The Night between the 19th and the 20th, one of our Horfes breaking loofe, was either taken away by the Natives, or loft in the Woods. That did not obftrud our Departure, tho' the Lofs was grievous to us, and we held on our Way till the 24th, when we met a Company of Indians^ with Axes, going to fetch Barks S^"^ of Trees, to cover their Cottages. They were Mes. furpriz'd to fee us, but having made Signs to them to draw near, they came, carefs'd and pre/ented us with fome Water Melons they had. They put off their Defign of going to fetch Bark till anotl]er Time, and went along with us, and one off our Guides having gone before in the Morning to give Notice of our coming at the next Village, met with other Parcels of Indians^ who were coming to meet us, and exprefs'd extraordinary Kindnefs.

We halted in one of their Cottages, which they call Defert, becaufe they are in the Mid ft of their Fields and Gardens. There we found feveralWomen who had brought Bread, Gourds, Beans and Water Melons, a Sort of Fruil proper


per to quench Thirfl:, the Pulp of it being no fuiyieS? better than Water. ^ ^^nTV)

We fet out again to come to the Village, and by the Way, met with very pleafmt Woods, in which, there were Abundance offtately Cedars. Being come to a River, that was be- a Oofs by tween us and the Village, and looking over to a Rher the further Side,, we difcover'd a great Crofs, '^^^ ^ and at a fmall Diftance from it, a Houfe, built I'Ji^^^r. after the French Fafhion.

It is eafy to imagine what inward Joy we conceived at the Sight of that Emblem of our Salvation. We knelt down, lifting up our Hands and Eyes to Heaven, to return Thanks to the Divine Goodnefs, for having conducted us fo happilyj for we made no Qiieftion of finding French on the other Side of the River, •and of their being Catholicks, fince they had Crofles.

In ihort, having halted fome Time on the Bank of that River, we fpy'd feveral Canoes making towards us, and two Men cloath'd, coming out of the Hosfe we had difcover'd, who, the Moment they faw us, fir'd each of them a Shot to falute us. An Indian being Chief of the Village, who was with them, had done To before, and we were not backward in returning their Salute, by diicharging all our Pieces.

When we had pafs'd the River, and were all come together, we foon knew each other to be French Men. Thofe we found were the-^^^^^^^i Sieurs Couture Charpantier and de Laun ay, both-' '^^"''' of them of ^e^«, whom Monlieur <?> lonty^Go-vernor of Fort St. Xfir//among the Jfincis. had left at that Pofl-, when he went dovi n the M'f-L 4 * fipp

hrs come 10 the

French Bi' bitxtion.

Who the



Monfieur de la Sal e'^ Second VoyAgs

fifipi to look after Monfr. ^e la Sale-^ and the Nation we were then with, was call'd Jic-cancea.

II is hard to exprefs the Joy concciv'd on both Sides-, oars wasuRfpeakable, for having at la it found, what we had fo earneftly def!rtd,and that the Hopes of returning to our dear Country, was in fome Meafure aflured by thai; happy !^i covery. The others vvere plea fed to fee fiin i^".rr.')ns as might bring them News of that Comrnander, from whom they expecicd the Performance of what he had pro-mis'd them^ but the Account we gave them of Moafr. ^e/<« Sde\ unfortunate Death, was fo affliifting, that it drew Tears from them, and the difiiial Hiftory of his Troubles snd Difa-fters readerM them almoft inconfolabie.

We were conduced to the Houfe, whither all our Baggage was honeftly carry'd by the Indians. There was a very great Throng of thofe People, both Men and Women, which being over, we came to the Relation of the particular Circumftances of our Stories. Ours was dcliver'd by Monfieur Cavelier, whom we honourM as our Chief, for being Brother tohiip, who had been fo.

We were inform'd by them> that they had been Six, fent by Monfr. lonty^ when he re-turn'd from the Voyage he had made down the Colbert or Mijfififi River, purfuant to the Orders fent him by the late Monfr. de la Sale^ at his Departure from France^ and that the faid Sieur Tenty had commanded them to build the aforefaid Houfe. That having never fince re-ceiv'd any News from the faid Monfr. <^ff la


5^/?, Four of them were pone back to Monfr. ^uiyiSS-; Tonty^ at the Fort of the JJlinois. Ky^sT^

In Goncluflon, it was agreed among us, to go away as foon as pofllble, towards the Jjlimis^ and conceal from the Indians^ the Death of Monfieur ^«/4 5^/e, to keep them ftili ia Awe and under Submiflion, vvhilH we went away with the firfl: Ships that (hould happen to fail ivQm CAnadaiov France^ to give an Account at Court of what had happen'd, and to procure Succours. In the mean Time, the Chief of the Laiians camG to invite us to eat. We found Mats laid on the Ground for us to fit on, and all the Village met to fee us.

We gave them to underfland, that we came from Monfieur de la Sale, who had made a Settlement on the Bay of Mexico ^ that we had pafs'd thro' many Kations, which we nam'd, and that we were going to Canada for Commodities, and would retJrn down the Ri^^f *» r-/,,^ 1-that we would bring Men to defend them a- d\ans. * gainft their Enemies and then fettle among them ; that the Nations we had pjfs'd through had appointed Men to guide us, and we defired the fame Favour of them, with fome Canoes and Provifions, and that wc would reward cur Guides and pay for what they furnifii'd us.

The Conveniency of an Interpreter, we then had, gave us the Opportunity of making cur-felves be eafily underftood, and the Chief an-fwer'd to our Propofals, that he would fend Men to the other Villages to acquaint, them without Demands, and to confak with them what was to be done in that Cafe^ that as for the reft, they were ainaz'd at cur having


154 Monfieur de la Sal eV Second Vojage

^M^rifiSj. paTs'd thro' fo many Nations, without having '^•^''VN; heen detain'd, or kill'd, conlidering what a fmall ^ Number we were.

: When the Difcourfe was ended, that Chief caiis'd Meat to be fet before us, as dry'd Flefti, Bread made of Indian Corn of feveral Sorts, and Water Melons ; after which he made us fmoke, and then we return'd to our Houfe, where being eas'd of all thofe Impediments, we gave each other an Account of our Affairs, at Lei-fure, and were inform'd, that thofe People impatiently expefted the Return of Monfieur de la Salc^ which confunvd us in the Refolution of concealing his Death. We obferv'd the Situation of that Poll:, and were made acquainted with the Nature of the Country and the Manners of thofe People, of which I Ihall give the following Remarks.

The Houfe we were then in, was built of Pieces of Cedar laid one upon another, and rounded away at the Corners. It is feated on a fmall Eminency, half a Musket-fhot from the Village, in a Country abounding in all Things. The Plains lying on one Side of it, are ftor'd with Beeves, wild Goats, Deer, Turkeys, Bu-ilards, Swans, Ducks, Teal and other Game. rrodufi of TJie Trees produce plenty of Fruit, and ve-theCoun- ry good, as Peaches, Plumbs, Mulberries, Grapes, and Wallnuts. They have a Sort of Fruit they call Piaguimina^ not unlike our Medlars, but much better and more delicious. Such as live near the Rivers, as that Houfe is, do not want for Filh of all Sorts, and they have Indian Wheat, whereof they make good Bread. There are alfo fine Plains diverfify'd with feveral Sorts of Trees, as I have faid before.


French licufi <^




cca's de fmb'd.


The Nation of the Accancea's confifls of four JuiyieSy Villages. The firft is call'd Otjctchove, near ^^'^'NJ which we were j the fecond Tonman, both of ^r^^y^^ ^c them feated on the River ^ the third Tongin^a-^ rk-Accaa-a'nd the foarth Capfa^ on the Bank of the Mifft- cea's. fipi. Thefe V^illages are built after a different Manner from the others we had feen before, in this Point, that the Cottages, which are alike as to their Materials and Rounding st the Top, are long, and cover'd with the Bark of Trees, and fb very large, that feverai of them can hold tv/o hundred Perfons, belonging to feveral Families.

The People are not fo neat as the CemV, or j/oufhold the Ajfonis in their Hoiifes, for fome of them stu^. lie on the Ground, without any Thing under them but fome Mats, or a drefs'd Hide. How. ever, fome of them have more Conveniencies, but the Generality has not. All their Moveables confift in fome Earthen Veflels and oval wooden Platters, which are neatly made, and with which they drive a Trade.

They are generally very well fhap'd and ships, ;^ adive ^ the Women are hand fome, or at lealt have a much better Prefence than thofe of the other Villages we pafs'd thro' before. They make Canoes all of one Piece, which are well wrought. As for themfelves they are very faithful, good iiaturM, and Warriors like the red. •

The 25th, the Elders being afiembled, came Tko-re-to fee us, and told the Sieur Oi/fwre, that i\{Qy mowy of ths defign'd to fing and dance the Calumet^ or Pipe ^ ripejer-becaufe the others had fung it, fome of them to ^^Z''^ '^^ the late Monfieur de la Sale^ and the reft to (j^V^ Monfieur Tonty^ and therefore it was but rca-fonable they fhould do the fame to get a Firelock,

15'5 Monfieur de la S A l e'j Seconoi Voyaas SrM/;i687 Iqc^ 35 ^eij 35 |.j^^ otliers. Monfieur C^W/fr ^^''"^^'^^^ was inform'd of it, and it wasrequilite tocon-fent to it, to pleafe thofe Indians^ becaufe we ftood in need of them. Cer?mo)iy The Ceremony began with Monfleur Cavelier^ oftkeFipe, yyV,Q ^^5 j^^j under the Arms and feated on a Hide, without the Cottage. The Forks, the Skins laid on it ia Honour of the Pipe,the Singing as loud as they cou'd roar, both by Mea and Women, and all the other Ceremonies were obfervMj as I have mention'd them before j fo that Monfleur Cdvelier being weary of them, he caus'd the Chief to be told, that he was out of Order, and defir'd his Nephew might be put in his Place, which was done accordingly, and they fpent the whole Night in Singing. In the IVIorn-ing they perform'd fome other Ceremonies, doe worth relating.

The Solem.nity being ended, by ^every Man's fmoking of the Pipe, the Indians took il^ with fome Bullocks Hides, and Goats and Otters Skins, and a Collar made of Shells, all which they carry'd to our Houfe, and we gave them a Firelock, two Axes, fix Knives, one hundred Charges of Powder, as much Bail, and fome Strings of Beads for their Wives. The Chief having given Notice of our coming to the other Villages, their Deputies came to fee us ; we en-tertain'd them in the Houfc, and propos'd to them our Dcfigns, as had been done to the Chief. They flood conlidering a While, then held a Sort of Confultation among themfelves, which held not long without talking, and then agreed to grant us what we ask'd, which was a Canoe and a Min of each Village to condud us, upon ^the promis'd Gonfideration, and fb they



went away to the Cottage of the Chief of tlie ?«{yi687. Village. ^v^^-Nj,

The 27th, the Chief and the Elders met a-gain to confult about v;hat we demanded of them*, the Length of the Journey made them apprehenfive for thofe, who were to condu<f^ us; but, at Length, we having difpeil'd their Fears by our Arguments and they having again deliberated fome Time, agreed to our Rc-quelt. We again made them a Prefent, pro-mifing a good Reward to our Guides, and fo we prepared to fet forwards. Little Banhola-mew the Parifian, having intimated to us, that he would willingly ftay in that Houie, bccaufb he was none of the ahleft of Body, we recommended him to the Sieur Couture, We dellr'd thofe that remain'd there, to keep the Secres of Monfr. de la SaWs Death, promised to fend them Relief, left them our Horfes, which were of great Ufe to go a Hunting, and gave them fifteen or (ixteen Pounds of Powder, eight hundred Balls, three hundred Flints, twenty Hk Knives, and ten Axes, two or three Pounds Weight of Beads ^ xVIonfr. Cavelier left them Part of his Linen, hoping we fhould foon be in ^'^ ^°^!^'' a Place where we fliould-^et more ; and all of ^^-J/"""' them having made their Peace with God, by Means of the Sscrament of Penance, we took Leave of them, exceptin;:^ the Sieur Couture^ v/ho went to coiiduft us Part of the Way,

We imbark'd on a Canoe belonging to one of the Chiefs, being at leall twenty Perfons, as well Women as Men, and arriv'd fdkj without any Trouble, at a Village cali'd Toriman^ Totima for we were going down the River. We pro- ^'%-» pos'd it to thefe People, or rather demanded

158 Monfieur de la S A L E'i Second Voyage

^uiy 1687 it of them to confirm what had been granted us ^-"""V^^ by the others, and they referr'd giving us their Anfwer till the next Day ^ for they do Nothing without confulting about it, and we having brought a Sack of hidian Wheat, from the Fref7ch Mens Houfe, defir'd the Chief to caufe Women to pound it, for which we would give 'em Something. Immediately he made a Sign to bis Officers to go call them, and they went as readily.

There were feven or eight of thofe Officers always about him, ftark naked and befmear'd, feme after one Fafhion, and others after another. Each of them had three or four Cala-bafhes or Gourds, hanging at a Leather Girdle officers, about their Waftes, in which there were feve-ral Pebbles, and behind them hung a Horfe's Tail, fo that when they ran, the Gourds made a ratling Noife, and the Tail being born up by the Wind, flood out at its full Length, fo that Nothing could be feen more ridiculous ^ bat it behooved us to take Heed of Ihewing the leaft Smile.

The remaining Part of the Day was fpent

in going with the Sieur Couture to fee the fa-

'^■ff^^r^' tal River fo much fought after by us, called

fourdit Colbert, when firft difcover'd, and Mijfifipi.ox,

lift. Mechajjipi by the Natives that were near us.

It is a very fine River and deep, the Breadth

of it about a Quarter of a League, and the

Stream very rapid. The Sieur Couture affiir'd

us, that it has two Branches or Channels,

which parted from each other above us, and

that we had pafs'd its other Branch, when

we came to the lirfl; Village of the Accanced's^

with which Nation we ItiO were.



The 28th, the Chief and the Elders being.f«0' j^S; aflembled, they granted our Requefts. We ^^^'^"^ were to part, in order to be entertain'd in fe-veral Places, where we took Notice offome particular Ceremonies, v/hich we had not feen among the other Nations. One of them is, ParticuJir that they ferve up their Meat in two or four Ceremo-large Difhes, which are firft ftt down before »^'^f« the two principal Guells, who are at one End, and when they have eaten a little, thofe Dilhes are fliov'd down lower and others are ferved up in their Place, in the fame ?4anner -, fo that the firft Difhes are fcrv'd at the upper End and thruft down lower as others come in.

He who treats, does not fit down with the Company, nor does he eat, but performs the Part of a Steward, taking Care of the Dreffing and of the Placing of the Meat ferv'd up ^ and to the End he may appear the finer, he never fails to befmear himfeif with Clay, or fome red or black Colouring they make ufe of.

The 29th, we fet out from that Village, and imbark'd on two Canoes to crofs the Mijfijipiz The Chief and about a Score of young Folks xonnia-bore us Company to the next Village call'd Ton- ^xxiViUnge vingua^ feated on the Bank of that River, where we were receiv'd m the Chief's Cottage, as we had been in the others. The Elders treated us in their Turns, and the Defcriptions before given will ferve for this Place, there being but little Difference between them and their Neighbours. -.

The 30th, we fet out for Ca^^a^ the laft Vil- v^ihgt lage oii\\t Ac cane en's, eightLeagues diftant from the Place we had left. We were obliged to crofs the River Mijfifip feveral Times in this


i6o Mofifieur de la Sal e'^ Second Voyage

f^^:\^ Way ; becaiife it winds very much, and we ^^^^^^^ had fjmc foul Weather, which made it late before we could reach Cappa. A great Number of Youth came to meet us, fome of them conduced us to the Chiefs Cottage, and others took Care of our Baggage, which was reftor'd to us very honeftly. We found the Elders waiting for us; a great Fire was kindled to dry us, and the Cottage was lighted by fcveral burning Reeds, which they makeufeof inftead of Flambeaus ^ after which we were ferv'd as in other Places.

The srfir, we receiv'd Vifits from the Elders^ Their Difcourfe ran upon the War they defign'd to make, thinking to ingage us in it, and we return'd the fame Anfwer as we had done to the others, that we would foon return with all Things we ftood in Need of. We ask'd a Maa of them, which was granted, and the Day ended inFeafting. !?«.<,.*.•« We would willingly have fet out the Firlt mem given °^ -^ugup-^ but the Chief came and told us, it bythsinii' couM not be, becaufe the Women had not ^»f. pounded our Corn, which however was done \

but they made ufe of that Pretence to oblige us to ilay, and to have Leifure to give us fome Diverfion, after their Manner. Accordingly, about Ten m the Morning, the Warriors and Youth came together to Dance. They were drefsM after their belt Manner, fome of them wearing Plumes of feveral Colours, wherewith they adorn their Heads, others, inftead of Fea-thers>h3d two Bullocks Horns, and were all befmear'd wich Clay, or Black and Red, fothat they really look'd like a Company of Devils or Monlters, and in thofe Figures they danc'd,



as I have defcrib'd it, fpeaking of the other ^ug. 1687 Nations. L/^'^V-»

The Second, we made ready to be going. The Indian given by the firft Village for our Guide, would not go any farther. A Mau» faid to bean Hermaphrodite, offer'd to fupply his Place, faying, he was willing to go to the Iflinois. We took Leiye of the Sieur Couture^ to whom Monfr. Cavelier made an Exhortation, encouraging him ro perfevere and have Patience, in Hopes of the Relief we wou'd fend him, and fo v/e imbark'd on tiie Mtjfifioi in a Canoe, being Nine in Number, that is, five ot tis, and the four Indians that were our Guides. We were oblig'd to crofs that River very often, and no lefs frequently to carry our Canoe and Goods, as well on Account of the Rapidity of the River, and to find it flacker on the one or the other Side of it, which was very troublefome to our Guides, as bccaufc of the little Iflands we met with, which are form'd by the impetuous beating of the Water upon the Banks, that oppofe its Courfe, where the Channels happen not to lie ftrait *, there it waflies away the Earth and bears down great Trees, which in Procefs of Time form little Iflands, that divide the Channel. At Night we incamp'd la one of thofe fmall Iflands, for our greaterSafety,for we were then come into an Machiss-. Enemy's Nation, call'd Machi^amea, which put mti Nath our Indians into great Frights. en-

It is certain our Toil was very great, for we were oblig'd to row in the Canoe, to help our Indians to ftem the Current of the River, be-caufe we were going up, and it was very ftrong and rapid i we were ofcea jseceGicated M to

162 Monfteur de la S a l e'/ Second V'oj^ge

'Mg,i6^l to land, and fometimes to travel over miry ^^^f'^^^r^ Lands, where we funk up half way the Leg ^ other Times over barning Sands, which fcorch'd our Feet,having ho Shoes,or elfe over Splinters of Wood, which ran into the Soles of our Feer> and when we were come to the refting Place, we were to provide Fuel to drefs our ivlear, and provide all Thir;gs for our Indians^ who would not have done fo much as go fetch a Cup of Water, tho' we were on the Bank of the River, and yet we were happy enough in having them.

We proceeded on, continually undergoing the fame Toil, till the Seventh, when, we faw the fiifb Bullock, we had met on our Way, fince our coming among the Accmce^s. The Indians^ who had a great Mind to eat Flefh, made a Sign to me, to go kill it. I purfu'd and Shot, but it did not fall, the Indians ran after, kill'd, and came to tell us it mufl; be parch'd, or dry'd, which was accordingly done. I mult here take Notice of a C^itmony gmx Indians performed, when they came near the Bullock, before they flead him. Cenmony \^ thg fuft Place, they adorn'd his Head aBulJock.^ with fome Swans and Buftards Down, dy'd red, and put fome Tabacco into his Nollrils, and between the Clefts of the Hoofs. When they had flead him, they cutout the Tongue, and put a Bit of Tabacco into its Place j then they ftuck two Wooden Forks into the Ground, laid a Stick acrofs them, on which they placM feveral Slices of the Flefh, in the Kature of an Offering. The Ceremony being ended, vve parch'd or dry'd the beft Parts of the Bealt and proceeded on oar Journey.


/-*/(7 NORTH AMERICA. i6j

The pth, we found the Banks of the River A^. 16S7 very high, and the Earth of them Yellow, Red '-^''Y^ and White, and thither the Natives came ^<^ feverticl furnifh themfelves with it, to adorn their Bo- /o«rj. dies, on Feftival Days. We held on our Way till the 14th, when we met a Herd of Bullocks, whereof we kill'd five, dry'd Part of them, and proceeded till the i8ch.

The 19th, we came to the Mouth of the „ i^ River, call'd Houabache^ faid to come from the che°^/vj* Country of the JroquoiSf towards Nevo England, That is a very fine River, its Water extraordinary clear, and the Current of it, gentle. Our Indians olFer'd up to it, by Way of Sacrifice, feme Tabacco and Beef Steaks, which they fix'd on Forks, and left them on the Bank, to be dii-pos'd of as the River thought fit. We obfeiv'd fome ocher Superftitions among thofe poor Peo» pie, one whereof was as follows. ^

There were fome certain Days, on which indUn they Failed, and we knew them, when aflbon f#. as they awak'd, they befmear'd their Faces and Arms, or other Parts of their Bodies, with a (limy Sort of Earth, or pounded Charcoal \ for that Day they did not eat till Ten or Eleven of the Clock at Night, and before they did eafi they were to wipe off that Smearing, and had Water brought them for that Purpofe. The Occafion of their Fading was, as they gave us to underftjnd, that they might have good Succefs in Hunting, and kill Abundance of Bui-* locks.

We held on our Way till the 25th, when the Indians ftiew'd US a Spring of Salt Water, SiUiTiter-within a Musket Shot of us, and made us go spring. afliore to view k. We obferWd the Ground p -'s-'-i ' M z abouc

A.JOUKNBAi,.- . . .> r .,,.....^rit . . ,


No. 1 Pine street.

Real Estate, StockB, Bonds, &c., at public or prtvat* lie. Out-door sales and sales of furniture at reeidenoM tended to. Houses and stores rented-

a. HKNlUyUES, Auctioneer. BY AL.L,EN <Sc BKUWNi

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WM, C. B

164 Monjieur de la Sal eV Second Voyage

'Jug.xe^^f about it was much beaten by Bullocks Feetj ^^'^'^^^ aad it is likely they love that Salt Water. The" WiliFmt. Country about, was full of Hillocks, cover'd ' with Oaks and Wallnut-Trees, Abundance of Plum-Trees, almofl: all the Plums red and pretty good, befides great Store of other Sorts of Fruits, whofe Names we know not, and among them one Ihap'd like a midling Pear, with Stones iti it as big! as large Beans. When ripe it peels like a Peach, the Tafte is indifferent good, but rather of the Sweeteft.

The 27th, having difcover'd a Herd of Beeves, we went afhore to kill fome \ I fhot a Heifer, which was very good Meat, we put a Board the beft of it. and held on our Way till the Evening, when we encamp'd on an Ifland, where we obferv'd an Alteration in the Humour and Behaviour ot our Indians. This put us under fome Apprehenfion, and the more, for that he who was reckoned an Hermaphrodite, told us, they intended to leave us, which oblig'd us to fecure our Arms and double our Watch during the Kight, for Fear they fliould forfake us.

With that Jealoufy we proceeded on our Journey the 28th and 29th, coafting along the Foot of an upright Rock, about fixty, or eighty Foot high, round which the River glides. Held on the 30th and 31ft, and the firft of Septem^ Miffouris her pafs'd by the Mouth of a River caird Mf-F^ver, . fgurisj whofe Water is always thick, and to which our Indians did not forget to offer Sacrifice. figure 0f The 2d, we yriv'd at the Place, where the a pretend- Figure is of the pretended Monfter fpoken of by UMoHfiir father Marqun, That Monltec conliltsof two



fcurvy Figures drawn in red, on the fiat Sideo^sept^^

a Rock, about ten or twelve Foot high, which ^^f

wants very much of the extraordinary Height

that Relation mentions. However our Indians

paid Homage, by offcriHg Sacrifice to thai

Stone ^ tho' we endeavour'd to give them to

underftand, that the faid Rock had no Manner

of Virtue, and that we worfhipM fomething

above it, pointing up to Heaven •, but it was

to no Purpofe, and they made Signs to us, that

they Ihould die if they did not perform that

Duty. We proceeded, coalting along a Chain

of Mountains, and at length, on the 3d, left ^^''f

the Mtjfifpi, to enter the River of the ip- »''eifi^«^«


We found a great Alteration in that River, as well with Refpeft to its Courfe, which is very gentle, as to the Country about it, which is much more agreeable and beautiful than that about the great River, by Reafon of the many fine Woods and Variety of Fruit its Banks are adorn'd with. It was a very great Comfort to us, to find fo much Eafe in going up that River, by Reafon of its gentle Stream, fo that we all ftay'd in the Canoe and made much more Way. . Indian

Thus we went on till the 8th,without ftcppingV/cjc/.'.-any longer than to kill a Bullock, and one^ of irg raw our Indians, who had a craving Stomach, having •^«-^^' eaten fomc of its Suet hot and raw, was taken very ill, and died of it, as I (hall mention in its Place.

Thepth, we came into a Lake, about half a

League over, which we crofs'd, and returnM

into the Channel of the River, on the Banks

whereof we found feveral Marks of the Natives

M 3 leaving

jjpr. 1687having ijggji incamp'd there, when they came

'"■'^^^tofifhaad dry what they caught. The loth,

we crofsM another Lake, call'd Primitehouy, re-

tarn'd'tothe Ri\rer, and the nth, faw IndUm

before us, incamp'd on the Bank of a River,

whereupon we ftop'd and made ready our

Arms. In the mean Time, one of them came

towards us by Land, and we put on our Canoe

towards him.

When that Indian was near, he flood gazing

Meeting ^^ "^» without fpeaking a Word, and then

roith liW' drawing ftill nearer, we gave him to underftand,

Jiois. that we were fent by Monfieur de la Sale, and

came from him. Then he made Signs to

us, to advance towards his People, whom, he

went before to acquaint with what we had faid

to him, fo that when we were come near them

they fired feveral Shat to falute us, and we an-

fwer'd them with our Firelocks.

After that mutural Salutation, they came into our Canoe, to fignify, they were glad to hear News of Monfieur de la Sale. We ask'd them, What Nation they were of ^ they anfvver'd. They were Iflinois, of a Canton callM Cafcafquia. We enquired whether Monfieur Tonty was at Fort Lewis ^ they gave us to underftand, that he was not, but that be was gone to the War againft the Iroquois. They invited us Afhore, to go with them to eat of fuch as they had, we thank'd them, and they brought us feme Gourds and Water Melons, in Exchange for which, we gave them fome parch'd Ftelh.

Wt had not by the Way taken Notice of a Canoe, in which was a Man with two Women, who, being afraid of us, had hid them-


felves among the Reeds, bat that Man feeing us ■^^pft'^Sj flop among his Countrymen, took Heart, cime ^-^"VN-* to us, and having told us, that he belong'd to a Village near Fort Lewis, we fet out together, and one of owr Indians went into that Canoe, to help them to (hove, fo they call the Way of pufhing on the Canoe with Poles inftead of rowing.

On Sunday, iht 14th of September, about two Fort Levin the Afternoon, we came into the Neigh- '^' dmovg^ bourhood of Fort Lewis, Drawing near, vvc* *^^^ ^^^''^°^* were met by fome Indians that were on the Bank, who having view'd us well, an^ under-ftanding we came from Monfr. de la Sale, and that we belong'd to him, ran to the Fort to carry the News, and. immediately we faw a French Man come out, with a Company of Indians, who fir'd a Volley of feveral Pieces, to fa-lute us. Then the French Man drevy near, and defir'd us to come Aftiore, which we did, leaving only one in the Canoe, to take Care of our Baggage^ for the Iflinois are very (harp at carrying off any thing they can lay their Hands on, and confequently, nothing near fo hojiefc as the Nations we had pafs'd thro\

We all walk'd together towards the Fcrr, and found ihx&t French Men coming to meet us, and among them a Clerk, who had belong'd to Arrival at the late M.oni!v. de la Sale. They immediately FonLtm% ask'd us, where Monfr. de la Sale was, we told them, he had brought us Part of the Way, and left us at a Place about forty Leagues beyond the Cenis, and that he was then in good Heakho All that was true enough • for Monfr, Cavelier and I, who were thePerfons, that then fj^oke., were noi prefent at Monfr. ds la SaU's Death; M 4 ^ ^

168 Monfteur de la Sal e'^ Second Vcyage

Si!pt.i6%'j he was in good Health when he left us, and I ^-^^'"^^^"^ have told the Reafons we had for concealing his Death, till we came into France.

It is no lefs true, that Father jinASiafiusl and he they called Teifter^ could have given a better Account, the one as an Eye Witnefs, and the other, as one of the Murderers, and they were both with us \ but to avoid lying, they faid Nothing. We farther told them, we had Orders to go over into France^ to give aa Account of the Difcoveries made byMonfieur ds la Sale^ and to procure the fending of Succours. At length, we enter'd the Fart, where we found and furpriz'd feveral Perfons who did not expedt us. All the Frenjh were under Arms lecep'm. and made feveral Difcharges to welcome us. Monfieur de Belle Fontaine Lieutenant to Monfr. Tonty^ was at the Head of them and complimented us. Then we were conduced to the Chappel, where we return'd Thanks to God, from the Bottom of our Hearts, for having preferv'd and conduced us in Safety j after which we had our Lodgings aflign'd us, Monfr. Cavelier and Father jinafiafius had one Cham* ber, and wc were put into the Magazine, or Ware-houfe. All this While, the Natives came by Intervals^ tb fire their Pieces, to ex' prefs thfir Joy for our Return, and for the iSIews we brought of Monlieur de la Sale^ which refrelh'd our Sorrow for his Misfortune ', perceiving that his Prefence would have fettled all Things adyantageoufly.

The Day after our Arrival, one of the ///-dtans^ whohad conduifled us, having been, fick ever finjpc he eat the ra\(V Beef Suet, 1 mention'd before,-iH^d3 and his Companions took away



and bary'd him privately. We gave them the^j promis'd Reward, and the Part belonging to w/^VN^. the Dead Man, to be deliver'd to bis Relations. They ftay'd fome Time, in the Fort, during the which, we took extraordinary Care ot them, and at lafl: they return'd to their own Homes.

As far as we could gather by half Words dropp'd there by one or other at the Fort, Something had been done there prejudicial to the Service of Monfr. de U SaU^ and againft his Authority, and therefore fome dreaded his Return, but more efpecially a Jefuit was in great Confternation. He was lick, Monfieur Cavelitr, Father Anaftafius and I went to vifit him. He enquired very particularly ot all Point?, and could not conceal his Trouble, which we would not feem to take Notice of.

Our Defign being to make the belt of our Way to Canada^ in Order to fet out Aboard the firft French ^\\\^% that fliould SjH i(^v France^ we enquired how we were to proceed, and met with ieveral Difficulties. The Navigation on that River was very dangerous, by Reafon of *^/^^^' the Falls there are in it, which mufl be care- ^^^' fully avoided, unlefs a Man will run an inevitable Hazard of perilhing. There were itw Perfons capable of managing that Affair, and the War with the Iroquois made all Men a-fraiJ.

However the Sieur Boifrondet^ Clerk to the late Monfr. de la Snle^ having told us he had a Canoe, in which he defign'd to go down toCanada^ we prepared to make ufe of than Opportunity. Care was taken to gather Prc-


Falls in the

170 Monjteuy de la S A L eV SecondVojags

Sepi.i6?jj vifions for our Voyage, to get Furs to barter as '^'■^'^y^ wepafsM by Aficilimaquinay. The Vifits of two Chiefs of Nations,call'd Cafeafquia Pergueria and Cacahouanou.t d'lfcov^r'^d by the late Monfieur^e U Sals^ did not interrupt our Affairs, and all thing,s being got ready, we took Leave of thofe we left in the Fort. Monfieur Cavelier writ a Letter for Monfieur Tonty, which he left there to be delivered to him, and we repair'd to the Lake to imbark.

It would be needlefs to relate all the Troubles and HardJhips we met with, in that Journey, it was painful and fruitlefs, for having gone to the Bank of the Lake, in very foul Weather, after waiting there five Days, for that '31. Cave- foul Weather to ceafe, and after we had Iier,C^f. imbark'd, notwithftanding the Storm, we were '/«»r"»i oblig'd to put Afhorc again, to return to the again. Place where we had imbark'd, and there to dig a Hole in the Earth, to bury our Baggage and Provifions, to fave the Trouble of carrying them back to Fort Lewis^ whither we leturn'd and arrived there the 7th of O^o^er; where they were furpriz'd to fee us come back.

Thus were we oblig'd to continue in that Fort all the reft of Autumn and Part of the Winter^ to our great Sorrow, and not fo much for our own Difappointment, as for being, by that Means, obllrui^ed from fending of Succours, as foon as we had expefted, as well tothefaid Fort, as to thofe French of our own Company, whom we had left on the Coalt of the Bay of Mexico^


It was then the good Seafon for (hooting. ^^- "^^7 Thofe Gentlemen at the Fort had fecur'd two Ky^^^. good/«<^/^« Sportfmen, whenever let us want for Wild Fowl of all Sorts; befides we had good Bread, and as good Fruit, and had there been any Thing to drink befides Water, we had far'd well. The Leifure we had during our Stay there, gave me an Opportunity .of making the following Reniirks, as well of my own Ob-fervation, as wkatl learn'd of the French re-liding there.

Fort Lewis is in the Country of the Jjllnois . . and feated on a deep Rock, about two hundred ,J„g£,yf Foot high, the River running at the Bottom of Lewis^wi it. It is only fortified with Stakes and Palifades, theCoumry and fome Houfes advancing to the Edge of the About iu Rock. It has a very fpacious Erfplanade, or Place of Arms. The Place is naturally ftrong, and might be made fo by Art, with little Ex-pence. Several of the Natives live in it, in their Huts. I cannot give an Account of the Latitude it ftands in, for Want of proper Inftru-raents to take an Obfervation, but Nothing can be pleafanter ^ and it may be truly affirm'd, that the Country of the Iflinois enjoys all that can make it accomplifh'd, not only as to Ornament, but alfo for its plentiful Production of , all Things requifite for the Support of humaa Life.

The Plain, which is water'd by the River, is beautified by two fmall Hills, about half a League diflant from the Fort, and thofe Hills are cover'd with Groves of Oaks, Walnut-Trees and other Sorts I have named elfevvheie. The Fields are full of Grafs, growing up very j^^^^ high. On the Sides of the Hills is found a aayfoT . . gravelly isw^&c.

172 Monfieur de la S a l eV Second Voyage

CB. 16S7 gravelly Sort of Stone, very fit to make Lime Sy^V^^ for Building. There are alfo many Clay Pits, fit for making ot Earthen Ware, Bricks and Tiles, and along the River there are Coal Pits, the Coal whereof has been try'd and found very good. Mmet. There is no Reafon to queftion, but that

there are m this Country, Mines of all Sorts of Metals, and of the richeft, the Climate being the fame as that o{Nem Mexico, We faw feve-ral Spots, where it appeared there were Iron Mines, and found fome Pieces of it on the Bank of the River, which Nature had cleanfed. Travellers who have been at the upper Part of the Mijfifipi, affirm they have found Mines there, ot very good Lead. Troiu[t. That Country is one of the mofl: temperate in the World, and confequently whatfoever is fow'd there, whether Herbs, Roots, Indian and even European Corn thrives very well, as has been try'd by the Sieur Boifrondet^ who fowM of all Sorts, and had a plentiful Crop, and we eat of the Bread, which was very good. And whereas we were allured, that there were Vines which run up, whofe Grapes are very good and delicious, growing along the River, it is reafonable to believe, that if thofe Vines were tranfplanted and prun'd, there might be very good Wine made of them. There is alfo Plenty of wild Apple and Pear Trees, and of feveral other Sorts, which would afford excellent Fruit, were they grafted and tranfplanted.

All other Sorts of Fruit, as Plumbs, Peaches and others, wherewith the Country abounds, would become exquilite, if the fame Indultry



were us'd, and other Sorts of Fruit we have in <^^- 1687 France would thrive well, if they were carry'd »>''V"^ over. The Earth produces a Sort of Hempi whereof Cloth might be made and Cordage.

As for the Manners and Cuftoms of the/y?/- ^f"f'' ttets, in many Particulars they are the lame as ^^^^ ^ thofe of the other Nations we have feen. They the ifli-arc naturally fierce and revengeful, and among nois. them the Toil of Sowing, Planting, carrying of Burdens, and doing all other Things that y^'omen do belong to the Support of Life, appertains pe- ail ubour. culiarly to the Women. The Men have no 0-ther Bufinefs but going to the War and hunt-ingj and the Women muft fetch the Game when they have kill'd it, which fometimes they are to carry very far to their Dwellings, and there to pareh, ordrefs it any other Way.

When the Corn or other Grain is fow'd, the Women fecure it from the Birds till it comes up. Thofe Birds are a Sort of Starlings, like ours in France, but larger and fly in great Swarms,

The IJlinois have but few Children, and are ChiWem extreamly fond of them % it is the Cuftom a-mong them, as well as others I have mentioned, never to chide, or beat them, but only to throw Water at them, by Way of Chaftife-ment.

The Nations we have fpoken of before, zxt Th'uvivg. not at all, or very little, addifted to Thieving; but it is not fo with the IJlinois^ and ii Dt ^^ves every Man to watch their Feet as 7^e;l as their Hands, for they know how to turn any Thing out of the Way moft dexteroufly. They are fubjed to the general Vice of all the other Indians^ which n to boaft very much of their ^°*i^^"Z*


174 Monjieur de la S A l e'^ Second Voyngs

oB. 1687. WarlikeExploits,aBd that is the main Subjed of ^-^'^''^^^ their Difcourfe, and they are very great Lyars. Care of the They pay a Refpedl to their Dead, as ap-JJead, pears by their fpccial Care of burying them, and even of putting into lofty Coffins the Bodies of fuch 35 are confiderable among them, as their Chiefs and others, which is alfo pradifed a-mong the Accancea^s^ but they differ in this Particular, that the Accancea^s weep and make their Complaints for fome Days, where-^s the Cha-houmous and other People of the I(linois Nation do jaft the Contrary ^ for when any of them die, they wrap them up in Skins, and then put them into Coffins made of the Barks of Trees, then fing and dance about them for twenty four Hoars. Thofe Dancers take Care to tie Cala-bafties, or Gourds about their Bodies, with fome Wi4«Wheat in them,to rattle and make aNoife, and fome of them have a Drum, made of a great Earthen Pot, on which they extend a wild Goat's Skin, and beat thereon with one Stick, like our Tabors. Trefems to During that Rejoicing, they throw their Pre-iheDuL fents on the Coffin, as Bracelets, Pendants, or Pieces of Earthen Ware, and Strings of Beads, encouraging the Singers to perform their Duty well. If any Friend happens to come thither aE that Time, he immediately throws down his Pre-fent and falls a finging and dancing like the reft. When that Ceremony is over, they bury the Body, with Part of the Prefents, making choice of fuch as may be moft proper for it. They alfo bury with it, fome Store of Indian Wheat, with a Pot to boil it in, for fear the dead Petfon fliould be hungry on his long Journey \



and they repeat the fame Ceremony at the ^^'?- »<^^7-Year's End. ^>or^i

A good Number of Prefcnts Hill remaining, Q^^g of they divide them into feveral Lots, and play at thsstji^, a Game, call'd of the Stick, to give them to the Winner. That Game is play'd, taking a fliort Stick, very fmooth and greas'd, that it may be the Harder to hold it faft. One of the Elders throws that Stick as far as he can, the young Men run after it, fnatch it from each other, and at laft, he who remains poiTefs'd of it, has the fir ft Lot. The Stick is then thrown again, be who keeps it then has the fecond Lot, and fo on to the End. The Women, whofe Husbands have been (lain in War, often perform the fame Ceremony, and treat the Singers and Dancers whom they have before invited.

The Marriages of the Iflinois laft no longer, ^Arnaizs than the Parties agree together ^ for they freely part after aHuntingBout, each going which Way they pleafe, without any Ceremony. However, the Men are jealous enough of their Wives, and when they catch them in a Fault, they generally cut of their Nofes, and 1 faw one who had been fo ferv'd.

Neverthelefs, Adultery is not reckonM any Aiitltny. great Crime among them, and there are Women who make no Secret of having had to do with French Men. Yet are they not fufficiently addided to that Vice to offer themfelves, and they never fall, unlefs they are fued to, when, they are none of the moft difficult in the W orld to be prevaii'd on. The reft i leave to thofe who have liv'd longer there than I.


OS. 1687. We continu'd fome Time in Fort Lewis^ "^"^^"^ without receiving any News. Our Bufinefs was, after having heard Mafs, which we had j&bw the the good Fortune to do every Day^ to divert Jly^/"''^ our fclves the beft we could. The Indian Women daily brought in fomething frelh, we wanted not for Water Melons, Bread made of /«-Man Corn, bak'd in the Embers, and other fuch Things, and we rewarded them with little Pre-fents in Return. M T ntv ^^ ^^^ ^'^^^ °^ OSiober^ of the fame Year, comes^to Monfieur Torjty return'd from the War with FortLe- t\\t Iroquois. Our Embraces and the Relation wis. of our Adventures were again repeated •, but ftill concealing from him , the Death of Monfieur de U Sale. He told us all the Particulars of that War, and faid, That the/ro^Mwj Wirroitb ^*^^"S g^^ Intelligence of the March of the the Iro. French Forces and their Allies, had all come out quoij. of their Villages and laid therafelves in Am-bu(h by the Way \ but that having made a fiid-den and general Difcharge upon our Men, with their ufual Cries, yet without much Harm done, they had be^n repuls'd with Lofs, took their Flight, and by the Way burnt all their own Villages. That Monfieur d* Hcmonville^ chief Governor of New France^ had caus'd the Army to march, to burn the reft of their Villages, fet Fire to their Country and Corn, but would not proceed any farther. That afterwards he had made himfelf Mafter of feveral Canoes belonging to the £«^/^jJ;, moflof them laden with Brandy, which had been plunder'd i that the BngUfj had been fent Prifoners to Montreal^ they being come to make fome Attempt upon the Iflinois,



We continued after this Manner, till the Dec.i6Sf. Month of December^ when two Men arrived, L/V^i^ from Montreal. They came to give Notice to Monfr. Tonty^ that three Canoes, laden with Merchandize, Powder, Ball and other Things, were arriv'd at CbicMgon, that there being too little Water in the River, and what there was being frozen, they could come down no lower ^ fo that it being requifite to fend Men to fetch thofe Things,* Monfr. Tonty de-fir'd the Chief of the Chahouaneus to furnifh him with People. That Chief accordingly provided forty, as well Men as Women, who ^tt oat with fome French Men. The Honefty of the ChAhouanous was the Reafon of preferring them before the IJlmois^ who are naturally Knaves.

That Ammunition and the Merchandize were feb. i6S8." foon brought, and very feafonably, the Fort being then in Want. We ftay'd there till the Bj^^ o{ February^ 1688, at whicji Time we fix'd our Refolution to depart, tho' we had no News from Canada J as we expeded. We found there were fome Canoes ready to undertake that Voyage, and we laid hpld of that Opportunity to convoy each other to the MicUima^ t^uinay^ where we hop'd to meet fome News from Canada,

Monfieur Cavelier the Priefl:, had taken Care, before the Death of M. de U Sale^ his Brother, to -^^r.idSS get of him a Letter of Credit,to receive either a Sum of Money or Furs in the Country of the Jflinois. He tender'd that Letter to M. Tomy^ who believing M. de la Sale was ftill alive, made no Difficulty of giving him to the Value of about 4000 Livres in Furs, Caftors and Otter Skins, a Canoe afid other Effects, for which, the faid N Moafr*

178 Monfieur de la S a l e'^ Seconei Foyags

jMjr.1688 Monfr. Cavelier gave him his Note, and we pre-V^/^^ par'd for our Journey.

I have before obferv(jd, that there was a Je,* fuit^ whofe Name was Dalouez at Fort Lewis^ ancf who had been very much furpriz'd to hear that Monfr. ete la Sale was to come in a fliort Time, being under great Apprehenfions on Account of a Confpiracy intended to have been carry'd on, againft Monfr. de la Salens Intereft. That Father perceiving our Departure was fixM, mov'd firft, and went away foremolt, to return to Micilimaquinay •, fo that they were left without a Prieft at Fort Lewis^ which was a great Trouble to us, becaufe we were the Occafion of it, and therefore thofe, who were to remain in the Fort, anticipated the Time, and made their Eafier, taking the Advantage of the Prefence of F. Anafiafius and M. Cavelier. At length, vvefetout the 2Uh of Afarch^ ^ , from Fort Lewis, The Sieur Boifrondety wlio was xsntimtL defirous to return to France., join'd us, we im-bark'd on the River, which was then become navigable, and before we had advanc'd five Leagues, met wjth a rapid Stream, which oblig'd us to go Afliore, and then again into the Water, to draw along our Canoe. I had the Misfortune to hurt one of my Feet againft a Rock that lay under Water, which troubled me very much for along Time-, and we being under a Necelfity of going often into the Water, 1 faffer'd extreamly, and more than I had done fince our Departure from the Gulph oiAdexico. We arrivM at Chicagon the 29th oij^fyrch, and our firft Care was to go feek vvh^Vve had conceal'd at our former Voyage, having, as lyas there faid, bury'd our Luggage and Provi-J , " V fions..



Cons. We found it bad been open'd, and feme ^'^^^^ Furs and Linen taken away, almoft all which be- <-^^ ^^^ long'd to me. This had been done by a hench Man, whom M. Tonty had fent from the Fcrr, during the Winter Seafon, to know whether there were any Canoes at Chicagon^ and whom he had direfted to fee whether any Body had medled with what we had conceal'd, and he made Ufe of that Advice to rob us.

The bad Weather oblig'd us to ftay in that Place, till ^pril. That Time of Reft was advantageous for the Healing my Foot -^ and there being but very little Game in that Place, we had Kothing but our Meal or Ifidian Wheat to feed on ^ yet we difcover'd a Kind of Manna^ which was a great Help to us. It was a Sort of Trees, ^^^-"f^^-refemblingourMaple,in which we made Inci- -^IJ^^^^^ lions, whence fiow'd a fweet Liquor, and in it we boil'd our Indian Wheat, which made it delicious, fweet and pfa very agreeable Reiifb.

There being no Sugar-Canes in that Country* thofe Trees fupply'd that Liquor, which being boilM up and evaporated, turned into a Kind of Sugar fomewhat browniih, hue very good. In the Woods we found a Sort of Garlick, not fo ftrong as ours, and fmall Onions very like ours in Tafte, and fomeCharvel of the fame Re^ lilh as that we have, bat different in the Leaf.

The Weather being fomewhat mended, we imbarkM again and entered upon the Lake on the $th of April, keeping to the North Side to (hun the Iroquois. We had fome Storms alfoj Quineto-and faw fweUing Waves like thofe of the Sea ^ n^aRlveu but arriv'd fafe the 15th at a River call'd Qui-mtonan, near a Village whence, the Inhabicaiics depart during the Winter Seafon, to go a, and reUde there all the Samsner,'

180 Monfieur de la S k l e'^ Second VoyAge

jpr. 1688 xhe Sport is not there as in thofe Countries ^''^^"^^^^^ from whence we came^ but on the Contrary, very poor, and we found Nothing but fome very lean Wild Goats, and even thofe very rarely, becaufe the Wolves, which are very numerous there, make great Havock of them, taking and devouring great Numbers after this Manner.

When the Wolves Iftve difcover'd a Herd //flTO of Wild Goats, they roufe and fet them a run-Wolves ning. The Wild Goats never fail to take to catchGoats ^he firfl: Lake they meet with. The hunting Wolves, who are ufed to that, guard the Banks carefully, moving along the Edges of them. The poor Goats being pierc'd by the Cold of the Lake,grow weary and fo get out,or elfe the Pviver fwelling forces them out with its Waves, quite benumm'd,ro that they are eafily taken by their Enemies, who devour them. We frequently fdw thofe Wolves watching along the Side of the Lake, and kept off to avoid frightning them, to the End the Wild Goats might quit their Sanduary, that we might catch fome of them, as it fometimes fell out.

The 28th, we arriv'd among the Toutouatan'

Pou'oua- jjIs^ which is half Way to /Mcilimaquinay^ where

tanni Ni- ^^ pujchas'd fomc Indian Corn for the reft of

"""* our Voyage. We found no News there from

Ahntreal^ and were forc'd to flay fome Time to

wait an Opportunity to go down the River.

No Man daring to venture, becaufe of the

War with the Iroquois.

There are fome French Men in that Place, Hurons g^jj f^^jj. jefuits, who have a Houfe well built hut>?« ^ with Timber, inclofed with Stakes and N^m, Palifidcs, There are alfo feme Nurons


^•;;/(jNORTH AMERICA. i8i

and Outahouacs^ two Neighbouring Nations, ^^'^y 1685 whom thofe Fathers take Care to inftrudl, not ^-/"V^^ without very much Trouble, thofe People being downright Libertines, and there are very often none but a few Women in their Churches. Thofe Fathers have each of them the Charge of inftrudinga Nation, and to that Effed have tranflated the proper Prayers into the Language peculiar to each of them, as alfo all other Things relating to the Gatholick Faith and Religion.

They offer'd Father Anafiafws and Monfleur 5F«»"688 Cavelier a Room, which they accepted of, and we took up our Lodging in a little Hovel fome Travellers had made. There we continued the reft oi May and Part of June, till after the Feail of Whitfontide. The Natives of the Country aboutjtill the Land and fow India?t Corn, Melons and Gourds, but they do not thrive fo well as in the Country we came from. However they live on them, and befides they have Fifh they catch in the Lake, tor Fielh is very fcarce among them.

On the 4th o{June, there arriv*d four Canoes, commanded by iVTonfieur dePomeuf^coming from Montreal, and bringing News from the Marques d' Hennonville, and Orders to fend to the Settlements which were towards the Lake des Puans and others higher up, towards the Source of the River Colbert, to know the Poflure and Condition of Affairs. We prepar'd to be gone with the two Canoes. Monfieur Cavelier bought another, to carry our Baggage, and left Part of his Furs with a Merchant, who gave him a Note to receive Money at Momre/tl. I did the fame with thofe few Furs I had, the reH of them having been left at Mtalimaquifiay^ .We

182 Monfieur de la S a L eV Second Vojdge

fuiy 168S We took Leave of the Jefuits, and fet out la '-/V^ four Canoes, viz. two belonging to Monlieur de Forfieuf^ and two to Monfieur Cavelier^ one of which had been brought from Fort Lewis^ and the other bought, as I have juft now faid, we being twenty nine of us in thofe four Canoes. We row'd on til] the 24th, when Monfieur de Fornevf left US to go to St. Maryh Fall, to carry the Orders given him. The 2$th, we got iQInois out of the Lake of the Jflinois^ to enter that of ai^d Hu- the Hurom^ on the Banks whereof ftands the *'^°^" Village, call'd Teffalon, where Monfieur de Tor^ muf came again to us, with a Canoe of the Natives, and with him we held on our Way. French We proceeded to Chebonatjy the 30th of June, Xtver. and the 3d of July, enter'd the French River, where we were forc'd feveral Times to carry cur Canoes to avoid the Falls and the rapid Streams, obfcrving as we went a barren and dry Country, full of Rocks, on which there grew Cedars and Fir Trees, which take Root in the Clefts of thofe Rocks. Kipscin- The 5th, we enter'd upon the little Lake of £ue uke, Nipiclngue, adjoining to a Nation of that Name. We got out of it again and enter'd upon the J great River, where, after having pafs'd the

great Fall, we arriv'd the 13th, at the Point of the Ifland of Montreal. We landed at a Vil-JrrivaJat ^^S^ call'd la Chine, which had belong'd to the ^dontreal late Monfr de la Sale. Monfr, Cavelier fet out the 14th, for Montreal, where we came to him the 17th.

At Montreal we found the Marques d^ Hen->^ nonville^ Monfieur de Noroy the Iniendant and

i;?/d>NORTH AMERICA. i8|

other Gentlemen, to whom we gave an Account ^«j?.»688 of our long and painful Travels, with the Par- Vy^V*\/ ticulars of what we had feen, which they lifl:-ned to with Satisfaftion, but without mentioning Monfieur de la Sale's Death. We told them the Occallon of "our going over into France^ and they approv'd of it, being of Opinion with us, that we ought to haften our Departure as much as poflible.

We made us fome Cloaths, whereof we ftood in Need. The Sieur Teijfier, who came along with us, and was of the Reform'd Religion, knowing the Exercife of it was forbid ia Francey abjur'd it in the great Church oi Montreal.

The 27th, we went aboard a Bark to go down Arrhiiit, the River to Quebec.^ where we arrived the 29th, Q^cbcck Father Anafiafius carry'd us to the Monaftery of the Fathers of his Order, feated half a League from the Town, on a little River, where we were uioft kindly recciv'd by the Father Guardian and the other Religious Men, who exprefsM much Joy to fee us, and we ftill more for being in a Place of Safety, after fo many Perils and Toils, for which we returned our humble Thanks to Almighty God, our Pro-teftor.

We chofe rather to take up our Lodging there than in the Town, to avoid the Vifits and troublefome Queftions every one would be putting to us with much Importunity, which we muft have been obligM to bear patiently. Monfieur Cavelier and his Nephew, whom we had left at Montreal, arrivM fome Days after ns, and were lodg'd in the Seminary.

184 Mortfteur de la Sal e'^ Second Voyage

'Jug.\6%S. We ftay'd in that Monaftcry till the 21ft oi ^^'W^ j4ugufi, whea we imbark'd on a large Boat, eighteea Perfons of us, to go down the River of St. Laurence^ a Board a Ship, that was taking in and fifhing of Cod. We went a Board it the 30th of the fame Month, and after hearing Mafs, made ready and fail'd for our dear Country, arrfv'd fafe at Rochelle on Saturday the pth of 05iober i588, whence, fecting out by Land, the 15th, the fame Providence, which had proteded and condu(!l:ed us, brought us without any Misfortune to Roan^ the 7th of O^O" hr, the fame Year.

The End «/ f ^? J O U R N A L:

The Rem aimer of the'LETTER, written

by him who revised this Journal, the other Part whereof is at the Begi?3ni»g cf it, this being the Sequel to the faid Journal;

Note, TP H R E E feveral Authors have given aa That thefe JL Account of this Voyage *, Firfi^ Father bive vfrit le Clerk, upon the Relations he had from the of thofe Fathers Zenobius an^ Anaftafius^ Recolets, as mne*Jf^^ he was himfelf and both of themEye-Witnefles: tbh par- Secondly^ The ChcvaMer Tonty^ who was alfo a $icuiar Witnefs to a confiderable Part of thofe Adven-^•y-fg^* tures : And, Laftly, Father Hemepn, a FUm'-



hiing^ of the lame Order of the Reeolets, has done it more largely, he feems to be well acquainted with the Country, and had a great iihare in thofe Difcoveries; but the Truth of his Relations is much controverted. It was he who went to the Northward, and towards < the Source of the Mijfifipl^whkh he c^Ws Mecha' ■ fipi, and who printed, at Paris^ an Account of the Country about the River, giving it the i^iame o( Louifiana. He ought to have ftopp'd there, and not to have gone, as he did, into Holland, to fet forth another Edition, very much e;ilarg'd,and perhaps not fo true,which he dedicated to William the Third, Prince of Orange^ and afterwards King of Great Bri^ tAin. An Adion tor a Religious Man no lefs ridiculous than extravagant, Dot to give it a worfe Name \ for after many great and tedious Encomiums given thafi Proteilant Prince, be exhorts and conjtjres him to turn his Thoughts towards thofc vafb Countries, as yet unknown, to conquer them and lend Colo' nies thither, to make known to thofe Savage Nations the true God and his Worlhip, ajpd to preach the Gofpel. That good Religious Man, whom many have falfly tliought, on Account of that Extravagancy, to have renounc'd his Religion, did not coniider what he faid, and confcquently has fcandaliz'd the Catholicks, and turnilh'd the Hugomts with Matter of Laughter jfor is it likely,that they bcingEnemies to the Roman Church, would employ Reeolets to go preach yp Popery,^s they call it in Canada ? Or would they introduce any other Religioa than their own ? Can Father Hennepn be ex-cufeable in this Point?


iZ6 Monjteur de la S a l eV Second Voyage

In fine it appears, by all that has been wrifi by thofe feveral Perfons concerning that Ea-terprize, that the Murder committed on the Perfon of Monfieur de U Sale was the Occafion of its mifcarrying \ but that which obftrufted the making of feme Provifion in that Cafe was, the faid Murders being conceal'd for the Space of two Years, and that the Spaniards of Mexico having been informed of all the Affair, fent Sai-'^f l^ Men, who carry'd off the weak Garrifon Mon-

taien by ^^"'' ^^ ^'^ ^'^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ '" ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^V

rftfSpani- him, near the Place of his Landing, before he ards. penetrated into the Country, to find out the Mijft/ipi. They alfo entirely raz'd that Fort, fo that Seven or Eight Years elaps'd, till Monfieur de Hiberville^ a Gentleman of Canada^ and a Perfoa of Capacity and Courage, famoas for his notable Exploits in Hudfon's Bay and other Parts, refolv'd to reaffume and revive that Pro-je£t. He came over into France M^on that De-lign, and made an Armament about the Year 1698, fet out and fail'd to the Gulf of Mexico. M.delli- Being an able Seaman, he fearch'd along the ^^^^eiition ^°^^ ^® narrowly, that he found the Mouth SJ^Lm?- of that fml Miji/ipi and built a Fort on it, fifipi. leaving Men there, with a good Quantity of Ammunition and Provifions, and return'd to France^ intending to go back with a Reinforce-Bient, as he did, and having penetrated far into the Country, difcover'd feveral Savage Nations, and join'd Friendfliip and Alliance with them, as alfo built another Fort| which he left well ftor'd with Men and Neceffaries, returnM into France ♦, but attempting a third Voyage, he dy'd lay the Way, and thus, for want of Relief and



Support, that noble Enterprize mifcarry'd again.

But God has now provided for it, and it is the Concern of Heaven, for if France is inte-refted on Account of the Temporal Advantages it expcds, the Church is fo in like Manner, for the Converfion of the Indians it hopes will follow. Accordingly, Providence has takea the Affair in Hand, having rais'd the Man, who is the fittelt to revive and fupport fo important a Projed^. This is Monfieur Crozat^ Secretary to the King, a Man of fingular Worth, very Intelligent, Well-meaning, and prodigioufly Rich, who without going out of his Clofet, has been the Occafion of many notable Voyages by Sea, and all of them fuccefs-ful. To him, his Majefty, by his Letters Patent, bearing Date the 14th of Septemb. 1712. has granted the fole Power to trade and fettle f„'i^l^^ Colonies in the Countries defcrib'd in this piJjf ^Ij^, Journal, and which are known to us by the rites and I^ame of Louifuna and the River Mijftjtpiy from ^''^'^5 ?" hence forward to be call'd the River of St. Lewis, Louifiana. The Grant is made to him for 15 Years, under feveral Conditions mention'd in the faid Letters Patent, which have been made publick.

And whereas fuch a Grant cannot fabfi|fc without Blacks, he is alfo allow'd to fend a Ship to Guinea to purchafe them. They may perhaps find there the famous Black AniAga^ Brother to a King of Guinea^ whom Captaia Velbee brought over into France^ above Thirty Years ago. The King was pleased to have him Educated, Inftrufted and Baptiz'd, the Dauphin being his G(!^fatheri then put him into his Troop of Mufquetiers, and afterwards made


iS8 Monpeur de la S A L eV Second. Voyags

hinr a Captain in his own Regiment, where he fetv'd Honourably. Being defiroas to fee his own Country again, where he promisM to promote the French Trade, and the fettling of Mif-'AT^'iici fioners, his Majefty loaded him with Pre-Ifti in fents, and order'd a Ship to carry hira back to France Guinea ; but as foon as he was there, he no lon-^/"■^''r" S^*" ^^n^^niber'd he had been baptiz'd, and ^ms! "' tui'^'d again as perfect a Black, as he had been before. A Friend of mine, who was an Officer aboard a Ship, and hapned to be on that Coaft in the Year 1708, had two or three Interviews with that Black, who came aboard him. He was a great Man in that Country, for his Brother was King. He exprefs'd much Gratitude for the Kindnefs that had been Ihewn him in France, and was extraordinary Courteous, and made great Offers to thofe aboard the Ship, and to all fuch of the Nation as would go into Guinea,

This Navigation to Lovipana will farther procure as a free Refort to the two famous Ports of the Gulf of Mexico, viz,. The Havana and Veracruz,, vi\\tvc Strangers did notufe to be admitted, and which we knew only by their Names and their Situation in our Maps. Veracruz « The latter of tbofe Towns is the Port of in Ne* New Spain, at the Bottom of the Bay or Gulf, SpaiB. in 18 Degrees of North Latitude, Seated in a Sandy Plain, encompafs'd with Mountains ; beyond which there are Woods and Meadows, well Stock'd with Cattle and wild Fowl. The Air is very Hot, and not Healthy, when any Winds blow, except the North, which rifes commonly once in Eight or Fifteen Days, and hqjds for the Space of Twenty Four Hours,




blowing fo hard, that there k no going afhore from the Ships, and then the Cold is very piercing. When the Weather is clear there plainly appear, on the Road to A^exico^ twa Mountains rifing above the Clouds, and forty Leagues diftant, all cover'd with Snow, The Streets of Feracruz. are ftreight as a Line j the Houfes are handfome and regular; the Fortifications next the Land inconliderable, but the Front of the Town next the Sea forms a Semicircle, with a little Fort at each End. Direftly before that Front, a Quarter of a League out at Sea, there ftands, on a Spot of Ground, inacceffible, by Reafon of the Breaking of the Sea, a flrong Citadel, well built and furnifhed with all Neceflaries, a good Garrifon and double Batteries of two hundred Pieces of brafs Cannon. Ships cannot anchor any where, but between that Citadel and the Town 5 bcfides that, it require^ feveral Precautions, becaufe it is difficult coming to an Anchor.

Molt of the Inhabitants arc MuUttoes^ thag is of a tawny dark Colour, who live molt upon Chocolate and Sweetmeats, extraordinary fober, and eating little Flefli.TheMen are haughty,the Women keep retired above Stairs, not to be feen by Strangers, and feldom going abroad, and then in Coaches or Chairs, and thofe who cannot reach to it, cover'd with fine lilk Veils, which reach from the Crown of their Heads to their Feet, leaving only a fmall Opening on the Right Side, for them to fee their Way. In their own Apartments they wear nothing but a Smock and a lilk Petticoat, with gold or lilver Laces, without any Thing on their Heads,


i^o Monfiem- de la S A L E'i Second Voyage

and their Hair platted with Ribbons, a gold Chain about their Neck, Bracelets of the fame and Pendants of Emeralds in their Ears.They could well enough like the Behaviour and Company of the French, but that the jealous Temper of the Men obftruds them. There being a Pidure of Fhili^ King of S^ain^ now reigning* aboard the Ship in which my Friend was, who gave me this Account, the People fwarm'd a-board to fee it, they were never fatisfy'd with gazing at it, and there was a moft magnificent Feftival kept in the Town, on Account of the Birth of the Prince of u4fiurias.

They underftand Trade very well, but are iloathful and averfe to Labour, fond of State and Eafe. They wear great Strings of Beads about their Necks, their Houfes are full of Pictures and Images of Devotion, decently furnilh'd with Furceline and China Goods. The Churches are magnificently adorned with Plate.

All Strangers are forbid Trading there, yet fome come by Stealth and deal Underhand, by Means of Prefents made to fuch Perfons as can favour them. If thofe Mulattoes call themfelves white,it is only to honour themfelves and by Way of Diftindtion from their Slaves, who are all Blacks, and having got much Mony by their Labour, ranfome themfelves and fome-timcs become confiderable Merchants.

The City oi Mexico^ Capital of the Country^ . and the Refidence of the Vice-roy, is abouE ch^^^^ eighty Leagues diftant from reracruz,^ to the Weftward, the Way to it very bad and ill furnifliM with Provifions. That Country would be better in fome Parts, were it well




cultivated by the Inhabitants. They fow but little of our Wheat, and are fatisficd with hdian Corn and Cafabi Root, whereof they make Gakes, as is praftis'd in the Iflands. Their Trees and Fruits are the fame as in other hot Countries. About the Town ofTeracruz^ there are Bulhesofa Sort of Thorn, without Leaves, among which grows an extraordinary Plant; for tho' it has but a fmall Stem, it (hoots out Leaves of a Cabbage Green, as thick as a Man's Finger, which grow our, one at the End of another, in the Shape of a Racket, and the Plant itfelf is fo caird. From thofe Leaves there grows out a Sort of red Figs, very juicy, with Seeds like thofe of the Pomgranate y the juice is of a Violet Colour, but unfavoury. There is a Sort of Flies that cleave to it £nd are fo fond of tbe Tafte of the Fruit, that they burfl: and drop down dead. They are carefully gatherM and dry'd»and are the Scarlet Dye, call'd Cochinilla, which is brought into Europe, and makes that beautiful Co-loor. The Birds aud Bealls are much the fame as in other Countries of Amerkn. There is a Sort of Bird, all red, which for that Reafon is call'd the Cardinal ^ this they often tame and teach to ling like a Canary Bird. This is what I have been told concerning the Tov^nof ^''eracruz..

As for the Havana, a Town and Port no lefs famous, in the Ifland of Cuba, belonging as ^"^'^^ well as the other to the Crown oiSpain^ it ftands towards the Weflern End, and on the North Side of that Ulind, almoft under the Tropick of Cancer^ and about four or five hundred Leagues on this Side of Veracruz* U is large and beautiful

194 Monjiiur de la S a l e'*x Seccnd Foyage fill ^ the Port good, fecurM by two Forts on the two Sides, and Brafs Guns, from twenty four to thirty fix Pounders, the Entrance fo narrow, th4t only one VelTel can go in at once. The Town is encompafsM by a good Wall, for-tify'd with five Baftions, furnilh'd with Cannon. The Streets are all as ftrait as a Line, and level, the Houfes very handfome, but ill fnrnilh'd. In the Midll: of it is a fine Square, the Buildings about all uniform. The Churches are magnificent, and enrich'd with Gold and Silver, Lamps, Candlefticks, and Ornaments for the Altars. There are fome Lamps curioufly wrought, which weigh two hundred Marks of Silver, each Mark being half a Pound. The Revenue of the Bifhoprick amounts to fifty thoa-fand Crowns, and he who enjoy'd it in the Year 1703, as I was inform'd by my Friend, who gave me this Account of what he had feen, was the greateft Ornament of that City, for his Virtues and Charity, being fatisfy'd with Ne-cefTariss, and fpending all the reft upon the Poor, and in repairing decay'd Churches. The* Strangers are prohibited to trade there, yet it is eafier carried on than ztVeracruz,, The Inhabitants are more familiar •, the Women have more Liberty, yet they do not go Abroad without their Veils to wrap and hide them. Many of them fpeak French^ and drefs after the French Fafhion, and fome of our Nation have fettled themfelves there. When my Friend was there, a magnificent Feftival was celebrated for fifteen Days fucceflively, in Honour of K. Vhili^ the Fifth, and Monfieur du Caffs being then there, with his Squadron, the City defir'd him to joia with them. To that Purpofe, he fet



alhore five hundred Men, who performed the Martial Exercife in the great Square, which was muchadmir'd. ThQHavana is the Place, where the Galeoos meet. Provifions are dear there, efpecially Bread ^ but the Wine is not, tho* it is good. Filh and Flefli there are un-favory. The Inhabitants are Spaniards.

We have thought fit to defcribe thofe two famous Ports of the Bay of Mexico, as well be-caufe it has not been fo exadly done before, as in Regard that the Settlement which is going to be made in Louifiana^ may have forae De-pendance on them •, for the Havana lying in the Way, thofe who perform the Voyage may have the Conveniency of taking in Refrelhments there, of putting in for Shelter in foul Weather, and of careening or refitting. As for the . Veracruz.^ tho' farther out of the Way, the Correfpondence there may be advantagious for the Securing of the Colony of Louifiana.

But how can that fail of fucceeding, under the Conduft of Monfieur^ who has the Charge of that Enterprize, and whom Pr<3vi-dence feems to have in a Manner ingag'^ "*^ ""^^ Vance in Wealth and Honour, to t.«- Amazement of the World, and yet fr-*5°"^ f^^^* from Jealoufy, and from any c^c of Complaints.

There is therefore no Re-^^ .^° P''i^^^ ""^^T wife than well of the ^^^^ ?^ ^^'' ^^^'"^ \ ^^^ Blelfiags God ha- P^^'^ ^ ^°^" "P°" ^^^ ?^^ former Underminings, feem to be a Security for what *'=* to follow. There is Reafon to hope fur itill greater Blefllngs on ^ this Pro)ed of a Settlement in Louijiana, as being equally advantagious to Religion and the State ^ for the propagating of the Knowledge and Service of God O among

Monfeur de la Sal e'j SeconA Voyage

among an infinite Number of Savages, by Means of the Miflloners, who are to be fent to and maintain'd in thofe vaft Countries ; the Planting of the Faith in that new World, only the Name whereof is known tous^ and the Reducing of it to be a Chriftian'and ^French Province, under the Dominion of our Aiiguft Monarch, and to the eternal Memory of his Reign, will be the Confequences and the Fruits of Monfieur'% Care and Expence, the Glory of his Enterprise, the Security of the large Fortune he has made in this Life, and what is rare a-mong fuch rich Men, the Earneft of much better in the Next, Heaven grant our Hopes and Wiflies may be anfwer'd.

jAin^ &:c.

The Letters Fatent granted by the KJng of.

JFrance ^f? M. Crozat. riaiO

.-... c ^

L^5^"<^, by the Grace of God, King of trance ._j jsfavatre : To all who fliaU fee thefe prefe.. betters, Greeting. The: Care we have alway. .^^ ^^ ^^^^^ \^^ yj^,^.. fare and Advantage of o.. s^bjefts having ia-; duced us notwithftanding t.. jij„oft continual Wars which we have been ohu^^ ^^ fupport' from the Beginning of our Reign, to fe^k^ for all poffibie Opportunities of enlarging and extending the Trade of biir American' Colonies, Wtdidin thlCtar l6d$^ive'ojtr Orders'

to undertake a Dlfcovery of the Countries and Lands which are fttuated in the Nothern Part of America, between New Frante and New Mexico : And the Sieur de la Sile^ to whom we committed that Enterpriz.e^ having had Succefs enough to confirm a Belief that a Communication might be fettled from New France to the Gulph of Mexico by Means of large Rivers ^ This obliged us immediately after the Peace o/RyfwiCk to give Orders for the eflablifl)ing a Colony there^ and maint^aining a Garrifon which has kept and freferved the Pofleflion, we had taken in the z^ery Tear 1683 of the Lands^ Coafts and /(lands which are fttuated ir the Gulph of A^ex:co^ between Carolina on the Eafl^ and Old and New Mexico on the Weft. But a new War having broke oat in Europe fhortly after, there was no Pofiibility, . till now, of reaping from that new Colony the Advantages that might have been expeded from thence, becaufe the private Men, who are concerned in the Sea Trade, were all under Engagements with other Colonies, which they have been obliged to follow : And whereas upon the Information we have received concerning the Difpofition and Situation of the faid Countries known at prefent by the Name of the Province of Louipana^ yvc are of Opinion that there may be eftablilhed therein a confiderable Commerce, fo much the more advantageous to our Kingdom in that there has hitherto been a Neceflity of fetching from Foreigners the greateft Part of the Commodities which may be brought from thence, and becaufe in Exchange thereof we need carry thither nothing but Commodities of the Growth and Manu-fa(^ure of our own Kingdom •, we have refolv-

O z ed

198 Mofift^ur de la S a l eV Second VojAge

ed to grant the Commerce of the Country of Louijiana to the Sienr Authony Croz^at our Coun-cellor, Secretary of the Houfhold, Crown and Revenue, to whom we entrult the Executioa of this Projeft. We are the more readily inclined hereunto, becaufe his Zeal and the fingular Knowledge he has acquired in maritime Commerce, encourage us to hope for as good Sficcefs as he has hitherto had in the divers and fundry Enterprises he has gone upon, and which have procured to our Kingdom great Quantities of Gold and Silver in fuch Conjun-durcs as have rendred them very welcome to us*

FOR THESE REASONS being delirous to fbcw our Favour to him, and to regulate the Conditions upon which we mean to grant him the faid Commerce, after having deliberated this Affair in our Council, Of our certain Knowledge, full Power and Royal Authority, We by thefe Prefents figned by our Hand, have appointed and do appoint the faid Sieur folely to carry on a Trade in all the Lands poifeiTed by Us, and bounded by New Mexico, and by the Lands of the Englilh of Carolina, all the EflablijJ^ment^ PortSj Havens^ Mivers^ and principally the Fort and Havsn of the J(le Dauphine, heretofore called Maflacre j the River of St. Ltms^heretofore called Miffilipi,/?'«•»? the Edge of the Ssa as far as the Illinois j to-gether with the River 0/St.Philip, heretofore called the MifTourys, and of St. Jerome, heretofore called Ovabache, with all the Countries^ Terrttories^ Lakes within Land^ and the Rivers which tfall di' reBly or indire^ly into that Part of the River of Si.'Lewis.


The A R T I C L E S. I. Our Pleafure is, that all the aforefaid Lands, Countries Streams, Rivers and Iflands be and remain comprifed under the Name of The Government of Louifiana, which JIjhU he defendant upon the General Government of Neio France, to which it is fubordinatc ; and further, that all the Lands which we poflefs from the JJlinois be united, fo far as Occafion requires, to the General Government of Nevo France^ and become Part thereof, referving however to Ourfelves the Liberty of enlarging as We (hall think fit the Extent of the Government of the faid Country o{ Louifana.

IL We grant to the faid Slew Croz,at for Fifteen fucceflive Years, to be reckoned from the Day of Inrolling thefe prefents, a Right and Power to tranfport all Sortsof Goods and Merchandize from France into the faid Country ot Louifiana^ and to traffick thither as he fliall think fit. We forbid all and every Perfon and Perfons, Company and Companies of what Quality or Condition foever, and under any Pretence whatever, to trade thither, under Penalty of Confifcation of Goods, Ships, and other more fevere Puniflim.ents, as Occafion Ihall require j for this Purpofe we order our Governours and other Officers commanding our Troops in the faidCountry forcibly to aber, aid and affift the Dire<ftors and Agents of the faid Sieur Croz^at,

IIL We permit him to fearch for, open and dig all Sorts of Mines, Veins and Minerals throughout the whole Extent of the faid Country of Louifiana^ and to tranfport the Profits thereof into any Port ot France during the faid 48 3 Fif--

200 Mcnfieur de la Sal e'^ Sicond Voyage

Fifteen Years j and we grant in Perpetuity to him, his Heirs, and others claiming under him or them, the Property of, in and to the Mines, Veins and Minerals which he (hall bring to bear, paying us, in Lieu of all Claim, the Fifth Fart of the Gold and Silver which the faid Sieur (hall caufe to be tranfported to France at his own Charges into what Port he pleafes, {'of which Fifth we will run the Rifque of the Sea and of War,) and the Tenth Part of what Effects he (hall draw from the other Mines, Veins and Minerals, which Tenth he ' (hall transfer and convey to our ?vlagazines in the faid Country oi Lout fan a.

Wc likewife permit him to fearch for precious Stones and Pearls, paying us the Fifth Pari in the fame Manner as is mention'd for the Gold and Silver.

We will that the faid Sieur, his Heirs, or thofe claiming under him or them the perpetual Right, (hall forfeit the Propriety of the faid Mines, Veins and Minerals, if they difcontinue the Work during three Years, and that in fuch Cafe the faid Mines, Veins and Minerals (hall be fully reunited to our Domaine, by Virtue of this prefent Article, without the Formality of any Procefsof Law, but only an Ordinance of Re-union from the Subdelcgate of the Intendant of New France^ who (hall be in the faid Country, nor do wc mean that the faid Penalty of Forfeiture in Default of working for three Years, be reputed a Comminatory Penalty. * IV. The faid Sieur Crozat may vend all fuch Merchandize, Goods, Wares, Commodities, Arms, and Ammunition as he Ihall have caufed

^ to


to be tranfported into the faid Country and Government oi Louipana^^^ well to the French^ as Savages who are or fhall be there fetled; nor fhall any Perfon or Pcrfons under any Pretence whatfoever be capable of doing the like without his Leav^e exprefled in Writing.

V. He may purchafe in the faid Country, all Sorts of Furs, Skins, Leather, Wool^, and other Commodities and EfFeds of the faid Country, and tranfport them to France during the faid Fifteen Years: And as our Intention is to favour, as much as we can, our Inhabitants of Nero France^ and to hinder the Lef-fening of their Trade, we forbid him Traffick-* ing for Caftor in the faid Country under any Pretence whatfoever % nor to Convey any from thence into our" Kingdom or Foreign Countries.

VI. We Grant to the Sieur Croz,at^\\i% Heirs or thofe claiming under him or th^m, the Property of, in and to all Settlements and Manufadories which he (hall eredi or fet up in the faid Country for Silk, Indigo, Wooll, Leather, Mines, Veins and Minerals,as likewife the Property of, in and to the Lands which he fhall caufe to be Cultivated, with the Manfions, Mills, and Strudtares which he fhall caufe to be built thereon, taking Grants thereof from Us, which Grants he (hall obtain upon the Verbil Procefs and Opinion of our Governor and of the Sub-delegate of the Intendant Qi New France \n the faid Country, to be by him P^eported unto Us.

We will that the faid Sieur Crozat^ his Heirs, or thofe claiming under him or them, (hall keep in Repair the faid Settlements, Manufadures, Lands and Mills jand in Default thereof during the Space of three Years, he and they fhalJ O 4 Forfeit

202 Monfteur de la Sal e'^ Second Voyage

Forfeit the fame, and the faid Settlements^ Manufaftories, Lands and Mills fliall be Reunited to our Domaine fully and amply, and in the fame Manner as is mentioned above ia the Third Article concerning the Mines, Veins and Minerals.

VII. Our Edi<3:s. Ordinances and Culloros, and the Ufages of the Mayoralty and Shree-valty of Parisy fhall be obferved for Laws and Caftoms in the faid Country of Louifiana,

VIII. The faid Sieur Croz^at (hall be oblig'd to fend to the faid Country of Louifiana Two Ships every Year, which he fhall caufe to fet out in the proper Seafon, in each of which Ships he (hall caufe to be imbitk'd, without paying any Freight, 25 Tun of Victuals, EfFeds, and necef-fary Ammunition, for the Maintenance of the Garrifon and Forts of the Louifiana ^ and ia Cafe wc ihould caufe to be laden above the faid 25 Tun in each Ship, we confent to pay the Freight to the faid Sieur Croz^at^ at the common Merchantile Rates.

He fhall be oblig'd to convey our Officers of Louifiana in the Ships which he fhall fend thither, and to furnifh them with Subflftance and a Captain's Table for 30 Sols per Day, which we will caufe to be paid for each.

He fhall likewife give Paffage in the faid Ships, to the ooldiers, which we fhall pleafe to fend to the faid Country •, and we will caufe the ne-ceffary Provilions for their Subfiltance to be furnilh'd to him, or vail pay him for them at the fame Price as is paid to the Purveyor-General of our Marine.

He (hall be furthermore oblig'd to fend on Board each Ship, which he fhall cau^p to fet out


i/?/^ NORTH AMERICA- 205

for the faid Country, Ten young Men or Women, at his own Ekftion.

IX. We will caufe to be delivered out of our Magazines to the {aid S'lcur Crozat, loooo Weight of Gunpowder every Year, which he ihall pay us for ac the Price that it fhall colt us, and this for fo long Time as the prefenE Privilege Ihall laft.

X. The Wares and Merchandize which the faid Sieur Croz^at ihall configu to the faid Conn-try oiLomfiana ^diW be exempt from all Duties of Exportation, laid or to be laid, on Condition^ that hi> Diredors, Deputies or Clerks, fhall engage to give within the Space of a Year, to be reckon'd from the Date thereof, a Certificate of their Unlading in the faid Country of Lou-ifiasa; under Penalty, in Cafe of Contravention, to pay the Quadruple of the Duties, re-ferving to our felves the Power of giving him a longer Refpite in fuch Cafes and Occurrences as we fhall think proper.

XI. And as for the Goods and Merchandize, which the Sieur Ctotlm fhall caufe to be broughc from the faid Country of Louifiana^ and upon his Account, into tlie Ports of our Kingdom, and (hall afterwards ciufe to be tranfported into Foreign Countries, they fhall pay no Duties either of Importation or Exportation, and Ihall be depofited in the Cultom-Houfe, V/are-houfes of Ports where they fhaii arrive, until they be taken away t, and when the Deputies and Clerks of the faid Sieur Croz^at fhaU be minded to caufe them to be tranfported in-Foreign Countries, either by Sea or Land, they fhall be oblig'd to give Security to bring within a certain Time, a Certificate from the


204 Monfieur de la S A l eV Second Voyage

lafl: Office, containing what they Exported there, and another Ortificatc of their unlading in Foreigi? Countries.

XII. In Cafe the faid Sieur Croz^m be obliged, for the furtherance of his Commerce to fetch from Foreign Countries feme Goods and Merchandize of Foreign Manufadure, in order to TR ANSPORT them into the faid Country of Louijiana. He (hall make Us Acquainted therewith, and lay before Us States thereof ; upon which we, if we think fit, will Grant him our Particular Permiflion with Exemptions from ail Duties of Importation and Exportation, Provided the faid Goods and Merchandize be Depofited afterwards in our Cuftom-houfe Ware-houfes until they be Ladea in the Ships of the faid Sieur Croz^at^ who Ihall be obliged to bring in one Year, to be reckoned from the Day of the Date hereof, a Certificate of their unlading in the fiid Country of Louifana^ under Penalty, in Cafe of Contravention, to pay qaadruple the Duties: Re-ferving to our felves, in like Manner, the Liberty of granting to the faid Sieur Croz^at^ a a longer Refpite, if it be nccellary.

XIU. The Feluccaes, Canoes, andotherVef-fels belonging to us* and which are in the faid Country oiLoui(iana^{ha\\ ferve for loading, unloading and tranfporting the Effefts of the faid Suur Croz^atj who (hall be bound to keep them in good Condition, and after the Expiration of the faid Fifteen Years Jhall reftore them, or a like Number of equal Bulk and Goodnefs, to our Governor in the faid Country.

XIV. If for the Cultures and Plantations which the faid Sieur CrQs,(i% is minded to make


irjto NORTH AMERICA. 205

he finds ic proper to have Blacks in the faid Country of the Louifana^ he may fend a Ship every Year to trade for them diredly upon the Coalt of Guinea^ taking Permifiion from the Guinea Company fo to do, he may fell thofe Blacks, to the Inhabitants of the Colony of Louipana •, and we forbid all other Companies and Perfons whatfoever, under any Pretence whatfoever, to introduce Bhcks or Traffick for them in the faid Country, nor fhall the faid Sieur carry any Blacks eife where.

XV. He fhall not fend any Ships into the faid Country of Louijlana but direftly from France^ and he fhall Caufe the faid Ships to Return thither again ^ the whole under Pain of Confifcatioii and Forfieture of the Prefent Pri-viledge.

XVI. THE faid Sieur Crozat fhall be 0-bliged, after the Expiration of the firft nine Years of this Grant, to Pay the Officers and the Garrifon which fiiall be in the faid Country During the Six laft Years of the Continuance of this Prefent Priviledge : The faid Sieur Croz^at may in that Time propofe and nominate the Officers, as Vacancies fhall fall, and fuch Officers, fhall be Confirmed by us, if we approve of them.

Given at FONTAINBLEAV the Fourteenth Day of September in the Year of Grace 1712. And of Our Reign the 7bth.



Reglfter'd zt? A S^lSxn the Parliament, the Four and Twentieth of September, 1712.


N D E X.


ACitncei^sJni'un Nation, their Houihold Stuff, Shape, Oic.

Accidents befallen the ^coJets 72 Account given by an Indiun 92 Adventure, a ftrange one 61 Adultery among the Jjlmois, not much regarded 17^

\Amiabky Snip, caft away 36 Alligator eaten ■ 12

Alligators 64

Apdache Bay 19

Arrival at Fort Lsnis 168

Art of Indians to kill Goats and and wild Fowl 136

^(fonis} Indian Natloa 1:^5

B. Banks of a River of feveral Colours 165 Barbarity towards dead Bodies 100. Of Men towards Women and of Women 128 Bxfbier (the Sieurj marries 72 Battle tought by theCew/i 109 Beaujeu ( Commander of the Man of War, forfakes M. de Id Sale 44 Beds of the Cents 109 Belle (la) Bark loft 67. How and what was [iv'd of her 69 Black Bread in frjwfe jSis Eoaftingof che/yj/wwj 173

Boat loft 38* 5 J

Building, Manner of it among the Cenis joS

Bullocks found afhore 25

Ba//octs (River of) 54.

Buskinsof raw Hides inftead of Shoes 8a

C. Cadodaquio River 142

Cahaynehora^ Indian NatioQ 148 Calumet, or Pipe 146

Canoe porrable 88

Canoes (Riverof^ 96

Cappa\i\hge 159

Care of the Dead among the JJli-nois 175

Carpenter loft 52

Cavelier (Monfr.) with his Company, parts from the Murderers 131. Comes to a Srencb Ha--bitation ij2

Cayman Ifland 11

Cenis River 105

C(?»»,their Country defcrib'd 104 They meet the trench in fo-lemo Manner 10^. An Enter-taioment given by them 107 Their Moveables 109. Disfigure themfelves 110. Their Manners, Religion, and Cere, monies 112. facile fought by them 117


Ciremoay of the Calumet, or

Pipe 146,1^5. Of rejoiciDgi29

At the Reception of the French

137. Ochcr Ceremonies 159

Of dreffing a Bullock 162,

Children of the//?/?7£?/f 173

Choumnns, Ivi'nvs 92

Climate of the Bay of St, Leuis

66 Controverfy about Privilege 77 Confpiracy dircover'd 50. Another to murder iA.delaSale


Copal Tree 103

Corriemes Cipe 13

Country where they landed.

Account of it 29. A fine one

50 Crofs by a River 151

Croiat ( only toplact Co.

lonies in Z.<7«/^^W(« 187

Cruel Trophies 12S

Currents 17

Cuftom of Indiun Women 143


Dangerous Fruit 64.

Dead, indian Ceremony to them 140. Care of them among the Jflinois 174

Dilfereoce between the Com-maaders 4,26,44

Difcontents occafion'd by M.Mo-ranget 97

Difcoveries made 74

Doleful Entertainment 141

Ducking of Seamen 5

Duhiut returns from "iA. dsU Sals 59. Endeavours to occalion a Mutiny 73. Conrpires to murder M. de/<r J^ie 93. Murders him 99. Ufurpi tne Command 102. is kilTd by Heins 123 D welling of Ffon^h 151


Encounter with Nafivei 71

Entertainment of the Indians 134, i38,i<So F. Falls of a River i6p

Fa ft of bidians 165

Fatigue of the Men 52

Figure of a pretended Monfter

164, FiniSerre Cape 4

Fifh, Plenty of it taken 47

Fifh at the Bay of Sr, Lewis 6s Flying Fifh 5

Fort built 45. Another 49. The firit abandon'd 51, TheFoliiirc oftheStcond 51.All reforttoit

5i French Men, Hx kill'd by rhc /a-

diafji 5p. Seveo loft and foiiC dcfcrt 74. Two kiii'd 75, Three thdc bad been loft heard of 94. One anong the Jtjdum 107. Ente.'tain'd by the Na* tivcs 115. Some turn'd Savage 117,119. Six go to the Wars with the Natives 125 Some ftay with the Indians 132 Only feven i'ci oxit iox Canada ibid. Carry'd on the Backs of Indiifis ^ joy

French River ' x<iii


Game ©f the S:ick 175

Goats and Bullocks found a-Qjore 2-^

Cros CMonfr. /<?)dies, and other's

H. ''

Habit of Indians 143

HavanA 101

Jiebjhimo Indians 84

/jiberviUe'i Expeditioa to the

Mijfifipi 186 £^i€fis

I N D E X,

Hiens kills Duhaut 123. Seizes Che Effe^s and gives what he pleafes to Che reft 131

'JJifpanioh Ifland 6

JJoly Gtoft Bay 19

Horfe purchasM of the Indians 91. Onefold for an Ax 116 Uouabicbe River 163

Houfe builc af-er the 'French Manner 151. Defcription of it 154

Hunter dies wich Cold tjS

Uurons'Hzt\on iSo, 181, 182 Huts containing feveral Families io5i I. ^miquo, Indian Nation 141 Indian Ceremony of the Dead,

140 Jndidn dies of eating raw Suet

Indians corae aboard 21. Pre-fenced and fcnt afhore 2z. FriendlyBehaviouroffome 34. Their Camp35. Their Entertainment 36. AiFrcnt givea them 41. Their Revenge 42. Come to the Fort 48. Rill fix of the French*^9. Some en-rertain'd by M. ds la Sale 80 One clad like a Spumard 105 Expett Prefents 148. Some met with Axes 148

Inhumanity 128

loftrument for Tillage among the Cenis 109

Intrenching with Trees 81

;^ciMte/CMonfr.) the Perfon that writes this Journal I. Believes they were at the Mouth of the Miffifipi and flip'd it 18. Commands a Company 30. Isfav'd from being murder'd by a

Friend 102. Sent to the Cms for Provifions 104. Meets a French Man among the Indians 117. Hasan Indian Maid of-L-i'dhimfora Wife 118. He and others refolve to part from the Murderers 12c. Part from them 131. Profccutc the Journey 149. Comes to a French Habitation 152. Continues hi« Journey 157. Arrives at Fore Lewis 167. Sets out for Cdtf*-^■i, and returns again 170

Ijlinois River 165

Jjlinois People met with 166 Their Manners and Cuftoms, Women, Children, Thieving, Boafting 173. Care of the Dead 174. Game of the Stick, Marriages, Adultery 175. More of them 182


Ketch taken by the Spaniards 10 Kind Indians 152


Landing, the tirit 18, The fe-

cond 24. The third 28

Lataniersy Palm Trees 14

Lewis (Fort) among the Ijlinois

167 Defcription of it and Country 171 Lime, and Clay for Bricks 171 Living Creatures about the Bay of St. Iew/5 6i

M. Machigamen River i6i

Madera Ifland 4

Maligne River 60, 87

Manners and Cuftoms of the Ijlinois i7j Marie (Monjy,de) drown'd 139 HisFund^al 140 Iv^rriages of the Ijlinois 17^ Mca*

Meadows very fine 136

Memory of-Men kill'd, bewail'd

127 Men fenf to difcover by Land 31 Six kiU'd by the Natives 19 Mexico C'liy i9^

Mines i;72

Mirchief prevented 124.

Mijftftpi River, the Mouth of ic pafi'd by 27

Found atlaft 158

MiJpJurisK'wcv 164.

Montreal, arrival there 182

Morxnget (Monfr.) Nephew to ■ Monfr. d.e h Sale 30. Wounded by the Natives 43. Gives an Account of what he faw among theJttdiiKSt he was feot to 92 Difcontents occafion'd by him gj. Is murder'd 98

Moveables ot the C(?»/V 109

Murders committed by fome Villains 9? Murderers return to !hc. Camp 101 Refolve to return to the Fort of. St. Lerois 120. Their Delign 121 Change their Mind 122 Differ in Opinion 123 N Ndhordikhs Indians 133 Nation, what is meant by it ii.j. Nations of Indians 90, 114,140


Officers attending an Indian

Chief 158

OriSj and Dfjloges (the Sieurs)

kiird by the Natives - '42

^ar^fcoKjM Nation 180

P Perfons that went with M. de Ix Sale 2. Left in the Setclement when M. de la Sale departed 71. Thofc tbac fct euc with iiim 96

Pines Iflani it, la

Plants at the Bayof.St. Letoij 65 Port de pjix 10

PoiitcuatanniNiUon 183

Prefenrs made by Indians 14s . To the Dead 174

FroduQcf the Countfy of the . jicanceas 154- Of the Country . about Fort Lewis 172

Prpvjfions hid, fpoilt 96

Qiiinetofian River i8i

j^<eicfr, Arrival there i8|

K Rats ^7

Rattle Snake bites M.leCros 4?

67 ■ Reception of Indians 145. Az~ Vot: Lerois if%

Riv-r,a Hne oce 3a

/^>f/;fZ/£f, Depircure thence 2

^pcbforr. Return <:hither 3

S.iblomere River ^j

Sagaroite, Hafty Pudding 113 St. Antony Cape 15

St. Lewis's Bay 57. Dcfcripniia of the Country 62

Sals (M. dg la) his Reputation t HisMiftake 20. Much wrong'd 44. Goes to difcover up a"River 45. Returns and fers out again 46. Goes again to difcover 57. Returns to the Fort 67. Sets our upon another Expedition 68. His Difcoveries and Return 74. RefolvcsupoE a third Expedition 75. Wet! receiv'd by the Natives 89, Coofpiracy to murder him 97 Goes (0 feek his Men and is mufder'd by Dubaut 99. Hii Charaftcr 100


ialt found in Pits 48

Salutation^ an 6dd one 39

Santdna Cape 7

Settlement, vide Fort

Ships that went with Monfr. de

la Sale 2

Sombrero Ifland 7

Spainards, Indians give an Account

of them gz. Take Monfr. de

In Sale's, Fort i85

Spanijh Veffel feen 46

Speeches made to the French

138 Spring of Salt Water 163

T Tabacco 113

Thieving of the JJlinois 173

Tillage among the Cenis 109 3"o»»i»£M^ Village 159

Tom (Monfr.) Mifbake in his Account of this Voyage 14 Comes to Fort Lewis 176

Torfm^ Village 157

tortugi Ifland S

Tortoifes ^3

Trade Wind 5

Travel continu'd 17S

travellers, hew they liv'd 175

Trees about St. Leteis^i Bay 64,


Variation 1^

Venomous Creatures 63

Veracrui in new Spain 18S

Village abaridon'd by Indians 82

Inhabited 86. Another 89


War with the Iroquois ijS

Water from a Tree rw«et 179

W3y from St. L^ms*i Bay to find

the Mijjtfipi 78

Ways very bad 133

Wild Fowl plentiful 28, 29,82,

144 Wild Fruit 164

Wild Swine 12

Wolves, how they catch Goats

180 Women fow among the Cenis 82 Defcriptionof them lb. Do the Work at Home, their Behaviour and Habit III. Cuftom of fome 143. Their Ornaments 143, Do all Labour a-moT\g the IJJinois 173

Woods very'Thick 82


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