafllns

for them to draw near. They all repair'd to

the Place where the wretched dead Corps lay,

towitd!^ which they barbaroufly ftrip'd to the Shirt, and

tZ^deld vented their Malice in vile and opprobrious

B3dj, ^ Language.


Language. The Surgeon Lictot faid feverr.l ^^^Xij Times in Scorn and Derifion, There thou liej}-^ Great Bajfa, there thou Heft, In Concltl-lion, they dragged it naked among the Bufhes, and lefc it expofed to the ravenous Wild Beafts. So far was it from what a certain Author writes, of their having bury'd him and fee up a Crofs on his Grave.

When thofe Murderers had fatiated their ^^trderers Rage, they fet out to come to us at our Camp, [^^^'(^^^^^ with the dry'd Flefti, which they had caus'd to be brought over the River by the Indians^ who had been Spedators of the Murder and of all the inhuman Adions that had been committed, with Amazement and Contempt of us. When they were come to the Camp, they found Mef-lieurs Cwe//er, the one Brother, the other Nephew to th^ murder'd Commander, whom Father v^w-st/^y^Mj acquainted with the difmal End of our Chief, and enjoyn'd them Silence, which it is eafy to imagine was very hard upon them; but it was abfolutely neceifary.

However, IVTonfieur Cavelier the Priefi:, could not forbear telling them, that it they would dr> the lame by him, he would torgive them his Murder, and only defir'd them to give him a Qijarter of an Hoar to prepare hlmfelf: They anfwer'd, They had Nothing to fay to him ; that what they had done was the EfFtd of De-fpair, to be reveng'd for the iil Ufage they had receiv'd.

1 was abfent at that Time •, he they aWd Larcheveque^ who, as I have faid, was one of the Confpirators, had fome Kindnefs for me, and knowing they defign'd to make me away too, if

H 3 lltood

102 Monfuur de la 5 a l eV Second Fojage

AUr.i6^7 [ n;ood upon my Defence, he parted from them, ^^^^"V*^ to give me Notice of their mifchievous Refo-lution. He found me on a little rifing Ground, where I was looking upon our Horfes as they grazM in a little adjacent Bottom. His Intelligence ftriick me to the Heart, not knowing jhs Author whether I fhould fly or (lay •, but at length, ha-fivdbya vJQg neither Powdernor Shot, nor Arms, and Fncni. j.|^g ^^j^^ Larcheveque giving me AHTuraoces of my Life, provided I was quiet and faid Nothing, I committed my felf to God's Proceclion, and went to them, without taking any Notice of what had been done. Dehauf Dshmt, puffed up with his new gotten Autho-the Murl Hty, procur'd him by his Villany, as foon as he derer^ u- faw me, cry'd out. Every JVIan ought to com-furps the juand in his Turn ^ to which 1 made no An-Comrmnd. ^^^j. ^ ^^^ ^g were all of us oblig'd to ftifle our Refentment, that it might not appear, for our Lives depended on it. However, it was eafy to judge with what Eyes Father Anafiafius^ Mefiieurs Cavelier and 1 beheld thefe Murderers, to whom we expeded every Moment to fall Sacrifices. U is true, we diffembled fo well, that they were not very fufpicious of us, and that the Temptation we were under of making them away in Revenge for thofe they had murder'd, would have eafily prevail'd and been put in Execution, had not Monlieur Ca-'velier^ the Prielt, always politively oppos'd it, a'.ledging, that we ought to leave Vengeance to God. Mxrch However the Murderers feiz'd upon all the

cQuiimd. EfFeds, without any Oppolltion, and then wc began to talk of proceeding on our journey.


f'^fo NORTH AMERICA. loj

WedecampM the 21 flr, with omx hidians, and ^ij;;^ march'd with fuch a heavy Rain, that we were ^^ oblig'd to halt on the Bank of a great Stream, where one of theNatives that had left us,arriv'd with his Wife. We went on the iid and 23d, and pafs'd the River, where Father JfiasJafius^ Monfieur Cavelier and I, who could not fwim, had been drown'n, bat that the Natives afliil-ed and fav'd us. The 24th, we went on thro'a marfhy Country, never quitting a fmall Path which led to the Village of the Cents, till the 28th, when we retted on the Bank of a River Cenis i{i-of the fame Name, tho'about ten Leagues di- vir, ftant from the Village.

We had hopM to ford that River, as Monfieur de la Sale had done, when he retum'd from that Country ^ but it v;as fo fvvolkn, that there was no doing it, and we were forced to make a Canoe of Bullocks Hides. Whilfl we were employ'd at that Work, the Indians fwam over and went to give Notice to the Cems of our Arrival.

We found the Country pleafant enough about that River, tho'the Land did not leeni to be any of the bed ^ but ftill it was delightful to the Eye, well planted with fine Trees of feve-ral Sorts, among which, is one that Monlleur de la Sale had nam'd Copal, being very beautiful. Copal the Leaves of it between thofe of the Maple 7/ec. and the Lime Trees inRefemblance, and from it comes a Gum, of a very agreeable Scent. In the fame Place we faw a great Tree, on which the late Monfieur de la Sale had caus'd Crofics and the Arms of Frame to be carv'd.

H 4 The

Mtr.i^«7. The Hunting of Bullock? had fail'd us, and we ^>yy^ had Ic'eii nane from the Place where our late Leader had been misrder'd. Thus our Provifions began to fall ftiort, and it was refolv'd on the 29ch, to fend fome Men before, to theVillage of Thi Author the Cenis^ to know, whether they had any Indian fent to the Corn, and were willing to barter for it. 1 was Cenis/or appointed, vvirh the Surgeon Liotot^ the Tef" F'ovifiorfs. jj^^^.^^ and Hiens^ who was a Buccanier, Mon-iieur de la Sale had taken up at Petit Gouave^ to go with him upon this Expedition. I was very iiowiUiiig to undertake that Journey, Vv-ith a MiH'der'er and two of his Companions, of whom [ was fufpicious; but it was very requiilce to obey, and Duhaut having all the Eff:;ds in h:s]Pone{rion, alledging, thaE a great Part of them helong'd to him, he gave iis Ibrae A^res and Knives to barter for Indian OoxTi^ as alfo tor Horfes, if any were to be had, and accordingly we pafs'd the River. ThsCoun. Vv'e found the Country made up jf fevcral i]i ds. little Hills, of an indifferent Height, on which jcriyi. there are Abundance of Wallnut-Trees and Ojks, not fo large as whnt we had feen before, but very agreeable. The Weeds v/hich had beea fome Time before burnt by the Natives, begaa to fpring «p again, and difcover'd large green Fields very pleafing to the Sight.

When we had travell'd fome Time, we dif-cover'd three Men a Horfeback, coming towards us from the Village, and being come near them, faw one drefs'd after the Spanip) Falhion, with a little Doublet, the Body wherof was of blue, and the Sleeves of white


Faftian, as it were imbroider'd, with very Ma''.i627 ftreight Breeches, white woriled Stockings, ^>^V^^ Woollen-Garters, a broad-brim'd, fiat-crown'd ^ ^^^^ Hat, and long Hair. We prefently concluded aiiliiea. he was a Spaniard^ and the rather becaufe vve spmard. had been told, that fome of them were to come to join in League with the Qw, againfi: an E-iiemy Nation, and we were at a Nonplus •, for if vve tell into their Hands, we mult never ex-peft to get away, but be condemn'd to ferve either in the Mines, or in the Qijarries, in the Kingdom of Mexico^ for which Reafon we provided to give the pretended Spaniard an unkind Reception, and then to make the beft oforr Way back.

Being come up to him, I fpoke fome Words of Spaniflj and Italian^ to which he return'd no Anfwer*, but on the contrary, made ufe of the Word Coujfica^ which in the Language of the Cenis^ fignifies, / do not under-ii-and you -^ which Anfwer ot his removM our Apprehenfions. The two others were quite naked, one of them being mounted on a fine grey Mare, and on her were btiides two Panniers, handfomly made of Reeds, full of very fine Meal parchM, or roafted. After ffiveral Qiieftions, to which we had no • very fatisfac^ory Anfwers, we lighted Fire to make them fmoke, and then they prelented us with the two Panniers full of Meal, giving us to underftand, that their Chief ex-pedted us ia the Village, and having ligni-fy'd, that they were fent to meet us, wc gave them fome Knives and Strings of Beads.


Mat.\6^7 Weask'd them, whether they had any Men '^/VX-J among them like him that was a Horfeback in the Spani{h Habit, they anfwer'd* there were ty:o ill a Neighbouring Nation, call'd ^Jfony^ and that he who was clad, had been in their Coantry, and brought thence the Cloaths we faw him wear. That Man then Ihew'd us a Sfa-nifli printed Paper, containing the Indulgences granted to the Millioners of New Mexico. After this they left us to go on, to our People, for which Reafoa I writ a Note, giving an Account of our having met them.

We alighted to eat, and let our Horfes graze on the Bank of a Rivulet-, butit wasnot long before the fame Natives, who had beea with us before, appear'd again hard by us. We made Signs to them to draw near and eat with lis ^ which they did, and then went along with us towards the Village, which we would not go into, becaufe it was Night. The Indian that was clad,ftayM all Night with us, and the two others went away.

When ir was Day, we held on our Way to the Village'-, the JndtaH that was with us con-Tui Cents duding us to their Chiefs Cottage. By the Way, meet the ^^ ^^^ ^ Other Cottages, and the Elders jokmn coming to meet us in their Formalities, whfch munner, confilled in feme GoatsSkins drefs'd and painted of feveral Colours, which they wore on their Shoulders like Belts, and Plumes of Feathers of jeveral Colours, on their Heads, like Coronets. Six or feven of them had fquare Sword Blades, like the Spanifh, on the Hilts whereof they had fattened great Plumes of Feathers, and feveral Hawks Bells ^ fome of them had Clubs, which they call Head-breakers, fome


ifjto NORTH AMERICA. 107

only their Bows and Arrows-, others, Bits of ^^^''•16^ white Linen, reaching from Shoulder to Shoul- '^^''V*^ der. All their Faces were daiib'd with black or red. There were twelve Elders, who walk'd in the Middle, and the Youth and Warriors in Rariks, on the Sides of thofe old Men.

Being come up to us in that Manner, he that conduded us, made a Sign for us to halt, which when we had done, all the old Men lifted up their Right Hands above their Heads, crying out in a molt ridiculous Manner; but it behov'd us to have a Care of laughing- That done, they came and imbrac'd us, uling all Sorts of Endearments. Then they made us fraoke, . , and brought to us a French Man of Provsnce^ Min J'^ who was one of thofc that had forfaken the moyjgtkf. late Monfieur de laSaU^ at his firft Journey. indUm.

The whole Compa^iy conduced us after the fame Manner, to their Chief's Cottage ;and after we had ftaid there a (hort Time,they led us to a larger Cottage, a Quarter of a League from thence, being the Hut in which they have their publick Rejoycings, and the great Af-femblies. We found it furnilh'd with Mats for jnHjn-En-us to fit on. The Elders featcd themfclves round tsytdn-about us, and they brought us to eat, fome w;«t. Sagamite^ which is their Pottage, little Beans, Bread made of Indian Corn, and another Sore they make with boil'd Flower, and at lafl: they made us fmoke.

Daring our Repafl-, they entertain'd ns wich the Difcoufc of their Defign to make War 0:1 a Nation, who were their Enemies, and whom they call'd Cannokuntimo. When it was over, we prefented tbera, according to Cuftom, with fome Knives and Strings of Beads for


io8 Monpettr de la S A L eV Secorni Voyage

Mir. 1687 their Wives. ^Ve defIrM them to afFord as ^^^^"^ fome Indian Corn, in Exchange for other Things, which they promised, and the French Man who was with them, having told us, that there was a Diftridl, which afforded more Corn, than that where we were, and where his Cottage was, we refolv'd to go thither. We propos'd it to the Elders, who would needs go along with us, attended by a great Number of Youth, and having got ready our Horfes, we fet out for that Place.

By the Way, we faw feveral Cottages at certain Diftances, ftragling up and down, as the ■ Ground happens to be fit for Tillage. The Field lies about the Cottage, and at other Di-ftances there are other large Huts, not inhabited, but only ferving for publick AITemblies, either upon Occalion of Rejoycings, or to con-fult about Peace and War. r^ . .„j The Cottages that are inhabited, are not iimiiies ^3^" of them tor a private Family, form fome inihsm. of them there are fifteen or twenty, each of which has its Kook or Corner, Bed and other Urenfilsto itsfeif, but without any Partition to fe pa rate it from the reft: However, they liave Nothing in Common befides the Fire, which'is in the Midft of the Hut, and never goes out. It is made of great Trees, the Ends whereof are laid together, fo that when.6nce lighted, it lalis a long Time, and the firft Comer takes Care to keep it up. Manner of yhe Cottages are round at the Top, afer Sutlitng. ^j^g Manner of a Bee-Hive, or a Reek of Hay. Some of them are fixty Foot Diameter. In Order to build them, they plant Trees as thick as a Man's Thigh,tall and ftrait, and placing


ifjto NORTH AMERICA. 109

them in a Circle, and joyning the Tops toge- ^ar,i6%7 ther, from the Dome, or round Top, then O^V^^ they lafh and cover them with Weeds. When they remove their Dwellings, they generally burn the Cottages they leave, and build new on the Ground they defign to inhabit.

Their Moveables are fome Bullocks Hides U'lrmove and Goats Skins well cur'd, fome Mats clofe ^^^^** wove, wherewith they adorn their Huts, and fome Earthen Veflels, which they are very skilful at making, and wherein they boil thtir Flefh or Roots, ov Sagamife^ which, as has been faid, is their Pottage. They have alfo fome fmall Baskets made of Canes, ferving to put in their Fruit and other Proviiions. Their Beds are made of Canes, rais'd two or three Foot above the Ground, handfomly fitted with Mats ^ . and Bullocks Hides, or Goats Skins well cur'd, whith fcrve them for Feather Beds, or Qiiilts and Blankets •, and thofe Beds are parted one from another by Mats hung up.

When they delign to Till the Ground, they give one another Notice, and very often above '^^^^i.P' an Hundred of each Sex meet together. When they have till'd that Piece of Land, after their Manner, and fpcnc part of the Day, thofe the Land belongs to, give the others to Eat, and then they fpend the relt of the Day in Dancing and Merry Making. This fame is pradis'd from Canton to Canton, and fo they till Land all together.

This Tillage confiUs in breaking up jufl the j„ ^ Surface of the Earth with a Sort of Wooden ij^ xil^^g^ Inftrument, like a little Pick-axe, which they make by fplitting the End of a thick Piece of Wood, that fervcs for 3 Handle, and putting


no Monjieur de la Sal e'j Secopid VojAge

Wif-.1687 another Piece of Wood fharp Pointed atone ^y^^T^ End into the Slit. This Inftrume>>t fervcs them inftead of a Hoe, or Spade, for they have no Iron Tools. When the Land has been thus Wotmnfom tiU'd or broke up, the Women Sow and Plant the Indian Corn, Beans, Pompions, Water Melons, and other Grain and Garden Ware, which is for their Suftenance.

The Indians arc generally Handfom, but Indians disfigure themfelves by making Scores, or disfigure Streaks on their Faces, from the Top of the tbemfdves. Forehead down the Nofe to the Tip of the Chin ; which is done by pricking the Skin with Needles, or other fharp Inftruments, till it bleeds, whereon they ftrev'v fine Powder of Charcoal, and that finks in and mixes with the Blood within the Skin. They alfo make after the fame Manner, the Figures of living Creatures, of Leaves and Flowers on their Shoulders, Thighs, and other Parts of their Bodies, and Paint themfelves, as has been faid before, with Black or Red, and fornqtimes both together.

The Women are generally well Shap'd, and Wemcn, would not be difagreeable, did they adhere to Nature ^ but they Difguife themfelves as ridiculoufly as the Men, not only with the Streak they have like them down their Face, but by other Figures they make on it, at the Corners of their Eyes, and on the other Parts of their Bodies-, whereof they make more particular Show on their Bofom, and thofe who have the mod, are reckoned the handfomeft^ tho'that pricking ia that Part be extremely painful to them.

It is they that do all the Work in the Cot- Mar.\6%-j tage, either in Pounding the Indian Corn and ^JjT^'V Baking the Meal, or making the Pottage of ^P^°^J^ ehe faid Meal, by them call'd Sagamite^ or in Horns, drefling their other Provilions, or drying or parching, or fmoaking their Flefh, fetching the Wood they have Occafion for, or the Fiefii of Bullocks, or other Beafts kill'd by their Husbands in the Woods, which are often at a great Diftance, and afterwards Drefilng them as has been faid. They Sow and Plant, whea the Land has been broke up, and in (hort, do almoft all that is reqailite for the Support of Life.

I did not obferve that thofe Women were naturally given to Lcwdnefs, but their Virtue Tkelr 5e-is not Proof againft fome of our Toys, when ^^'^'^'^*^' prefented them, as Needles, Knives, and more particularly Strings of Beads, whereof they make Necklaces and Bracelets, and that Temptation is rarely refilled by them, and the iefs becaufe they have no Religion or Law to prohibit that vile Pra(n:ice. Ic is true their Husbands, when they take them in the Fad, fome-times do punifh them, either by Separation or otherwife *, but that is rare.

The Country of thofe Indians being generally fubjea to no Cold, almoft all of them go naked *, ^-^^^f-unlefs when the Nort^) Wind blows, then they cover themfelvcs with a Bullock's Hide, or Goat's Skin cur'd. The Women wear nothing but a Skin, Mat, or Clout, hanging round them like a Petticoat, and reaching down half way their Legs, which hides their Nakednefs before and behind. On their Heads they have nothing



MoKJieur de la S a l eV Second Voyage

f^^-;£^7thingbut their Hair platted and knotted be-^ hind.

As for their Manners, it may be faid of thefe as of all other /»^j^«Jof#that great Continent, that they are not Mifchievous, unlefs wroiio'd or attackM •, in which Cafe they are all Fierce and Revengeful. They watch all Opportunities to be Reveng'd, and never let any flip, when ofFer'd, which is the Caufe of their being continually at Wsr with their Keighbours, and of that Martial Humour, fo Predominant among them.

As to the Knowledge of a God, they did not feera to us to have any fix'd Notion of Him-, it is true, we met with fome on our Way, who as far as we could judge, believ'd, there was fome Superior Being, which was above all Things, and this they teftify'd by lifting up their Hands and Eyes to Heaven, yet without any Manner of Concern, as believing that the faid exalted Being does not regard at all, what is done here below. However none of them having any Places of Worlhip, Ceremonies, or Prayers, to denote the divine Homage, it may be faid of them all, that they have no Religion, at leaft thofethatwe faw.

However, they obferve fome Ceremonies ; but whether they have any Regard to a real or pretended Superior Being, or whether they arc only popular, and proceeding from Cuftom, is what we were not able to difcover. Tbofe Ceremonies are as follows. When the Corn is ripe, they gather a certain Quantity in a Maund or Basket, which is placed on a Sort of Seat or Stool, dedicated to that Ufe, and ferving only upon thofe mifterious Occafions, which they have a great Veneration for. The

Ceremo flies.


The Basket with the Corn being placed on ^.tr^SS-; that honour'd Stool, one of the Elders holds ^^^'^^ out his Hands over it, and talks a long Time ^ after which, the faid old Man didributes the Corn among the Womtn, and no Perfon is al-low'd to eat of the new Corn,till eight Days after that Ceremony. This feems to be in the Nature of Offering up or Bleffing the firft Fruits of their Harveft.

At their Aflemblics, when the Sagamite^ or Pottage, which is the moft eflential Part of their Meal, is boil'd in a great Pot, they place that Pot on the Stool of Ceremony above men-tion'd, and one of the Elders ftretches out his Hands over it, muttering fome Words between his Teeth for a conliderable Time, after which, they fall to eat.

When the young Folks are grown up to be fit to go to the Wars, and take upon thera to be Soldiers, their Garment, confifling of fome Skin, or Clout, together with their Bow, Quiver and Arrows, is placed on the aforefaid Stool, an old Man ftretches out his Hands over them, mutters the Words as above, and then the Garments, Bows, Quivers, and Arrows are given to the Perfons they belong to. This may be compar'd to Something of a Ceremony of Knighting among them. The fame Ceremonies are us'd by them in the cultivating of their ^ . Grain and Produd, but particularly of the Ta-bacco, whereof they have a Sort, which has fmaller Leaves than Ours \ it is almolt ever green, and they ufe it in Leaves.

This is what we obferv'd among tht^

whofe Cuftoms and Manners differ very little

from thofe of other Nations, which we had feen

jl before^

Tphjt is meant hire by it.

Names of


Monfieur de la S a l b'^ Second, Voyage

before and faw afterwards. As to the Point of Religion, it is not to be infer'd from what I have faid above, that there is none throughout that vaft Continent.* The Account I have given only regards thofe Nations we faw *, there may be others that have fome Worfhip, and Ire-member I have beard Monfieur de la Sale fay, that the Nation call'd Takenfa, neighbouring on the Iflinois^ ador'd the Fire, and that they had Cottages which they made ufe of, as Temples.

Before I conclude this Ihort Account of the Religion, Cuftoms and Manners of the Cenis^ which belong'd properly to this Place, it is fit here alfo to obferve, that the Word Nation, is not to be underftood, among thofe Indiansi to denote a People poffeinng a whole Province, or vaft Extent of Land. Thofe Nations are no other than a Parcel of Villages, difpers'd for the Space of twenty or thirty Leagues at mofl, which compofe a diftind People or Nation ^ and they differ from one another rather in Language than in Manners, wherein they are all much alike, or at leaft they vary but little, as has been mention'd above. As for the Names of them, here follow thofe of fuch as we travePd through, or were near the Way we held from our leaving our Habitation near the Bay of the Holy Ghofi:, till we came among the Cenis.

The Spicheats, Kabay,es, Thecamons^ ThearemetSy Kiabaha^ Chaumenes^ Kovans^ jirha^u^ Enepiahe^ Aho7:erbopiheim^ Kcienkahe^ Konkone^ Omeaojfe^ Xeremett, yihekouen, Afeghty^ Tetamenes^ Otenmar-herty Kouayon and Aieracouman. All thefe Nations are on the North of the River called U




Maltgne. Thofe that fonov7, are on the Weil ^^'^''^'j and North-Weit of the fame River. '-^' *

The Kanmhouan^ Tohaha, Pihir, Cagahegux^ Onapien^ Pickar^ Tokau^ Kuaffes^ Chancrss^ 7efe~ rabocretes, Ifefehouen^ Fercouteha^ Panego^ Petao, Petz.are^ Peifacho^ Peihoufiy Orcan and Piou. This laft Nation borders upon the Cenls^ at the Entrance into whofe firft Village I left my Reader, to give an Account of the Inhabitants, and thither I return, to proceed with my Relation and our Journey to the Village, the French Mah wholiv'd amongtheNatives was to conduft os to.

We arriv'd there at Night, and found other Elders coming out to meel us, much after the fame Manner as the others mention'd before. They led us to their Cottage, made us fit down on Mats and fmoke, but not with fo much Ceremony as the others. That done, it was Time for us to take our Refl-, having given them to underftand that we were weary.

The French Provencal would needs have US go to his Cottage, that is to the Hut where he Frerch had his Dwelling \ for, as I have faid, there Entertain-are fevefal Families in one of them, and that ^t {iU was one of the greateft in the Canton, having been the Habitation of one of their Chief's, lately deceafed.

They allotted us a Place there, for our Goods and Packs, the Women immediately msde 5^-gamite or Pottage, and gave it Us. Having eaten, we ask'd the French Man whether we were fafe, and he anfwering we were, we lay down, but yet could not deep found.

The next Day, being the firft of /^prll, the Elders came to receive and conducted us to the *

Cottage where we had been the Day before. 1 2 After

116 Monfieur de la Sal E'i Second VojAge

^/)r. 1687 After the ufual Ceremonies, we traded with ^^^^^'T^ them for Cernj Meal and Beans, giving in Exchange for the fame. Needles, Knives, Rings 'fu7^'^ and other Toys. We alfo purchafed a very m for an fine Stone Horfe, that would have been worth . twenty Piftoles in France, for an Ax.

The Day was fpent in driving our fmall Bargains and gathering Provifions, which the Women brought. When that was done, it was agreed, that 1 fbould remain there, to lay up more Store, and that the others fhould return to our Company, which we had left near the River, to carry the Provifions and fatisfy them they might come fafely.

Tho' I thought my felf not over fecure a-mong the Indians^ and befides had the Diflatis-faSion of underftanding none of their Language ; yet was I not unwilling to ftay, that I might have an Opportunity of feeing the two other French Men, who had forfaken the late • Monfieur deU Sale, when he firfl; travelled into that Country, that L might enquire of them, whether they had heard no talk of the Mtjfifipi River, for I flill held my Refolution of parting from our wicked Murderers.

As foon as they were gone, I gave a young Indian a Knife, to go bid thofe two other French Men come to me, and whilft he was going 1 drove on my little Trade for Provifions, and had frequent Vifits from the Elders, who entertain'd me by Signs, with an Account of their intended War 5 to which I ftill anfwer'd, nodding my Head, tho' very often I knew not what they meant. It was fome Difficulty to me to fecure my fmall Merchandize, efpecially at Night,for the Natives were covetous of them.



This Care, which ,kept me from Sleeping "^P";,*^ foand, was the Occal?bn,th3t one Night I heard ^>'^vN' feme Body moving near my Bed, and opening my Eyes, by the Light of the Fire, which never goes out in thofe Cottages, perceived a Manftark naked, with a Bow and two Arrows ThsJutbor in his Hand, who came and fat down by me, met-ts avo-without faying any Thing. I view'd him for ^j^^'^'^^^^ ibme Time, I fpoke to him, he made me no An- f^JXnl fwer, and not knowing what to think of it, I laid hold of my two Piftols and my Firelock, which the Man perceiving, he went and fat by the Fire. I follow'd, and looking ftedfaftly on him, he knew and fpoke to me, throwing his Arms about and embracing me, and then made himfelf known to be one of the French Men 1 had fent for.

We fell into Difcourfe, I ask'd him for his Comrade, he told me, he durfl: not come, for Fear ofMonficur de la Sals. They were both Sailors, this Man. who was of Brita/jy^ w«s call'd Buter •,the other, of RochellefiroUet. They had, in that (hort Space of Time, fo perfectly enur'd themfelves to the Cuftoms of the Natives, tun,^d ^^ that they were become meer Savages. They vj^e. were naked, their Faces and Bodies with Figures wrought on thera, like the reft. They had taken feveral Wives, been at the Wars and kiird their Enemies with their Firelocks, which had gain'd thern^ Reputation; but having no more Powder nor Ball, their Arms were gvowa afelefs, and they had been forc'd to learn to Ihoot with Bows and Arrows. As for Religion, they were not troubled with much ot it, and that Libertine Life thev led, was pkaf-ing to them.

118 Mon^um de la S a l eV Second Voya-je

'jpr.16'67. I acquainted this Majj with the unfortunate 5>^VVJ Death of Monfr. de la Sale, his Nephew and the red, at which, he was furpris'd and concern'd, at leaft in outward Appearance. I ask'd him, whether he had not heard talk of the Mijfijifi ^ he told me he had not •, bat only that there was a great River forty Leagues from thence towards the N. W, where the Natives faid there were many Nations along its Banks. That made me believe, it was the very River we were ia Search of, or at leaft that it muft be the Way to come at it. 1 gave him to eat, and we went to Red:.

The next and the following Days, I conti-• r.u'd trading, and the Elders their Vifits, and their Difccurfe by Signs, concerning, their intended War. Some of them gave me tounder-iland,tbat they had been among ihtSfaniards, who are neverthelefs about two hundred Leagues from them. They fpoke fome Words of broken Spanljh^ ss Capita^ inftead of C^p/V^w, a Captain, and Cchavillo inftead of Cavallo^ a Horfe, and fo of fome others. Buter, the Frencl^ Man return'd to his Dwelling, I gave him fome Strings of Beads for his Wives, and dellr'd him to fend the other French Man to me.

in the mean Time my being alone, as to a-

ny Perfon 1 could converfe with, grew very

jyidian irkfome to me, and I know not whether an old

MM Man did not perceive it; for he thought it

brought to would be proper to bring a Companion, to di-

''•'^^"*^'"^'vert me, and at Night I was furpris'd to fee a

yonng Maid come fit down by me, and to hear

the old Man teil me, he had brought her to be

my Wife, and gave her to me j but 1 had far

different Thoughts to dillurb me. 1 fpoke not

/>?/^ NORTH AMERICA/ 119

one Word to that poor Maid ; ihe ftay'd fome ^P''- '^ Time expeding I would take Notice of her, and ^>^V^^ perceiving I did noE ftir, or fpeak one Word, fhe withdrew.

Thus I continu'd, without hearing any News, Fi ench till the Sixth of ^pril, when the two Frevch Men, ^-'f« ^'*« I have fpoken of, came both, in the Lrdian l^^^'^^** Drefs, each of them having only a Clout about him, fome Turky Feathers on their Shoulders, their Heads and Feet bare. The latter of them whofe Name was GrolUt^ had not confented to have his Face mark'd like the other, nor to cut his Hair after the Indian Manner ; for thofe People cut off all theirs, except a fmall Lock on the Crown of the Head, like the Turks, only fome of them have fmall Trefles on the Temples.

I repeated to them the Narrative of Mon-lieur de la Sale's unfortunate Story. They con-firm'd what I had been told before, that the Natives had talk'd to them of the great River, * which was forty Leagues off, cowards the N. E. and that there were People like us, that dwek on the Banks of it. This confirm'd me in the Opinion, that it was the River fo much fought after, andthatwemuft go that Way to return to Canada or towards New England. They told me, they would willingly go with us. I defired them to keep it fecret, which they did not, for being inform'd that Monfieur C^w/w* and the others were coming, they went to mees: them, and I was again left alone.

The 8th, three Men came to me, one of

which Was the Irench Man of Trovencs^ with

each of them a Horfe, fent by our People to

carry away all the Provifions I h(?d got together,

12d Mo?}fteur de la Sal e'j Second Voyarre

Jpr.i6^7 leaving taken a Refolution, as thofe Perfons

j-^'YT^ they had fent told us, to return to the Dwel-

deters^re- ^'"S °^ ^^' ^'^^^^t about the Bay of the fame

foivetore- Name, from whence we came^ defigning, as

turn to the they pretended, to bnild a Boat there, to car-

mbiiion ry them over to the Iflands oi America-^ an im-

^f * ^^' prafticable Notion, for all our Carpenters were

dead, and tho'they had beea alive, they were

fo ignorant, that none of them would have

known which Way to go about that Work j

beiides that,we were deftitute of all Neceflaries

for that Effect. However we mult obey, and

fet out with our Provifions. The Rain having

detained us the pth on the Way, we coald not

^ come up to them till the next Day, being the


Father Anaftafius gave me the Confirmation of that Defign, and farther told me how roughly they had been treated by thofe Murderers lince my Departure. I know not what it was that mov'd them to it, but they had refolved to feperate themfelves from thofe Villains, and-that we fhould eat apart, 'viz,. Monlieur dz/f/Zer the Prielt, F. Anafiafius^ young Cavelier and I, which was very agreeable to us, becaufeat leaft we could talk ireely, which we durft not do before •, but at the fame Time they allow'd us jio more Provifions than would fuffice to keep us from ftarving, without giving us Share of any Flcdi, tho' they often kill'd.

Oar Tyrants- ftill holding their Refolution to an/otb°rs ^^^^^^ ^^ ^"^ former Habitation, thought they irefoiveto bad not Horfes enough, and therefore deputed yartfrom four of their Number, one of which was the :fhe Mur- fyench Man half turn'd Indian^ to return to the i6rer$. Village of ths Cevis and endeavour to barter for



fome. At the fame Time we agreed together ^p^-i^^? to let thofe Gentlemen know, that we were too ^^^vT^ much fatigued to return with them to the faid Habitation, and were refolved to remain in the Village of the Cenis, Monlieur Cavelier undertook to be our Speaker, and to defire Du-haut^ who was Mafter of all, to give us fome Axes, Knives and Strings of Beads, Powder and Shot, offering to give him a Note of his Hand for the fame.

To conclude, P^onfieur Caveller made the r ^t-Propofalto Duhaut^ difguis'd it the belt he Was ^iImut" able, and Duhaut took till the next Day to re- diten, turn his Anfwer. He confulted with his Companions, and acquainted us, that they would deal handfomely by us, and give us half the Ef-feds and all the Axes, intending to make the molt Speed they could, to get to our former Dwelling, and to put in Execution what they had before defign'd, as to the Building of a Bark, But in Cafe they could not fucceed, for want of Necelfaries, they would immediately return to us and bring F. Zenobius along with them, who would be ferviceable to ns, becaufe, having been with Monfieur de la Sale upon his firlt Dif-covery, he underltood the Language of the Nations about the Mijfifpi River. That whilft they .were upon that Journey, we fhould take Care to gather a Stock of Provifions,and that if they fucceeded in building the Bark, they would fend us Word, that we might repair to them. Monfieur Cavelier approv'd of all they faid, tho' we had other Defigns. However it provM we were all Miftaken, for Providence bad order'd Affairs other wife.


I 22 Mofijieur de la Sal eV Secofid Voyage

^1^7 Weflay'd there fome Time, expeaing thofe ^-"^"vv. yj^i^Q y^g^g gQj^g j^ ^j^^ Cents, tliey (laying longer

than was requifite for that Journey. The overflowing of the River was their Pretence, buc the true Reafon was the Women, who as I have faid, are not fo forward as to offer themfelves, but on the other Hand will not be over difficult in complying for fome little Prefent, and thofe who were fent did not grudge their Time. In the mean while the Pofture of our Affairs changed, ^s follows. Murderers ^^^ ofour halfSavage French Men, whom I chavge had acquainted with our Defign to go find the theirmind. Mijfi/ipi^ communicated it to JHfautot, telling him all the Particulars he had before acquainted me with ^ whereupon Di-haut chang'd his Mind, as to the Dellgn of going to the Habitation of St. Lems^ relolving to follow our intended Way and execute our Projcd. He imparted his Thoughts to his Companions, who were of the fame Opinion,and ail of them acquainted us,that they were ready to put in Execution the Enter-pn"2e we had form'd.

This Change troubled us very much, there being nothing we coveted more than to part with thofe Mifcreants, from whom we could at a long Run expect no better Ufage than they had afforded our Commander and his Friends. However, it was ftill requifite to dif-fcmble, there being no other Remedy at that Time: But God's Juflice provided for and ref-cued U5. We continued in that Camp all the remaining Parr of u^pril^ expeding the Perfons that had been fent to the Cenls^ and Duhaut intending to begin to put in Execution his Defiga of going to find out the ^'JPfpi» with us, made

us M

us advance towards the River that was near, in Mayve^j. order to pafsit as fooa as fallen, and repair to ^/V*^ the Village of thtCenis.

We ftaid three Days longer in that Poll;, at Murderers the End whereof, he we call'd Larcheve^ue^ one diffa in of thofe that had been fent our, crofs'd the ^P''"'"' River. He was-D«/?<«z/r's Creature, and an Accomplice in the Murder of Monfieur £^e la Sale. He inform'd Duhnut^ that one they call'd Hiens^ who was alio one of our Mefiengers, and had ilay'd on the other Side of the River, had heard of Buhaut and the reft altering their Re-folution, and that he was not of their Mind. Hiens was a Buccanier^ and by Birth a German. Monfieur de U Sale had brought him from Petit Gouave^ and he was- alfo acceflary to the laie Murders.

After we had been fome Days longer in the fame Place, Hiens arriv'd with the two half Savage French Men and about twenty Natives. He went immediately to Duhaut^ and after fome Difcourfe, told him, he was not for going towards the A'^>Jfi/il>i, becaufe it v»?ould be of dangerous Confequence for them, and therefote demanded bis Share of the Effects he had feiz'd upon. Duhaut refufing to comply, and affirming, that all the Axes were his own ^ Hiem^ who it is likely had laid the Defign before to kill him, immediately drew his Piftol, and fired ^j^^ it upon Duhaut^ who (tagger'd about four Paces ^.///j '^u-from the Place and fell down dead. At the haur, a^^i fame Time Ruter^ who had been with ///>»/, R-"ter fired his Piece upon Liotot^ the Surgeon, and L'^-'-^^* {hot him thro' with three Balls.

Thefe Murders committed before us, put me into a terrible Coniternation : for believing the


124 Monfieur de la S A l e'/ Second, Voyaog

W;2jyi687. fame was deflgn'd for me, I laid hold of my ^-'^V'^ Fire-Lock to defend my feif; but Hiens cry'd out to mc, to fear nothing, to lay down ray Arms, and afTurM me he had no Defign againft jne^ but that be had reveng'd his Mafter's Deathc He alfo fatisfy'd Monfieur Cavelier and /- Fathtr yinastafus^ who were as much frighted as ray felf, declaring he meant them no Harm, and that tho' he had been in the Confpiracy, yet had he been prefent at theTime when Monfieur de la SMe was kill'd, he would not have con-fented, but rather have obllruded it.

Liotot liv'd fome Hours after, and had the good Fortune to iiiake his Confeffion •, after which, the fame Ruter^ put him out of his Pain, with a Piftol-Shot. We dug a Hole in the Earth, and bury'd him in it with Duhaut^ doing them more Honour than they had done to Monfieur de U Sale and his Nephew Moran^et^ whom they left to be devour'd by wild Beafts. Thus thofe Murderers met with what they had de-• ferv'djdying the fame Death they had put others to.

The Natives,f//V»^ had brought with him, having been Spectators of that Murder, were in a Conft^rnation, and that Affair was of dangerous Gonfeqnence to us, who ftood in Need of them. It was therefore requifite to make the bed of it, giving them to underftand, that there had been Reafon for io punilhing thofe dead Per-f:>ns, becaufe they had all the Powder and Ball, and would not give any to the reft. They re-main'd fatisfy'd with that Excufe, and he who was cail'd Larcheveque^ and who was entirely devoted to Duhaut^ being Abroad a hunting fince the Morningj and noi knowing what Misfortune


tune had hapned his Protedor, and Hiens being ^^^2^\^-

refolv'd to make away with him, Father u^na- ^-'^v*^

BaCtus and Monfieur Cavelisr took fo much Pains,

that they diflwaded him from it, and I w^nt

out and met Larchevegfue, to give him Notice

of that Difafter, and to inform him, how he

was to behave himfelf. Thus I requited him

for having come to give me Notice ot Monfieur

d« U Sale's Death. I brouglit him to Hiens^ who

declared he defign'd him no Harm, and Larche-

veque gave him the fame Afi^irances on his

Part. Thus all Things are again compos'<J5

and nothing rem?.in'd, but for us to fet oat,

but firfl: to know what we were to do, and

which Way to direft our Courfe.

Hereupon, Heins took upoa him to fpeak, and faid, he had promis'd the Natives to go to the War with them, and defign'd to be as good as his Word *, that if we would expeft his Return, we might by that Time confider which Way he would move, and that in the mean Time we might (lay in the Village among X^tCenis. This was refolv'd on*, we loaded all our Effeds on our Horfes, and repair'd to the fame Place and the fame Cottage, where we had been before, the Chief of it aingning us the one Half to lodge and lay up our Baggage.

When the Day for fetting out for the War six fremi was come, Hie»s departed with the Natives, Aiengo w four of our Comrades and the two half Savage tke H^ars French Men going along with him j fo that there "'^»*. »^ were fix of them, and each took a Horfe. Hiens ■^'*^'''-''*'' left us all the Effcfts, and defir'd we would ftay for him, which we promis'd, not knowing how to avoid it, confideriog, that the Indians might


May 1687 have done us Harm, and even have obftruded our ^•yy^ Departure. Thus we reiign'd ourfelves to Pro-videoce, and remain'd fix of us together, viz,. Father Anafiaftus^ Monfieur Cavalier^ his Nephew youngf Caveliery young Talon^ another Youth of Taris^ and I. There alfo remaia'd fome old Men, who could not go to the War, and the Women. We were alio join'd by two oxMq^ French Men,who had l?een left on the other Side theRiver,being theProvencal and onQTeiJfier* During our Stay, and our Warriors being ^ .,. abroad upon that Expedition, the old Men of-^bsNicmo-^^^ vmted US, and told us News from the ryof men Army by Signs, which we underftood nothing iij6/i. of. W^e were from Time to Time alarm'd, feeing the Women weep, without any viable Caufe. The late Monlieur de la Sale had often told us, that the Women bewail'd thofe that were to be kill'd ^ bat we were inform'd, that they did fo, when they call'd to Mind fome who had been flain in the former Wars*, which difpell'd our Apprehenfions. However we were uneafy, becaufe thofe old Men and Wo-^^ men examin'd us every Morning and Evening* when we perform'd our Devotions.

We laid hold of that Opportunity to give them to underftand, that we paid our Duty to one God, the only Supreme Sovereign of all Things, pointing to Heaven, and endeavouring in the belt Manner we were able? to fig-nify to them that he was Almighty, that he had made all Things, that he caus'd the Earth to produce it's Fruits to profper, and the Growth of it, which maintain'd them to thrive ^ but this being only by Signs, they did not underftand us, and we labour'd in vairi-


j>^(? NORTH AMERICA. 127

The 18th, we were furprizM po fee feveral ^-{r 16S7 Women come into our Cottage, their Faces [jQ^, al] befmear'd with Earth, and they let up their j^^.g ^, Throats, linging feveral Songs as'loud as they r/,j«7. were able, v.'hereof we underftood not one Word. That done, they fell a Dancing in a Ring, aad we could not tell, what to thiak of that Rejoicing, which lafted fu'i three Hours •, after v;hich we were infcrm'd, they had received Advice of the Vi'^o.ry cbtaio'd by their Warriors over their Enemies. The Dance concluded, thofe in the Cottage gave fome Bits of Tabacco to thofe without.

The fame Diy> about Noon, v^e faw him that had brought the News, who afiirm'd they had kill'd at lead Forty of their Eaemie?^. After the Rejoicing, all the Women apply'd therafdvesto make ready their Proviilons, fome to pound Indian Corn, others to boil Meal, which they call Grouller^ and others to bake Bread, to carry to the Warriors. They all feC out the 19th to meet them, and we thought it in Policy convenient to fend Meat to oar Men which was done by the Fre«c^ Man of Provence^ wlio went with the Women.

That fame Day, at Night, the Viclorious Ar- ^,, ^ niy retura'd,and we were inform'd,. that their oftL^Bjt, Enemies, whom they call Cannohatinno» had tie fm^ht t'xpe^ed them boldly, but that having heard hthsQi-the Noife, and felt the Effects of our Mens "'^* Fire Arras, they all fled, fo that the Ctv/ni had either kill'd or taken Forty Eight Men and Women. They had flaia feveral of the latter, who fled to the Tops of Trees, for wane of Time to make their Efcape otherwife.i fo

May 1687

Burbirity of the Min torvxrds A Wbman


ofths Wo-



Cfutl Trophies,

Monjteur de la Sal e'^ Second VoyAge

that many more Women had perifh'd than Men.

They brought Home two of thofe Women alive, one of whom had her Head flead for the Sake of her Hair and Skin. They gave that wretched Creature a Charge of Powder and a Ball, and fent Her home, bidding her starry that Prefent to her Nation, and to afllire them, they fhould be again treated after the fame Manner, that is, killM with Fire Arms.

The other Woman was kept to fall a Sacrifice to the Rage and Vengeance of the Women and Maids ^ who havine arm'd themfelves with thick Stakes, (harp Pointed at the End, Gondufted that Wretch to a By-Place, where each of thofe Furies began to torment her, fometimes with the Point of their Staff, and fometimes laying on her with all their Might. One tore off her Hair, another cut off her Finger, and every one of thofe outrageous Women endeavour'd to put her to fome exquilite Torture, to revenge the Death of their Husbands and Kififmen, who had been kill'd in the former Wars •, fo that the unfortunate Creature ex-peded her Death Stroke, as Mercy.

Atlaft, one of them gave her a Stroke with a heavy Club on the Head, and another run her Stake feveral Times into her Body, with which Ihe fell down Dead on the Spot. Then they cut that miferable Vidtlm into Morfels, and oblig'd fome Slaves of that Nation, they had been long poIfefsM of to eat them.

Thus our Warriors returned Triumphant from that Expedition. They fpar'd none of the Prifoners they had taken, except two little Boys, and brought Home all the Skins of their


»• *

Heads, with the Hair, to be kept as Trophies -^%i6S7. and glorious Memorials of their Vidory. Kj^h'^^

The next Day all thofe Savages met in their Chief's Cottage, whether all the abovemen-tion'd Heads of Hair were carry'd in State. Then they made extraordinary Rejoicings ia that Cottage, whence they went to the Huts of the other Prime Men. to perform the fame Ceremony. This Rejoicing lafled three Days, our French Companions, who had been the Caufe of their Vidory, being call'd to it, and highly entertain'd, after their Manner. It will noC be difagreeable to the Reader, that I here particularly defcribe that Ceremony, which after having been perform'd in the Cottages of the Chief Men, was repeated in ours.

In the firft Place, the Cottage was made very clean, adorn'd, and abundant of Mats ^^';f^?»J' laid on the Floor, on which the Elders, and "^W'^^'^^ the moft confiderable Perfons fate \ after which, one of them, who is in the Nature of an Orator, or Mailer of the Ceremonies ftood up and made a Speech, of which we underftood not a Word. Soon after that Difcourfe was ended, the Warriors arriv'd, who had flain any in Battle, marching in their proper Order, each of them carrying a Bow and two Arrows, and before every one of them went his Wife, carrying the Enemies Head ot Hair. Two little Boys, whofe Lives they had fpar'd, as has been faid before, one of them who was wounded being a Horfeback, clos'd the Proceflion ; afi the Head whereof, was a Woman carryings large Reed, or Cane in her Hand.

As they came up to the Orator, the Warrior took the Head of Hair his Wife had K broagh^

15© Monfeur de la S a l e'^ Second Foyage

Mjyi6^7' brought, and prefented it to him, which the iy^^r^ faid Orator receiv'd with both his Hands, and after having held iiout towards the four Quarters of the World, he laid it down on the Ground, and then took the next, performing the fame Ceremony, till he had gone over them all.

When the Ceremony was ended, they ferv'd up the Sagamite^ in the Nature of Haffcy Padding, which thofe Women had provided, and before any one touch'd it, the Mafter of the Ceremonies took fome in a Veffel, which he car-ry'd as an Offering to thofe Heads of Hair. Then he lighted a Pipe of Tabacco, and blow'd the Smoke upon them. That being performed, they all fell to the Meat, Bits of the Woman that had been facrific'd^ were ferv'd up to the two Boys of her Nation. They alfo ierv'd up dry'd Tongues of their Enemies, and the whole concluded with Dancing and Singing after their Manner: After which, they went to other Cottages to repeat the fame Ceremony. There was no Talk of our Dellgn till thofe / Rejoycings were over, and I begn to conceive

good Hopes of our Succefs.The two Murderers, Teijfier and Larcheveque, who had both a Hand in the Death of Monfr. de U Sale, had promis'd to go along with us, provided Monfr. Cavelier would pardon them, and he had given them his Word fo to do. In this Expedation wc continued till the 25th, when our French Men, who had been at the War, repair'd to our Cottage, aad we confulted abouc our Bulinefs.


Hiensm^ others of his Gang, difapproving ^^^^21!^ of our Defign, reprefented to us fuch Difficul- ^^^^^^ ties as they look'd upon to be unfurmountable, under which we mult inevitably perifli, or at lead be oblig'd to return to the fame Place. Niens told us, that for his own Part, he would not hazard his Life to return into France, only to have his Head choppM off, and perceiving we anfwer'd Nothing to that, but thai we per-iifted in our Refolution. It is requijite then, faid he, to divide what EffeSis remain.

Accordingly he laid alide, for F. j^nafiafus, ^,^^^ MeQleurs Cavelier^ the Uncle and the Nephew, gives the O' thirty Axes, four or five Dozens of Knives, 2- then what bout thirty Pounds of Powder and 4:he like ^^/''^''/^^» Quantity of Ball. He gave each of the ^^^*'/^{^^^| others two Axes, two Knives, two or three ^j,g ^ffe^s. Pounds of Powder, with as much Ballj and kept; the relt. As for the Horfes, he kept the belt and left us the three leaft. Monlieur Cavelier ask'd him for fome Strings of Beads, which he granted, and fciz'd upon all the late Monfr. de la SaWs Cloaths, Baggage and other EfFefts, befides above a thoufand Livres in Money, which belong'd to the late Monfr. le Gros^ whody'datour Dwelling of St. Lewis. Before our Departure, it was a fenfible Aftiidionto us", to fee that Villain walk about, in a fcarlet Coat, with gold Galons, which had belong'd to the late Monfr. de la Sale, and which, as I have faid, he had feiz'd.

After that, Hiens and his Companions with-

drew to their own Cottage, and we rcfolv'd JJl?. ^^'1

^ ^ ^ a. x^ 1 . velier and

not to put off our Departure any longer. Ac- hisComparj

cordingly, we made ready our Horfes, which pan from

much aiarra'd the Natives, and efpecially the tbs others*

K 2 Chief

132 Monpeur de la Sal e'/ Second Voyige

^'y "^ Chief of them, who faid and did all he contd to '■^^^"^^^^ obftruft our Journey, promiiing us Wives, Plenty of Provifions, reprefenting to us the immenfe Dangers, as well from Enemies, who furrounded them, as from the bad and impaf-fable Ways and the many Woods and Rivers we were to pafs. However, we were not to be moved, and only ask'd one Kindnefs of him, in obtaining of which, fhere were many Difficulties, and it was, that he would give us Guides to conduft us to Cappa ; but at length, after much Trouble and many Promifes of a good Reward, one was granted, and two othirs went along with him.

All Things being thus order'd for cur Departure, wfe took Leave of our Hofts, pafs'd by Hiens's Cottage and embrac'd him and his Companions. We ask'd him for another Horfe, , which he granted. He delired an Atteftatien in L<2««of Mondeur CaveUer^ that he had noc been concern'd in the Murder of Monlieur de laSal'e^ which was given him, becaufe there was French no refufing of it j and we fet forward without Men ftay Larcheveqm and Meunier^ who did not keep their withths Word with us, but remain'd among thofe Bar-Indians, barians, being infatuated with that Courfe of Libertinifm they had run themfelves into. Thus Only [even there were only fcvenofus that ftiick together fa out for to return to Canada^ viz,. Father Anaftafus^ Canada. Meffieurs Cavelierxht Uncle and the Nephew, the Sieur de Marle^ one Teijfier, a young Man born at Paris, whofe Name was Bartholomew and I, with fix Horfes and the three Indians, who were to be our Guides j a very fmall Number for fo great an Enterprize, but we pur ourfelves entirely into the Hafld§ of Divine Providence,


confiding in God's Mercy, which did not for- ^^i\^ fake us. t/^v^-'

After the firfl: Day's Journey we incamp'd on the Bank of the River, we had left not long before, lay there that Night, and the next Day, cat down Trees to make a Sort of Bridge or Planks to pafs over it i handing over our Goods from one to another, and fwimming over our Horfes 5 which Work we were frequently o-blig'd to repeat, and as often as we had afterwards Occafion to pafs Rivers on our Way, which we held on till the 29th, every Day meeting with fomeCottage, and at lafl-, a Hamlet or Village, into which we went, and the Indian Inhabitants told us, they were call'd Nahordikhe^ and that they were Allies to the Cents.

We barter'd with them for fome Provifions, and their Chief offer'd to go with us as far as the Ajfonys^ who were not farther off than about Nahor-three Leagues, which he accordingly did *, but dikhes^«i it happening to rain when we came thither, Affony and the Ajjonys having had no Notice before hand, we found but indifferent Reception-

However, we were conducted to the Chiefs Cottage; the Elders had Notice given them, they reforted thither, and when our Horfes were unloaded, and our Goods plac'd in a Corner of the Cottage, which the Chief had allotted us, we gave them to underfland, that our Intention was to go farther, to fetch Commodities to trade with them, at which they were pleas'd. They gave us to eat, and the Elders ftay'd fome Part of the Evening with us, which made us fomewhat Uaeafy, and obiig'd qs K 3 " to

^MMe?t6S7 to be upon our Guard ; however the Night Ky^'^K) pafsM without any Difturbance.

The next Morning the Elders came to us a-gain. They had provided Mats without the Cottage, and made Signs to us to go thither and fit down upon theirij as we did, leaving two of our Company to guard the Baggage. We repeated to them what we had faid the Night before, and made them feme Prefents of Axes, Knives, Strings of Beads and Rings. They (ig-nify'd they were forry we would go away, and endeavoar'd the beft they could, to make us fenfibleofthe fame Obftacles the others had fignifyM to us; but it was all in Vain ; however, we ftay'd till the firft ofjune^ all the while bartering and gathering the belt Stock of Pro-vifions we could.

The Second, we remov'd from that Cottage, where we had fome Jcaloufy, and went to a^ Good En "°^^^^? ^ Qparter of a League from it, where veruin-' ^^^ Chief of it gave us a very good Reception, meat An old Woman, who was either his Mother, or Governefs of the Cottage, took particular Care of us .• We were firft ferv'd at eating, and to keep her in that good Mind, we now and then made her fome little Prefents, whillt (he, by her CareandKindnefs, fpar'd our Proviii-ons, which were necefTary for our Journey.

A continual Rain oblig'd us to ftay there till the 13th. During our Stay, the Natives made feveral Fealts, to which we were always invited •, and at length the Rain ceafing, we refolv'd to fet out, notwithltanding all Monfieur Cavelier and the Prielt's Apprehen-iions, which we furmounted, and direded our


Courfe towards the N» E. with iwo hdiafis^Jn»si6Sy who were to condud us only a fmall Way, and ^-^V'^. who accordingly foon left us, whatfoever Pro-mifes we could make them. They departed to return Home, promifing they would come to us again. We encampM that Night on the Bank of a Rivulet.

The 14th and 15th, we held on our WsLy^BaiWaji; frequently meeting with Sloughs, which very much fatigued us, bccaafe we wereoblig'd to unload our Horfes for them to pafs, and prevent their flicking in the Mire and fat iloil, whence we could not have drawn them out>and confequently we were fain to carry all our Luggage on our own Backs.

Whilft vve halted about Noon, that our Horfes might graze, as was ufaally done by us, we difcorer'd our two u^jfony Indians returning towards us, at which we were much rejoiced, becaufe they had a better Notion than cur-felves of the Way we were to go. We made them eat and fmoke, and then fee out a-gain.

The 15th, we came to a great River, which we pafs'd as we had done the firft, and after that, met with very bad Ways.

The 17th, one of our Company being in-difpos'd, we could not fet out till Noon, and held on till theiift, croffingfeveral Sloughs and Rivers, and then one of our Indians being out of Order, It oblig'd us to flay on the Bank of a River we had pafs'd. The other Indian feeing his Comrade iick, went a Hunting, and brought a wild Goat ^ for there are many in that Country. The Indians have the Art of drefling the Heads of thofe Creatures, which they put upon K 4 th?ij;

1^6 Monfieur de la Sal E'i Second Voyage

^urje\6^7 tbeir own, and imitate them fa exacftly, that ^-^''V^ they can come very near to them, and then j^rt to kiU Seldom fail ot killing. The fame Method they Goats and afe for Turkeys and other wild Fowl, and fo WMiovol. draw them clofe to themfelves.

The 2 2d, our/«:>/»^» being fomewhat recover'd we decamp'd and proceeded along a better Way and pleafanter Country, than that we had left behind, and as we enquir'd the heft we could of thofe our Indiaifs^ concerning the Neighbouring Nations and thofe we were going towards, among others they nara'd to us, that they call'd Gippa, Ml Cavelier told US, he rememberM he had heard his late' Brother Monfieur de la SaU name that Nition, and fay he had feen it as he vventi from Cmadd towards the JUfipfipT. This put us in Hopes, that we fhould fucceed in oar Dif-covery. fine Med' The 23d, being iicar a Village, we had been dovJS' in Search of, one of our Indians went before, to give Notice of our Arrival. In the mean Time we crofs'd moft lovely Plains and Meadows, border'd with fine Groves of beautiful Trees, ' vvhere the Grafs was fo high, that it hinder'd

our Horfes going, and we were oblig'd to clear the Pailage for them.

When we were within Half a League of the Village, wefaw an Indian, mounted on a large grey Mare, coming along with our Native, ■^o meet us, and were told, that Horfemaa was the Chief of the Village, attended by fome others of the fame Place. As foon as that Chief came up to us, he exprefs'd very much Kindncfs and Affcdion ^ we gave him to underftand,that we did no Body any Harm, unlefs we were firft «t?ack'd. Then we made him fmoke, and when ■ -' ~ thai

'into NORTH AMERICA. i^^

that was done, he made Signs to us to follow ^uneie^j him, which we did, till we came to the Bank ^-^'V^ of*a River, where he again defir'd us to ftay, whilft he went to give Notice to the Elders.

Soon after, a Number of them came, and ha- m. Cave-ving join'd us, llgnify'd, that they were come Wet and to carry us to their Village. Our Indians made »^^ '/^ Signs, that it was the Cu(torn of the Country, J^r^f^j^,^ and we muft fubmit, and let them do as they ohniiavs, thought fie. Tho' we were much out of Countenance at that Ceremony, feven of the prime Men among them would have us mount on their Backs or shoulders. Monfieur Caveller being our Chief, mounted firft, and then the rcSdid the fame.

As for my own Part, being of a pretty large Size and loaded with Cloaths, a Firelock, a Cafe of Piftols, Powder and Ball, a Kettle and other Implements, there is no Doubt but I made a fufficient Burden for him that carry'd me, and becaufe I was taller than he and my Feet would have hung upon the Ground, two other Indians held them up for me -, fo that I had three to carry me. Other Indians took hold of our Horfes to lead them, and ia that ridiculous E-qaipage we arriv'd at the Village. Our Carriers, who had gone a long Quarter of a League, had need enough to refc, and we to be fet down, that we might laugh in private, for it behov'd OS to take Care not to do it before them.

As foon as we were come to the Chief's Cot- ceremo-tage, where we found above two hundred Per- niis at fons, who were come to fee us, and that our ^beir i^e. Horfes were unloaded, the Elders gave us to "Option* underftand, that it was their Cultom to wafh


138 MoTifieur de la Sal eV SeconciFojage ^'!Xl^'y ?^''^"gers at their firft Coming ^ but that we be^


speeches »adc to

Their En-tertain-


iflg clad, they would only wafli our Faces ; which one of thofe Eiders did, with fair Water they had in a Sort of Earthen Veflel, and he only wafh'd our Forehead.

After this fecocd Ceremony, the Chief made Signs to us, to fit down on a Sort of little Scaffold, rais'd about 4 Foot above the Ground, and made of Wood and Canes, where when we were plac'd, the Chiefs of the Villages being four ia Kumber, came and made Speeches to us, one after another. We liftned to them with Patience, tho' we underftood not one Word of what they faid to us; being tir'd with the Length of their Harangues, and much more with the violent Heat of the Sun, which was lull over our Heads.

When the Speeches were ended, the Purport whereof, as near as we could guefs, was only to ailijre us, that we were very welcome ^ we gave them tounderftand, that we were going into our own Country, defigning to return fpeedily, to bring them feveral Sorts of Commodities and fuch Things as they Ihould ftand in need of.

Kext, we made them the ufual Prefents of Axes, Knives, Striags of Beads, Needles and Pins, for their Wives, telling them, that when we returnd we would give them more.

We farther figmfy'd to them, that if tbey would afford cs fome Corn or Meal, we would give them other Things in Exchange, which they agreed to^ After this they made us eat Sagamite^ or Hafty-pudding, Bread, Beans, Pom-^ pious and other Things, wi)icb we had fufficient


Meed of. Moft of us having fcarce eaten any ^unei6^j Thing all that Day, fome for Want, and others i^'V^-out of Devotion, as Monfr. Cavelier^ who would obferve the Faft of St. John BaftifVs Eve, whofe Name he bore. It is to be obfervM, that the Pompions are incomparably better there, than with us.

The 24th, the Elders met again in our Cottage. We gave them to uoderftand, they would oblige us, in furnilhing Guides to conduct us to the Village of Ca^jia^ which was in our Way j but inltead of granting it, they ear-neftly intreated us, to (lay with them and go to the Wars againlt their Eaerai'^s, having been told Wonders of our Firelocks, which we pro. misM to do when we return'd, and that it fljould be fhortly, and they feem'd to reft fatisfy'd.

Thus our Hopes increas'd, but the Joy it oc-cafion'd was allay'd by a difmal Accident thac befell us. Monlieur de Marle^ one of the prime jj^^.. ^^ Men of our Company, having Breakfafted, Marie would needs go Bath himfelf in the River we drovirCd^ had pafs'd the Day before, and not knowing how to fwim, he went too far and ftep'd' into a Hole, whence he could not recover himfelf, but was unfortunately drowned. Young Mon^ fieur Cavdier^ having been told that Monlieur de Marie was going to Bath himfelf, ran after him, and coming to the River, faw he was drowning, he ran back to acquaint us: We hafted thither with a Number of Indians^ who were there before us; hut all too late, fome of them div'd, and brought him up dead from the Bottom of the Water.


-140 Monfietir de la S A l eV Second, Voyage

^mii6%-i We carry'd hijii to the Cottage, Jhedding '^"O'^^ many Tears, the Indians bore Part in our Sor-

rll. ""' ^^'^t ^°^ ^^ P^'"^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Duties, offering up the ufual Prayers ^ after which he was bury-ed in a fmall Field, behind the Cottage ^ and whereas, during that doleful Ceremony, we pray'd, reading in oar Books, particularly Mon-lieur Cavelier^ the Priefl; and Father Anafiajlus^ the Indians gaz'd on us with Amazement, be-caufe we talk'd, looking upon the Leaves, and we endeavour'd to give them to underftand, that we pray'd to God for the dead Man, pointing up to Heaven. 'jiumimty We mull do this Right to thofe good Peo-cf the In- pie, as to dejclare, that they exprefs'd lingular dunj. Humanity upon that doleful Accident, as ap-pear'd by the fenfible Teftimony of their Adi-ons, and all the Methods they us'd to let us underftand how great a Share they bore in our Sorrow ; which we fhould not have found in fe-veral Parts of Europe. During our ftiort Stay in that Place, we ob-■ ferv'd a Ceremony that was perform'd by the •Chiefs Wife, viz.. that every Morning flie hidunCe- ^^^^j. j.^ ^/[onfieur de Marle\ Grave, and car-'th^'Deli. ^f^ ^ ^'^f^^ ^^5ket of parch'd Ears of Corn tp ' lay on it, the meaning v;hereof we could not underftand. Before our Departure, we were inform'd, that the Villages belonging to our Hofts, being four in Number, all ally'd together were call'd, AJfony^ Nathofos, Nachitos and NdtfOMs Cadodaqmo.

On the 27th, having been inform'd by the Natives, that we fhould find Canoes, to pafs a River that was on our Way. Father Anafiapus and I went to fee whether, what they told us


i'^^ JluM. i}^%A^ i^n^ WIam (Ju^ m-^aL '^^(^'k '

/ /-., (.


into ^OKTH AMERICA. 141

was true. We foand that River was a Branch ?«»<?,687 of the fame we had already pafs'd, the Channel <>^V>J of it being pleafant and navigable, and faw fome Canoes, in one of which t\iQ-Indians car-ry'd us over to the other Side, whether we went to fee what convenient Place there was for our Horfes to come afliore. We found a very proper Place, and returning, made our Report to Monfieur CavtUer, who being then much out of Order with Pains in his Feet, we were ob-lig'd to ftay there, till the 30th.

During that Time, we were frequently vi- janigssa iited by the Indians^ both Old and Young, and Nmon, of both Sexes, and even the Chiefs of the Nation, cali'd Janiquo^ came to fee as, and with them we often conversed in dumb Shov;, and e-veryEvening the Women, attende4»by the'Warriors, with their Bows and Arrows, reforted to naefui our Cottage, to ling a doleful Sort of Song, Eminaifs^ Ihedding Tears at the fame Time. This would ^f"*-have given us fome Uneafinefs, had we not before feen the fame Ceremony, and been in-fcrni'd, that thofe Women repair in that Manner to the Chief's Cottage, to intreat him, fing-ing and weeping, to take Revenge on thofe, who have kill'd their Husbands, or Relations, in former Wars, as I have obferv'd before. In all other Refpefts, the Manners and Cuftoms of this Nation, being much the fame as thofe of the Cefiis^ I Ihall add no more concerning them.

The 2pth, at Night, we gave Notice to the Chief, that we would fet out the next Day, we made him fome Prefents in particular, and the like to his Wife, becaufe flie had taken fpecial Care of us, aad departed on the 30th. The


142 Monfietir de la S a l eV Second. Voyage

^unei6S7 Chief, attended by many other Indians, whom ^^''"^'^^ we found in the Cottages on oiir Way, went toCondud us as far as the River, which we crofsM in Canoes, and fwam over our Horfes. There we took Leave of oar Conductors, to whom we gave fome Strings of Beads for their Wives, and their Chief would needs Condud us to the next Village.

By the Way we came to a Cottage, where

our Guide made us halt, and there they gave

Cadoda- "^ ^^ ^^^' Then we held on our Journey to a

quio Yil- Village call'd Cadrdaquio, and were conduced

Ugc» to the Chief's Cottage, who .receivM us courte-

cufly, being a Friend to him that went with us.

It was requilite to unload our Horfes to lie

there, and we fignilied to the Chief, that we

Itood in Need of Provifi^ons. He fpoke to the

Women, who brought us fome Meal, which we

purchafed with Strings of Beads, and the Chief,

who conducted us thither, took his Leave.

Having no Defign to fray there any Time, we had defired the Chief to appoint fome Per-fon to guide us to the Village caird Cahainihoua, which was in our Way. It happen'd by good Fortune, that there were then in that Place fome Men and Women of the faid Village, who who were come to fetch fome Wood, fit to make Bows, there being Plenty of that Sort of Trees they make themof, about the Village we were in. We fignify'd our Defign to them and they gave us to underftand they would be glad to bear us Company. In the Converfation we had with them, they made us comprebend,that they had feen People like us, who had Firelocks and a Houfe, and that they were acquainted with the Cappa^s, which was very pleafing to us*


i^jto NORTK AMERICA. 145

Becaufe they were not to depart till two Days JweidSj." after, we refolvM toftay for them. <^^VNi,

We obferv'd, that there was a Difference between the Language of thofe People and the c«^"^'"' Inhabitants of the Village we were in, from that of the Cenis^ and that they had fome peculiar Ceremonies, one whereof is, that when the Women have their Terms, they leave the Company of their Husbands and withdraw into other Cottages appointed for that Purpofe, which no Perfon is to come near, upon Pain of being reputed unclean.

Thofe Women have their Faces ftill more ommms disfigur'd, than the others we had fcen before ^ oj'Womtn, for they make feveral Streaks,or Scores on them, whereas the others had but one. They adorn themfelves with little Locks of fine red Hair ; which they make faft to their Ears, in thi Kature of Pendants. In other Rcfpe^ls they are not difagreeable, and neither Women nor Maids are fo ill-natur'd as to make their Lovers pine for them. They are not difficult of Accefs, and they foon make a Return for a fmall Pre-fent.

The Men wear their Hair fliort, like our ^ _ Capucif7s^ they anoint it with a Sort of Oyl, or Greafe, and curl it like Snails, after which they ftrew on it a Sort of Down, or Lint, died red, as we do Powder, which is done when they de-iign to be very fine, in order to appear in their AfTemblies. They are very fond of their Children, and all the Way of cbaftifing them they ufe, is to throw Water at them, without ever I?eating or giving them ill Words.


144 Monfieur de la Sal eV Second Voyage \

^uljf 1687 The Indians that were of the Village of Co^- ;|!

^•'VNi' hainihoua and to condncft us thither, not being/;^ ready to fetouton IVedfjefday the 2d of July^ as they had promis'd, a young Indian of^'cr^d^ himfelf, faying, he would condud us fife thi-;. ther, and wefet out with him, ftill direding; our Courfe towards the N. E. Wekeptciofe along the fame River we had crofs'd, and found: it very pleafant and navigable, the Banks ofi • it cover'd with fine Trees of feveral Sorts.

We had not travell'd above a League, before our Guide gave us to underftand, that he had . forgot a Piece of hard dry'd Skin he had to make him Shoes, which he would go fetch and, return to us, pointing to us with his Hand, which Way we were to go, and telling us we Ihould foon come to a River.

This fudden Change in the Indian was fome-, what furprizing and very much perplex'd us 5 however we held on our Way, and foon came to the River he had mention'd to us, which was very pleafant and deep. We crofs'd it the next Day, on a Sort of Float, which we made with much Toil and Labour, and our Horfes fwam over. Some Time after we were pafled, we faw the Indians coming, who had promifed to bear us Company, and were glad to find our Float, to crofs the fame River, as they did, and proceeded on our Journey all together.

The 4th, 5th and 6Eh, we did the fame, crolTing a very fine Country, but water'd by

^e^iy of u^any Brooks, Streams and Rivers. We found '*'"^* Abundance of wild Goats, Turkeys and other wild Fowl, whereof our Indians kill'd many.

On the 6th, whilft we halted on the Bank of a River to eat, we heard the Tingling of fome


ifjfo NORTH AMERICA- 145

fmall Bells-,which making us look about,we fpy'd ?«//1687 an Indian with a nakedSword-BiaJe in Ills Hand, <yy^^ adorned with Feathers of feveral Colours, and two large Hawks Bells, that cccafion'd the Koife we had heard.

He made Signs for us to come to him, and gave us to underftand, that he was Tent by the Elders of the Village, whither we were going, to meet us, carefling us after an extraordinary Manner. I obferv'd that it was a Spanifh Blade he had, and that he took Pleafure in ringing the Hawks Bells.

Having traveird about half aLeague with bins, we difeover'd a Dozen of other Indians coming Kl"^ P^-i-towards us, who made very much of and con-'^i'"''"' dudted us to the Village, to the Chief's Cottage,* where we found dry'd Bear-Skins laid on the Ground, and they made us fit on them, where we were treated with Eatables, as vvere the Elders after us, and a Throng of Wouica came to fee us.

The 7th, the Elders came to give us a Vifit, bringing us two BullocksHides^four Otters Skins, Frsfcnts, one white V^ild-Goat's Skin, all of them well dry'd, and 4 Bows,in Return for the Prefent we had before made them. The Chief and another came again fome Time after, bringing two Loaves, the finefl: and the befl: we had yet fcen. They look'd as if they had been bak'd in an Oven, and yet we had not obferv'd, that there were Ovens among any of them. That Chief ftay'd with us fome Hours, he feem'd to be very ingenious and difcreet, and ealily underftood our Signs, which vvere raofi: of the Language we had. Having order'd a little Boy to bring us all we had Occafion for, he withdrew.

14^ , MoMpeur de la S A l e'j Second Voyaoe

S'»b ^^^7 Towards the Evening, we were entertain'd j^^^, with aCeremony we had not feen before. ACom-monyof P^ny of Elders, attended by fome young Mea the Pipe, and Women came to our Cottage in a Body, linging as loud as they could roar. The fore-moft of them had a Calumet, fo they call a very long Sort of Tabacco Pipe, adorn'd with feveral Sorts of Feathers. When they had fung a while, before our Cottage, they entered it, ftill finging on, for about a Quarter of an Hour. After that, they took Monfieur Cavelier the Prieft, as being our Chief, led him in folemn Manner out of the Cottage, fupporting him under the Arms. When they were come to a Place they had prepared, one of them laid a great Handful of Grafs on his Feet, two others brought fair Water in an Earthen Dilh, with which they wafh'd his Face, and then made him lit down on a Skin, provided for that Pur-pofe.

When Monfieur Cavelier was feated, the Elders took their Places, fitting round about him, and the Mafter of the Ceremonies fix'd in the Ground two little wooden Forks, and having laid a Stick acrofs them, all being painted red, he placed on them a Bullock's Hide, dryed, a Goat's Skin over that, and then laid the Pipe thereon. ; ,, The Song was begun again, the Women

mixing in the Chorus, and the Concert was heightned by great hollow Calabalhes or Gourds, in which there were large Gravel Stones, to make a Noife, the Indians ftriking on them by Meafure, to anfwer the Tone of the Choir j and the pleafanteft of all was, that one of the Indtans plac'd himfelf behind Monfieur Cavelier to hold




#:^/^ NORTH AMERICA. i47

him up, whilfl at the fame Time he Hiook and SF«^^ dandled him from Side to Side, the Motion ^^^^^^ anfwering to the Muflck.

That Concert was fcarce ended, when the Mailer of the Ceremonies brought two Maids, the pne having in her Hand a Sort of Collar, and the other an Otter's Skin, which they plac'd en the wooden Forks abovemention'd, at the Ends of the Pipe. Then he made them fit down, on each Side of Monfleur Cavelkr^xn fuch a Pof-ture, that they look'd one upon the other, their Legs extended and intermix'd, on which the fame Maflrer of the Ceremonies laid Monlieur Cavelifr's Legs, in fuch Manner, that they lay uppermoft and acrofs thofe of the two Maids.

Whilfl: this Adion was performing, one of the Elders made fall a dy'd Feather to the back Part of Monfieur Cavelier's Head, tying it to his Hair. The Singing ftill continu'd all that Time, fo that Monfieur Cavelier grown weary of its Tedioufnefs, and afham'd to fee himfelf in that Pofture between two Maids, without knowing to what Purpofe, made Signs to us to fignify the fame to the Chief, and having given him to underftand, that he was not well, two of the Indians immediately took hold of him under the Arms, conduced him back to the Cottage and made Signs to him tcr take his Reft. This was about Nine in the Evening, and the /«^<^jfpent all the Might in Singing,infomuch that fome of them could hold out no longer.

In the Morning they return'd to Monfieur Cavelier^ condudted him again out of the Cottage, with the fame Ceremony and made him fit down, ftill finging on. Then the Matter ot the Ceremonies took the Pipe, which he fiird L 2 with

148 Monjieur dc la S A l eV Second Voyage

^uly 1687

Cahaync-houa NH' tion.




with Tabacco, lighted and offered it to Mon-jfieur Cavelier, but drawing back and advancing fix Times before he gave it him. Having at laft put it into his Hands, Monfieur Cavelier made as if he had fmok'd and return'd it to them. Then they made us all fmoke ro^nd, and every one of them whiff 'din his Turn, the Mufick Hill continuing.

About Mine in the Morning, the Sun growing very hot, and Monfieur C^t^eZ/Vr being bare Headed, made Signs that it did him Harm. Then at laft they gave over linging, and conduced him back into the Cottage,took the Pipe, put it into a Cafe, made of a Wild-Goat's Skin, with the two wooden Forks and the red Stick that lay acrofs themi all which one of the Elders offer'd to Monfieur Cavelier, affuring him that he might pafs thro' all the Nations that were ally'd to them by Virtue of that Token of Peace, and Ihould be every where well received. This was the firft Place where we faw the Calu-met, or Pipe of Peace, having no Knowledge of it before, as feme have writ. This Nation is called Cahaynohoua.

This Sort of Ceremoaies being never per-form'd among the/«^/^^^ without the Expeda-• tion of receiving fome Prefent, and we having befides obferv'jd, that fome of them had withdrawn themfelves, with Tokens of Diffatis-faftion» perhaps becaufe we had interrupted their Ceremony, we thought it convenient to give them foraething more, and 1 was appointed to carry them an Ax, four Knives and fome Strings of Beads, with which they were fatif-



We afterwards fliew*d them an Experiment ^u^j'6^7 of our Arms, the Noife and Fire whereof'^-^^V^^J frighted them. They earnellly prefs'd us to ftay with them, offering us Wives and whatfo-ever elfe we fliould want. To be the better qaiiofthera, we promised to return, faying we were going to fetch Commodities, Arms and Tools, which we flood in Need of, that we might afterwards Itay with them, f The pth and loth were fpcnt in Vifits, and we were inform'd by one of the Indians that we were not far from a great River, v.-hich he de-fcribM with a Stick on the Sand, and fliew'd \t had two Branches, at the fame Time pronouncing the Word Caffa, which, as I have faid, is 3 Nation near the Alijfijipi. We then made no longer Qiieftion, that we were near what we had been fo long looking after. We entreated the Elders to appoint Ibme Men tocondudus, promifing to reward them well, which they granted, and we fetoutthe 12th, to the great Sorrow of thofe good People, who had enter-tain'd us fo ccurteoufly.

We travell'd feveral different Ways, which we could never have found, had we wanted The^cur^ Guides,and fo proceeded till on the i2th,one of ^'^yp'^)^-our Guides pretended to be lick, and made '^"^" * Signs that he would go back ^ but obferving, that we feem'd to be no Way concern'd, which we did on Purpofe, he confulted with his Companion, and then came to tell us, he was recovered. We made him eat and fmoke, and continued our Journey the 13th, (inding the Way very bad and difficult^

L 3 Tke

150 - Mofijieur de la S A l eV Second Fojage

'^ulyi6%i The 14th, our Indians^ having feen the Track ^-'"'V^ of Buliocks, fignify'd they would go kill feme, to eat the Flelh, which made us halt for two or three Hours. Whilft we ftay'd for our Hunters, we prepar'd fome Sa^amite, or their Sortof Hafty-Pudding. They return'd loaded with Flefh, Part whereof we drefs'd, and eat it with very good Stomachs. Then we proceeded on our Journey till the i8th, and by the Way kill'd threeBuHocks and twoCows,which oblig'd lis toihalt, that we might make ufe of our Flefli, drying it.