fes/* ¦ I ^ AV-J:' ' P ^¦'^ UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH Dar. F1030.5 J86 C0'D,2 Uarlington JVl.eniorial J_/ibrary \^ W in \ -tinf Irfj % h A '''-^**^' JOURNAL Of the L A s T VOYAGE Pertorm'd by Monfr. de la Sale^ T O T H E GuLPH of Mexico, To find out the Mouth of the MiJJifipi Rivera CONTAINING, An Account of the Settlements he endeavoured to make on the Coaft of the aforefaid Bay^ his unfortunate Death, and the Travels of his Companions for the Space of Eight Hundred Leagues acrofs that Inland Country oi America, now caird Louifiana^ (and given by the King of France to M. Croz.at^ti\\ they came into (panada.

Written in French by Monfieur J o u t e l, ¦;t a Commander in that Expedition '^ And Tranjlated from the Edition jufi fuhbjh^d at Paris.

With an exaft Mapof that TaftCountry,and a Copy of the Letters Patents granted by the K.cf France to M. Cro^at.

L ND9 Ny Printed for A. Bell at the Crofs-Kjys and Bible in CornbiUy B. Lintott at the Crofs K^ey$ in fket-fireety and ^. Baker in Pater-Nofler.J^Vff 1714,

^

/J?^^

^'2)0^)

THE

,S

French Bookseller

TOT HE

READER.

THE Mnnufcri^t of this Journal haf mug to fa^ into my Hands^ and having jbervn it to fome Perjons well vers'^d in thej'e Afairs^ they were of Opinion it deferv'^d to be printed ; efpecially at this Time^ when Travels are fo much in Requeft^ and in Regard this is now feafonahUy on Account of the Defer ipt ion ^ it gives of the famous River Miflifipi and of ¦y the Country (?/Louifiana, where it is intended ' to make great Settlements, Befides^ this Re^ jlation is uncommon^ curious and ingagingy f^hoth in Regard to the Honour and Advan^

A X tagt

tdge ef the Nation^ for as much as it contains the Attempts and the bold and glorious Un- dertakings of our French Adventurers^ who not fatisfed^ like otherSy with difcovering the Borders and Coafls of unknown Countries, pro- ceed to penetrate into the Inland, through a thoufand Dangers and Hazards of their Lives, Is tt not very commendable in them, to make us fully acquainted with that great remaining Fart of the World, which for fo many Ages continued unknown to our Forefathers, till about two hundred Tears ago Chrirtopher Co- lumbus difcover^d it, and AmtncMS Vefpu- fius going over foon ^fer, gave it his Name^ caufwg it to hecaUd Ameriea ? Oneofthofe whom I defired to perufe this Manufcript, has a, little polifb^d it, purfuant to -thq Orders I receiv'*d-y and he having been a eonfiderable Traveller, was a proper Perfon to judge of and put it into a Drefsft to appear in publicL The Letter he writ to me, being not only infiruBive^ in Relation to the journal, but ofUfe as a. curious Supplement to it, I thought the in- ftrting of it would be acceptable. It is as follows.

SIR,

[iii]

S I Rj

I Return you your Manufcrlpt ; the Reading of it has reviv'd the Satisfa- 6lion I once took in my Travels ; it has oblig'd me to read over again thofe of feveral Perfons, who have writ of Cam- da, and carry'd me in Imagination through thpfe vaft, barbarous and unknown Coun- tries, with much more Eafe and lefs Dan- ger than was done by the Hero of this Relation. He certainly deferves that ho- nourable Title, and having read his Ad- ventures, I could not forbear faying witli the Poet

IB robur & ^s triviex Circa Pe^u^ erat.

For what an extraordinary Strength, what a Vigour of Body and Mind was re- quifite for him to projed, to undertake and to go thro' with fo unufual, fo bold and fo difficult an Enterprize. A Difco- very of above eight hundred Leagues of barbarous and unknown Countries, with- out any beaten Roads, without Towns, and without any of thofe Conveniencies, which render Travelling more eafy in all B ^ oth&r

civ]

other Parts. All the Land-Garriage is re- duc'd to walking afoot ; being often with- out any other Shoes but a Piece of a Bul- lock's Hide wrapp'd about the Fqqz ;. car- rying a Firelock^ a Snapfack, Tools and ibme Commodities to barter with the Na- tives. It is true that accidentally and but very rarely a Horfe is found to help out a little.

If they muft venture upon the Water, there are only fome wretched Canoes, made either of the Barks of Trees or of Bul- locks Hides, and thofe they muft often carry or drag along the Land, when the Falls of the Rivers obftruQ making ufe of them. All the Bed is lying on the bare Ground, expofed to the Inclemencies of the Air, to be devour'd by Alligators and bit by Rattle Snakes ; without Bread, Wine, Salt and all other Comforts of Life, and this for fome Years. The Diet alto- gether confifts in a poor Pap or Hafty-Pud- ding made of the Meal of Indian Corn, Fi'n half broil'd or ill boil'd, and fome Beef or wild Goats Flefh, dry'd in the Air and Smoke. Be/jdes, what a Trouble is it to invent Signs to be underftood by fo many feveral Nations, each of which has it's peculiar Language ? All this an Ad- venturer muft reiblve with himfelf to go through, who defigns to make Difcoveries in CamdA \ and it would be hard to believe

this

[V] ;

this, did not all thofe Who write of it ex- a£b}y agree in this Particular.

However that Country is good and pleafant, at leaft towards the South, which is what is here fpoken of. The Tern pa ra- ture of the Climate is admirable, the Soil excellent for Tillage, and it is extraordina- ry fertil in all Sorts of Grain and Fruit ; which appears by thofe the Land produces of it felf in great Plenty. The Hills and "Woods produce Timber for all Ufes and Fruit Trees, as well of cold as hot Coun- tries. There are Vines which want but little Improvement ; there are Sugar- Canes, large Meadows, and navigable Ri- vers full of Filh. It is true they are in- fefted with Alligators, but with a little Care they are to be avoided ; as may the Rattle-Snakes, which are extraordinary venomous, but never bite unlefs they aie hurt. There are thoufands of wild Bul- locks, larger than ours, their Flefh good, and inftead of Hair, they have a Sort of curl'd Wool extraordinary fine. There are Abundance of Deer, wild Goats and all Sorts of wild Fowl, and more efpecialJy of Turkeys. As there are Poifons and Ve- noms, fo there are immediate and won- derful Antidotes.

We muft not look there for rich and

ftately Cities, or lofty Strudures, or any of

thofe Wonders of Archite6ture, or the Re-

A 4 m^ns

[vi]

mains and ancient Monuments of the Va- nity of great Men ; but we may there ad- mire Nature in its beautiful Simplicity, as it came from the Hands of its Creator ; without having been alter'd or depraved by Ambition or Art.

But is fo vaft and fo beautiful a Coun- try only for Beafts, Birds and Fifties / O inconceiveable Wonder I There is an in- finite Number of People, divided into Na- tions, living in Cottages made of the Barks of Trees, or cover'd with Reeds or Hides, when they are not abroad at War, or Hunt- ing, or Fifhing, almofl: naked, without any other Bed but a Bullock's Hide, or any Houftiold-Stuff but a Pot or Kettle, an Axe and fome Platters made of Bark. They take their Surtenance, as it comes in their Way, and like the Beafts ; they have no Care, do not value Wealth, fing, dance, fmoke, eat, fleep, hunt, fifti ; are indepen- dant, make War, and when an Opportu- nity offers, take Revenge of any Injury in the moft cruel Manner they are able. Such is the Life of thofe Savages. Tho' there foe fome in the Southern Parts, not quite fo fiupid and brutal as thofe in the North, yet they are both Savages, who think of Nothing but what is prefent, love No- thing but what is obvious to the Senfes, incapable of comprehending any Thing .'that is Spiritual 3 fharp and ingenious ia

what

[ vii ]

what is for their own Advantage, without any Senfe of Honour or Humanity ; horri- bly cruel, perfectly united among them- felves to their Nation and their Allies ; but revengeful and mercilefs towards their E- nemies. To conclude, their Shape, tho' hideous, fliews they are Men ; but their Genius and Manners render them like the worft of Beads.

A modern Author, who has liv'd in Canada^ and in other Refpefts has writ well enough, has perhas fancy'd, he might diftinguifli himfelf^ and be thought more -t^J-^""- underftanding than other Men in difcove- ^e3z?f/-" ring the Genius of thofe People, by afTign- 'otirfe ing more Ingenuity and Penetration to^J'J'^"^** the Savages, than is generally allow'd roherdnhe them. Hs fometimes makes them to argue V'^^^^l too ftrongly and too fubtilely againfl the ridiculous Myfteries of Chriftian Religion , and his Relation has given juft Occafion to fufpcct, that he is himfelf the Libertine and Talk- ing Savage, to whom he has given the artful Malignity of his Notions and Ar- guments.

As for the Genius of the Savages, I am of Opinion, we ought to believe the Mif- fioners ; ior they are not lefs capable than other Men to difcover the Truth, and they have atleaif as much Probity to make ic known. It is likely, that they, who have for an hundred Years pall, wholly apply'd

thcnv

[ vHi ]

themfelves, according to the Duty of their FuniEtion, to ftudy thofe poor Images of Meiij fliould not be acquainted with them ? Or would not their Confcience have check'd them, had they told a Lye in that Particular ? Now all the Miffion- ers agree, that allowing there are fome Barbarians lefs wickecj and brutal than the reft ; yet there are none good, nor thoroughly capable of fuch Things as are above the Reach of our Senfes; and that whatfoever they are, there is no relying Itves^of ^" them ; there is always caufe to fufpeft Canada them, and in fhort, before a Savage can be hmuh made a Chriftian, it is requifite to make him a Man ; and we look upon thofe Sa- vages as Men, who have neither King nor Law, and what is moft deplorable, no God ', for if we rightly examine their Sentiments and their Aftions, it does not appear that they have any Sort of Religi- on, or well form'd Notion of a Deity. If fome of them, upon certain Occafions, do fometimes own a Firft or Sovereign Being, or do pay fome Veneration to the Sun. As to the firft Article, they deliver themfelves in fuch a contufe Manner, and with fo many Contradi£tions and Extravagancies, that it plainly appears, they neither know nor believe anythiag of it ; and as for the fecond, it is only a bare Cuftom, without any ferious Reflexion on their Parte

A

[ix3

A miferable Nation, more void of the Light of Heaven, and even that of Nature, than fo many other Nations in the Eafi Indies^ who, tho' brutal and ftupid as to the Knowledge of the Deity, yet are not without fome Sortof Worfliip, and have their Hermits and Fakirs who endeavour by the Pradice of horrid Penances, to gain 'the Favour of that Godhead, and thereby fhew they have fome real Notion of it. Nothing of thit Sort is to be found among our American Savages, and in Conclufion, it may be faid of them in General, that they are a People without a God.

Our French t who are born in Canada, all of them well fhap'd, and Men ofSenfe and Worth, cannot endure to have their Savages thus run down. They affirm they are Uke other Men, and only want Edu- cation and being improv'd; but befides that we may believe they fay fo to fave the Honour of their Country, we advance nothing here but what is grounded on the Report of many able and worthy Perfons, who have writ of it, after being well in- form'd on the Spot. We are therefore apt to beUeve, that there is a Diftinttion to be made at prefent between two Sorts of Sa- vages in Canada^ viz,, thofe who have been converfant among the Europeans for fixty or eighty Years paft» and the others who are daily difcover'd j and it is of the latter

that

[x]

that we fpeak here more particularly, and to whom we afTign all thofe odious and wretched Qualities of the Savages oi North America, ; for it is well known, that the firfl: Sort of them, as for Inftance, the Hu- ^ons^ the Algonqutnsy the Iroquois^ the Ijli' mts and perhaps fome others are now pret- ty we'll civiliz'd, fo that their Reafon be- gins to clear up, and they may become ca^ pable of Inftrudlion.

Amazing and incomprehenfible, but at the fame Time adorable Difpofition of Di- vine Providence ! We fee here a vaft Tra6l of the Earth, of an immenfe Extent, of a wonderful Soil for Tillage and Fertility in all Sorts of Fruit and Grain ; of an admi- rable Temperature as to the Air, which appears by the very numerous Inhabitants being fcarce fubje£l to any Difeafes, and in that theSeXjWhich among us isweak,is there jrrowg jFc- s^j.Qng an(^ Vigorous, bringing forth their Children with little or no Pain, and fuck- hng them amidft Labour and Fatigues, without any of thofe Miferies they are li- able to in our Countries. Yet that vaft and beautiful Country, defcrib'd in this journal, fo much favour'd with Worldly Sleflings, has been for fo many Ages de- ifitute of the Heavenly.

The infinite Numbers of People inhabi- ting it are Men, and have fcarce any thing but the Shape ; they are God's Creatures,

an4

and do not fo much as know, much lefs ferve him. Thofe who have the Courage and Boldnefs to travell through the Coun- tries of fuch Savages, and thofe who read the Relations of fuch Travellers, oughc to take Care how they make any rafh Re- flei^ions upon this Point, or pry too deep- ly into it; for they may chance to lofe themfelves in their Thoughts. The fhor- teft and the fafeft Courfe is, in fuch Cafes, to adore the inconceivable Profoundnefs of the Creator's Wifdom ; to give a Check to all our Enquiries and Curiofities, with the Apoftie's Exclamation, the Depth of the Riches both of the Wifdom and t\jio\vledge of God ! Horv unfearchMe are his judgments and his Ways pafi fnding out ! And never ceafing to return Thanks to his Goodnefs, for having fo abundantly fupply'd us with his Light and Grace, to conjure him to impart the fame to thofe poor diftrefs'd J- mericanSySindthsLt he who isAlmighty,will of thofeStones makeChildren of Jhr^ham.Th'is all Chriftians are oblig'd inceffantly to pray for, becaufe as Brutifh and Stupid as chofeSavages are.they are ftill ourBrethren, fmce like us defcended from Jdam and Noah,

How much are we then oblig'd to thofe bold Travellers, who undertake new Dif- coveries, who to the Hazard of their Lives, at their own Expence, and with fuch ex- traordinary

[ xii ]

traordlnary Toils, go to find out for m, not only numerous Objeds of our Curiofity and Admiration, which were before un- known to us, but who alfo difcover to us a numerous Kindred, which is not ever the lefs fuch> for having been fo long un* known to us. What if it bs brutal and indocible, it will be the more Meritorious to Labour at Civilizing of and making it capable of receiving the Lights of Reafon and of Faith. We can never fufficiently ex* prefs our Gratitude to thofe who apply themfelves to the making of new Difco- veries ; the more Difficulties that attend them, the more we are beholding to thofe who undertake them. Suppofing that Avarice, Ambition, a reftlefs Temper, or a defperate Fortune, are very often the Occafionsof fuch Undertakings; yet God, who can draw Good out of Evil, makes all thofe Paflions fubfervient to his Glory, and the Salvation of his Ele6b, and if long Travels do not comrfionly make Saints of the Travellers, it is their own Fault* However, they at leaft prepare the Way to the Santlification of lb many Barbari* ans, beating a Road for the Miflioners, who go to inftrud thofe People. Thus all the World is beholden to them ; the Sa- vages for the Knowledge of God that is procur'd them ; and we for finding by their Means an infinite Number of People

before

[ xiii ]

before unknown, who will join with us ki Serving and Glorifying the Creator oi the Univerfe.

Granting that the faid Travellers are not fometimes exaft, or agree among themfelves in their Relations, their De- fcriptions and their Maps ; this muft be an unavoidable Fault in Difcoverers; but even that is advantageous to the Publick, for as much as their Succeffors are excited to examine thofe Points more ftridly, to corred, explain and afcertain thofe Mi- ftakes.

In acknowledgment therefore of the Ser- vice done us by thofe Illuftrious Adventu- rers and to make them fome Sort of Amends for their Sufferings, let us tranf- mit their Names to Poflerity in our Writ- ings; let us applaud their Adlions when we read them, and let us commend their Relations. This here, moft certainly de- ferves to be read and commended, for it is Curious, Extraordinaiy and Tragical. It is alfo, as has been faid before, ingaging, at this Conjundure, when there is a Defign of making Settlements in thofe Countries; it mentions, the Confequence whereof maybe moft Honourable and Advantage- ous to the Nation. I'he Travel thro' that Country is one of tlie greateft and moft full of Difficulties that has been perform'd ; the Relatioa of it beiag made by an Eye

Witnefs

[ xiv ]

"Witnefs, and in a natural, plain and par- ticular Manner, deferves to be credited ; but being only a Journal, it is not capable of admitting of Ornaments or Embellifh- ments. The Reader will be pleas'd to excufe the Repetition of the fame Words in it, on Account of the ImpofTibility of doing otherwile, and will think it enough that the Barrennefs of the Narration is made Amends for by the Curiofity of the Sub- ije£ls. I am of Opinion the fmall Notes I have added will not be difpleafing, becaufe they explain fome Particulars, which are not very intelligible to fuch as are not us'd to read many Travels.

After having faid the Good and the Bad of this North America^ mentioning the Beauty and Excellency of its Climate and the Brutality of its People, and recited the infinite Hardfliips,thofe who defign to tra- vel muft refolve to undergo, I am of O- pinion it will be proper to fay fomething of the late Monfieur deU Sale, who is the principal Ferfon, and as it were, the Hero of this Relation, tho' having been murder* ed by his own Men, he fell the unfortu- nate Vidim of the Difcovery here treated of. It is alfo convenient to make known what went before that, which is contain'd in this Journal, and the prefent happy Confequence of that fatal Enterprize.

HerQ

Here follows what I have of my owrt particular Knowledge, and by what has been written. ,

Robert Cave/ier, commonly call'd jccoumof Monfieur ^? /^ Sale, a Native o^ Roa^y Mavfieur of a good Family, having been educated ^^^^^aie in Piety and Learning, went over very young into CanadA and took Delight in Trade, but more in Projedls of new Dif- coveries up the Inland of thofe vaft Coun- tries. Intending to fettle there and make that his Country, he purchafed an Ha- bitation in the Illand oi Mont-realy where has been built the fecond Town oiCana^ da^ fixty Leagues above Queheck^ which is the Capital, being alfo a Billioprick, and the Refidence of the Governor, the Intendant and the fupreme Council. There are but only thofe two Towns in the Country, befides fome Villages.They are both feated on the great River of St. X^//rf;?ff, which coming from the S. W". is form'd or increafed by the Waters of five prodigious frefli Water Lakes, run- ning out one into another, and through them it paffes to run down to difcharge itfelf in the Ocean, at a very fpacious Mouth, making Way for the Ships that defign to penetrate into Capiada,

Many Difcoveries had been made to the Northward, before Moflfieur de U

[ xvi ]

Sale's Time ; becaufe there being Plenty of very good Furs, the Traders o^Que- heck and Mom-realy by Means of the Ad- venturers call'd Wood-Men^ from their traveling thro' the "Woods, had penetrated very far up the Country that Way ; but none had advanced far towards the South or South- Weft, beyond Fort Front emcy which is on the Lake Ontario^ the neareft this Way of the five great Lakes. How- ever, upon the Report of the Natives^ it was fuppofed, that great and advanta- geous Difcoveries might be made. There had been much Talk of the rich Mines of St. Edrbara^ in the Kingdom of Mexico^ and fqm?, ^ ere tempted to give them a

vifit,.,; ;;

Something was known of the famous River Miffifipiy which it was fuppofed might fall into the South Sea, and open a Way to it. Thefe Conjedures work- ing upon Monfieur de U Sale, who being zealous for the Honour of his Nation, de^ £/is chx- fign'^ to fignalize the French Name, on fider. Account 0? extraordinary Dilcoveries, beyond all that went before him; he form'd the Defign and refolvM to put it in Execution. He was certainly very fit for it, and fucceeded at the Expenceof his Life ; for no Man has done fo much in that Way as he did for the Space of

twenty

twenty Years he fpent in that Employ- ment. He was a Man of a regular Be- haviour, of a large Soul, well enough learned, and underlfanding in the Mathe- maticks, defigning, bold, utidaunted, dexterous, infinuating, not to be difcou- rag'd at any Thing, rsady at extricating himfelf out of any Difficulties, no Way apprehen/ive of the greateft FatigueSj wonderful fteady in Adverfity, and what was of extraordinary CTfe, well enough verfed in feveral Savage Languages. M. de la Sale having fuch extraordinary Ta- lents, whereof he had given fufficient Proofs upon feveral Occafions, gain'd the Efteem of the Governors o^ Canada ; and MeiGlieurs de Courcelles^ Talon and de Fron- tenac fuccefTively exprefs'd the fame, by often employing him in Affairs for the Honour and Advantage of the Colony,

The Government of the Fort oiFronte- /^ ^nais ^4f, which is the Place fartheft advanc'd Proprietor among the Savages, was committed to ^^roa^e. him, and he going over into France^ in qac. the Year 1675, the King made him Pro- prietor of it, upon Condition he fliould put it into a better Condition than it wasr| which he did, as foon as return'd to Ca- ztAda, Then came back again to Parisy full of the new Informations he had gain'd touching the River Miffififiy the Country as it

[ xviii ]

runs through, the Mines, efpeclally thofe . of Lead and Copper, the navigable Ri- vers, and the Trade that might be car- ried on of Furs and the fine Wooll of thofe wild Bullocks, whereof there are infinite Numbers in the Forefts. Being alfo furnifh'd with better Accounts of that Country, than the Fables that were then publifli'd, by the Name of a Voy- age of the Sieur Joliet, he was well re- ceiv'd at Court, and difpatch'd with the neceffary Orders for proceeding on his Difcoveries. *

The great Reputation Monfieur de U Sale had gain'd, and his mighty Projeds, occafion'd a Jealoufy in fome and Envy in others. His own Countrymen thwar- ted his Defigns ; but he furmounted all thofe Obftacles and return'd into Ca/jada, about the Year 1678, with the Chevalier Tofftj, an Italian Gentleman, a Perfon of Worth and that had ferv'd, whom he gain'd to his Enterprize. He alfo pick'd up in the Country forty or fifty Perfons fit for that Expedition, and among them weic three Recolets, whom he carry'd tpover to try what might be done as to Chriftianity among the Savages ; he was well acquainted with, and had a juffc Efteem for the Virtue, the Capacity and the Zeal of thofe good, religious Men,

who

[ xix ]

who alone firft undertook the MifTion into that new World, and who being feconded by others, have carry'd it on there,with fo much Edification.

Monfieur de U Sale having fpent two Years in going and coming, Hill thwart- ed by thofe who envy'd him in the Coun- try, to fuch a Degree, that had it not been for an Antidote, he muft have dyM of Poifon given him by fome Villains, could not order his Affairs and begin his Expedition till the Year 1682. He fee out at length, and to the End his Difco- very of the Mijfifip might be compleat, he caus'd Father Hennefm^ H. Recolet, with fome others, to travel to the North- ^1^'{\^l ward, that they might find out the Source of that River, and they found it, about the 50th Degree of North Lati- tude. For his own Part, he proceeded to the Weftward and found the River of the IJlmoisy which he cali'd the River of iflinois SeigneUyy and following its Courfe, '^'^'''^'"* came into the Miffippi^ where the other difcharges it felf. He then concluded he had no more to do, but to run down to its Mouth, whether in the South Sea or the Gulph oi Mexico. AU along its Banks he found maay Savage Nations, with whom, by Means of his Prefents, he enter'd into Alliances, and gave the a 3 Country

xhi Miffi- lipi.

Country the Name of Louifia^a^' to ho- nour the Name and Memory of our Au- guft Monarch, in whofe Reign thofe Difcoveries were made. At length, the Courfe of the Miffifipi convey'' d Monfieur de la Sale to its Mouths, as falhng into the Gulph oi Mexico in two Streams, and he arrived there in the Month of Jpnl 1682 or 168^, for the Dates of thofe = who have writ concerning it, make ei^ ther of thofe Years. He flay'd there fome Days, to take Obfervations and place fome Marks which he might know again, when he returnM. Being fatif- fied with ^having found fome Fart of what he fought, he return'd the fame Way he had gone, and came again to (Rebeck in Canada^ in order to go over 10 France^ and thence to make a Tryal to find that Mouth of the Mtfpfip by the Gulf of Mexico, which he had alrea- dy difcover'd by the Way of Caff ada^ and to fecure it ; for he thought it much more advantageous to know it by the Way of the Sea, than to go thither by Land, becaufe the Voyage through Canada is much longer and more troublefome, and can be performed but once a Year, whereas by the Way of the Bay 0^ Mex- ico it is not longer, but is much more commodious, and may be perfqrm'd

in

[ xxl ]

in all Seafons, either going or coming. He was alfo fenfible that the faid Mouth being once difcover'd by Sea, afforded an eafier and fafer Communication with Canada^ running up that noble River, the Navigation whereof is not inter- rupted by Falls, nor Torrents for aboVe fi)ity Leagues towards its Source.

Thefe Confiderations movM Monfieur de U Sale to take another Voyage into France^ where his Expedition having been commended and his new Projed approv'd of, the King order'd him Vef- fels\ to return and carry on his Enter- prizfe,^ 'the Farticutars whereof are tQ^ be found in this Journal. That Affair, fo well begun, feem'd to promife very advantageous Gbniequences ;'but \t mil- carried through the Perfidioufnefs and Villany of that noble Adventurer's own People. M^VniOT .^

This is what I have judgM nffgtit ferve as an Introduftion to your Jour- 7^* other. nal, if it fhall not be thought to diHTO- ^f;,*;;^ nour it, you may place it before the faid is at the Journal, and that which follows at the f"'^ ^ff^ End of it, which will fhew how far that ^"*''"^' great Enterprize of the Difeovery of the Mifflfip has been carried.

a \ IHE

THE

1^, *j ¦'» •»

PREFACE.

Written by the - .^.^j^-;-. Who Methddiz^S^ 'tKi^ JournaL

' I". ': ' I ' •¦ . I ? r* •"; ' • ~ ¦; f ¦» K> . t ; i

Ci '1'il.iv.' . •JlXi ti-3Mv/Ju.i »Jwi'A — -'

, 1 . ^^ t t, t| • »r

NOtwithlianding the iate Monfieur de la SaleV Voyage hdd a moft unfortu- nate End, as to his own Per/on, jet that rviil not hinder Pojleritj, from ever alloiving him the Title of a m&ft, renowned Traveller,

The Hijiory of his Enter priz^e will be acceptable to future 4ges^ for laying before them^ the extraordinary Genius^ the invin- lible Courage^ and the undaunted Refoluti' mof fmh a Man^ who could contrive and

execute

PREFACE.

. execute the Means for dtf cover wg the re- maining Part of the World. ' Md in regard that the Pdrticuiars of the Difcovery of thofe Urge and immenje Provinces^ will always be the Object of cu- rious and under ft anding Perfons, it is not to be wondered, that after what has been writ by Father Hennepin, a Recolet, the 'Chevalier Tonty and fome others^ we here now fubliffj an Hifiorical journal of the Uft FoyageMonfeur de laSale undertook into the Gulf of Mexico, to the Country of Louifiana, to fnifjj what he had proje^ed at his former Voyage^ had not the Trea- chery of his own Men cut him off.

This journal of Monfieur Joutel, where^ of Monfieur Tonty makes mention in the Bosk that has been printed of the laft Difcoveries in America, Folio ^ig, has this peculiar^ that it exactly contains what hapned to Monfieur de la Sale, Day by Day^ in that fatal Voyage^ fince his Departure ffom Rochelle to his Deaths and till the Return of his Brother Monfieur Caveliei' the Briefly Monfieur Cavelier his Nephew^ the Reverend Father Anaftafius, the Re- colet ^ and the faid Sieur Joutel, who in Order to return to Fra'nce, took that long Journej by Land, from the Gulf of Mexi- co to Canada, leing a Tratf of 'above

800 Leagues,

M.

any

PREFACE.

Many Adventures of all SortSy moli of Hfhich are Tragical ^ mil pleafe the curious Reader ; and above all he vpill admire the Frote£lion of Divine Providence^ in Con- dueling and Freferving that fmaR Com- pany throughout thofe vajl Regions ^ and a^ mong fo many barbarous Nations.

We do not here fretend to Criticife upo^ the Work of Father Hennepin, or that of Monfieur Tonty -^ hut even their own Fa^ 'uourers cannot take it ill, that this Author does not fometimes fay as they do ; that fje plainly delivers what he faw^ and that he ejcpofes to publick F'iew all the 'jtfuths he was an Eye Witnefs to^ without magnifying or inventing.

It is neverthelefs true^ that they may be aU excus'*d as to fome F articular s ; Father Henfiepin and Monfieur Tonty may have feen fome Things, that did not come to the Kjiowledge of Monfeur Joutel ; but there is a Facl of great Confequence in the Hiflory of Monfieur dc la Sale, which mufi not be pafs'^d over in Silence,

It isy that Monfieur Tonty, in his Book affirms, that Monfieur de la Sale at length found the Mouth of. the Miflifipi, and Mon- fieur Joutel ajferts the contrary, and faySy that is fo far from being true^ that during his lafi Frogrefs towards the Cenis, when the faid Sieur Joutel was with him, and

had

PREFACE.

had never been parted, Mofjfeur de Ja Sale*^ principal Care was to enquire of all the Na~ tionsthey pafs^d through, where the MlfiiCi' pi rvaSy and could never hear any thing of it ; that this is evidently made out, becaufe if Monfrur de la Sale had found the Mouth of that River, he would infallihly have taken a?iother Way, and other Meafures, and all the Afpearances are on this Stde, as may he feen tn this Relation,

However, this tnuft be faid in Behalf of Monfieur Tonty, that he deliver'^d it upon the Report of Monfieur Cavelier the Priejly and Brother to Monfieur de la Sale ; which Monfieur Cavelier might have Reafons to give out they had dtJcover''d the Miffifipi, upon the fame Views as obliged him to con- ceal his Brother"* s Death.

Now in regard we fjall fee Monfieur de la Sale, forfome time ranging along the Coafts of North America, to find out the Mouth of that River, it will be proper to inform thofe who have not feen his fir ft Voyage, and Jbew them how it hapned that his Search prov'*d in vain^ and he was oblig'd to land in another Place.

After Monfieur de la Sale had difcover^d that vafi Continent, which is a Fart of North America, from Canada, by the Way of Montreal, going up the River 0} St. Laurence, then through the Country of the

Iroquois,

P R E F A C Ey

Iroquois, the Illinois ay;d of hers, aH which ' he cali'^d, Louifiana, his Dejign tvas to Hnd a jhorter and a fajer Way, than that he had. Traveled by Land.

For this Reafon it was, that having ufon his firft Difcovery found the great River ^ calPd by the Barbarians Miflifipi or Me- chafipi, according to Father Hennepin, and to which he gave the Name of QoXhtn, guefftng by its Courfe that it fell into the Bay ^/Mexico, he refolv'^d mth himfelftofnci out the Mouth of it.

In jbort, he ran down that River, with more Danger and Toil than can be imagirPd^ found it -parted into two Streams and follow'' d that which was rnofi to the Northward, to the. Place where it is loft in the Sea, He took the Latitude that Mouth lay in, and found it was between 28 and 29 Degrees North, as Monfieur Joutel affirms he heard him fay. He left Marks there* returned the Jama Way to Canada and thence into France, well ^leafed rvtth his Difcovery, which would have been very glorious , had he fucceeded in his fecond Voyage.

But whether he did not take his Meafures right ^ when he made hts Objervations ajhore, or whether that River difgorges it felf at a, flat Coaft, aj$d only leaves fome inconfidfe* r able' Mark of its Channel for fuch as come by Sea ; it is mofl certain, that when he

came

PREFACE.

came into the Bay of Mexico, he fought for the fame Mouth in Faw, during the Space of three Weeks^ and was obliged to go ajhore ¦to the S» JV, of the Place, tvhere it really was,

Mo»fieur Tonty, i-a his Book y Fol. 192. tells us, that he was frefent when Monfieur de la Sale took the Latitude of the Mouth of the Miflifipi, at hisfrfi Voyage, and fays it was between twenty two and twenty three De- grees North ; but that is a Miflake^ which muii be affigned either to the Printer^ or Tranfcrtber^for in the Map the f aid Mon^ fieur Tonty has added to his Book, he places the f aid Mouth in about twenty Jix De- grees and a Half of North Latitude, and there is Keafon to believe he errs in that too,

Monfteur Joutel and fome others are of Opinion, that the Mouth of that Branch Monfteur de la Sale went down, is in the Bay of the Holy Ghoii, and aBually between the twenty eighth and twenty ninth Degrees of North Latitude, as M&nfieur de la Sale found it. As .for the other Channel, the fame Sieur Joutel believes it is farther to- wards the S, W, and about the Shoals they met with about the 6/^/; f?/ January, 1685, between the twenty feventh and. twenty eighth Degrees of North Latitude, when they r^ere

failing

PREFACE.

fulling dong the CoAJi of the Bay o/Mexi- co, a»d that thofe Shoals were the Marks cf a River difcharging it f elf there, which they neglecied, to inquire into. If that he fo, Monfieur de la Sale was very near it ^ and even fajs*d along before both the Mouths^ hut unfortunately^ without ferceiving the?lHy which was the main Caufe of his Death and, the Ruin of his Enterprize.

To conclude, it muft be granted, that as the Return of that fmaE Number of PerfonSy from a Country fo remote and through fo ma" ny Dangers, is a visible Effe^ of the Di' 'vine ProteBion ; fo it is alfo an Ejfe5i of Heavenly Jujlice to have freferv'*d thofe JVitnejjes, and to have brought them Home into Monfiuer de la SaleV Country, to re^ trieve his Reputation^ which had been fully"* d by his Enemies,

Monfieur de la Sale would have been ta^ ken for a Dreamer, and even for an Jm- fofor ; his Enterpriz.e had been condemn"* d, and his Memory bUJted -, but God would not permit the Honour of a Man of fuch ftngU' gular Merit to fuffer ; it pleas'* d him to preferve and bring Home unqueftionable IVitnejfes, who, by Word of Mouth and other undoubted Proofs of the notable fiifcoveries made by Monfieur dela Sale, have Hopp'*d

the

PREFACE.

the Mouths of his Enemies, and made out the Truth ef rvh/tt has been ajferted at the Beginning of this Difcourfe, viz. that Mon^ fieur de la Sale only wanted good Fortune to fecure him the Title of a great Man and a. renowned Traveller.

Advertifement, to the Britijh Gentry^

WHereas all Gentlemen ought to fit themfelves be- times for thofefimployraeots which naturally fall to their Share, preferable to their Fellew Subjefts ; and that they who defign in particular to lerve their Prince Abroad, are obliged to underftand the Intereftsand Pre- tentions of Foreign States, as well as the Laws and Con- ttitution of their own Country ; It has been judg'd very ferviceable, by Pcrfons of great Experience^ to have the mofi: celebrated Monfieur Wicquetort's Ambaflador tranilated into the Englilh Tongue, as beiag the only Book that perfefclly exhaufts this Matter, little being written on the Subjeft by other Nations in Comparifon of the Italians, whofe Books are too defedive and ab- ftrafted for common Praiiice. Propofals will (liertly be publiihed, for printing the faid Book by Subfcription, by the Undertaker Bernard Lintott between the two Temple-Gates

The Tragedy of Jane Shore, written in Shakcfpear's Style, by Nicholas Row jEfq; as it is afted at the Queen's Theatre in the Hay-Marker, pr. i f. 6 d.

The Rape of the Lock, an heroick comical Poem, ia 5 Canto's, with 6 Copper Plates, by Mr. Pope. pr. is.

The Works of Monfieur dcMoliere, tranilated, in 6 Vols. I2S. printed on fine Paper and new Elziver Let- ter.

The Clergy-man's Recreation, (hewing the Pleafure and Profit of the Art of Gard'ning. By John Lawrence. A.M. Reftwr of Yelvereofc in Northamptonfhire, and fometime Fellow of Clare-Hall in Cambridge.

Mifcellaneous Poems aud Tranflations by fevcral Hands, particularly, the firit Book of Scanus his Thebais tranflated. The Fable of Vertumnus and Pomoua, from the 14th Book of Ovid's Metamorphfelis. To a young Lady;; with the Works of Voicure, On Silence. To the Author of a Poem entituled Succefiion. The Rape of the Lock. An Ode for Mulick on 5r. Cecilia's Day, Windfor Foreft. To the Right honourable George Ld, Lanfdown. An Eflliy on Cricicifm. An Epigram upon Two or Three, All written by Mr. Pope.

Advertifement, to the Briti[h Gentry^,

WHereas all Gentlemen ought to fit themfelves be- times for thofe fimploymeats which naturally fall 10 their Share, preferable to their Fellow Subjefts ; aod that they who defign in particular to lerve their Prince Abroad, are obliged to undcrftand the Interefts and Pre- tentions of Foreign States, as well as the Laws and Con- ftitution of their own Country ; It has been judg'd very ferviceable, by Pcrfons of great Experience^ to have the mofi: celebrated Monfieur Wicquetort's Ambaflador tranflated into the Englifh Tongue, as being the only Book that perfefcily exhaufts this Matter, little being written on the Subjeft by other Nations in Comparifon of the Italians, whofe Books arc too defedive and ab- ftra£>ed for common Praftice. Propofals will (liortly be publiihed, for printing the faid Book by Subfcription, by the Undertaker Bernard Lintott between the two Temple-Gates

The Tragedy of Jane Shore, written in Shakefpear's Style, by Nicholas Row ffq; as it is afted at the Queen's Theatre in the iiay-Marker. pr. i f. 6 d.

The Rape of the Lock, an heroick comical Poem, ia 5 Canto's, with 6 Copper Plates, by Mr. Pope. pr. i?»

The Works of Monfieur de Moliere, tranflated, in 6 Vols. I2S. printed on fine Paper and new Elziver Let- ter.

The Clergy-man's Recreation, (hewing the Pleafure and Profit of the Art of Gard'ning. By John Lawrence. A.M. Reftwr of Yelvereorc in Northampconfhire, and fomctime Fellow of Clare-Hall in Cambridge,

Mifcellaneous Poems and Tranflations by feveral Hands, particularly, the firft Book of Stacius his Thcbais tranflated. The Fable of Verturanus and Pomoua, from the 14th Book of Ovid's Metamorphwlis. To a young Lady;; with the 'Works of Voiture. On Silence. To the Author* of a Poem entituled Succeflion. The Rape of the Lock. An Ode for Mufick on St. Cecilia's Day. Windfor Foreft. To the Right /honourable George Ld. Lacfdowu. An Efl^iy on Criticifm. An Epigram upoa Two or Three, All writtea by Mr. Pope.

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( ^ )

A k Historical Journal

O F T H E

Late Monfieur de la Sale's

LAST

VOYAGE

INTO

North America,

To Difcover the

River MISSISIPL

A T the Time when Monfieur ^e U Sale n is Mr, yLjL was preparing for his laft Voyage into Joutel JL JL North jimerica^ I happen'd to be at \k-itfpejiis Roan, the Place where he and I were both born, ^^^J^l' being retarn'd from the Army, where I had * •

fervM fixteen or feventeen Years.

The Reputation gain'd by Monfieur de la Sale^ the Greatnefsof his Undertaking} the Natural

B Curiofiry

2 Monfteur de la Sal eV Second Voyage >

^uiyit^i. Cariofity which all Men are polTefsM with,' ^^yV^^ and my Acquaintance with his Kindred, and with feveral of the Inhabitants of that City, who were to bear him Company, eafily pre- vail'd with me to make one of the Number, and 1 was admitted as a Voluncier.

Our Rendezvous was appointed at Rochet^ where we were to imbark. Meflieurs Cavdier^ the one Brother, the other Nephew to Mon- lieur de la Sale^ Meflieurs Chedeville, Planteroz.e^ Thibault^ Ory, fome others and I, repaired thi- ther in July 1684. Vepmure Monlieur de la Sale having provided all from ao- Things necefTary for his Voyage, fjrmounted all '^^'^^' the Difficulties laid in his Way by feveral ill- minded Perfons, and received his Orders from Monfieur Amoult^ thelntendant at Rochel, pur- faant to thofe he had receiv'd from the King, we fail'd on the 24th of Juiy^ 1684, being twenty four Vefiels, four of them for our Voyage, and the others for the Iflands and Ca?iada. Per Tons The four Vcflels appointed for Monfieur

ztuiwcnt. de la Sale's Enterprize, had oh Board aboui two hundred and eighty Perfons, including the Crews-, of which Number there were one hun- dred Soldiers, with their Officers, one Talons with his Canada Family, about thirty Volun- tiers, fome young Women, and the reft hired People and Workmen of all Sorts, rcquilite for making of a Settlement. shipi. The firlt of the four Vefiels was a Man of

War, call'd le Joly^ of about thirty fix or forty Guns, commanded by Monfieur de Beaujeu^ oa which Monfieur de la Sale^ his Brother the Prieft, two Recolet Fryars, Mefiieurs i>4/«-

ntaville

J;;/^ N R T H A M E R I C A. ^

fnav ilU sind Chedevilie, Priefts, and I imbark'd. ^tdj 16S4 The next was a little Frigare, carrying fix V'V^^ Guns, which the King had given to Monfieur tie la SaU, commanded by two Mafters -, a Flyboat of about three hundred Tuns Burden, belonging to the Sieur M<^iot, Merchant ac Rcchel, commanded by the Sieur jligron^ and laden with all the Effe6ts Monfieur de la Sale had thought necefTary for his Settlement, and a fmall Ketch, on which Monfieur deUSale had imbark'd thirty Tuns of Ammunition, and Tome Commodities defign'd {ov Santo Dcmi/?go.

All the Fleet, being under the Command of Monfieur de Beaujeu^ was order'd to keep to- gether as farasC^jpff Ftnifterre^ whence eich was to follow his own Gourfe ^ but this was prevent- ed by an unexpeded Accident. We were come into 45 Degrees 23 Minutes of North Latitude, .and about 50 Leagues from Rochet^ when the Boltfprit of our Ship, the Joly^ on a fudden, broke fhort, which oblig'd us to ftrike all our Bohfprit other Sails, and cut all the Rigging the broken ^"fl- Boltfprit hung by.

Every Man refle(fled on this Accident ac- cording to his Incli^iacion- Some were of Opi- nion it was a Contrivance ^ and it was debated in Council, Whether we fhould proceed to Por- tuaal^ or return to Rochet^ or Rochfort \ but the i{eturn to latter Refolution prevail'd. The other Ships Rochforc. defign'd for the Illands and Canada, parted from us ,and held on their Courfe. We made back for the River of Rochfort, whither the other three VefTels follow'd us, and a Boat was fent in, to acquaint the Intendant with this Acci- dent. The Boat return'd fome Hours after, lowing along a Boltfprit, which was foon fet ia

B 2 its

4 Mofjfieur de la S a l eV Second Voyage

'Aup,.i6'i^-\i% Place, and after Monfieur ^? /^ S^/e had v/V^*^' coaferd with the Intendant, he left that Place on the firft oi Augufi^ i684>

We faird again, Iteering W. and by S. and

Cap- F' ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ °^ ^'^^^ ^^^^^^ Month weather'd Cafe n'l^txitl' Finiflerre^ which is in 43 Degrees of North La- titude, without meeting any Thing remarkable. The 1 2th, we were in the Latitude of Lisbon^ or about 39 Degrees North. The i5th, we were in 36 Degrees, the Latitude of the Streights^ "^^^^"' and the 20th, difcover'd the Ifland Madera^ which is in 32 Degrees,and where Monfieur^e Beaujeu propos'd to Mcnfieur de la Sale to an- chor, and take in Water and fome Refreih- ments. jyifferetice Monfieur de la Sale was not of that Mind, on betweimbe Account that.we had been but twenty one Days COTrf«. from France^ had fufficient Store of Water, ought to have taken aboard Refrelhments enough, and it would be a Lofs of eight or ten Days to no Purpofe ^ befides, that our Enter- prize reqair'd Secrecy, whereas the Spaniards might get feme Infoimitiou, by Means cf the People cf that Illand, which was not agree- able to the King's Intention.

This Aafwer was not acceptable to MonCeur de Beaujeu, or the other Officers, nor even to the Ships Crew, who mutter'd at it very inuch, and it went fo far, that a Paflenger, call'd Taget^ 3. Hugonet oi Rachel^ had the Infolenceto talk to Monfieur de la Sale in a very pafiionate and difrefpedful Manner, fo that he was fain to make his Complaint to Monfieur de Beaujeu^ and to ask of him, Whether he had given any Incouragement to fuch a Fellow to talk to him after that 'Manner. Mon-fieur Beaujeu

made

Into NO R T H A M E R I C^K, 5

made him no Satisfaction. Thefe Mifunder- ^^"^.1684 ftandings,wich fome others which happen'd be- ^>^/^^ fore, being no Way advantageous to his Maje- fty's Service, laid the Foundation of thofe tra- gical Events, which afterwards put an unhappy End to Monfieur de Lt Salens Life and Under- taking, and occalion'd our Ruin.

However, it was refolv'd not to come to an Fhhg Anchor at that liland, whereupon Monfieur de Fijh. Beaujeu faid, That fince it was fo, we fnould put in no where but at the Ifland of Sa^ito Do- mingo. We held on our Courfe, vveather'd the Ifland of Madera^ arid began to fee thofe little flying FiHies, which to efcape the Dorados^ or Gilt-Heads, that purfae them^ leap out of the Water, take a little Flight of about a Piftol Shot, and then tall again into the Sea, but very often into Ships, as they are failing by. That Fifli is about as big as a Herring, and very good to eat.

On the 24th, we canfis into the Trade Wind, which continually blows from Ealt to Weft,and ^S^^J is therefore call'd by fome Authors Fentus [ub- foUnus^hecauk it follows the Motion of the Sun. The 28th, we were in 27 Degrees 44 Minutes of North Latitude,and in 344 of Longitude. The 30th, we had a Stormj which continu'd violent for two Days, but being right aftern of us, we only loft Sight of the Ketch, for want of good Steering,but Ihe join'd us ag:.in a few Days after.

The 6th o{ September^vfQ were under the Tro- pic oiCaKcer^in 23 Degrees 30 Minutes of North Latitude and 319 of Longitude. There Monf. ziuckwr. de la Sale\ Obftructing the Ceremony the Sailors call Ducking, gave them Occafion to mutter agaifljand reuder'd himfelf privately c.dio.us. So B 3 many

6 Monfeur de la S A l e'i Second Voyacre

s?pt.i6'^4. many have given an Account of the Nature oi ^>'V^ that Folly, that it would be needlefs to repeat it here-, it may faffice to fay, that there arc three things to authorize it, i. Ciiflom. 2. The Oath adminifter'd to thofe whoare duck'd, wTiich is to this EfFed, That they will Jtot perrmt any to pafs the Tropics or the Line^ without obliging them to the fame Ceremony. And 3, which is the inoft prevailing Argument, the Intereft accruing to the Sailors upon that Occafion, by the Re- frefhments, Liquors or Money given them by the Palfengers to be exciis'd from that Ceremony.

Monfr. ^e la Sale^ being inform'd that all Things were preparing for that impertinent Ce- remony of Ducking, and that a Tub full of Water was ready on the Deck (the Frefich Duck in a great Cask ofWater^ the Englijlj in the Sea, let" ting down the Peyfon at the Tard Arm^ fent Word, that he would not allow fuch as were under his Command to be fubjeft to that Folly, which being told to MonCr. deBeattjeu^be forbid putting of it in Execution, to the great Difla- tlsfadion of the inferior Officers and Sailors, who expected a conliderable Sum of Money and Quantity of Refrefhraents, or Liquors, becaufe there were many Perfons to Duck, and all the Blame was laid upon Monfr. de la Sale.

On the nth of Septembe^^ we were in the Hifpsni- Latitude of the Ifland of Santo Domingo^ or Hif" oU ijlind, panioUy being 20 Degrees North, and the Lon- gitude of 320 Degrees. We fteer'd our Courfe Weft, but the Wind flatting, the enfuing Calm qaite ftopp'd our Way. That fame Day Monfr. Dair.maville, the Prieft, went aboard the Bark la Belie, toadminifter the Sacraments to a Gmij*^ ner, who died a few Days after, ^loniridejii

fe(? N O R T H A M E R I C A. 7

Sale went to fee him, and I bore him Company. Sepf.i6'^4.

The lift, the Ketch, which we had before ^-'^'^^ loft: Sight of, join'd us again *, and feme Com- plaints being made to Monfr. de U Sale^ by fc- veral private Perfons that were aboard the Fly- boat, he order'd me to go thither to accomo- date thofe Differences, which were occalion'd only by fome Jealoufies among them.

The i6th, we fail'd by the I fland 5ow^^'er<7, Sombrero and the i8th had hard blowing Weather, which iflnni, made us apprehenfive of a Hurracan. The foul Weather lafl:cd two Days, during which Time, we kept under a main Courfe and loll Sight of the other Veflels.

A Council was call'd aboard our Ship, the Joly^ to coniider whether we fhould lie by tor the others, or hold on our Courfe, and it was refolv'd, that, conlidering our Water began to fall (hort, and there were above five Perfons lick aboard, of which Number Monfr. de la Sals and the Surgeon were, we fliould make all the Sail we could, to reach the firfl: Port of the I- fland HifpanioU^ being that call'd Port de Paix^ or Port Peace, which llefolution was according- ly regifter'd.

The 20th, we difcover'd the iirfl: Land of Hifpaniola^ being Ca^pt Samana, lying in rpDe- cxpsSi- grees of North Latitude, and of Longitude 308. rnanfi. The 25th we fhould have put into Fort de Faix^ as bad been concerted, and it was not only the moffc convenient Place for us to get P^efrefh- ments, but alfo the Refidence of Monfr. de Cuf- fy., Governor of the Ifland Tortuga^ who knew that Monfr. de la Sde carried particular Or-- ders for him to furnilh fuch Necefi'^ries as he ftood in Need of.

B 4 Not-

8 Monfieur de la S A l e''s Secofjd Voyage

S€pt.\6'?>x Notwilhftanding thefe cogent Reafbns, Mr^

y^'!"^ de Beaujeu was politive to pais further on in the

'lUnd^^ Night, weathering the Ifland Tortuga^ which is

fome Leagues diftant from Port de P^/rand the

Coaft of HlfpanioUi. He alfo pafs'd Cape St.

Nicolas^ and the 26th of the faid Month,we put

snto the Bay of Jaguana^ coafting the Ifland

Guanabo^ which is in the Middle of that great

Bay or Galph, and in Conclufion, on the 27th

we arriv'd at JPetit Cow^^'^jhaving (pent 58 Days

in our PafTage from the Port of Chef de Bois^

' near Rcchel.

This Change of the Place for our little Squa- dron to put into, for which no Reafon could be given, prov'd very difadvantageous ;, and it will hereafter appear, as I have before obferv'd, that thofc Mifunderftanding among the Officers infenfibly drew on the Caules from whence our Misfortune proceeded.

As foon as we had dropt Anchor, a Piragua^ or great Sort oi Canoe, came out from the Place, with Twenty Men, to know who we were, and hail'd us. Being inform'd that we were French^ they acquainted us, that Monfieur de Cuffy was at Port de Paix with the Marquis de St, Laurent^ Lieutenant General of the /^wenV^wIflands, and Monfieur Began the In-tendans, which very much troubled Monfieur de la Sale, as having Affairs of the utmoft Confequence to concert with them •, but there was no Remedy, and he was oblig'd to bear it with Patience.

The next Day, being the 28ch. we fang Te Deum, in Thankfgiving for our profperous Pafldge. Monfieur de la Sale being fomewhat recover'd of his Indifpofition, went Afliore with feveral of the Gentlemen of his Retinue, to buy

" fome

l^to NORTH AMERICA. 9

fome RefreJhment5 for the Sick, and to find Oa.1684. Means to fend Notice of his Arrival, to Mef- ^>^VV^ fieurs de St. Laurent ydeCuffy 2i^<\ Begen^tind fignify to them, how much he was concern'd that we had not put into Port de Paix. He writ particu- larly to Monlieur de Cujfy^ to defire he would come to him, if poflible, that he might be af- fifting to him, and take the neceflary Meafures for rendring his Enterprize fuccefsful, that in might prove to the King's Honour and Service.

In the mean- Time, the Sick fufferlng very much Aboard the Ships, by Reafon of the Hear, and their being too clofe together, the Sol- diers were put Afhore, on a little Uland, near Petit Gouavesj which is the ufual Burial-PIace of the People of the pretended Reformed Reli- gion, where they had frefh Provifions, and Bread baked on Purpofe, diftributed to them. As for the Sick, I wasorder'd by Monfieur<5fff la Sale, to provide a Houfe for them, whither they were carry'd, with the Surgeons, and fup- ply'd with all that was requifite for them.

Some Days after, Monfieur de la Sale fell dan- geroufly ill, mofl of his Family were alio lick. A violent Fever, attended with Lightheaded- nefs, brought him almofi; to Extremity. The Pofture of his Affairs, Want of Money, and the Weight of a mighty Enterprize, without know- ing whom to truft with the Execution of it, made him ftill more Sick in Mind, than he was in his Body, and yet his Patience and Refolutioii furmounted all thofe Difficulties. He pitch'd upon Monfieur le Gros and me to act for him, caus'd fome Commodities he had Aboard the 5hips to be fold, to raife Moneys and through

our

oi Monfeur de la Sal eV Second Voyage

N0V.16H our Care, and the excellent Conftitution of hi$

0''V^ Body, he recovered Health.

Whilft he wasia that Condition, two of our Ships, which had been feparated from us on the

iTnfXe ^Sthof5e;)few^ffr, by the ftormy Winds, arrived

s^iniuL. ^^ ^^^^^ Geuave on the 2d of OEinher. The Joy conceived on Account of their Arrival, ' was much allay'd by the News they brought of the Lofs of the Ketch, taken by two Ssanijit Piraguas ^ and that Lofs was the more grievous, becaufe that VeHel was laden with Provifions, Ammu- nition, Utenfils and proper Tools for the fetling of our new Colonies \ a Misfortune which would not have happened, had Monfieur de Btaujeu put into Port de Taix^ and Mellieurs de St. Laurent^ de Cujfy^ nnd. Begon who arrived at the fame Time, to fee Monfieur de la Sale did not fpare to figni fy as much to him, and ta complain of that Mifcarriage.

Monfieur de la Sale being recover'd, had fe- veral Conferences with thefe Gentlemen, rela- ting to his Voyage. A Confult of Pilots was called to refolvc where we ihould touch before we came upon the Coaft of America^ and it was refolved to fteer direftly for the Weftern Point of the Ifland of Cuba^ or for Cape St. ^«- tony, diftant about 300 Leagues from I^if- faniola^ there to expeft the proper Seafon, and a fair Wind to enter the Gulph or Bay, which is but Two hundred Leagues over.

The next Care was to lay in Store of other- Provifions, in the Room of thofe which were loft, and Monfieur de la Sale was the more pref- fing for us to imbark, becaufe moft of his ?*lea deferted, or were debauch'd by the Inhabitants of the Place j and the Velfel calfd /' Aimahle^

being

M^ NORTH AMERICA. ii

being the worfl: Sailer of our little Squadron, ^ec.\6^4. h wasrefolv'd that Ihould carry the Light, and ^>'^V"^ the others to follow it. MonHeur de la SaU^Mon- 'fieur Cavelier his Brother, the Fathers Zembnus and Anaflafus^ both Recolets, Monfienr Cloede- lille and I imbark'd on the faid AimabU and all fail'd the 25th of November,

We met with fome Calms, and feme violent Winds, which neverthelefs carry'd us in Sight of the Ifland of Cuba^ on the 30th of the fame Month, and it then bore from us A^. W. There we aker'd our Courfe and fteer'd W, and by N» The 31ft, the Weather being fomewhac clofe, we loft Sight of that Ifland, then ftood W. N. W, and the Sky clearing up, made an Obferx'arion at Noon, and found we were in 19 Degrees, 45 Minutes of North Latitude ; by which we judgM that the Currents had carry'd us off to Sea from the Ifland of Cuba.

On the firft of December we difcover'd the Ifland Cayman. The 2d we fteer'd N. W. and by Caymsa W. in order to come up with the Ifland of Cuba iflmd, in the Northern Latitude of 20 Degrees 32 Mi- nutes. The 3d we difcover'd the little Ifland of „^ , .-. Pines, lying clofe to Cuba. The 4tb, we wea- pj^cs/ ther'd a Point of that Ifland, and the Wind growing fcant, were forc'd to ply upon a Bowl- ing, and make feveral Trips till the 5th at Night, when we anchor'd in a Creek, in 1 5 Fathom Water, and continued there till the Sth.

During that flioit Stay, Monfieur de la Sale went Afhore with feveral Gentlemen of his Re- tinue on the Ifland oi Pines, fhot an Alligator dead, and returning Aboard, perceiv'd he had loft two of his Voluntiers, who had wander'd

into

12 Monfieur de la S A i. e*s Second Fofage

X?ef.i684 into the Woods, and perhaps loft their Wayl V^V^ We fired feveral Mufquet Shots to call them, which they did not hear, and I was order'd to exped them alhore, with 30 Mufquetiers to' attend me. They return'd the next Morning v/ith much Trouble.

In the mean Time, our Soldiers, who had 'Mk&tor ^00^ Stomachs, boilM and eat the Alligator, emn. Monfieur de laSale had kiird.The Fiefh of it was white and had a Tafte of Musk, for which Rea- fon I could not eat it. One of our Hunters kill'd a wild Swine, which the Inhabitants of thofe Iflands call Maron. There are of them ,... . . in the lOand of Santo Domingo^ or Hifyaniola^ ' they are of the Breed of thofe the Spaniards left in the Iflands when they firft difcover'd them, and run wild in the Woods. I fent it to Mon- fieur de la Sale, who prefented the one Half to Morjfieur de Beaujeu, Jjlavd of xhat Illand is all over very thick wooded, ^^^^^' the Trees being of feveral Sorts, and fome of them bear a Fruit refembling the Acorn, but harder. There are Abundance of Parrots, lar- ger than thofe at Petit Gouave, a great Number of Turtle Doves and other Birds, and a Sore of Creatures refembling a Rat, but as big as a Cat, their Hair reddilh. Our Men kill'd many of them and fed heartily on them, as they did on a good Quantity of Filh, wherewith that Goail abounds.

We imbark'd again, as foon as the two Men who had ftray'd were retorn'd, and on the 8ch-, being the Feaft of the Conception of the Blefled Virgin, fail'd in the Morning, after having beard Mafs , and the Wind fliifting were forc'd Eo fteer feveral Courfes. The pth we difcover'd

Cape

Into NORTH AMERICA. ij

Cape Cdrrienusfii the Ifland oiCuba-^ where we 2^^^.1684. were firft: becalm'd ^ and then follow'd a ftormy ^i^"^^^"*^ Wind, which carried us away five Leagues to corr^en- the Eaftward. The 10th we fpent the Night, tesavist making feveral Trips. The nth, the Wind Antony, coming about, we weather'd Cape Corrientes^ to make that of St. Antony • and at length, after plying a con (Iderable Time, and founding, we came to an Anchor the i2th,upon good Ground, in fifteen Fathom Water, in the Creek form'd by that Cape, which is in 22 Degrees of North Latitude and 288 Degrees 35 Minutes of Lon- gitude.

We ftay'd there only till next Day, being the 13th, when the Wind feem'd to be favourable to enter upon the Bay of Mexico. We made ready and fail'd, fleering N. W» and by JV. and N. N. W, to weather the faid Cape and profe- cute our Voyage : But by that Time we were five Leagues from the Place of our Departure, we perceiv'd the Wind fhifted upon us, and not ' knowing which Way the Currents fate, we flood E. and by N. and held that Courfe till the 14th, when Monfieur de Beaujeu, who was aboard the Joly, join'd us again, and having confer'd with Monfieur de la Sale about the Wind's being contrary, propofed to him tore- turn to Cape St. Antofiy^ to which Monlieur /a'e Li Sale confented, to avoid giving him any Caufe to complain, tho' there was no great Occafion for fo doing, and accordingly v/e went and an- chor'd in the Place from whence we came.

The next Day, being t!.ie i5ch, Monfieur de U Sale fent fome Men afhore, to try whether we could fill fome Casks with Water. They brought ^ ord, they had fouad fQjiie in the

Wood,

i 4 Monfteur de la Sal eV Second. Voyage

D^c.\6%^ Wood, which was not much amifs, but that

^y^*"^"^^ there was no Conveniency for rowling of the

Casks •, for which Reafon Rundlets were fent,

and as much Water brought in them, as fiU'd

iix or feven of our Water Casks.

The fame Men reported, that they had found

a glafs Bottle, and in it a little Wine, or fome

other Liquor, almoft dead. This was all the

Provifion we found in that Place, by which it

M\^i\s in appears, how much Monlienr Tonti was mifin-

Mon[itur form'd, fince in his Book, Tag. 2^i» he fays,

jicclumof^^^^^^^ in that Ifland feverai Tun of Spanijh

thisVoms. Wine, good Brandy and /«^/^« Wheat, which

the Spaniards had left or abandon'd j and it is a

meer Invention without any Thing of Truth.

The i6th, the Weather being (bill Calm, the Men went aftiore again for five or fix more Casks of Water. I was tohavegone with them, had not an Indifpofition, which I firft felt in the Ifland of i'/;/?/, and afterwards turn'd to a tertian Ague, prevented me. Therefore lean give no Account of that Ifland, any further than what I could fee from the Ships, which was Abundance of that Sort of Palm-Trees, in French call'd Lataniers^ fit for nothing but m:iking of Brooms, or fcarce any other Ufe. That Day we faw fome Smoaks, far within the Ifland, and guefs'd they might be a Signal of the Number of our Ships, or elfe made by fome of the Country Hunters, who had lolt their Way.

The next Night preceding the 17th, the Wind frelhning from the N. W. and ftarting up all on a fudden, drove the Veflel call'd la Belle upon her Anchor, fo that (he came foul of the Boltfprisofthe Aimable, carrying away the

Sprit-

/;?/£? NORTH AMERICA. 15

Spritfail-Yard and the Spritfail-Top-Sail-Yard, Pec.i6U. and had not they immediately veer'd out the C/^''\^ Cable of the Aimable^ the VelTel I a Belle would have been in danger of perifhing, but eicap'd with the Lofs of her Mizen, which came by the Board, and of about a hundred Fathoms of Cable and an Anchor,

The 18th, the Wind being frefli, we made ready, and Tail'd about Ten in the Morning, (landing iVor/-/; and N, and by W. and held our Courfe till Noon \ the Point of Cape Sv Anthony bearing EAJi- and Weft with us, and & continu'd fteering North-Weft^ till the 1 9th at Noon, when we found our fclves in the Latitude of 22 De- grees 58 Minutes North, and in 287 Degrees 54 Minutes Longitude.

Finding the Wind fhifting from one Side to another, we direfted our Courfe feveral Ways, but that which proved advantageous to us, was the fair Weather, and that was a great Help, fothatfcarce a Day pafs'd without taking ai£ Obfervation.

The 2oth,we found theVariationof theNeedle was 5 Degrees Weft, and w^ were in 26 Degrees 40 Minutes of North Latitude and 285 Degrees i<5 Minutes Longitude. The 23th it grew very cloudy* which threateu'd flormy Weather, and we prepar'd to receive it, but came off only with the Apprehenfion, the Clouds difperfing feveral Ways, and we continued till the 27th in and about 28 Degrees 14 Minutes, and both by the Latitude and Eflimation it was judg'd, that we were- not far from Land.

The Bark call'd !a Belle was fent out to difcover and keep before, founding all the Way j and half an Hour before Sun-fet, we faw the

Vellel

1 6 Monfieur de la S a l eV Second, Foyage •

£>ec.i6S4. VelTel /^ Belle T^ut out her Colours and lie by ^^^V"^ for us. Being come up with her, the Mailer told us, he had found an Owzy Bottom ac thirty two Fathom Water. At eight of the Clock we founded alfo, and found forty Fa- thom, and at ten, but twenty five. About Midnight, la Belle founding again, found only feventeen^ which being a Demonftrationof the Kearnefs of the Land, we lay by for the Joly^ to know what Monfieur de Beaujeu defign'd, who being come up, lay by with us.

The 27tb, Monfieur de Beaujeu fent the Che- valier d'Aire^ his Lieutenant, and two Pilots to Monfieur de la Sale^ to conclude upon the Courfe we were to fleer, and it was agreed we (hould flared Well North VVeft till we came»into fix Fathom Water ; t'fiat then we Ihould run Welt, and when we had difcover'd the Land, Boats ihould be fent to view the Country. Matters being thus agreed on, we fail'd again, founding all the Way for the more Security, and about ten, were in ten or eleven Fathom Water, the Bottom fine greyifli Sand and owzy. At Noon, were in 26 Degrees ^37 Minutes of North La- titude.

The 28th, being in eight or nine Fathom "Water, we perceiv'd the Bark la Belle^ which kept a Head of us, put out her Colours, which was the Signal of her having difcover'd Some- thing. A Sailor was fent up to the Main-Top, who defcry'd the Land, to the N. E. not above fix Leagues Diftance from us, which being told to Monfieur ^e Beanjeu, he thought fit to come to an Anchor.

There being no Man among us who had any Knowledge of that Bay, where we had been

told

/Wo NORTH AMERICA. 17

told the Currents were ftrong, and fate fwiftly -^^'^-k^S-i to the Eafirvard, it made us fufped that we^-^^'''^"^ were faHen off, and that the Land we faw muft be the Bay of ^palache^ which oblig'd us on the 29th to (leer ^F. N. W, ftill keeping along the Land, and ic was agreed that the Joly fhould follow us in fix Fathom Water.

The 30th, the Chevalier d* Aire and the fe- cond Pilot of the Joly came aboard us to con- fer and adjuft by our Recknings wh.it Place we might be in, and they all agreed, according to Monlieur de la Salens Opinion, that the Cm^Cnrrentsi rents had fet us to the Eafiward^ior which Rea- fon we held on oar Courfe, as we had done the Day before to the N. W. keeping along the Shore till the firft of January 1685. when we perceiv'd that the Currents forc'd us towards the Land, which oblig'd us to come to an An- chor in fix Fathom Water.

We had not been there long,before theBark U Belle made a Signal that fhe had difcover'd Land, which we defcry'd at about 4 Leagues Diftance from us. Notice was given to iVIon- lieur^e ^?4w)e«, who drew near to us, and it was refolv'd to fend fome Ferfon to difcover and take an Account of the Land that appear'd to us.

Accordingly a Boat was man'd, and into it went Monfieur de la Sale, the Chevalier de Aire and feveral others ^ another Boat was alfo put out, aboard which I went with Ten or Twelve of our Gentlemen, to join Monfieur de la Sale and the Bark la Belle was order'd to follow al- ways keeping along the Shore j to the End that if the Wind fhou'd rife, wc might get aboard her, to lofe no Time.

C Some

1 8 Monfieur de la Sal E'i Second Voyage

^in.\6%<, Some of thofe who were in Monfiear dt la

^^yy^^ Salens Boat, and the foremoft, went afhore and

firflun- ^^"^ ^ fpacious plain Country of much Failure

ding, ' Ground *, but had no£ the Leifure to make any

particular Difcovery, becaufe the Wind frefh-

iiing, they were oblig'd to return to their

Boat, to come aboard again •, which was the

Reafon why we did not go quite up to theShore,

but return'd with them to our Ship. All that

could be taken Notice of was a great Quantity

of Wood along the Coafl:. We took an Ob-

iervation and found 29 Degrees 10 Minutes of

Korth Latitude.

The Second, there arofe a Fog,which made us lofe Sight of the Joly. The next Day, the Weather clearing up, we fir'd fome Cannon- fhot and the "joly anfwer'd, and towards the - Evening we perceiv'd her to the Windward o£ us. We held on our Courfe, making feveral Trips till the Fourth in the Evening, when be- ing in Sight and within two Leagues of the Land, we came to an Anchor to expect the Jo/y, for which we were in Pain. Menfieur The Fifth, we fet Sail and held on our Courfe I^^f*^^^^^; IV. S. W. keepinglalong the Shore till about Six ^^Mml^of'^'^ the Evening, when we ftood away to the the mouths Southward and anchor'd at Night in fix Fathom t)f tfc^Mif- Water. The Sixth, we would have made ready j:(ipi. See j-q fail, but the Pilot perceiving, that the Sea the Fref. ^^^y^^ aflern of us, and that there were fome

and. vjhtit ^, , • 1 u^

joUovus. Shoals, It was thought proper to contmue at

Anchor, till the Wind chang'd, and we accor- dingly ftaid there the Sixth and all the Seventh. The Eighth the Wind veering about, we ftood out a little to Sea, to avoid thoft Shoals, which are very dangerous, ai^d anchor'd again a League

from

t^folSiORTB. AMERICA. 19

from thence. Upon Advice, that the Bark /^ ^-'^/.idS^ Be/ie had difcover'd a fmall IQand, which ap- ^^'*^^'^' pear'd between the two Points of a Bay, Mon- fiear de la Sale fent a Man up to the round Top, from whence both the one and the other were plainly to be feen, and according to the Sea Charts we had with us, that was fuppos'd to be the Bay of the Holy Ghofl,

The Ninth, Monfieur de U 5^/«,|fent to view thofe Shoals. Thofc who went reported there was a fort of Bank, which runs along the Coaft % that they had been in one Fathom Water and difcover'd the little Illind before-mention'd, and as for the Sand Bank there is no fuch thing markM down in the Charts. Monfieur de la Sale having €xamin'd the Recknings, was confirm'd in his Opinion, that we were in the Bay of A^alache^ and caus'd us to continue the fame Courfe.

The Tenthjhe took an Obfervation and found 29 Degrees 23 Minutes North Latitude. The eleventh, we were becalmed, and Monfieur de la Sale refolv'd to go afhore, to endeavour to difcover whaE he was looking for*, but as we were making ready, the Pilot began to mutter becaufe five or fix of us were going with Mon- fieur de la Sale, who too lightly aker'd his De- fign, to avoid giving Offence to brutiih People. In that Particular he committed an irretrieve- able Error j for it is the Opinion of Judicious Men, who, as well as I, faw the reft of that Voyage, that the Mouth of one of the Branches of the Miffippi River, and the fame whofe La- titude Monfieur de la Sale had taken, when he travelfd to it from Canada^ was not far from C 2 that

. 20 Monfieur de la S A l e'/ Second VojAge

^i»t685. that Place, and that we niaft of Necefllty be

<-

de laSaic'j ^^ ^^^ Moiifieur

-^^ijide. , Bay, and having found it, he had refolv'd to have fet alhore about thirty Men, who were to have follow'd the Coaft on the Right and Lett, .which would infallibly have difcover'd to hira that fatal River, and have prevented many .Misfortunes ^ but Heaven refus'd him that Succefs, and even made him regardlefs of an Affair of fuch Confequence, fince he was fatis- fy'd with fending thither the Pilot, with one of the Malters of the Bark la Belle^ who re- .turn'd without having feen any Thing, becaufe a Fog happen'd to rife , only the Mafter of the Bark faid he believ'd there was a River oppofite to thofc Shoals, which was very likely, -and yet Monileur de la Sale took no Notice of it, nor made any Account of that Report. t ,The Twelfth, the Wind being come about we weigh'd and dired^ed our Courfe S. W. to get further from the Land. By an Obfcrva- tion tound 25 Degrees 50 Minutes "North La- titude, and the Wind fhifting, and the Cur- rents, which fet from the Seaward driving us afhore, it was found convenient to anchor .in four or five Fathom Water, where we /pent all the Night.

The Thirteenth, we perceiv'd our Water began to fall fhort, and therefore it wasreqai- fite to go afhore to fill fome Casks. Monfieur de la Sale proposed it to me to go and fee it perform'd, which I accepted of, with fix of our Gentlemen who offer'd their Service. We went into the Boat, with our Arms, the Boat belonging to the Bark U Beth follow'd ours,

with

into NORTH AMERICA. 21

with five or fix Men, and we all made direftly ^^)^ for the Land. ^^'^

We were very near the Shoar, when we dif- cover'd a Number of naked Men marching a- long the Banks, whom we fuppos'd to be na- tive Savages. We drew within two Musket Shots of the Land, and the Shore being flat, rhe Wind fetting from the Offing, and the Sea running high, droptour Anchors, for Fear of Having our Boats.

When the Savages perceiv'd we had flopped, they made Signs to us with Skins, to go to them, Ihew'd us their Bows, which they laid suvdges down upon the Ground, and drew near to the ^J'"''"* * Edge of the Shore-, but becaufe we could not get Afhore, and ftill they continued their Sig- nals, I put my Handkerchief on the End of my Firelock, after the Manner of a Flag, and made Signs to them to come to us. They were foroe Time con fidering of it, and at lalt feme of them ran into the Water up to their Shoulders, till perceiving that the Waves over- whelm'd them, they went out again, fetch'd a large Piece of Timber, which they threw into the Sea, phc'd themfelves along both Sides of it, holding fait to it with one Arm, and fwim- ing with the others and in that Manner they drew near to our Boat. •

Being in Hopes that Monfr, de U SaU^ might get fome Information from thofe Savages, we made no Difficulty of taking them into our Boat, one after another, on each Side, to the Number of five, and then made Signs to the reli to go to the other Boat, which thsy didj and we car- Q^,.pj f y'd them on Board- Aboa^i^

G =? Mcn«

22 Monfteur de k Sal ^s Second VojAgz

^An. 168-; Moiifieur de ta Sale was very well pleas'd to ^>^VS^ fee them, imagining they might give him fome Account of the River he fought after ^bat to no Piirpofe, for he fpoke to them in feveral of the Languages of the Savages, which he knew, and made many Signs to them, bat ftill they under- ftood not what he meant, or if they did com- prehend any thing, they made Signs, that they knew nothing of what he ask'd ^ fo that having made them fmoak and eat, we ihewed them our Arms and the Ship, and when they faw at one End of it fome Sheep, Swirre, Hens and Turkeys, and the Hideot a Cow we had killM, they made Signs that they had of all thofe Sorts of Creatures arsong them.

We gave them fome Knives and Strings of

^tnru A' Beads, after which, they were difmifs'd, and

fmewith the Waves hindring us from coming too near

*^'f^^' the Shore, they were oblig'd to leap into the

the Water, after we had made fall about their

Necks, or to the Tuft of Hair they have on

the Top of the Head, the Knives and other

fmall Prefents Monfieur ^^/^ 5^/e had given

them.

They went and join'd the others who expefted them, and were making Signs to us to go to them ^ bat not being able to make the Shore, we flood" off* again and return'd to our Ship. It is to be obferv€d,that when we were carrying them back, they made fome Signs to us, by which we conceived they would fignify to us that there was a great River thai Way we were pafs'd, aad that it occalioa*d the Shoals we had ffeen«

The

/;;/o NORTH AMERICA. 2?

The Wind changing, the fame Day, we^-«». 168^ weigh'd Anchor and flood to the Southward, ^^"V^^ to get into the Offing, till the 14th in the Morn- ing, when we were becalm'd. At Noon, we were in 28 Degrees 51 Minutes of North Lati- tude. The Wind frefhned, and in the Evening we held on our Courfe, but only for a (hort Time, becaufe the Wind fetting us towards the Shore, we were obliged to anchor again, where- upon Monfieur de la Sale again refolved to fend Alhore, and the fame Perfons inr.bark'd in the fame Boats to that EfFeft.

We met with the fame Obftacles, that had hinder'd us the Day before, that is, the High- Sea, which would not permit us to come near ^^f/J^^^f the Shore, and were obliged to drop Anchor in fourteen Foot Water. The Sight of Abundance of Goats and Bullocks, differing in Shape, from ours, and running along the Goaf]-, heighten'd our Earneftnefs to be Afhore. We therefore founded to fee whether we might get to Land by Stripping, and found we were on a Flat, which had four Foot Water, but that beyond it there was a deep Channel. Whilfl: we were confulting what to do, a Storm arofe, which oblig'd Monlieur de la Sale to fire a Gun for us to return Aboard, which we did againit, our Inclination.

Monfieur de la Sale was pleas'd with the Re^ port we made him, and by it, feveral were en- couraged to go Alhore to hunt, that we might have fome frefli Meat. We fpent all that Night, till the next Morning, in Hopes of returning foon to that Place; but the Wind changing, forc'd us to weigh and fail till the Evening, when we drop'd Anchor in fix Fathom Water. ^ , The.

2-4 Monfieur de la S a l e's Seconi VojAge

^i5M6'?<5 jhg Land which we never departed from very ^•y^^^^"^ far, appear'd to us very pleafant, and having Jain there till the i6iby that Morning we fail'd IV. S. W. We weather'd a Point, keeping a large OfHng, becaufe of the Sea's^ beating upon it, and ftood to the Southward. At Noon, wc were in 28 Degrees 20 Minutes of North Lati- tude, and confequently found the Latitude de- clined, by which we were fenlible, that the Coaft tendrcd to the Southward. At Night we anchor'd in fix Fathom Water.

The 17th, the Wind continuing the fame, we heli on our Courfe S. W. and having aboutTen difcover' a Sort of River, Monfieur de la Salt caus'd Ten of us to go into a Boat, to take a View of that Coaft, and fee whether there was not fome Place to land. He order'd me, in Cafe wefouud any convenient Place, to give him Notice either by Fire or Smoke.

We fet out, and found the Shoals obfl:ru6led our Defcent. One of our Men went naked into Semi the W^ater to found that Sand Bank, which lay hniing, between us and the Land •, and having Ihewn us a Place where we might Pafs, we, with much Difficulty, forc'd our Boat into the Channel, and fix or feven of us landed, after ordering the Boat to go up into that which had appeared to us to be a River, to fee whether any frelh Wa- ter could be found.

As foon as we were landed, 1 made a Smoke to give Notice to Monfieur de laSak^ and then we advanced both Ways, without Itragling too ! • far, that we might be ready to receive Monfr.

de U Sdle^ who was to come, ^s he did, foon after, but finding the Surges run high, he re-

turn'd

/W/? NORTH AMERICA. 2$

turn'd, and cur Boat finding no frefh Water, ?¦«»• 1 65? came back and anchor'd to wait for us. CXW*-

We walked about every Way, and found a dry Soil, tho' it feem'd to be overfiow'd at fome Times i great Lakesof fait Water, little Grafs, the Track of Goats, on the Sand, and faw Herds of them, but could not come near them, how- ever we kill'd feme Ducks and Buftards. In the Evening, as we were returning, we mifs'd an. Englifh Seaman, fir'd feveral Shot to give him Kotice, fe^rched all about, waited till after Sunfet, and at laft hearing no Tidings of him, we went into the Boat to return Aboard.

I gave Monlieur de U Sale an Account of what we had feen, which would have pleas'd him, had the River we difcover'd, afforded frefh Water : He was alfo uneafy for the loft Man; but about Midnight we faw a Fire Afhore, ia the Place we came from, which we fuposM to be made by our Man, and the Boat went for hira as foon as foon as it was Day on the i8th.

After that, we made feveral Trips, flill fleering towards the SAV. and then enfued a Calm, which oblig'd us to come to an Anchor. Want of Water made us think of returning towards the River, where we had been the Day before. Monfr. de la Sale refolved to ^tt a confiderabje Number of Men Afhore, with fuf- ficient Ammunition, and to go with them him- felf, to difcover and take Cognizance of thai: Country, and order'd me to follow hira. Ac- cordingly we fail'd back, and came to an An- chor in the fame Place.

All Things neceHary for that End being or- dered on. the 19th, Part of the Men were^ put into a Boat j but a very thick Fog riling, and

taking,

s6 Monjieur

J<«»a685' taking away the Sight of Land, the Compafs ^'^^^'T^ was made ufe of, and the Fog difperfing as we drew near the Land, we perceiv'd a Ship mak- ing diredly towards us, and that it was the Joly, where Monfr. de Beaujeu commanded, which rejoicM us, but our Satisfaction was not lafting, and it will appear by the Sequel, that n were to have been wiflied, that Monfieur de Beaujeu had not joyn'd us again, but that he had rather gone away for France^ without cTer fee- ing of us.

His Arrival difconcerted the Execution of our Enterprise. Monfr. de la Sale^ who was already on his Way, and thofe who were gone befor* him, return'd Aboard, and fome Hours after, Monfr. de Beaujeu fent his Lieutenant, Monfr. de Aire^ attended by feveral Perfons, as well Clergymen as others, among whom was the Sieur Cabaret^ fecond Pilot of the Joly.

Monfieur d' Aire complain'd grievoufly to Monlieur delaSaLe^ in the Name of Monfr. de Beau\eu^ for that faid he,wc had left him defign- edly, which was not true, for as 1 have faid, the Joly lay a? Anchor A-head of us, when we were feparated from her; we fired a Gun to give ber Notice of oar Departure, as had been con- certed, and Monfr. de Beaujeu aufwer'd it ; be- lides that, if we had intended to feparate from him, we (hould not have always held our Courfe in Sight of Land, as we had done, and that had Monlieur de Beaujeu held the fame fame Courfe, as had been agreed, he had not been feparated from us.

There were afterwards feveral Difputes be- tween the Captains and the Pilots, as wejll Aboard Monfieur dg la Sale, as Aboard Monfieitr

de

Command- ers at Va- riance .

into NORTH AMERICA. . 27

de Bea]eu^ whea thofe Gentlemen return'd, a- J^o-'^SS bout fettling exadlythe Place we were in, and n>^V^^ the Courfe wc were to fteer *, fome pofitively affirming we were farther than we imagin'd, and that the Currents had carryM us away •, and others, that we were near the Magdalen Ri- ver.

The former of thofe Notions prevail'd, Theypafi whence, upon Refledion, Monfieur de la Sale '^^.^Z* concladed, that he m*ifl: be paft his River, S. which was but too true ^ for that River empty- ing it felf in the Sea by two Channels, it fol- low'd that one of the Mouths fell about the Shoals we had obferv'd the fixth of the Month ; and the rather becaufe thofe Shoals were very near the Latitude that Monfieur dela Sale had obferv'd, when he came by the Way of Cana- da to difcover the Mouth of that River, as he told me feveral Times.

This Conllderation prevail'd with Monfieur de la Sale to propofe his Defign of leturning to- wards thofe Shoals. He gave his Reafons for fo doing and expofed his Doubts^ but his ill Fortune made him not be regarded. Our P^f» fage had taken up more Time than had been ex- peded, by Reafon of the Calms •, there was a confiderable Number of Men aboard the Johj and Provifions grew fhort, infomuch that they faid it would not hold out to return, if our De- parture w/ere delay'd. For this Reafon Mon- ileur de Beaujeu demanded Provifions of Mon- iieur de la Sale •, but he asking enough for a long; Time, Monfieur de la Sale anfwer'd, be could only give him enough for a Fortnight, which was more Thne than was requifite to reach tin. Place he intended to return to j and that befides

he

sS Mofifieur de la S a l e'^ Second Voyage

fan. 1685 he could not give him more Proviflons, without L/VNJ rummaging all the Stores to the Bottom of the Hold, which would endanger his being caft away. Thus nothing was concluded, and Mon- lieur dt Beaujeu retum'd to his own Ship. In the mean Time, Want of Water began to Third pinch us, and MonlTeur de la Sale refolv'd to Landing, fend to look for fome about the next River. Ac- cordingly he order'd the two Boats that had been made ready the Day before, to go off". He was aboard one of them himfelf, and direfted me to follow him. Monfieur de Bcau]eu alfo commanded his Boat to go for Wood- By the Way we met the faid Sieur de Beau]eu in his yaul, returning from Land, with the Sieur Minet^ aningenier, who told us, they had been in a Sort of fait Pool, two or three Leagues from the Place where the Ships were at Anchor, we held on our Way and landed.

One of our Boats, which was gone ahead of OS, had been a League and a half up the River, without finding any frefh Water in its Channel ^ but fome Men wandering about to the right and left, had met with divers Rivulets of very good Water, wherewith many Casks were

fiird.

We lay alhore, and our Hunters having that Day kiird good Store of Ducks, Buftards and Teal, and the next Day two Goats, Monfieiar de la Sale fent Monfieur de Beaujeu Part. We feafted upon the relf, and that good Spore put feveral Gentlemen that were then aboard ^loxi'iitux de Beau]eu^ among whom were Nlon- lieur du Hamel^ the Enfiga and the King's Clerk, upon coming alhore to partake of •the Diverli- on -^ but they took much Pains and were not fuccefsfuU in their Sport- Ifl

into NORTH AMERICA. 29

la the mean Time many Casks were fiU'd 3^4». 168$ with Water, as well for our Ship as for Mon- ^-/V^ fieur de Eeau\eus. Some Days after Monfieur d* Airexht Lieutenant, came afliore. to confer with Monfieur dela Sale, and to know how he would manage about the Provifions •, but both of them perfifting in their firll Propofals and Monfieur de la Sale perceiving that Monfieur de £eau]eu would not be fatisfied with Provifions for 1$ Days, which bethought fulRcient to go to the Place where he expeded to find one of the Branches of the Mtjjljtpi, which he with good Reafon believ'd to be about the Shoals, I have before fpoken of, nothing was concluded as to that Affair. Monfieur d^ Aire return'd to his Captain, and Monfieur de la Sale refolv'd to land his Men •, which could not be done for fome Days, begaufe of the foul Weather j but in the mean Time we kilfd much Game.

During this little Interval, Monfieur de la Sale being impatient to get fome Intelligence of what he fought after, refolv'd to go himfelf up- on Difcovery, and to feek out fome more ufeful and commodious River than that where they were. To this Purpofe he took five or fix of us along with him. We fee out one Morning in fo thick a Fog, that the hindmofi: could nor. perceive the Track of the foremofl, fo that we loft Monfieur de la Sale for fome Time.

We travel'd till about three in the Afternoon, finding the Country tor the mofl: Part Sandy, ^^^^""'"Z little Grafs, no frefh Water, unlefs in fome '"^'^'""''•^ Sloughs, the Track of abundance of wild Goats, Lakes full of Ducks, Teals, Water-Hens, and having t4ken much Pains return'd without Suc- , cefs.

The

^o Mo^peur de la Sal eV Second Vojage

gj^»^ The next ^vlorning, Monfieur de la Sale's In^ ^''^"Y^J ^lan^ going about to find wild Goats, came to a Lake, which had a little Ice upon it, the Weather being cold, andAbundanceofFifil dy- ing abont the Edges of it. He came to inform us, we wenttomakeour Provilionof them,there were fome of a prodigious Magnitude, and a- mong the reft extraordinary large Trouts, or clfe they were fome Sort of Fifh very like them. We caufed fome of each of aSort to be boil'd ia fait Water, and found them very good. Thus having Plenty of Fifli and Flefli, we began to " ufe ourfelves to eat them both, without Bread. Whilfl: we livM thus eafy enough, Monfieur de la Sale expefted with Impatience to know what Refolution Monfieur de Beaujeu would take •, that he might either go to the Place, where he expe(aed to fiud the Mfjfijipi, or follow fome other Courfe; but at left, perceiving that his Affairs did not advance, he refolv'd to put his own Defign in Execution, the Purport where- of was to land one hundred and twenty, or one hundred and thirty Men to go along the Coaft and continue it, till they had found fome other River, and xhat at the fame Time the Bark la Belle fiiould hold the fame Courfe at Sea, (till keeping along the Coaft, to relieve thofe Alhore in Time of Need.

He gave me and Monfieur Moranget^ his Nephew, the Command of that fmall Compa- ny, he furnifh'd us with all Sorts of Provifions for eight, or ten Days, as alfo Arms, Tools and Utenfils we might have Occafion for, of which every Man made his Bundle. He alfo gave us writteu Inftruftions of what we wer| to do, the

Signals

into I^OKTU AMERICA. ji

Signals we were to make •, and thus we fet out Feb.i6^, on the Fourth of February. L/W^

We took our Way along the Shore. Our ^^g„ /-^^j firft Day's Journey was not long, we encamp'd by uni on a little rifing Ground, heard a Cannon fliot, »" #'«• which made us uneafy, made the Signals that ^^^* had been appointed, and the next Day, being the $th, we held on our March, Monfieur Ah- rang€t bringing up the Rear, and I leading the Van.

I will not fpend Time in relating feveral per- fonal Accidents, inconfiderable in themfelves,^ or of no Confequence, the molt confiderable of them being the Want of frefh Water ^ but will proceed to fay, that after three Days March we found a great River, where we halt- ed and made the Signals agreed on» encamping on a commodious Spot of Ground till we could hear of the Boat, which was to follow us, or of our Ships.

But our Provifions beginning to fall fhort. and none of our Ships appearing, being befides apprehenfive of fome unlucky Accident oc- cafion'd by the Difagreement between Mon- fieur ^e la Sale and Monfr. d^ Btaujeu^ the Chief of our Company came together to know what Refolution we fliould take. It was agreed, that we fhould fpare our Provifions to endeavour to go on to fome Place where we might find Bul- locks ; but it was requifite to ciofs the River, and we knew not how, becaufe we were too many of us, and therefore it was decreed to fet fome Carpenters there were among us at Work to build a little Boat, which took them up the eleventh and twelfth of Ftbruary,

The

J 2 Monfiear de /a Sal eV Second Voyage

f^t^^^^ "^he 13th, we were put out of our Pain by ^O^^^ two Vellels we difcover'd at Sea, which we knew to be the Joly and la Belie, to whom we made our Signals with Smoke. They came not in then, becaufeit was late, but the next Day being the 14th in the Morning, the Boat, with the Sieur Barbier and the Pilot of the Bark la Belle come up, and both founded the Mouth of the River.

They found on the Bar, from ten to twelve ^^ i^y^ b;. Foot Water, and within it from five to fix yer. Fathom •, the Breadth of the River being about half a Quarter of a League. They founded near the Ifland, which lies between the two Points of the Bay, and found the fame Depth. The Boat of the Joly came and founded on the other Side of the Channel, and particularly a- long the Shoals, I know not to what Purpofe. The fame Day, Monfieur de la Sale, for whom we were much in Pain, came alfo, and as foon as he arrived, he caus'd the Boat to be laden with fuch Provifions as we flood in Need of, but the Wind being contrary, it could not come to us till the next Day, being the 15th.

That fame Day, Monfr. de la Sale came Afhoar to view the Place and examine the Entrance into the River, which he found to be very good. Having confider'd all Particulars, here- ¦folv'd to fend in the Bark la Belle and V AimahU, that they might be under Shelter, to which Purpofe, he order'd to found, and to know whe- ther thofe two VelTels could both come in that fame Day. Monfieur de Beau]eu cans'd alfo the Place to be founded, and lay Alhoar on the o- ther Side of the River, where he took Notice there were Vines which run up the Trees, like

z:^/^ NORTH AMERICA. ^3

our Wall Vines, fome Woods and the CarcafTes P^^- i^^l of Bullocks, which he fuppofed to have died ^/V^^ with Thirft.

The 1 6th, the Pilots of the Jdy^ I' Aimable and la Belle^ went again to found, they found the Entrance eafy, and gave it under their Hands. The i7ch, they fix'd Stakes to mark cut the Way, that the Veflels might come fafe in. All Things feem'd to promife a happy Event.

The iSch, the Chevalier ^'^/>e camcalhore, to confer with Monfieur de la Sale, who being defirous to have the Fly-boat /' Airnable come in that Day, order'd the molt weighty Thine,, in her to be unloaded, as the Cannon, the Iron and fome other Things. It w;is my good Fortune that my Cheft flood in the Way, and was alfo unloaded, but that Unlading could not be done till the next Day, being the 19th. That being perfprm'd, the Captain affirm'd it would go ia at 8 Foot Water.

The 20th, Monfieur de la Sale fent Orders to that Captain to draw near the Bar, and to come in at high Water, of which a Signal fhonid be given him ^ he alfo order'd the Pilot of the Bark la Belle to go aboard the Flyboat, to be aflifting when it came in. The Captain would not receive him aboard, faying, he could carry in his Ship without his Help. All thefe Pre- cautions prov'dofno Ufe ^ Monfieur de la Sale could not avert his ill Fate. He having taken I^otice of a large Tree on the Bank of the Ri- ver, which he judg'd fit to make a Canoe, fent 7 or 8 Workmen to hew it down, two of whom return'd fome Time after, in a great Fright, and told him, they had narrowly efcap'd being D taken

5 4 Monfiear de la Sal e'j- Second l^oyii

Feb. i6S^ takeaby a Company of Savages, and that they

^^fCf^ believ'd the others had fallen into their Hands.

ofs'Ivases. Monfieur de U Sale order'd us immediately to

* handle our Arms, and to march with Drums

beating towards the Sivages, who feeing us in

that Pofture, fac'd about and went off.

Monfieur de La Sale being defirous to join thofe Savages, to endeavour to get fome Information from them, order'd Ten of us to lay down our Arms and draw near them, making Signs to them, at the fame Time, to come to us. When they favv us in that Poftur^and unarm'd, moft Thtir of them alfo laid down their Bows and Arrows Friefjdly and came to meet us, carrefling us after their Behaviour, jvianner, and ftroaking firft their own Breaft's and then ours, then their own Arms and after- wards ours. By thefe Signs they gave us to un- derftand that they had a Friendlhip for u?, which they exprefs'd by laying their Hands on their Hearts, and we did the fame on our Part.

Six or feven of thofe Savages went along with us, and the reft kept three of our Men, in the Nature of Hoftages. Thofe who went with us were made much of, but Monlieur de la Sale could learn nothing of them, either by Signs or otherwife •, all they could make us underftand was, that there was good hunting of Bullocks in the Country. We obferv'd, that their Tea confided in a Cry, tetch'd from the Bottom of the Throat, not unlike the Call of a Hen to gather her Chickens. Monfieur de la Sale gave them fome Knives, Hatchets and other Trifles, with which they feem'd well pleafed, and went sway-

Monlieur

z^to ^ORTU AMERICA. 35

Monfiear de U Sale was glad to be rid of ^'^' '^ thofe People, becaufe he was willing to be pre- V^*^ fcnt when the Flyboat came in \ but his ill Fate would not permit it. He thought fit to go him- felf .along with thofe Sivages, and we follow'd him, thinking to have found o^ir Men in the fame Place where we left them^ but perceiv'd on the Contrary, that the Savag<;s had carried them away to their Camp, which was a League and half from us, 2indMon^\t\ir de laSablonniere,, Lieutenant of Foot, being one of thofe the Sa- vages had taken with them, Monfieur /s?e /^ 5<«/e refolved to go himfelf to fetch him away, an unhappy Thought which cod him dear.

As we were on our Way towards the Cam.p of the Su'ages, happenning to look towards the Sea, we fuv the Flyboat l^ Aimable under Sail, which the Savages who were with usadmir'd, and Monfieur de la Sale obferving it narrowly, told us, thofe People fteer'd wrong, and were Handing towards the Sheals, which made him very uneafy, but ftill we advanc'd. Wearriv'd at the Camp of the Savages, which ftood upon '^^[^^

We were ftill advancing into the Village, when we heard a Cinnon Shot, the Noife whereof ft ruck fach a Dread- among the Savages, .that they all fell flat upon the Ground ^ but Monfieur de la Sale ^vA we were too fenfible it was a Signal that our Ship was aground, which was confirm'd by feeing them furl their Sails \ D 2 however

5 6 Monfieur de la S A l e'^ Second Vopge

Teh.\6^i,, However we were gone too far to return *, our ^>'^V^^ Men RiuO: be had, and to that Purpofe, we muft proceed to the Hut of the Commander ia Chief.

As foon as we arrived there, Monfr. de U Sale was introduc'd j many of the Indian Wo- mea came in,**' they were very deformM and all naked, excepting a Skin girt about them, which hung down to their Knees. They would have led us to their Cottages, but Monfr. de la Sale had order'd us not to part, and to obferve whether the Indians did not draw together, {o that we kept together, (landing upon our Guard, and I was Mways with him.

They brought us fome Pieces of Beef, both

i^dr En. frefli and dry'd in the Air and Smoke, and

ifnwi' Pieces of Porpois, which they cut with a SorC

msnt, ^^ Knife, made of Stone, fetting one Foot upon

it, and holding with one Hand, whilft they cue

with the other. We faw nothing of Iron a-

mong them. They had given our IVlen, that

came with them, to eat, and Monfr. de la Sale

being extraordinary uneafy, we foon took Leave

of them to return. At outgoing out, weob-

ferv'd about forty Canoes, fome of them like

thofe Monfr. ^e la Sale had feen on the Mijfijipij

which made him conclude he was not far from

ir.

V/e foon arrived at our Camp, and found L' Aims- 'tj^e Misfortune, Monfr. de la Sale had appre- ^'J/''^ * hended, was but too certain. The Ship was ftranded on the Shoals. The ill Management of the Captain, or of the Pilot, who had not fteer'd by the Stakes placed for that Purpofe ; the Cries of a Sailor polled on the Main-top, who cry'd amain, Loof^ which was to fleer

towards

irJo NORTH AMERICA. 37

towards the PafTage mark'd out, whilft the ^"^^^ wicked Captain cry'd, Come no nearer^ which was '^'^ Jofteer the contrary Courfc ^ the fame Captain's Carelefnefs in not dropping his Anchor, as foon as the Ship touched, which would have pre- veflted her (licking aground ; the Folly of low- ering his Main-Sheet and hoifting out his Sprit- Sail, the better to fall into the Wind, and fe- cure the Shipwreck ^ the Captairi's refuiing to admit the Pilot of the Bark/<< Beh'e, vihom Mon- iieur de la Sale had fent to affift him ^ the found- ing upon the Shoals to no Purpofe, and feve- ral other Circumftances reported by the Ship's Crew and thofe who faw the Management, were infallible Tokens and Proofs, that the Mifchief had been done defignedly and advife- ably, which was one of the blackcft and molt deteftable Adions that Man could be guilty of.

This Misfortune was fo much the greater^ becaufe that Veflel contain'd almofl: all the Am- munition, Utenfils, Tools and other NecefTarles for Monfr. de la SaWs Enterprize and Settle- ment. He had need of all his Refolution to bear up againfl: it ^ but his Intrepidity did not forfake him, and he apply'd himfelf, without grieving, to Remedy what might be. All the Men were taken out ot the Ship^ he defir'd Monfieur de Beaujeu to lend him his long Boat, to help faveasmuch as might be. We be- gan with Powder and Meal. About thirty Hag-' Iheads of Wine and Brandy were faved, and Fortune being incens'd againfl us, two Things contributed to the total Lofs of ail the red;

D 3 Th?

3 8 MonfieuY de la Sal E'i Suord Vouge

f£?^.i6S'5. The firft vras, that our Boat, which hung at ^'^''^ the Stern of the Ship ran A-ground, was mali- cioully ftav'd in the Night, fo that we had none left but Monfieur de Beaujeu^s, The fecond, that the Wind blowing ia from the Offing, made the Waves run high, which beating vio- lently againft the Ship, fplit her, and all the light Goods were carry'd out at the opening, by the Water. This iaft Misfortune happen'd alfo in the Night. Thus every Thing fell oat moft uuhappily, for bad that befallen in the Day^ Abundance of Things might have beea i'aved.

Whilft we were upon this melancholly Em- ployment, about an hundred, or an hundred and twenty of the Natives came to our Camp, with their Bows and Arrows. Monfieur de la Sale Qrder'd us to handle our Arms, and ftand upon our Guard. About twenty of thofe Indians mix'd thenifelves among us, to obferve what wc had iaved of the Shipwreck, upon which, there were feveral Sentinels, to let none come near the Powder.

The reft of the Indians flood in Parcel?, or Pelotons. Monfi'.delaSale, who was acquaint- ed with their Ways, order'd us to obferve their Behaviour, and to take Nothing from them, which neverthelefs did not hinder fome of our Men from receiving fome Pieces of Meat. Some j Time after, when the Indians were about de- parting, they made Signs to us to go a Hunt- ing with them ^ but belides that, there was fuffi- cientCaufe to fufped them , we had enough other Bufinefs to do. However weask'd, whether they would barter for any of their Canoes, which they agreed to. The Sieur Barhier went along

with

i^to NORrn AMERICA. 59

with them, purchased two for Hatchets and Feb.i6^. brought them. L/'W?

Some Days after, we perceiv'd a Fire in the Country, which fpread it felf and burnt the dry Weeds, ftill drawing towards us ^ where- upon, Monfr. de la Sale made all the Weeds and Herbs that were about us, be pulfd up, and particularly all about the Place where the Pow- der was. Being delirous to know the Occafion of that Fire, he took about twenty of us along with him, and we march'd that Way, and even beyond the Fire, without feeing any Body. We perceiv'd that it run towards the IV. S. IV. and judg'd it had begun about our firit Camp, and at the Village next the Fire.

Having fpy'd a Cottage near the Bank of a Lake, we drew towards it, and found an old Woman in it, who fled as foon as (he faw us ; but having overtaken and given her to underftand, that we would do her no Harm, fhe return'd to her Cottage, where we found fome Pitchers of Water, of which we all drank. Some Time af- ter we faw a Canoe coming, in which were two Women and a Boy, who being landed, and perceiving we had done the old Woman no ^^ Sat»> Harm, came and imbracedus in a very particu- *'^"5»« lar Manner, blowing upon our Ears and ma- king Signs to give us to underftand, that their People were a hunting.

A few Minutes after, feven or eight of the Indians appeared, who, it is likely, had hid themfelves among the Weeds when they faw us coming. Being come up they faluted us, after the fame Manner, as the Women had done, which made us laugh. We ftaid there fome Time with them, 3ome of our Men bartered D 4 Knives

^.4© Moiifieur de la S a l e's Secor?d Voja^e Feh.i62

During this time it was that r jlimable o^tn- ingin the Night, the next Morning we faw all the light Things that were come out of it floating about, and Mon^i^Mi de U Sale ^tnt Mea every Way, who gather'd op about 30 Casks of Wine and Brandy, and foiiie of Flefh, Meal and Grain.

When we had gather'd all, as well what had been taken out of the Ship-wreck'd Veflel as what could be pick'd op in the Sea, the next Thing was to regulate the Provifions we had left proportionably to the Number of Men we were ; and there being no more Bisket, Meal was deliver'd out, and with it we madeHafty Pudding with Water, which was none of the befl; ^ fome large Beans and India Corn, part of which had taken wet \ and every thing was di- Itributed very difcreetjy. We were much in- commoded for want of Kettles, bat Monfieur de 5f

We were ftill in want of Canoes. Monfieur de la Sale fent to the Camp of the Indians to barter for fome, and they who went thither obferv'd, that thofe People had ntade their Ad- vantage of our Ship-wreck, and had fome Bales

of

hto NORTH AMERICA. 41

of Normandy Blankets, and they faw feveral ff^. i6U' Women had cut them in tvvo and made Petti- '^^^V^ coats of them. They alfo faw Bits of Iron of the Ship that was cafl away, and return'd immediately to make their Report to Monlieur de la Sale^ who faid we mufi: endeavour to ge2 fome Canoes in Exchange, and refolv'd to fend thither again the next Day. Monlieur du Hamel^ Eofign to Monfr. /^e^f^zw/>«, ofFtr'd to go up in his Boat, which Monfieur ds la Sale agreed to, and order'd Meffieurs Momnget, his Nephew, DeJloffeSy Oris, Gayen^ and fome others to bear him Company.

No fooner were thofe Gentlemen, who were more Hot than Wife, landed, but they went up to the Camp of the liidlans^ with their Arms in their Hands, as if they had intended to force />'j/^^<'- them, whereupon feveral of thofe People fled. ^rZioJ,^'^ Going into the Cottages, they found others, to whom Monfieur du Hamel endeavour'd to ligni- fy by Signs, that he would have the BUnkets they had found refror'd ^ but the Misfortune was, that none of them underftood one another. The Indians thought it their bell Way to with- draw, leaving behind them fome Blankets and Skins of Beafts, which thofe Gentlemen took away, and finding fome Canoes in their Return they feiz'd two, and got in, to bring thenj away.

But having iio Oars, none of them knowing how to manage thofe Canoes, and having only fome pitiful Poles, which they could not teli the right Ufe of, and the Wind being alfo a- gainfi: them, they msdc little Way ^ which the Sieur du H.xmel, who was in his Boat perceiving, and that Nishc drew on, he made the belt of

h;s

En'igv*

42 Monjiear de la Sal eV Second Voyage Manh his Way, forfook them and returci'd to the

^^'^^ Thus Night came upon them, which obliged thofe unexperienc'd Canoe Men, being tho- roughly tird, to go aftiore to take fome Reft, and the Weather being cold, they lighted a Fire, about which they laid them down and T^Indi. fej] afleep ; the Sentinel they had appointed j^ve„ge, doing the fame. 1 he rndians returnmg to their Camp,and perceiving our Men had carry'd away two Canoes, fome Skins and Blankets, took it for a Declaration of a War, refolv'd to be reveng'd, and difcovering an unufual Fire, pre- fently concluded that our Men had halted there. A confiderable Namber of them re- pair'd to the Place, without making the leaft Noife, found our carelefs People fall afleep, v/rap'd up in their Blankets, and (hot a full Volley of their Arrows upon them all together on a Sudden, having firit given their ufual Shont before they fall on. Sieajs The Sieur Moranget awaking with the Noife, ^ns and ^^^ finding himfelf wounded, ftarted up and k'li^dl^ fir'd his Piece fuccefsfully enough, fome others did the like, whereupon the Natives fled. The Sieur Moranget came to give us the Alarm, though he was (hot through one of his Arms, below the Shoulder, and had another flanting Wound on the Breaft. Monfieur de la Sale im- mediately fent fome arm'd Men to the Place, who could not find the Indians, but when Dav appeal 'd, they found the Sieurs Oris and Def- loges dead upon the Spot, the Sieur Gayen much hurt, and the reft all fafe and found.

This

into NORTH AMERICA. 4?

This Difader, which happen'd the Night of ^^^'^ the 5th of/l-Z/erc/;, very muchaffliaed Monfieur If^^ de U SaU'^ but he chiefly lamented Monfieur ""^^ Bejloges a fprightly Youth, who ferv'd well ^ but in fhort, it was their own Fault, and con- trary to the Charge given them, which was to be watchful and upon their Guard. We were UDder Apprehenfions for Meflieuis TAoran^et and Ga^en^ left the Arrows fhould be poifon'd. It afterwards appear'd they were not , how- ever Monfieur ^or^w^er's Cure prov'd difficult, becaufe fome fmall Veflel was cut.

The Confequences of this Misfortune, toge- ther with the Concern, molt of the bcft Perfons who had followM Monfieur de U Sale were under, fupported the Deflgn of thofe who were for returning to France and torfaking him, of which Kumber were Monfieur VaW.- mnville^ a Prielt of the Seminary of St. Sulpice, the Sieur Minet, Engineer and fome others The common Difcourfes of Mondcur de la Sale\ Enemies tending to difcredic his Conduct, and to reprefent the pretended Rafhnefsof his Enterprize, contributed confiderably towards the Defertion \ but his Refolution prevailing, he heard and waited all Events With Pati- euce, and always gave his Orders, vvithoxit appearing the leaft difcompos'd.

He caus'd the Dead to be brought to our Camp, and bury'd them Honourably, the Can-. non fupplying the Want of Bells, and then conliderM of making fome fafer Settlement. He caus'd all that had been favM from the Shipwreck, to be brought together into one Place, threw up Intrenchments about it, to fecnre his Effefls, and perceiving that the

Watei

44 Monfieur de la S a l eV Second, Voyage

'March Water of the River, where we were, roul'd f>-v^ down violently into the Sea, he fancy'd that ^^^^*^ might be one of the Branches ot the Mipjtpij and propcs'd to go up it, to fee whether he could find any Tokens of it, or of the Marks he had left, when he went down by Land to the Mouth of it. Debates In the mean Time, Monlieur de Beaujeu was thT^clm- preparing to depart : The Chevalier de Aire raiders, had many Conferences with Monlieur ^e /*» 5^/^ about feveral things, the latter demanded of Monlieur de £eau]eu, particularly the Cannoa and Ball which were aboard the Joly, and had been delign'd for him •, which Monlieur de ' Beau]tu refus'd, alledging that all thofe things lay at the Bottom of theHold, and that he could Dot rummage it without evident Danger of perifhing-, tho', at the fame time, he knew we had Eight Pieces of Cannon and not one Bullet. I know not how that Affair was decided be- /T/r.-de la tween them*, but am fare he fuffer'd the Cap- ^°'^ »n

Having loft the Notes I took at that time, and being forcM to rely much upon Memory tor what I now write, I fhali not pretend to be

any

into NORTH AMERICA. 45

any longer exac^ in the Dates, for fear of Mar.-ie^^ miftaking, and therefore I cannot be pofitive l/V^*^ as to the Day of Monftciir de Beau\euh Depar- ture, but believe it was the 14th of March, 1685.

When Monfr. de Beau]eu was gone, we fell to Work to make a Fort, of the Wreck of the AFon Ship that had been cad away, and many Pieces ^«^'^»- of Timber the Sea threw up ^ and during that Time, feveral Men deferted, which added to "MoniitttT de la Sale''s Afflidlion. h Spaniard and a French Man ftole away and fled, and were ne- ver more heard of. Four or five others follow'd their Example, but '^lon^yzm de U Sale having timely Notice, fent after them, and they were brought back. One of them was condemned to Death, and the others to ferve the King ten Years in that Country.

When our Fort was well advanc'd, Monfr. de la 'ale refolv'd to clear his Doubts, and to go up the River, where we were, to know whe- ther it was not an Arm of the A/zj///?/'/', and ac- Mow/^. de cordingly order'd fifty Men to attend him, of '^ Sale which Number were Monfr. Cavelier^ his Bro- ^"^^ '"'^^^ ther, and Monfr. ChedeviHe, both Priefls, two tlTsh^lr, Recolet Fryars, and feveral Volunticrs, who fet out in five Canoes we had, with the necef- fary Provifions. There remain'd in the Fort a- bout an hundred and thirty Perfons, and Monfr. de la Sale gave me the Command of it, witt Or- ders not to have any Commerce with the Na- tives, bat to fire at them if they appcar'd.

Whilft Monfr. de la Sale was abfent, 1 caus'd an Oven to be bnilr, which was a great Help to us, and employed my felf in finifhing the Fort, and putting it in a Pofture to vvith-

fland

/^6 Mofijieur de la S A L eV Second. Fojage

Mar.\6^'^ (land the Indians^ who came frequently in the ^/V^ Night to range about us, howling like Wolves and Dogs •, but two or three Mufquet Shots put them to Flight. It happened one Nighr, that having fir'd fix or feven Shot, Monlieur dt U Sale, who was not far from us, heard i{emrvs them, and being in Pain about it, he~ retarnM with fix or feven Men, and found all Things in a good Pofturc.

He told us he had found a good Country, fit to fow and plant all Sorts of tj'raiA, a- setsouta' bounding in Beeves and wild Fowl ^ #hat he gain. defign'd to eredt a Fort farther up the River, and accordingly he left me Orders to fquare out as much Timber as I could get, the Sea cafting up much upon the Shoie. He had given the fame Orders to the Men he had left on tlie Spot, fevea or eight of whom, de- tach'd from the reft, being bufy at that Work, and feeing a Number of the Natives, fied, and unadvifeably left their Tools behind them. Monfieur ^e /^5^/e returning thither, found a Paper made faft to a Reed, which gave him Notice of that Accident, v\rhich he was concern'd at, becaufe of the Tools, not fo much for the Value of the Lofs, as becaufe it was furfiiiliing the Natives with fuch Things as they might afterwards make Ufe of againft us.

About the Beginning of u4prily we were a-

Aspanijh larm'd by a Veflel which appear'd at Sea, near

Vejjd ap' enough to difcern the Sails, and we fuppofed

^^'^'^^' they might be Spaniards^ who had heard of our

Coming and were ranging the Coaft tq^^iind us

out. That made us ftand upon our Guard, to

keep within the Fort, and fee that our Arms

were

into NORTH A iM ERIC A. 47

were fit for Service. We afterwards fa w two -^P''. §9^$ Men in that Veflll, who inftead of coming to '^''V^^ uss, went towards the other Point, and by that Means pafs'd on, witbouc perceiving us.

Having one Day ohferv'd, that the Water work'd and bubbled up, and afterwards per- ceiving it was occaHond by the Fifh skipping T^lemytf from Place to Place, I caufed a Net to he ^'I^^*^^^- brought, and we took a prodigious Qiiantity of Fi(h, among which were many Dorado^s^ or Gilt-Heads,^ Mullets and others about as big as a Herring, which afforded us good Food for feveral Days. This Fifhery, which I canfed to be often follow'd, was a treat Help towards our Subfiftance.

About that Time, and on Eafler-day that Year, an unfortunate Accident bcfel Monfieur le Gros. After Divine Service he took a Gun to go kill Snipes about the Fort. He (hot i^miIs one, which fell into a Maifh, he took off his f!'^^^ Shoes and Stockings to fetch it out, and re- j q* ^''^* turning, through Carelefsnefs trod upon a Rat- tle Snake, fo call'd, becaufe it has a Sort of Scale on the Tail, which makes a Noife. The Serpent bit^him a little above the Ankle, he was carefufly dreis'd and look'd after, yet after having endur'd very much, he dy'd at lafl, as I (hall inention in its Place. Another more unlucky Accident befell us, one of our Fiftiermen fwimming about the Net to gather the Fi(h, was carry'd away by the Current, and ccald not be hclp'd by us.

Our Men fometimes went about feveral ;v/^yi5S^ little Salt Water Lakes, that were near our Fort, and found on the IJanks a Sort of flit Fifties, like Turbots afleep, which they ftruck

with

4^ Monfieur de la Sal eV Second Voyage

May 1685 vvith (harp pointed Sticks, and they were good JOQ^ Food. Providence alfo 'fhew'd us that there in Pooh. W3^ Salt made by the Sun, upon feveral little Salt Water Pools there were in dive-.s Places, for having obferv'd that there grew on them a Sort of white Subftance, like the Cream upon Milk, I took Care every Day to fend and fetch that Scum off, which prov'd to be a very white and good Salt, whereof I gather'd a Quahti- ty, and it did us good Service.

Some of our Hunters having feen a Parcel of wild Goats running as if they were frighted, judg'd they were purfaed by the Indians ^ and came for Refuge to the Fort, and to give me Notice. Accordingly fome Time after,we difco- ver'd a Parcel of Natives, who came and po- c^mftoh ^^^ themfelves on an Eminence, within Can- ferj. non Shot, fome of them drew off from the reft and approach'd the Fort by the Way of the Downs. I caufed our Men immediately to handle their Arms, and wet Blankets to be laid on our Huts, to prevent their being burnt by the Fire the Savages fometimes fhoot with their Arrows. All this Time thofe who had feparated themfelves from the reft, being three in Number, flill drew nearer, making Signs for us to go to them ^ but Monfieur delaSde had forbid me having any Commerce with them; however, lince they had neither Bows nor Ar- rows, we made Signs to them to draw near, which they did without hefitating.

We went out to meet them, PvIonfTeur Mo^ ranget made them fit down, and they gave ns touuderfland by Signs, that their People were hunting near us; being able to make no more of what they faid, Monfieur Moranget was for

knocking

//^/^NORTH AMERICA. 49

knocking out their Brains, to revenge their ^«w««^S5 having murder'd our Companions, but 1 would ^^^""^ not coufent to it, fince they had come confiding in us. I made Signs to them to be gone, which they did as faft as they could, fome fniall Shot we fir'd into the Air making them run, and a Cannon Shot, 1 pointed towards the rifing Ground, where the reft were, put them all to Flight.

Thefe Accidents mads us double our Guards, fince we were at open War with that crafty Nation, which let Hip no Opportunity to fur- prize us, and therefore Penalties vvere appoint- ed for fuch as fhould be found aileep upon Sen- tinel*, the Wooden-Horfe was fet up for them without RemifTion •, and by Means of fuch Pre- cautions we f-iv'd Our Lives,

Thus we fpent the reft of the Month, till the Beginning of "^une. In the mean Time, Monfieur <^e/^ Sale had begun to make another Settlement, in the Place he before told us of, looking upon it as better, becarafe it was fur- ther up the Country. To that Purpofe he fenc to us the Sieur di f^illeperdry with two Canoes Secoiad and Orders for the Sieur Moranget to repair to Sctthmsm him, if he were recover'd, and that all the Mea fhould march, except 30 of the ableft to make a good Defence, who were to ftay with me in the Fort. The reft being feventy Perfons, as well Men and Women as Children, fet out with the Sieur Moranget ^ and we being but a fmall Number remaining, I caufed the Fort to be brought into a lefs Compafs, to fave pofting fo many Sentinels.

Our little Company began to take Satisfadi-

on in the Eafe of getting and the Nature of our

E Provi-fions

5© Monfeur de la Sal e'^ Second Voyage

5FM/yi6?^^ Provifions, which a greater Number has more

^^VV Difficulty to be fupply'd with, and which we

ncy^llfco' ^^^ Plenty of, by Means of Hunting andFilhing,

vcr'i. thofe being our principal Employments, and

we liv'd well enough contented, expcdiing to be

remov'd. However there were forae Malecon-

tents, who refolv'd to defert •, but finding a

Difficuly to put it in Execution, for that they

could neither get Arms, nor Powder nor Ball,

becaufe the Sieur le Gros and I kept all lock'd

up, and were very vigilant, that none might be

laviihly fpcnt, they took the cruel Refolution

to rid themfelves of us.

That bloody Maflacre was to begin by me, when I was alleep, and then to proceed to the Sieur le Gros^ who lay in the Magazine, or Warehoufe, and was in no Condition to defend liimfelf, becaufe his Leg wasftill fwolen, and put him to much Pain. The Execution was to be by ftabbing. One of the Confpirarors re- veal'd this to the Sieur Davault^ a Hunter, who immediately came and accquainted me. I did not juft then take Notice of what 1 had been told \ but in the Evening, when they return'd from hunting, I caufed one to be fecur'd, who prefently confefs'd all. His Accomplice was alfo feiz'd, and it was very troublefom to fe- Gure them till the Time when we fliould re- move.

About the Middle of July^ the Bark la Belle came and anchor'd near us. An Order was brought me from Monfieur de la Sale^ dire^ing me to put aboard it all the EfFeds that were in our Fort, to make a Float of the Timber I had caufed to be fquar'd, if Time would permit, if not to bury it ia the Grounds Every Man fet

his

fVc) NORTH AMERICA. 51

hh Hand to the Work, with all pofTible Dili- 5F«^y'^S< g€nce, and our two Prifoners were put aboard, '-/"'v'"*"^ as was alfo Monfieur le Gros and his Surgeon, with all our EjfFcds.

The Float was began with immenfe Labour ; but the Weather proving very Stormy, and holding very long, I was oblig'd tocaufewhat had been done to be taken in Pieces, and to bury the Timber in the Sand, the beft we could, that the Natives might not find it.

We then fet out towards the Place where -^ f,n the hdiaas h^kd been encamp'd, when Monfieur Fort ah In- de la Sale went the firfttimeto fee them. We (iow'J. found no Creature, and lay there that Night, and fo proceeded along the Sea Coafl, without any Accident, to the Camp of the Sieur Huri^^ which was a Poft in the Way, where Monlieur ds la Sale had order'd all our Effeds to be laid up. It had no other Inclofure but Chefts and Barrels ^ but there was nothing to fear from the Europeans,

We fpent the Night at that Pofl:, and two Ganoes coming thither the next Morning, I ^f^f^"^f went aboard one of them, with Part of my selfilJl„l Company, and join'd Monlieur de la Sale the next Day, at the Place where he had refolv'd to make his new Settlement. I gave him aa Account of all that had happen'd, and was amaz'd to fee Things fo ill begun and fo little advanc'd. As for the Plantation, the Seed and Grain put into the Ground, was either loft through Drought, or eaten by Birds or Beafts. There were feveral Dead, and among them the Sieur de Vtlte^erdry^ many lick, and of that Number Monlieur Cavalier t\\Q Priefl: ; no Shel- ter but a little fquare Place ftak'd in^ where the E 2 Powder

52 Monfieur de la S A L eV Second. Vojage

^uiy •6H'^ Powder was and fome Casks of Brandy *, many ^-y^'"'^ other Inconveniences there were, which made all Things appear in a miferable Condition.

It was requifice to think of building a large Lodgment, Monfieur de la Sale defign'd it, buC the Difficulty was to get proper Timber for Building. There was a little Wood, where a good Quantity might be had, but it was a League up the Country, and we had neither Carts nor Horfes to carry it ^ however Monfr. iiiyd Li' ^'^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^"^^^ Workmen thither, with others hour. to guard them. The Trees were cut down and fqiar'd, but the Carpenters were fo igno- rant, that Monfr. de la Sale was forc'd to adt the Mailer Builder, and to mark out the Pieces for the Work he defign'd. Some of thofe Pieces of Timber were dragg'd to the Camp, over the Grafs and Weeds the Plain was co- ver'd with ^ afterwards the Carriage of a Gun v/as made ufeof^ but all coft fo much Labour, that the ablefi: Men were quite fpent.

This exccflive Toil, the poor Suftenance the labouring Men had, and that often retrench'd as a Penalty for having fail'd in doing their Duty •, the Uneafinefs Moniieur Je la Sale was under to fee nothing fucceed as he had imagin'd, and which often made him infult the Men, when there was little Reafon for it 5 AU thefe things together afflidted very many fo fenfibly, that they vilibly declin'd, and above thirty carpenter ^y'd. The Lofs of fo many Men was follow'd '^^* by that of the Mafter Carpenter, who was re-

turning one Evening with me ^ but I happening to ftep afide to kill fome wild Fowl, when I came to our Habitation I foand him not, and it was never ku,own what became of him ; aa

Accident

i^fo NORTH AMERICA. 53

Accident which added to our Vexation, for tho' ^"£^ he had but little Skill at his Trade, yet vy e ^^^ ^ ftood ill Need of him.

Notwithftanding all thofe Difappointments, enough Timber was carry'd or rather dragg'd, to build the Houfe Monfieur^e /^.S^/e defign'd, and he was himfelf the Archited. He mark'd out the Lengths, the Tenants and Mortifcs, and made good the Defed of th e Workmea and calling to Mind that! had bury'd feveral Pieces of Timber at our firfi; Habitation, which might be of Ufe, he ordered me to take two Canoes and 20 Men, to go fetch them, in the Bark /<« Bslk^ which was with us.

Being come to the Place, we found the Ki- tives had difcover'd our Timber, and carry'd away foHie Planks, to pick out the Nails there were in them, which they value very much, to point their Arrows. We labour'd to make a Float, loaded the Bark U Bells v/ith the reft of the Planks and other Effe(fts, and fet out again. Some of the Natives appcar'd whilft we were at Work, but feeing us advance to- wards them, with onr Arms in our Hands, they fled.

We return'd fafe to Monfleur de laSale^viho ^^f^^^j,,. was glad to fee us, tho' we had lofl: one of the Uimeml Canoes, for want of its being well made fad to the Float*, but the Timber we brought was a mighty Help towards carrying on his Defign, and much fitter than that we had hew'd in the Wood, with fo much Labour-, {o that this Timber occalion'd the raifing another Struclure contiguous to the former. All was cover'd with Planks, and Bullocks Hides over them. The Apartments were divided, and all ot them well £ 3 covei'd.

54 Mo»fieur de la Sal e'^ Second Voy.age

Sep. i65?.? cover'd. The Stores had a Place apart, and ^yy"^ that Dwelling had the Name of St. Lewis givea it, as well as the Neighbouring Bay.

The Sieur le Gros, who had remainM aboard the Bark Is BeUe^ ever fince the firft Voyage fhe. made to our former Habitation, was carry'd Mr. le afhoretothenew One, and his Leg ftill fwell- ^^^rt^^ ing, the Surgeon was apprehenfive of a Morti- ot us p^^^^Iq^^ ajj^ advis'd him toconfentto have it cut off. He did fo, tho' with Regret, Jthe Ope- , ration was made, but a Fever folio wM imme- diately, and he liv'd but two Days, dying oa the Feaft of the Decollation of St. John Baptifi^ much lamented by all Men, and particularly by Monfieur de la Sale^ to whom he was very fer- viceable, by reafon of his general Knowledge, and his particular Fidelity towards bira. Mon- fieur Carpentier^ Son to the Mailer of the Works , and the Sieur Thibault^ both of Roan^ and fomc

others, dy'd about the fame time.

Monfieur de la Sale being defirous to take a Progrefs, to find his fatal Mijftffi River, and only expefting the Recovery of his Brother Monfieur Cavnlier^ who was to bear him Com- pany, he began to make fome Preparations ' towards it, and in the mean time, took fome fiiiall Journeys of four or five Leagues about, but could learn nothing further, than that it was a very fine Country, hem'd in on one Side by a fmall Mountain, which appeared aE about Fifteen or Twenty Leagues diftance ; beautify 'd with very fine Trees, and water'd by many little Rivers, whereof that, on which we had Built our Habitation was the leaft. i(iver of We caird it la Riviere aux Bosufs^ that is the Buhcki. River of Bullocks, by reafon of the great Num-

b«i-

/Wo NORTH AMERICA. 55

ber of them there was about it. Thefe Bui- fjl^

locks are very like ours, there are Thoufands '^^^^

of them, but inftead of Hair they have a very

long curl'd Sort of Wool.

¦ Monfieur de la Sale Studying all Ways to

find out the River Miffifpl^ imagin'd it might

fall into the adjacent Bay, and refolv'd to go

view all the Coafts about it, and to make ufe

of the Bark la Belle. Accordingly he order'd

me to repair to the faid Bark, with five Men

and a Canoe, into which he put his Cloachs,

and other Effefts in feveral Chefts.

That fhort Voyage was very troublefome to us, by reafon of the foul Weather, with contra- ry Winds and Storms, wliich had like to have overwhelm'd us, and what vvas (till worfe, we did not find the Bark, where we had left her. We went on a League further, to no Purpofe, and Provifions beginning to tall fliort, becaufe we had been fix Days on the Way, in- ftead of three, we refolv'd to return to the Place from whence we came.

Monfieur

E 4 The

56 McfifiaiY de la S A L e's Second Voyage

03. 1 68-^ The Bark was alfo difcover'd by Monfiear ^-yy^*^ de la Sale^ who was on the other fide, which made him draw near and land, whence he fenE his Canoe to the faid Bark, and Monlieur Moranget who coinmanded it, went aboard to meet him. The Lofs of the Boat troubled Moa- fieur de la Sale^ I fent a Canoe to bring hira, but to no Parpofe ; however the Trunks were put aboard the Bark.

Monfieur Cavalier the Priefl:, being recover'd, wk Monlieur de la Sale prepared to fet out with all storenhy Speed. He was pleas'd to Honour me with the hud. Command- during his Abfence, and left me an

Inventory of all that was in our Habitation, confifting of Eight Pieces of Cannon, two Hundred Firelocks, as manyCutlaces, an Hun- dred Barrelsof Powder, three Thoufand Weight of Ball, about three Hundred Weight of other Lead, fome Bars of Iron, twenty Packs of Iron to make Nails, fome Iron Work and Tools, as Hatchets and the like.

AsJforFrovifions,3ll that were left me amou-n- ted to twenty Casks of Meal, one Cask and a ' half of Wine, three Quarters of a Cask of Bran- dy, and for living Creatures fome few Swine, a Cock and a Hen •, which is very (hort of what has"been Pablifh'd by the Author of a Book en- tituled, The firft Eftablijliment in Nevo France : but the Reafon of it is, that he compiled his Work upon the Credit of Relations, which were as falfe as to the Point of the Ammunition and Frovifions, remaining in our Habitation, when Monfieur de la Sale fet out that Time, as con- cerning the Fort well condition'd, and the Magazines or Storehofes under Ground, which ' are all imaginary, there being Nothing but the

Honfe

hto NORTH AMERICA. 57

Houfe I have mention'd, pallifado'd, with fome ^ov.l6^ old Stakes. ^>V>J,

Monfr. de la Sale farther ordei'd me not to . receive any Man of thofe he took aiong with him, unkfs they brought an Order from him in Writings nor to hold or admit of any Com- munication with the Natives, but rather to fire upon them, and fome other Particulars he thought fit to be obferv'd. He had made him- felf a Goat of Mail with fmail Laths, to fecure himfelf againlt the Arrows, which he took a- long with him, he alfo took the Canoes, and promis'd to fend me one back. Five Cannon Shot were the Signal of his Departure.

He took his Way along the lower Part of the River, to march by Land along the neigh- f^^-f'^* ^^ bouring Bay, which was calj'd of St. Lewis, the out^tl^dif- Canoes keeping within Sight. I was left cover. in the Habitation with thirty four Perfons, Men, st.LcviWs Women and Children, and of that Number ^^J* were three Recclet Friars, the Sieur ////We, who was to cotnmand in my Abfence, one of the Sieurs Dubaut^ the Sieurs Tife/^/^w/f and a Sur- geon.

Our Proviiions being very fmall, and it being requifite to fpare them, for the Sick, wc were oblig'd to apply our felves to Fifhingand Shoot- ing. Both of them at firfl proved very unfuc- cefsful, efpecially the latter j becaufe we were not yet well vers'd in them, and Monfieur ^e la Sale had taken our Huntfman along with him ^ but at length, Neceffity made us more expert. We kill'd Beeves, fome of which I caus'd to be dry'd, and they we,re a confiderable Help to fubiift us.

Some

58 Monpeur de la S A l eV Second Vojage

Koif-i68<^ Some Days after, the Canoe Monfieur de ta ^'''V^ Sale had promis'd me, arrived with three Sol- dieTwhb ^isi"s^ who brought us the News of the Lofs of Cold, the Huntfman Monfieur de la Sale had taken along with him, and who had been found dead with Cold in a Ditch, where he had lain dowa to reft after hunting, which troubled us all ve- • ry much. They alfo inform'd us, that Monfr, de la Sale advancing towards fome Dwellings the Natives had abandon'd, after a fraall Re- iiltance, fome of whom had been wounded as they fled, they had taken and brought a Girl and a Woman, who was (hot thro' the Thigh, of which (he dy'd. ^er.11585 The Canoe was a great Help to us to carry what we kill'd, which being brought to our Ha- bitation, found Employment for all Perfons, fome to flea, others to cut up, and others to dry it. At other Times, 1 fet fome of our Men to throw up a Trench about our Habi- tation. Thus we fpent our Time, till about the ^i«.3686 Middle of January, i685, when being all, one Evening, in our Manfion, the Sentinel came ift to acquaint me, that he heard a Voice towards the River ^ fome Men ran thither immediately, and found a Man in a Canoe, crying, Dominich^ which was the Name of young Duhaut, who was with us. The Sight of that made me appre- henfiveleft fome Difafter was befallen Monfr, de la Sale, I drew near, and perceiv'd it was Duhaut the Elder, that was return'd.

I ask'd, him whether he had any Letters from Monfieur ^f /^ 5^/e, he anfwer'd, he had not. It gave me fome Uneafioefs, confidering 1 was forbid admitting any Man without an

Or-

into NORTH AMERICA. 59

Order in Writing, and I was almoft refolv'd to ?-i''.«686 fecure him \ but the Account he gave me of the ^J^^JQ^ Occafion of his returning wholly clear'd him. remms I admitted hiip, and he told me the whole /^oot Mr, Matter as follows. delaSale.

Monfr. de U SaU^ having ftaid fome Time on the Sea Shore, near the Place where the Bark was at Anchor he refolv'd to try the Anchor- ing Places of the Coafts round about, to know how near the Bark U Bells might come. To that Purpofe he fent the Pilot with 5 of the beil: Men to found-

The Pilot did as he was order'd, he founded and obferved the proper Places to come near fe- veralCoafts. At Night he and his Men be- ^j/^^" ing in all likelyhood tir'd, they thought fit to go i^Mtves, Alhore and lie upon the Land. They made a Fire, perhaps to drefs fome Meat j but ne- glecting to ftand upon their Guard, they were furpriz'd, and all fix of them kill'd by the Sa- vages ^ who alfo broke their Canoe, and thus reveng'd themfelves for the Irruption Monfr. de la 5<2/e had lately made among them.

More Time being elaps'd than Monfieur de U Sale had allotted thofe Men to return, he ^

grew uneafy, and went himfelf along the Coafl:, to fee if any News could be had ot them, and keeping along the Shore, he found the fad Re- mains of thole unfortunate Wretches, whofe Carcafles fcatter'd about, were torn and almoft devour'd by Wolves or wild Dogs, a Spedatlc which went to his Heart.

However this Lofs, which afflifted him, and particularly for the Sake ot the Pilot, who was an able Man, did not quite caft him down •, but exerting himfelf agaiult his Misfortunes, he

caus'd

So Monjleur de la S A l eV Second Voya^

^itn.i6%6 caus'd Flefh to be dry'd, and with that and the "5-^"^^^ other Provilions he viduall'd the Bark ia Belle* He caus'd it to advance into the Bay, put a good ISJuniber of Men on Board to fejcure it, among whom were Monfieur CWe-y/Y/^,' the Prieft, and TUnterofe of Roan^ and order'd them not to ftir from that Place till they heard from him, and not to go Afhore, unlefs with a good Guard and jiecefiary Precautions.

Next, he chofe out Twenty Men, irabark'd on two Canoes he had left, and being come Afhore, caus'd the Canoes to be funk in the River, and every Man to take up his Bundle, confifting of Arms, Tools, fome Utenfils for the Kitchin, a few Goods, to trade with the Katives, if he fhould find any fociable, and fo advanc'd into the Country, to try if any Isiotice could be had of the Mijfifpi,

After feveral Days March, they came to a La Ma- good pleafant River, which they afterwards ligne i(i- caii'd la Maligne. Monfieur de la Sale marching ven at the Head of the Company, and having or- der'd Monfieur Moranget to keep in the Rear ; it happen'd that Duhaut {topping to mend his Snapfack and his Shoes, which were in a bad Condition ^ the Sieur Moranget coming up, com- manded bim to march, he defired him to ftay a little. Moranget would not, but held on his Way j Duhaut follow'd fome Time after, but having ftay'd too long, he could not overtake the Company, and found himfelf about Islight fall in a Plain full of Weeds, where there were feveral Tracks of the Way Cattle had gone, but knew not which of them to take. He fir'd his Piece feveral Times, without hear- ing

hto NORTH AMERICA. 6i

lag any thing of his Company, and was oblig'd Feb.ie^S. to pafs the Might in that fame Place. L/'V^Si?

In the Morning he fnot again, fpent the Day and Night again' in that Place, fo that not ^^^^^^ knowing what to do, he return'd the fame Way he had gone, and after a Month's March, for he traveli'd only by Night, tor Fear of. meeting with the Savages, living upon whaE he kilVd with much Difnculty and Danger, ha- ving before fpent all his own Provifions ^ at length after moft unaccountable Hardfbips and Sufferings, he arriv'd at the Place where the Ca- noes had been funk. He took one of them up, with incredible Labour, and too long to relatl*^, ' and fo came to our Habitation of St. Levpis* Thus it pleas'd God that he who was to be one of the Murderers of Monlieur de la Sale, fhould come off f»fe, and furmoant almofl infinite Dangers.

This Account, which feem'd to carry the Face of Probability, prevail'd with me to receive the Sieur Duhaut^ and in Reality I could do no otherwife, and 1 made it my Bufinefs to examine into his Behaviour, but could find Nothing to la^to his Charge. We con- tiaued feme Time longer as we had been be- fore •, during the which, I caused another lit- tle Wooden Struclare to be made, of Timber, i had got together, and in it I lodg'd the Wo- men and Maidens by themfelves. Having hi- therto faid Nothing of the Situation of our Dwelling of St. Lewis, nor of the Nature of the Country we were in, I v;ill here venture upon a plain but true Defcription.

We were in about the 27th Degree of North Latitude, two Leagues up the Country, near

the

6u Monfeur de la S a l eV Second Voyage Teh.i6%6. the Bay of St. Lewis and the Bjnk of the Rf- ^2npH- ^^^ auxBceufs, on a little Hillock, whence we enoftbs difcover'd vaffc and beautiful Plains, extending Country very far to the Weftward, all level and full of tfwiz?we/- Greens, Which afford Pafture to an infinite ling at St. i«;iumber of Beeves and other Creatures. TbeLand. Turning from the Weft to the Southward^ there appear'd other Plains adorn'd with feve- ral little Woods of feveralSorts of Trees. To- wards the South and Eaft was the Bay, and the Plains that hem it in from the Eaft ; to the Northward, was the River running along by a little Hill, beyond which there were other large Plains, with fome little Tufts of Wood at fmall Diftance^, terminating in a Border of Wood^ which feem'd to us to be very high. ihin^ Between that little Hill and our Dwelling,

Crentures. ^g^ ^ ^qj.^ q( Marlh, and in it Abundance of wild Foul, as Curlies, Water-Hens and other Sorts. In the Marfh there were little Pools full of Fifh. We had alfo an infinite Num- ber of Beeves, wild Goats, Rabbits, Turkeys, Buftards, Geefe, Swans, Feldifares, Plovers, Teal, Partridges and many other Sorts of Fowl fit to eat, and among themSone cdWAU grand Gofiir^ or, the great Gullet, becaufe it has a very large one •, another c.s big and Flefhy as a Pullet, which we called the Spatula, becaufe it's Beak is fhap'd like one, and the Feathers of it being of a pale Red, are very beautiful.

As for Fifh, we had feveral Sorts in the Ri- fijh, ver and in the Lakes I have mention'd. The Ri- ver afforded a Sort of Barbies, differing from ours in Roundnefs, in their having three Bones Iticking out, one on the Back, the others oa each Side of the Head, and in the Flefh, which

is

imo NORTH AMERICA. 6^

is like Cod, and without Scaks. The River fup- ^^J:*^* ply'd us with Abundance of other Fifties, whofe '^^v^' Names we know not. The Sea afforded us Oyfters, Eeles, Trouts, a Sort of red Fifties and others whofe long, fliarp and hard Beak tore all our Nets.

We had Plenty both of Land and Sea Tor- toifes, whofe Eggs ferv'd to feafon our Sauces. Tomlfes, The Land Tortoifes difl^er from thofe of the Sea, as being fmaller, round, and their Shell more beautiful. They hide themfelves ia Holes they find or make in the Earth. It was looking for thefe Tortoifes, that one of our Surgeons, thruft his Arm into a Hole, and was bit by fome venomous Creature, which we fuppos'd to be a Sort of Toad, having four Feet, the Top of his Back ftiarp and very hard, with a little Tail. Whether it was this Crea- i'^„f,^g^^ ture, or a Snake, his Arm fwelled very much, crcAtura, however he was cured by fuch Applications as were made Ufe of j but it coft him a Finger was cot off.

Among the venomous Sorts of Snakes, as Vipers, Afps and others, whereof there are ^^f^- many, thofe call'd Rattle-Snakes are the molt ^¦"^^^^' common, They generally lye among the Bram- bles, where they make a Noife by the Motion of two Scales they have at the End of their Tail, which is heard at a confiderable Diftance, and therefore they are call'd Rattle-Snakes. Some of our Men had eaten of them and found their Flefli was not amifs, and when we had kill'd any of them, our Swine made a good Meal.

There

^4 Monfieur de la S a l e'j Second, Voyage ^^^^^ There are alfo many Alligators in the Rivers,'

ji^i^ators. ^°"^^ °^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ frightful Magnitude and 'Bulk. I kill'd one that was between four and five Foot about, and twenty Foot in Length, on which our Swine feafted. This Creature has very fhort Legs, inforauch that it rather drags along than walks, and it is eafy to follow the Traftofit, either among the Weeds or on the Sands, where it has been. It is very rave- nous, and attacks either Men or Beads, when they are within Reach in the River, and comes alfo aHiore to feek for Food. It has this parti- cular Quality, that it flies from fueh as purfue, and purfues thofe who fly from it. I have fhot many of them dead.

Trees The Woods are compofed of Trees offeveral

Sorts. There are Oaks, fome of them ever green and never without Leaves •, others like oars in Europe^ bearing a Fruit much like our Galls, and lofe their Leaves in Winter, and a- nother Sort not unlike ours in Franee^ but the Bark of them thicker , thefe as well as the fe- cond Sort bear au Acorn, differing from ours both in Tafle and Bignefs.

There is a Sort of Tree, which bears fmall Berries, which, when ripe, are red, and indif- ferent pleafant. It bears twice a Year, but the fccond Crop never ripens. There is another Tree, bearing a Fruit not unlike Cajfm^ in Taftc and Virtue.

There are others of the Sort I had feen in the Iflands, whofe Leaves are like Rackets, whence the Tree bears the Name. The Blolloms grow out about the Leaves, and of them comes a

Divge- Fruit fomewhat refcmbling Figs, but the Leaves

m*fr«/rand the Fruit are full of Prickles, which malt

be

//?/^NORTH AMERICA. 65

be carefully rubb'd and taken off, before it is Feb.j6S

I have feen fome Trees refembling the Paln^i whofe lofty and long Branches fpread like that caird the Latamer^htaving a Fruit, faid. to be in- different good. Others the fame Sort, but whofe I Leaves are like Gutters, harlh and fo fnarp pointed, that they will pierce the thfckefl: Stuffs. This Tree has a Sprout on the Top,which fhoors out Flowers in the Shape of a Nofegay, of a vvhitilh yellow, and feme of them at the Top of that Sprout have fixty or eighty Flowers hanging down, not unlike the Flower de Luce, and after thofe Flowers follows a Fruit as long as a Man's Finger, and thicker than the Thumb, full of little Seeds, fo that there is fcarce any Thing but the Rhind fit to eat, the Talte whereof is fweet and delicate

There are Abundance of creeping Vines yifjgf; and others, that run up the Bodies and to the Tops of Trees, which bear plenty of Grapes, fiefhy and fharp, not to compare to the Deli- cacy of ours in Europe ^ but v^^e made Verjuice of them, which was very good in Sauce. Mul- berry Trees are numerous along the Rivers, their Fruit is fmaller, but fweeter and more delicious than ours ^ their Leaves aje beautiful and large, which would be. of good Ufe for feeding of Silkworms.

The Plains are ftrew'd with a Sort offrtiall pj^tfits: Sorrel, the Leaf whereof is like Trefoil, and the Tafte of it fliarp like ours. There are A- B bundance

is 6 Monfeur de la Sal e'^ Seconci Voyige

fe*. 1686 bundauce of fmall Onions, no bigger than the ^^''WJ Top of a Man's Finger, bat very well tafted, N and when the Heat has fcorch'd up the Plains, that Plant (hoots out firft, and produces Flowers, which look like an agreeable Enamel. Nothing is more beautiful than to behold thofe vaft Plains, when the BlofToms appear^ a thoufand Sorts ofdifFereftt Colours, whereof many have an agreeable Scent, adorn thofe Fields, and af- ford a molt charraing Objed to the Eye. I have obferved fome that fmelt like a Tuberofe, but the Leaf refembles our Borage. I have feen Primrofes, having a Scent like ours, African Giliiflowers, and a Sort of purple wind Flowers. The Autumn Flowers are almoft all of them yellow,lb that the Plains look all of that Colour. The Climate is mild and temperate, tho* we were in about 27 Degrees of North Latitude, and yet the Seeds I caufed to be fow'd did not thrive \ whether it was becaufe they had been foak'd in the Sea Water, or for any other Rea- foq. Some came up pretty well, as Pompions, Melons, Parfnips and Endive •, but the BeajRisand the Infefts, left us not much. When we come to the Cenis and have traverfs'd fo many Nations as lay between us and them, I Ihall fpeakof the Religion, Manners, Cloath- ing, Houfes and Cuftoms ofthe Natives, wher- in they differ but little from one another, tho' of feveral Countries.

Monfieiir de la Sale had been now long gone, and we began to be in Pain for him, when a- boui theMiddle of March i685, hapningto be on the Top of the Houfe, I fpied feven or eight Perfons coming towards us. I pre fen tly order- ed eight arm'd Men to follow me, to

go

ifftoNORTK AMERICA. 67

go meet them; and as foon as we drew near ^J^^^J' them, we knew Monfiear de la Sale, Monfieur /-v>^ CAvelier^ his Brother, Monfieur /Joranget^ his ^'^ Nephew and five or fix Men with them, the reft being gone another Way to find out the Bark la Belle^ to give Notice of Monfieur de la S^Ws Arrival.

They were in a bad Condition, their Cloattis ^f,f g^j^ ragged, Monfieur Cavelier's fhort CaiTock returns. hung in Tatters ; moft of them had not Hats, and their Linen was no better ; however the Sight of Monfieur de la Sale rejoyc'd us a]]. The Account he gave us of his Jcurney reviv'd our Hopes, tho' he 'had not found the fatal 'River, and we thought only of making ourfelves as merry as we could. Only the Sight of the Sieur Duhaut interrupted it for fom* Time. Monfieur de la Sale ask'd me in an angry Man- ner, why I had recti v*d him, and Duhaut hav- ing given his Reafons, as I and my Men did, we were all fatisfy'd.

The next Day, the Sieurs le Barhier^ Bihorelj 4e Petit, Cavelievj the Nephew, the Surgeon '^^ ^•ifi and others, whom Monfieur de la Sale had fent jgi^^^^ to find out and carry Advice to the Bark la Belle^ return'd, and faid they could not find her, which was another frefli Caufe of much Uneafinefs to Monfieur de la Sale. He had been guilty of the Fault of putting aboard her, his Cloaths, his , Linen, his Papers and all his beft Effects, of all which he was then in the utmoft Need. Be- fides, that Lofs broke all the Meafures he had concerted daring his laft Expedition, becaufe he had refolv'd to caufe the faid Bark to go up one of the Rivers he had difcover'd, to advance towards thofe Nations, with whonj he had F 2 con-.

68 Monfteur de la S A l e'^ Second J^oyage

Mi*cb contracted fome Friend fhip, and to fend me in

*^^^' the fame Bark* with his Nephew Moranget^ to

^^^^y^ the Iflands to feek for fome Affiftance, or elfe

to return by Sea to look for his River.

All thefe Defigns being difappointed, he rc- folv'd to ^ti out a fecond Time, and travel by Land, to find out his River. He ftaid to reft him awhile, and to provide for his Departure, but having neither Linen nor Cloaths, I fup- ply'd him with fome I had ^ I alfo afforded fome Linen to Monfieur^ Caveller, his Brother and MonfieurA/or^;?^ef, his Nephew. All I had was at their Service, and I depriv'd myfelf of all that was fit for thera, even to ten or twelve Pounds of Strings of Beads and fome Knives and Nails, which Monfieur de la Sale took.

The Sieur Duhaut^ having feveral EfFefts, as Linen, Hatchets and other Tools and Com- jnodities, which had been fav'd from the Ship- wreck, Monfieur de la Sale took Linen to make Shirts, for fuch as wanted, as alfo the Tools they Itood in Need of. The Cloaths belong- ing to Mefileurs Thibault^ le Cros and Car^entier^ who were dead, were alfo diltributed. A great Belt I had, ferv'd to make Shoes for Monfieur de la Sale and Monfieur Caveller,

All Things being thus providecj, Monfieur de la Sale took twenty Men along with him, among whom were Monfieur Cavelier his Bro- ther, F. Anaflafms a Recolet, Monfieur Morari' get his Nephew, the Sieurs Bihorel, le CUrk^Hu' delaSale ^'*^» ^"^^"^ the younger, Jdiens his Surgeon, fetsoHt and- his Servants. He left behind thofe, who upouano' were not fit to undertake that fecond Journey, therExpe- among whom were little Moniieuv Caveller his diim. Nephew, the Sieur Barbier^ Canadien and fome

others.

A^/^ NORTH AMERICA. h

others. Each of the Travellers made up his ^i^ Pack, and they fet out towards the latter End ^-^^ of Ai^ril 1686, after having given me the necef- fary Orders, and we parted without Ceremony, Monfieur de la Sale defiring it fhould be fo.

Some Days after he was gone, I heard a Voice towards the lower Part of the River, crying twice Ouivive^ or who are you for. I made that Way, and perceiv'd the SieurCW?- 'Ville a Prieft, the Sieur de U Sahlonniere^ and fome others of thofe who had been put aboard the Bark la Belle, and were now in a Canoe. I ask'd abruptly what was become of the Bark, and was iaform'd, our continual Misfortunes ftill purfuingus, that it had run aground on the Whit was other Side of the Bay. I caufed the Canoe to f-ived of be unloaded, there being in it, among other J^'^p^'!!* Things, Monfieur de la Sale's Cloaths, Part *

of his Papers, fome Linen, a fmall Quantity df Beads and thirty or forty Pound of Meal, which was all they had left.

The next Day, Monfieur de Chedeville told me the Particulars of that Misfortune, and faid, ^°^ »** That having been fome Time with the Bark, in ^1[^ "¦'* the Place where Monfieur de la Sale had ap- pointed them to wait, their Water falling fhort, they bad thought fit to fend the Boat afiiore, with four or five Casks to fill •, that the Sieur TUnterofe went in it with fix of the beft Men. That towards the Evening they faw the Boat coming back, but the Wind being contrary and Kight coming on, they put out a Light, which going out and the Captain negleding to put up another, in all Likelyhood the Boat could not fee the Bark, and they never heard of ii after, F 3 nor

yo Mofifeur- de la Sal e'^ Second Voyage

May 1686 nor of any of thofe in it, who it was probable

^-"'^W^ had all periOiM.

That neverthelefs, they continued fome Days in the fame Place, during which Time three or four of their Men died ; and at la ft, having no Water, they eat up their Swine, before they died with Thirft, and refolv'd to weigh Anchor and draw near to the Dwelling ^ bat having few Hands and thofe fpent, and to add to thdr Misfortune the Wind proving contrary, they were drove to the other Side of the Bay, where they run aground.

That having no Boat, nor Men enough to land their Effeds, they had endeavQur'd to make a Float with fome Casks and Planks, buE that being ill made and join'd together, the firft that went upon it had perifb'd. That hav- ing made another Float better faftned together than the firft, they had by that Means faved fome Sails and Rigging, feveral inconfiderable Things, Linen, Cloaths and Papers belonging to Monfieur de la Sale and others, and thea ftay'd Afhore,expeding to hear fome News, and bad found a Canoe, being the fame that was before loft on the Edge of the Bay, which had been drove to the other Side ^ and that Provi- iions at laft beginning to fall fhort, they went aboard the faid Canoe and came to us; fortu- nate in that they had not been difcover'd by the Natives, during their Stay Afhore, which was for the Space of three Months, and in finding the Canoe to bring them back.

When Monfieur de la Sale went away, the Sieur BarbUr had taken upon him to go a hunt- ing, asaifo to provide Bark to cover our Hou- fes, inftead of Hides, becaulb the Sua drying

and

hto NORTH AMERICA. 71

and contrading them, Part of the Top of onr ^unei6S6 Buildings was uncover'd. I farther enjoyn'd him ^>''VNJ JO cot Stakes, to make a Palifade about our Dwelling, and the Sieiir ChedevilU having told me they had bury'd feveral Things they could not bring away, I fent the Sieur Barbier with two Canoes and fifteen Men to the Place, where they found f6me Pedrei'oes, Rigging and Sails. The Natives having difcover'd the Conceal- ment, had taken away fome Pieces of Linea and Iron Tools, which they very much co- vet.

The Sieur Barbier after his Return, continu- ing his Exercife of hunting, happen'd to meet with a Parcel of the Natives, fome of whom had Firelocks, which they had taken from our Eiicoumer Men, and with which they made fome Shots at ^^}^}^^ him, but very weak jand he firing three or four ^'*"^" Shot at them they retir'd. He was then in a Canoe on the River, and defign'd to have gone upwards j but that Rancounter having oblig'd him to take another Way, and the Savages perceiving it, eight of them fwam over the Ri- ver, haftening to get before the Canoe, hid themfelves among the Weeds, near the Way he was to pafs, and when he was near enough, let fly their Arrows, which wounded feveral Men. One Shot the Sieur Barbier made, put them all to Flight again j he held on his Way and returned to our Habitation.

Some Days after, We perceivM a Herd of Bullocks flying, and guefs'd they were purfu'd by the Savages, which afterwards appear'd to be true. Some of them drew near to our Ha- bitation, but a Cannon Shot, I pointed towards the Gang of them, and a Musket-fhot Mon- F 4 fitvir

72 > Monfieur de la S A l e'^ Secofjd Voyage ^me\6%6 fieur Barhier fired at the nearelt, made them ^-^^^^^^ all fly farther off

When the Sieur Barbier went out a Hunting, I commonly fent with him fome Women and Maids, to help the Hunters to drefs and dry the Flelh ^ but being inform'd that he usM to The Sieur flip afide from the Company, with a young Barbier jviaid he had a Kindnefs for, and which gave mantes. Q^cafion to fome well-grounded Railleries 4 the faid Barbier being told I was acquainted with that Affair, came and fpoke to me in pri- vate, deliring Leave to marry that young Wo- man, 1 made fome Difficulty of it at firfl:, ad- vifing him to ftay till Mondeur de la Sale re- j turn'd ^ bat at laft, confidering they might -^ have anticipated upon Matrimony, I took the Advice of the Recolet Fathers, and of Monfieur ChedeviHe the Prieft, and allowed them to mar- ry. Monfieur le Marquis de la Sabloniere follow- ing this Example, ask'd the fame Liberty, be- ing in Love with a young Maid, which I abfo- lutely refus'd, and forbid them feeing one ano- ther. , Some Time pafs'd in which Nothing hap- 3 pen'd to us worth obferving ; however, I will mention two Things which befell our Recolet Accidents Fathers. One was, That Father Anajiafiusy concerning being a hunting Bullocks with me, and coming thei^ecoiets ^qq ^egf one I had (hot, and was fallen, the Beaft, as much hurt as he was, ftarted up, at- tack'd and threw him down ^ he had much ado to get off, and I torefcue him, becaufe I durft not fhoot for Fear of killing him. The Bul- lock being weak, fell again •,the Father was de- livered, but lay ill fome Months. The other was, That ¥ athsv Maxinm h&d writ fame Me- ... moirs

^>/^ NORTH AMERICA. 75

moirs concerning Monfieur de U Sale\ Condua, ^"^fj^ condemning him upon feveral Occafions. I was ^>^>/^ told of it, found Means to get thofe Memoirs, threw them into the Fire, and fo the Father came off.

About the fame Time, moft of our Men feeing Monfieur de la Sale did not return, began Duha^ to mutter. The Sieur Duhaut, who perhaps had ^"J^'^j^g,. been the firft Fomenter of thofe Difcontents, ^^jj^w <* back'd the Csmplaints of ths difgufted Panyy Mutiny. promis'd them great Matters under his Con- duft, and offer'd to fupply them with fuch Ef- feds as he had in PolTefllon, endeavouring, as I fuppofe, by thofe Means, to gain their Affedi- ons, for a mifchievous Defign, which it is likely he had even then conceiv'd.

It was not long before, 1 had Intimation of the whole Affair, and I had done Monlieur de la Sale a fingular Piece of Service, had I then put to Deith the Perfon, who was to be his Murderer*, but I relied fatisfy'd with giving him a fevere Reprimand, and threatening to caufe him to be fecur'd if he perfifted, being able CO do no other under my prefent Circumftan- ces. However, 1 talk'd to all concern'd, and put them in fuch Hopes of Monfieur ^^/^5<«/e's Return, and that Things v^^ould fo-in change to their Satisfadion, that they were all paci- fy^d.

But in Regard, that Idlenefs often occaflons Uneafinefs and Impatience, I us'd all poffible Means to keep them employ'd, in the moft o- bliging Manner I could, fetting fome to cue down theBiifhes about our Dwelling, others to hew down Trees, that hinder'd the Profped, o- ihers raow'd the Grafs, that frc/h might grow

up

74 Monjieur de la S A l e'^ Second Voyage

^une'6p up for our Cattle, and st Night I made them ^-''^'^'^"^ divert themfelves with Dancing and Sing- ing.

Whllft we thus pafsM away the Time the M. de la ^^^ ^^ could, Monfieur de la Sale had pene- S^WsDif- trated very far up into the Country, incliniflg wxfhsf towards the Northern Part of /"/e.v/co. He had travell'd through feveral Nations, the Inhabi- tants whereof were, for the moft Part, fociable, and had concluded a Sort of Alliance with them, and particularly with the Cenis and o- thers whofe Names I fhall mention. He had difcover'd charming Countries abounding in all Things that could be wifh'd, as well for Suite- nance, as for making of eafy Settlements, and after he and his Nephew Moran^et had efcap'd two Dangerous Sickneifes, he return'd to our Habitation, with five Horfes he had purchas'd, and arriv'd at it inAugufi \6?,6.

Hearing of his Voice, I was one of the firfl: Sful^turn that ran towards the River: We took our Canoes to bring him,his Luggage and fome Pro- vifions over, and the Horfes fwam. We were extraordinary glad to fee our Commander ift Chief return fafe, tho' his Journey had notad- vanc'd his Delign. Moniieur de la Sale had not found out his River, nor been towards the Ijlinois as we had hoped. Only eight Men re- turn'd with him of twenty he carry'd out, and all the vifibie Advantage of that Journey confilied in five Horfes, laden with Indian Wheat, Beans and fome other Grain, which was put into the Store.

Monfr. de U Sale askM« me, as foon as he 7 ileniod ^^^^1 wjiether the Sieurs Clerc, Hurie^Buhaut the InAA^il younger and two others were come, becaufe fm.' ' they

iffto NOKTB. AMERICA. 75

they not being able to endure the Fatigue of ¦y''^»«i^S6 the Journey, he had given them Leave to '-'^VVi' return, and hearing they were not, he conclu- ded the Savages had killed them. We were al- fo informed, that the Sieur Bihorel^ had ftray'd and was loft, fo that there had been no News of him llnce ^ that one of Monfr. ds U Sale*% Servants had been dragged down to the Bot- tom of the Water aad devour'd by an Alli- gator, and that four others had deferted and abandoned Monfieur de U Sale, when he was about the Country of the C«?wj.

This was a very dlTmal and deplorable Ac' M. dela count ; but the even Temper of our Chief made ^^'^ ''^- all Men eafy, and he found,by his great Vivacity f,J//^^^' of Spirit,Expedients, which reviv'd the loweit pediuofi, ' Ebb of Hope. He rejoiced at the Return and Sight of M. Chedeville^hs was pleas'd at the Re- covering of hisCloathsand Part of his Papers ; and after fome Time ot Reft, he propos'd to undertake a journey towards the 7/Z/w<7«/, and to make it the main Bufinefs, by the Way,to find the Mijfippi ^ but it was thought proper to let the great Heats pafs, before that Enterpiize was taken in Hand.

In the mean Time, he gave Orders to ftake about a Place to make a new Magazine, or Storehoufe. He put to thatUfe the Timber I had caused to be cut, and would have more pro- vided for the fame UCe- Detachments being fent to work, feven or eight of our Men, who were fent with the Sieur Barhier^ were difco- ver'd by the Savages, who being fuperior in Number, made as if they would hem them in *, but each of our Men having taken a Ti^e up- on their Shoulders aud fir'd their Pieces, which

made

76 Mofijteur de la S A l eV Second Voyage

0^. 1686. made one of* the Natives drop, the others took

^^^^"^^ him up and withdrew. Yet it was not long be-

Tvoo Men ^^^^ ^^^^ "^^^^ reveng'd, for they kill'd as two

liWi, M«i, one of them clofe by our Dwelling, and

the other, who had feparated from the reft of

the Company to gather Purflain, and could noE

be reliev'd.

There being every Day fome Difcourfe of the Journey to the IJlinois^ Monfieur de la Sale ask'd me one Day, whether 1 would make one of the Company, and go by the Way of Canada to France for Succours. I afiured him I was entirely devoted to his AA/ill, and would faith- fully attend him. Then he began by Degrees to provide what he thought necefTary for that Expedition. I had two Pair of Sheets, which lie took, to make him Linen. Canvas Cloaths were made of the Sails of the Bark la Belle, The Sieur Duhaut having Linen, he took fome to diftribute among feyeral Perfons. Thus he halted on the Execution of his Delign, but aa Accident put it off. Nov.16^6 It was occafion'd by a Flux which troubled Monlieur de la Sale, who having told me he ccnld not perform that Journey, as long as he continu'd in fuch Condi Lion, I offerM to under- take it for him, if he would allow me his Indian^ and about fifteen Men •, but he anfwcr'd. That his Prefence was requilite among the IJlinois, and that it was requifite his Brother fhould go to France. Thus he refus'd my Offer, and could iiot fliun the ill Fate of that Journey. i?e;.i686 We fpent fome Time longer after this Man- ner, during the which, there arofe a Contro- verfy about the Privileges the King grants to tiae Firlt-born of the French Colonies in jimeri-

ca»

into NORTH AMERICA. 77

€a. The Siear Barbier\ Wife was with Child, ^^w-i^S;, and he claim'd the Privilege granted for that i^'^V^^ Child. The Widow Talon had a Child born ia the ?^i[dgc horn France to America^ and alledg'd, r^^J^^f that her Child, tho' born before our Arrival, privilege* ought to be preferr'd ^ but the Sieur Barbier*s Wife mifcarrying, the Difpute was not de- cided.

Monfleur de la Sale being recover'd of his In- difpofition, Preparations were again made for his Journey ; but we firft kept the Chrifimas Ho- ly-Days. The Midnight Mafs was folemniy fung, and on Twelve-Day^ we cry'd, The King drinks^ {according to the Cuflom of France) tho' we had only Water: When that was over we began to think of Tettins our. MonfiQuv de U Sale gave the Command of the Settlement to the Sieur Barhier^ directing him what he was to do aad obferve in his Abfence.

There remained in that Habitation, the Fa- who were thers Maximus and Zenohius^ Recolets, MonHeur l^^ i»fi>e Chedeville, the Priefl:, the Marquis de U SahUn- •^'l"^^'^'^* niere^ the Sieur Barbier^ Commander, his Wife, ^ehSale a Surgeon and others, to the Number of twen- depxned. ty, among v^hom were fcven Wcmen,orIVlaids, and only the Sieur Barbiermirry^d ^ which is much lhort;of the Number fome have given out remain'd in the Dwelling, without any Ground ^ for the Truth is, there were no more, and par- ticularly no Natives, Monfiair de la Sale having abfolutely forbid holding any Communication with them. As for Beafts, they amounted to feventy, or feventy five Swine, great and fmall, which was a good Stock ^ for Fowl, eighteen or twenty Hens j fome Casks of Meal, which

was

•78 Monfieur de la S A L eV Second Voyage

^an.iSSj, vras kept for the Sick ^ Powder, Ball, and eight ¦^-^^V^^ Pieces of Cannon, without any Bullets.

» We fet out the 1 2th of January^ in the

thltfetout Y^®^ 1687, being Teventeen in Number, viz., wttbMAQ Monfseur de la Sale ^ Monfteur Cavelier^ the la Sale. Priefr, his Brother, Father jina^ajms^ the Re- colet, Mefliears Moranget and Cavelier, Ne- phews to Monfieur de la Sale^ the Sieurs Dw hauty the Elder, /' ArcUveque^ Hiens^ Liotot^ Surgeon, young Talon, an Indian^ and a Foot- man belonging to Monfieur de la Sale^ &c. We carried along with us Part of the beft Things every Man had, and what was thought would be of Ufe, wherewith the five Horfes were loaded, and we took our Leavts with fo much Tendernefs and Sorrow, as if we had all prefaged, that we fliould never fee each other more. Father Zenobius was the Perfon who exprefs'd it to me mafl: fignifi- cantly, faying, He had never been fo fenfi- bly touch'd at parting with any Body. Jbe Way We went that Day to' the Place wecall'd theytra- le Boucon^ becaufe there, we had often dry'd vell'i, Flefh, (y!>hich the French call Boucanner from the Indian Word) This Place was not far from our Habitation. The 13th, wecrofs'd a Plain, about two Leagues over, where we faw feve- ral Herds of Beeves and Flocks of Goats, Tur- keys, Buftards, and other Sorts of Wild Fowl. We met with Marihy Lands, which tired our Horfes, and came to a Wood that termi- nates the Plain, acrofs which, runs a Branch of a Pviver, full of Reeds, by Monfieur dela Sale call'd the Pr/wcc/jf'sRiver.That Branch joins the other, and they both fell together into ihc Bay of St. Lewis.

We

f>?(3 N R T H AMERICA. 79

We kiird five Beeves at the Entrance into ^av,t6^7 the Wood, forded the River, and incampM L/'WiJ Half a League beyond it,vvhence MoniiGur de la Sale fent Men vvitli the Horfes, to briiig the Flefh of the Bullocks we had kill' d j the Hides of them, which ferv'd to cover us, being very ufeful againfl: ^ violent Shower of Rain that teU.

The 14th, the Rain ceafin^, we travelled c- ver another fpacious Plain, where there is a Multitude of Beeves and Wild Fowl. We faw feveral Tracks, leading every Way, made by the Bullocks, of which v/e faw feveral Herds, fome moving on haftily, and others running out-right, which made us fuppofe they were drove by the Native^. In fliort, having halted to help up one of our Horfes that was fallen, we faw an Indian following them very clofe. Monfieur de la Sde caused a Horfe to be immediately unloaded, which a Man nrount- ing, rode after, cvercook and brought the Indian,

When the Savage faw himfelf among us, he concluded he was a loft Man, he quak'd for Fear, and not without Reafon, for molt of our Men had refov'd to kill him \ Moniienr de la Sale opposed it, alledging, that we were but 2 fmall Number, that very few were left behind at the Habitation, and therefore we ought not to render our fclves odious to the Natives, buc to ufe them kindly, that we might have Peace ; an infallible Maxim, the Practice of which jnight have been fortunate to him, had he fol- Jow'd it fooner.

He

So Mof?fieur de Ja S A l eV Second. Voyage

^an.i6^7 He therefore caused a Fire to be made, gave ^^^^"/"^ him to Eat and Smoke, and afterwards a Bit of Roll-Tabacco, and fome other Trifles. Mon- lieur de la Sale gave him tounderftand, that he came not to hart any Man, but to fettle Peace in all Places, and fo difmifs'd him. The Indian recover'd himfelf a little of his Fright*, but feeing ftiil dubious, what his Fate might be, he at firfi: walk'd away gently, ftill looking about him, and when at a good Diltance, made off as fait as he could. We held on our Way, and foon after faw another //z^/4» running after the Bullocks. Monfieur de laStnle caus'd him to be taken, brought to us, and treated as the firft had been.

We had not gone far before we fpy'd a Com- pany of Natives coming towards us,on our left, but we held on our Way, till they were over againft us,, when Monfieur de la Sale caus'd us to halt. The Savages feeing us halt, ftood ftill alfo, which Monfieur de /<« 6"^/e perceiving, he laid his Firelock on the Ground, and advanced towards them, making Signs to him that Com- manded them, who was a handfome Man, to draw near. That Indian came forward, and was follow'd by the reft:, all of them Caref- ling us after their Manner, which we return'd the belt we were able, and then made them

mtmTin'i ^^^'^ Monfieur de la Sale gave them to un- derftand, that we were going towards the Cenis, that we defir'd to be atPeace with them all, and that we would return to our own Country, whence we would bring them all they had Oc- cafion for. Then we diftributed among them fome Bits of Roll-Tabacco, fome Strings of

Beads

//i/^ NORTH AMERICA. 2i

Beads and Knives, which they feem*d to be ^^n.\62i pleas'd with, and all this was done by Signs. ^>''V"^ Then every Man went his own Way .• We advanc'd half a League farther, to get into a Wood, where Monfieur de la Sale had en- camp'd when he went that Way before \ we cut down Trees to fecure our Pofl, and lay there that Night.

Before our Intrenchment was finifh'd, wedii- cover'd, firit one Indian^ then two, and after- wards three, coming one after another *, which giving Monfieur de la Sale fome Jealoufy, he caus'd us to handle our Arms, with Orders to (tand upon our Guard, for fear of being fur- priz'd, and went towards them. They figni- fy'd to him, that their People had told them, we did not hurt any Body, which was very well, and thit they were come to fee us. They were entertained as the others had been, and then Signs were made them to withdraw, becaufe Night drew on, and having obferv'd, that they took Notice of our fortifying our felves, we kept a good Guard all the Night, without any Difturbance.

The Fifteenth, we march'd on, intending to find out aFord, in theRiver cill'd of the Princefs, where Monfieur de la Sale had pafs'd before 9 but mifling of it, and the River being fwollen, we were oblig'd to go up higher, fometimes crofllng curious Meadows, and fometimes Woods of tall Trees of feveral Sorts, but all j4 fins Young of the fame Thicknefs and ftrait, look- Coumrj, ing as if they had been planted by a Line. The River running through the midft ot thofe curi- ous Ihady Groves, which were alfo vvater'd by G feveral

8 2 Mo^fieurdch Sale'^ Second Vojage

fiin.\6^7 feversil little Brooks of very clear and good '^^^^V^^ Water, afforded a moft delightful Landskip.

We alfo met with feme Woods ib thick, that

^'"'^^ that it was requifite to hew a PalTage for the

mods, Horfes. Towards the Evening we killM a

Bullock, and went to incamp in a little Cop^

pice, with our ufual Precautions.

The i5th, we continued our Journey, ftill following the River upwards, and from Time U'ildForol. to Time meeting the fame Sort of Pafture Grounds and the Obftacles of Woods, where we were fain to cut our Way through, which fatigued us very much ^ but the Plenty of wild Fowl, and particularly of Turkeys, whereof we killed many, was an Eafe to our Sufferings, and Help to bear our Toil with more Satif- faftion.

The 17th, was a very toilfome Day's Journey, by Reafon of the Woods and Rivulets we were Anlniim ^q crofs j after which we came to a little Hill, biiSm'L °^ which there were 2 or 300 Cottages of the Natives. Thofe Huts were like large Ovens, conlilling of long Poles ftuck in the Earth in a Circle, and joyning above to make the Dome or round Top. They had been a Dwelling of the Natives, Wfho being gone, had carry'd a- way the Hides that cover'd them, and the Mats which are us'd to hang the Infides, and to make their Beds of.

After a March of fome Hours, our Indian ha- ving found a Herd of Beeves, we kill'd fevenor eight, took the belt of the Meat, and held on our Way acrofs a Wood. We forded a Branch of the River,and proceeded to the Bank of another, the the Bottom whereof being foul, we in- catnp'd on the Edge of it, and the Rain falling

at

ifjto NORTH AMERICA. 8^

at Night and continuing all the next Day, were ^an.iS^-r obli^'d to ftay there. ^/V^O

The iptb, the Rain ceafing, we proceeded through a thick Fog, and over Places where the Water was often up to our Knees, and fometimes higher ^ which, together with our being forc'd to cut the Way athwart the Bufhes, with our Hatchets, gave us inexpreflible Trou- ble, and it had been much greater, had we not refolv/d to follow the Ways beaten by the Bullocks, whom a natural Inflinft always leads to thofe Parts which are eafiefl: to pafs.

We were not free from another Inconveni- cncy in thofe Tracks, which was their being full of Water and very rugged, a Thing no Way agreeable to our Shoes, which were no ^'^^^i*" »/ other than a Piece of Bullocks Hide or Goats -^T/.'-^'r Skm quite green, whereor we made a Sort ot shoa. Buskins, to ferve inftead of Shoes, but when thofe wretched Boots were dry'd by the Heat, upon our Feet, they hurt us very m^uch, and we were often oblig'd to fet our Feet in the the Water, to foften thofe Buskins. However, we march'd all the Day, notvvithftanding all thofe Inconveniences, without finding a proper Place to incamp, and at laft came to a Riv^er, whofe high Bank afforded us a Spot to reft on.

The 20th, a fmall Rain did not obltrud our March, and having crofs'd a Wood, half a League athwart, and a Marfh of the fame Ex- tent, we came into a large Plain, cut acrofs by great Tracks of Bullocks, which went towards the Riveri and made us fuppofe there might be a Ford. We follow'd that Way, bat found the River fo fwoUen, and its Stream fo rapid, that it was impoflible to crofs it, but were o- G 2 blig'd

84 Mo/^jieur de la S a l eV Second Voyage

f aw. 1687 blig'd to halt upoa its Bank, whence we went to O^VX> hunt Bullocks, whereof we had no Want, nor of Turkeys and other wild Fowl.

The 2Uh, we proceeded up that River, and found a narrow deep Place, near whicl\ we hew'd down a Tree, making it fall fo as to reach from the one Bank to the other, in the Nature of a Plank, and handed cur Baggage from one to another over it. The Horfes fwam over and we incamp'd on the other Side, near . a very beautiful Plain. r

Heb3ba. ^hilH we were hewing down fome little a7uVution. Wood to intrench ourfelves, v^^e heard a Voice, whereupon handling our Arms and going to the Place where we heard it, we faw a Company of fifteen Savages, who were coming towards us, and made Signs to us to go to them, laying down their Bows, in Token of Peace. We alfo madeour Sign to them to draw near, they did fo and carefs'd us after their Manner. We made them lit down and fmoke, after which, Monfr. de la Sale began to converfe with them by Signs, and by Help of fome Words of the Language of the Cefiis, which he was skilful in, he underftood, that thefe were their Neighbours and Allies ^ that their Village, was not far off", and that their Nation was calVdHebahamo. Some fmallPrefents wer? given them and they vvithdrew,promiling to return the next Day.

The 22th, our Horfes being fpent and hurt, and we much tir'd, the Day was given to Reft, and the Natives did not fail to come, being twenty live in Number, fome of whom had Buck- , lers or Targets made of the ftrongft Part of the i^Bullocks Hides. They gave us to underftand, that they were ingagM in War towards the N IV,

and

mto NORTH AMERICA. 8$^

and told us, they had feen Men like us, who ^^;;^;J^ were but ten Days Journey from that Place. Other Tokens they gave, made us fuppofe it was Nixo Spain that they talk'd of.

Monfr. deU Sale took feveral Words of their Language, which is very different from that or the Cenis, and more difficult. As for their Cu- ftoms, they are much alii^ight, we did not march the 24th. The 2$th, wc travellM not far, by Reafon of the Rains continuing, and that there were feveral Rivers in the Way much fwollen.

The 1 5th, we proceeded on our Journey, and came to the River call'd /<« Sablonisre^ from the many Sand Banks there are in it. The 27th, de- parting from it, we came to another little nar- row River, but very deep •, going up higher we found a Ford, and went £0 iucamp beyond it, in a little Wood, where we had a very bad Night, becaufe of the Rain which fell agiin, and the o- verfiowingof the River,which oblig'd us to make a little Sort of Scaffold, to lay our Powder and Cloaths on, that they might not be wet. The next Day being the 28ih, obferving that the Water was dill riling, we decamp'd to go a League farther, to a higher Ground, where we made a great Fire to warm and dry us.

We took Notice the Country was very good, the Plains extending as far as theEyecould reach, and adorn'd with many little Coppices, affording a very agreeable Profped. Wc march'd over Part of them the zpth and 30th, after 3 Hours G 3 Travel,

86 Monfieur de ia Sal e'^ Second Vojdge '

Feb. T<5^7 Travel,found aWay full of Water,which oblig'd S'^'^y^^ us to incamp on' theBank of aRiver ; pafsM it the 3Uh,and incamp'd in a Wood clofe by. The next Day, being the Firft of February r?w^'^' '<^^7' Monfieur d?U Sale left me to guard the habited, Q^^^^ and took along with him, Monfieur Ca- velier his Brother and feven Men, to go fee whether he could find any Body in feveral Cot- tages our Hunters had difcover'd. He found twenty four or twenty five of them, built round like thofe I have before mention'd, ftanding on arifmg Ground, almoft encorapafs'd. by the River, in each of which there were four or five Men, and feveral Women and Children.

The Savages were fomewhat furprizM at Monfieur de la Salens coming ^ however they received him in friendly Manner, and condudi- ed him to their Commander's Hut, which was immediately fill'd with People, who came to fee him. The Elders came together there, Bul- locks Hides were laid upon the Ground, on which they made Monfieur de la Sale and his Company fit. They gave them hung Beef to eat, and then fignify'd to them that fomc of their Allies had given them Notice of our being in the Country, and that we were going totheCe»;/, and they had iraagin'd that we would pafs thro' their Country.

Monfieur de la 5i«/eprefented them with fome Knives and Bits ot Tabacco, and they gave him ^Bullocks Hides, very well drefs'd with the Hair^ they gave one for a Knife, and would have gi-» ven many more, but that we told to them, that we had no Conveniency to carry them and that if they had any Horfes, he would give ^ them Axes in £?:change. They anfwer'd, they \ bad but twOj which they could not part with. ¦

¦

^V;/^NORTH AMERICA. 87

It being late whea Monfieur de U Sale returnM, f^*- ^^^7 we ftaid there the reft of the Day, and feveral -y^C^ Indians came to fee us, in Hopes of receiving fome Prefent, offering us Bullocks Hides d re fled, which we would not burden our felves with.

The Second, we fet out again, and halted fome Time in that Village, where by the Way we bartered for fome Collars, or a Sort of Knots made of Bullocks Hides well drefs'd, which the Natives make Ufe of to carry their Burdens, whether of Wood, Utenfils, or the Meat they kill. They prov'd of Ufe both to us and our Horfes, becaufe the Thongs of thofe Collars ferv'd to make fafl our Burdens.

We proceeded on our Journey, through a Country pleafant enough, but Sandy, and hav- 'a Mf'* ing crofs'd a large Plain, came to the Bank of ^'^^^ ^^' a fine River, call'd U Maligne^ or the Mifchie- vous, becaufe in Monfieur de la SMe's former Journey, an Alligator devour'd one of his Ser- vants, who was fwiraming over it. This River is as wide as the Seine at Roan^ feeras to be very navigable and has a very pleafant Country a- bout it. We incampM in a little Wood adjoin- ing to it, and bark'd the Afpen Trees to hut.

Oar Hunters kill'd Beeves, wild Goats, Tur- keys and other Wild-Fowl, and among the [ndian reft fome Creatures as big as an indifferent Cat, ^«j. very like a Rat, having a Bag under their Throat, in which they carry their Young. They htd upon I^ats and Acorns, are very fat, and their Flefh is much like Pig.

Hard by there, we found a Place where Monfieur de la Sale^ in his former Journey had hid fome Parcels of Strings of Beads in the Trunks of Trees, and we lefted there till the Eighth of the Month During that Time, no G 4 Day

88 Monfieur de la S A L e'^ Second Voyage

Feb. 16S7 Day pafs'd without feeing fomeofthe Natii/es, '-^V"^ who fcmetimes fpent the whole Day with us, and faid they were of feveral Nations. We made them fmoke, and always gave them feme fraall Prefents. They admir'd that after we had writ down fome Words they fpoke to us, we repeated them, looking on the Paper. TortahJe Whilfl: we (laid, Moulieur ^e la S^le fet Men Canoe. at Work to make a portable Canoe, of long Poles, hew'd and joyn'd and then* cover'd with Bullocks Hides few'd together, having puii'd off the Hair or Woo!!, as it may be call'd there- That Canoe was of great Ufe to us, to crofs Rivers as well for our fehes as for our Bag- gage, but the Horfes fwam ov^r^

The Niatb,we put our Canoe iato the Water, and pafs'd the River in it, and incamp'd half a League from thence, on Account of the Grafs, which our Horfes flood in Need of to recover themfelves a little. The Tenth, we held on oar Journey, eroding feveral fpacious Plains, the Grafs whereof was burnt, whence Monfieur ^e la Sale concluded, that there were many Na- tives thereabouts. He thought it convenient to provide Store ofdry'd Flelh, for Fear wefhould jiot find Game in the Country we were going to enter upon, and accordingly canfed feveral Beeves to be kilfd for that Purpofc.

For that P^eafon, we continued there till the % 1 2th, when we went and incamped on the \ Bank of a River, which MonCitur de la Sale had in his former Journey call'd d'Eure. At Night there arofe a Storm, follow'd by Thunder and Rain, which fwell'd the Streams, and obliged us to flay there. The 13th and r4th we crofs'd four or five large Rivulets, and then a fine

curious

/W^ NORTH AMERICA. 89

curious Country, diverfify'd with feveral little Feb.\6^y Woods, Hills and fmall Brooks, affording a de- v^nTv; lightful Profpefl. That pleafant Country was terminated by a Wood, which we were to crofs, and were favour'd in it by a Way beaten by the Bullocks, and at Night we incamped there.

The 15th, we travel'd along a fine Meadow, then over Plains that had been bnrnt, and at Night went to take our Reft on the Bank of a fmall Rivulet, about which we faw feveral Foot- fteps of Natives, which made us conclude we were not far from them •, and therefore we doubled our Guard, to prevent being furpriz'd.

The i6th, Monficur de la Sale left me at the Guard of the Camp, and took MonHeur Cave- Her his Brother, and fcven Men with him, to -^^'l^^i^- go find out the Indians. They had not gone half a League before they fpied Horfes and a Namber of Cottages, without being themfelves itQ:i by the Savages. That Village ftood on the Side of a Hill, and contain'd about forty Huts, ftanding together, belides feveral others ftrag- ling;

When Monfieufisfe la Sale enter'd the Village, the Savages feeing him, came to meet and con- lAoijftcur . du(ft him 10 the Cottage of their Chief, where 'l'^|,^*3'« he and his Company were feated on Bullocks ^e/yv%«^ Hides. The Elders being come, he fignify'd the Nx- to them the Occafion of his Coming, as he had th-is, done to the other Nations, with which they feem'd to reft fatisfy'd. Some Prefents were m?.de them, according to Cullom, and they of- fer'd him a Qiiantity of Hides, which he re- fus'd, telling them, that when he return'd from the Cenis he would trade with, and furnilh them with all they had Occalloa for. They confirm'd

what

^o Monfieur de la S A l eV Second Voyage

teh.i6^7 what the others had told us, concerning a Na-

^•^'V*^ tion, where feme of them had been, the Mea

whereof were like us, meaning the Spaniards,

He nam'd to them the Kations we had pafs'd

through from our Dwelling of St Lewis, to the

River Maligns^ which we had lately pafs'd.

The Names of thofe Nations are as follows.

Ndfites of The SpicheatSy Kahayes^ ThecamonSy Theaure'

Nattovs fijsts^ Kiahoba^ Choumenes^ Kouans^ Arhan^ Ene-

' piahe^ Ahonerhopiheim^ Korenkake^ Korkont^ Omea'

ejfei Kereme?i^ Ahehoen, Maghai^ Thecamenes^ Oten^

marhewj Kavagan and Meracouman. Thefe are

the Nations that lay on our Road \ thofe on the

Weft and North Weil of the faid River, were

the Kannehonan^ Tohaka^ Tehir, CoyabeguXy Ona-

pien^ Pichar^ Tohan^ Kiaffes^ Chanz^es^ Tfera^ Bo'

crettes^ Tfepehoen^ Fercouteha^ Panego^ Petao^ Ptt-^

z^AYes^ Peifacho^ Peihoum and Orcampion.

Thofe we were with then, were call'd Te4(7, whom we had not before hear'd nam'd. They talk'd of a great Nation callM Ayona and Cano- hatinoj who were at War with the Spaniards^ from whom they Hole Horfes, and told us, that oae hundred Spaniards were to have come to joia the Cenis^ to carry on that War, but that ha- ving heard of onr March, they went back. Monfieur ds la Sale gave them to underftand, that we were at War With the Spaniards^ and that we fear'd them not \ and that he was (q\\^ on their Account by the great Captain of the World, who had charg'd him to do them all Good, and to affift them in their Wars againll fuch Nations as were their Enemies.

Thofe Savages gave Monfieur dela Sale No- tice, that he would find three of our Men a- mong the Cenis^ which put him in Hopes they

were

Lr>r^

into NORTH AMERICA. 91

were thofe he had given Leave to depart at his Tsh^e^j'^ former Journey, and of whom be had never fince ^ heard. He proposed to them to barter for Horfes ^ but they had caus'd them to be con- vey'd out of the Way, for Fear we fhould take them away, excepting only one Bay, which Monlieur de la Sale- agreed for and return'd to us.

The 17th, we pafs'd a final] River, with fome Difficulty, and incampM beyond it. The i8th, one of our Horfes going along the Edge of an upright Bank, fell into the Water, and came off with only a Hurt on the Shoulder •, but we were fain to unload him, and diftribute his Bar- den among OS, every one making a Pack^ and thus we crofs'd a curious Plain, diverfify'd witli Woods, Hills, Rivulets, and delightful Mea- dows.

The 19th, we travell'd along the Tops of thofe Hills, to avoid the Bottoms, and found a Difficulty to get down, by Reifon of the Rocks we met with at the End of them, and a River we were to crofs. Whilfl: we were paffing that River, we heard Dogs hunting the Bui, locks, two of which coming near us, one of them was fhot dead. The Natives who were hunting fpying us, fent out two of their Number, who creeping from Tree to Tree, drew near, and then ftood ftin,vvirhout daring to proceed any farther. We made Signs to them to come, which they did, and we made them fraoke, till Mor\^\z\xv de la Sale returned, being gone a little Way to obferve the Body ot thofe People*

When come, he told them, he would enter- tain Peace with them, that we were going to

the

92 Monjleur de la S a l e*/ Second Voyage

Feb.\eS7- the Cenis^ and he believ'd, that thefe very Men ^yW^ were of their Nation, becaufe they had their Accent and fome of their Words. They told him their Village was near that Place, and bore us Company to our Camp, where after fome fmall Prefents givea them, they were dif- mifs'd. jcmtHt The 20Eh, Monfleur <5?* /^ 5^/e fent Monfieur given by a MorAngtt and fome others to the Village of i^mvs, thofe Natives, to try whether they could bar- ter with them for fome Horfes. In the meaa Time two Savages came to us, one of them be- ing the fame that was with us the Night before, and they exprefs'd much Friend (hip for as. That particular Indian told us, his Name was Vala- e^uichaune^ that they were Allies to the Cenis^ shat their Chief had been among the Choumans^ with the Spaniards ^ that the Choumans were Friends to the Spaniards^ from whom they got Horfes, and added fome farther Particulars, which the others had before fignify'd to us ^ fo that we had good Rcafoa to judge we were not hv {tora North Mexico.

He alfo told us, that the Choumans had given their Chief fome Prefents, to perfvvade him to coadud us to them *, that molt of the faid Na- tion had flat Heads •, that they had Indian Corn, which gave Monfieur de la Sale Ground to be- lieve, that thofe People were fome of the fame he had feen upon his firft Difcovery. That fame Native had a very fine Goat's Skin, which I }jurchas'd of him for four Needles, after I had ihewn him how to ufe them, and that Skin was of good Ufe lo make us Shoes inftead of raw Bullocks Hides.

Some

hto NORTH AMERICA. 9?

Some Time after, Moniienr Moranaet t^- Teb, \6^ji turn'd, gave Monfieur de la Sale an Account of ^-"^^V*^ his (hort Journey, and faid. That one of the ^^ ^^ Natives, Yvhofavv us the Night before, came to ranget's meet and condu^l: him to the Chief's Cottage, A^tmnu where forty ancient Indians were, by whom , .

he had been kindly receiv'd. That the Chiefs 'V^V had in his Hand a Reed, at the End whereof was made fait a Leaf of a French Book, which he had an extraordinary Refpect for.^'That they had been made to fi;: on Bullocks Hides, and treated withdry'd Beef.

That after thefe firft Ceremonies, the Chief had given them to underftand, that fome of their People had been condudfed by a Man like us, to our Habitation, and that the faid Nlaw had promised to bring them to talk with us, ia order to treat of Peace ^ but that on the Con- trary, we had fireJ on them and kill'd one of their Men, which had oblig'd them to kill the Man that led them, and that then they rc- turn'd. It is not improper here to put the Rea- der in Mind, that I have before mentioned this Accident, when the Sieur Barbier croffing the River in a Canoe, was call'd upon by fome Per- fon, who was among the Nitives on the Bank of the River, who had made two Shots, as ic had been only the Priming of a Piece, which the Sieur Barbier had look'd upon as an Infult, and therefore he had alfo fir'd,vvith all the o- ther Particulars, as mentionM before •, an Acci- dent that happen'd for want of underftand-^ ing one another \ which, together with Monfr. de U Sale's forbidding us to have any Commu- nication with the Natives, was very prejudici- al to us afterwards.

After

94 Monjieur de la Sal e'^^ Second Voyage

Feb.i627 After much other Difcourfe, Monfieur Af^' L/^W> ranget having given them fome froall Prefents, they made their Retarn in Bullocks Hides, and Goats Skins well drefs'd. He ask'd them for fome Horfes to barter , they anfwer'd, they had no more than what they ftood in Need ofi We immediately proceeded on our Joarney,and that Day being the 21ft, went to incamp at the Edge of a Wood.

The iidy we -went up to an Eminence ter- minated by a Rock, at the Foot whereof ran a little River, the Bottom whereof was afl of flat Rocks, fit for Building. Thence we defcry'd two Natives driving of Bullocks, which made us ftand upon our Guard, and it appeared to be our Indian^ who had met another, with whom he had been acquainted among the Cenis^ and whom he had brought along' with him.

Monfieur de U Sale was very glad to fee him.

Three ioft ^^^ remember'd he was one of thofeof whom

Mentxrd ^^ ^^^ purchas'd a Horfe. He ask'd feveral

gx_ Queftionsof him, and among thereR:, whether

he had sot feen the four- Men who deferted in

his former Journey, or heaVd any Talk of the

others, to whom he had given Leave to return

to our Dwelling. He anfwer*d, he had feen

one among the Cenls^ and two others among

the uijfonis •, but that he had not heard of any

more, and that they mull needs be dead ¦, as

alfothe S'lQMX Bihorely who was likcwife men-

tioa'd to him.

He further told us, that there were four or live Cottages thereabouts, in which about Fif- teen Men redded. At Night he went away. Our Indian had kill'd a Cow at a great Diftance and ftioc her quite through, at which the other,

who

ifttQ NORTH AMERICA. 95

who had been aa E^e Witnefs to it, ftood a F^^. 16S7 long Time " amaz'd, without fpeaking one ^>^V^^ Word, admiring the EfFed of onr Pieces. That Cow was fent for, and the Flefii brought to our Camp.

The 23d, we pafs'd by the Cottages we had been told of, where the Natives were with their Wives and Children. Monfr. de la Sale caus'd us to halt in the Village. We were well lecciv'd, they prefented us with dry'd Beef, and we return'd it in fome Knives. We faw two Horfes, one of them a little grey, indifferent handfome. They told us they would foon de- part that Place, to go join their Companions, who were in War with their Enemies. The reit of our Men being come up, we went on to incaajp a League from thence, on the Bank of a Rivulet, and at the Foot of one of the highell Mountains in the Country.

Unloading our Horfes, we perceiv'd there wanted a large Axe» which ferv'd us for hew- ing down of Trees. Monfieur de la Sale fenc his Indian to demand it, at the Village we came from laft, the Savages faid they had not feen it, and it was loft. He brought back Word, that the Savages had told him, that if we would flay for them, they would go along with, and ihew us the Way.

However, wc went on the 24th, and in* camp'd on the Edge of a Marfh. The 25th, the Rain hinder'd us from Marching. The 26th, Monfieur de la Sale perceiving how diffi- cult and dangerous it was to crofs that Marfh, fent his Indian to the others, to know whether they really delign'd to go with us. They an- fwei'd, we muft^return thither to join them.

The

<)6 Monjieur de /a Sal eV Second Voyage

Mar.i6S7 The 27th. we decamp'd, in order to it ^ but took ^¦-'^V^^ another Way to go meet the Indians. The 28th. we faw them marching at a Diftance. One of them was detached to come tell us, that he would Ihew us the Way to crofs the Marfh, and wewent on and incamp'd at the Foot of the high Mountain I have fpoken of.

The firft of Manh^ we join'd the Indians^ 01 the Edge of the Marfh, which we had jult crofs'd, where the Rains kept us till the Fifth, during which Time we went to find out where we might pafs a rapid Torrent, that difcharges it felf into the River call'd of Canoes^ which we pafs'd the 6th, in the Canoe we had made, and which did us good Service, to pafs other Rivers we met with the 7th and the 8th on our Way. The 9th, we did not ftir,becaufe of the Rain. i(iver 0/ The loth, incampM on theBaakof a fmall Ri- Caaoes, ver, which we crofs'd the nth, and the fame Day another River, and incamp'd on the Bank of it, and found it adorned with very fine Mulberry Trees. The 12th we crofs'd an-.Jj other River, and incamp'd near it. The 1 3th, ^ came again to the River of Canoes, (o czWd by Monfieur de la Sale, becaufe he the firft Time put Canoes into it, at his former Journey. We pafs'd it the 14th, and incamped on the other Side where we again join'd the Indians.

The 1 5th, we held oa our Journey with thein and found a pleafanter Country than that we had pafs'd thro' ^ and Monfieur de la Sale having in his former Journey hid fome Indian Wheal Provifiotis ^"d Beans, two or three Leagues from that hid,fpoilt. Place, and our Provifions beginning to fall Ihorr, ¦ it was thought fit to go to that Place. Accor- dingly he order'd the i)ieurs I>«Wf, Hiens^Lio- '

tot \

?/??(? N R T H AMERICA. 97

tot the Sargeon^ his own Indian^ and his Foot- Mir.i^Sy man, whofe Name was 54^ef, who were follovv- '-''''V^^ ed by feme Natives, to go to the Place he dc- fcribed to them, where they found all rotten and quite fpoih.

The i5, in their Return, they met with two Bullocks, which Monfieur de Li Sale's Indian kill'd, whereupon they fent back, his Footman, to give him Notice of v/hat they h.?d kiil'd, that if he would have the Flefb dry'd, he mi^ht fead Horfes for it. The 17th, Monfieur ^e /^ 5^/e had the Horfes taken up, and order'd the Sieurs Aiorarjc-et and de M^le and his Footman, to go for that Meat, and fend back a Horfe Load immediately, till the reft was dry'd.

Monfieur Moranget^ when he came thither, Difoy,un% found thev had fmoak'd both the Beeves, tho' '"4fi they were not dry enough •, and the faid Sieurs -jvtorai* Liotot^ Hiens^ Duh^ut and the reft had laid ailde gc\ the iVIarrow-Bones and others to roall them, and eat the Flefh that remain'd on them, as was ufual to do. The Sieur A4orattaet found fauk with it, he in a PafTion feiz'd not only the Fle(h that wasfmoak'd and dry'd, but alio the Bones, without giving them any Thing j but on the contrary, threatning they fhould uot t3it fo much of it, as they had imagin'd, and that he would manage that Flefh after another Manner.

This paffionate Behaviour, fo much out of (^orrfpiracy Seafon, and contrary to Reafon and Cuftom, Z '"«^-^^'' touch'd the Surgeon Llotot, Herns and Duhaut ijjjajj, to the QiJick, they having other Caufcs of Com- plaint againft Morn.nget. They withdrew, and refolv'd together upon a bloody Revenge •, they agreed upon the Manner of it, and concluded they would murder the Sieur Morangtt^ Mon- H fieur

98 Morjfieur de la S a l e'j Second Vojdge

AI4M6S7 (ieur de la Sale\ Footman and his Indian^ becailfe Ky^^T^^J he was very faithful to him.

They waited till Night, when thofe unfortu- nate Creatures had fupp'd and were afleep. Lictot the Surgeon was the inhumanExecutioner, he took an Ax, began by the Sieur Moranget^ Bloody giying him many Strokes on the Head % the Murderers ^^mt he did by the Footman ^ndii\\Q Indian^ killing them on the Spot, whilft his Fellow Villains, viz,, Duhaut^ Hiens^ Teijfier and Lav" -cheveque flood upon their Guard, with their Arms, to fire upon fuch as (hould make any Re- finance. The Indian and the Footman never ftir'd, but the Sieur Moranget had fo much Vi- gour as to fit up, but without being able to fpeak one Word, and the AfTafins obliged the Sieur de Marie to make an End of him, tho' he was not in the Confpiracy.

This Slaughter had yet fatisfy'd but on% Part

of the Revenge of thofe Murderers. To finifli

Confuh it 3jjj fecure themfelves it was rcquifite to de-

/Sr. cie ^^°y ^^^ Commander in Chief. They confult-

ids'ale. ^^ about the fafelt Method to efFed it, and

refolve to go together to Moniieur dt la

Sale^ to knock out the Brains of the raoft refo-

lute immediately, and then it would be ealier to

overcome the reft-. But the River, which was

between them and us, being much fwollen, the

Difficulty of pafTing it made them put it ofFthe

i8ch and i^tii. On the other Hand Monfieur

dt la Sale was very uneafy, on Account of their

long Stay. His Impatience made him refolve

to go himfelf to find out his People and to

know the Caufe of it.

This was not done without many previous Tokens of Concern, and Apprehenfion. He

feem'd

i^ro NORTH AxMERICA. 99

fecm'd to have fome Prefage of his Misfortune, -^'''•.1687

enquiring of fome, whether the Sieur Liotot, U-'V'V)

Uiens and Duhaut had not exprefs'd fome Dif- „

I I • -r-i • r • » lie poes to

content ; and not hearing any Thing ot it, he fiekibm,

could not forbear fetting out the 20th, with F Hher u4r7afiafius and an Indian^ leaving me the Command in his Abfence, and charging me from Time to Time to go the Rounds about our Camp, to prevent being furpriz'd, and to make a Smoke for him to direft his Way in C^'it of Need. When he came near the Dwelling of the Murderers, looking out fnarp lo diH-over fomething, he obferved Eagles fluttering about a Spot, not far from them, which made him believe they had found fome Carrion about the Mandon, and he fired a Shot, which was the Signal of his Death and forwarded it.

The Confpirators hearing the Shot, conclu- ded it was Monlieur de la Sale, who was come to feek them. They made ready their Arms and provided to furprize him. Duhaut palTed the River, with Larckeveque. The firft of them fpying Monlieur de la Sale at a Diftance, as he was coming towards them, advanced and hid himfelf among the high \X^eeds, to wait his palling by, fo that Monlieur de U Sale fufpedting nothing, and having not fo much as charg'd his Piece again, faw the aforefaid Lurcheveque at a good Diltance from him, and immediately ask'd for his Nephew Moranget^ to which Larcheveque anfwer'd, That he was along the River. At the fame Time the Traitor Duhaut fired his l^^^^Y' Piece and fliot Monfr. de la Sale thro' the Head, fo that he dropp'd down dead on the Spot, without fpeakiiig one Word.

H 2 Father

100 Monfteur ds la Sal eV Second Voynge

Mar f6S7 Father AfaflafiuSf who was then by his Side^ '''^/"V^ flood ftock ftillina Fright, expecting the fame Fate, and not knowing whether he fhould go forwards or backwards • but the ?4urderer Duhaut put him out of thai Dread, bidding him not to fear, for no Hurt was intended him % that it was Defpair that had prevail'd with him to do what he faw j that he had long defired to be revenged on /Joranget^ becaiife he had deilgn'd to ruin him, and that he was partly the Occafion of his Uncle's Death. This is the exadt Relation of that Murder, as it was pre- fently after told me by F. uinafiajius.

Such was the unfortunate End of IVfonfieur de la Sale's Life, at a Time when he might en- Hh Chi' tertain the greateft Hopes, as the Reward of raacr. j^jg Labours. He had a Capacity and Talent to make his Enterprise fuccefsful •, his Conftancy and Courage and his extraordinary Knowledge in Arts and Sciences, which render'd bim fit for any Thing, together with an indefatigable Body, which made him furmount all Difficulties, would have procur'd a glorious IlTue to his Un- dertaking, had not all thofe excellent Qualities been counterbalanced by too haughty a Beha- viour, which fometimes made him infupporta- ble, -and by a Rigidnefs towards thofe that were under his Command, which at lafi: drew on him an impLcable Hatred, and was the Oc- cafion of his Death.

The Shot which had kill'd Monfieur dt la Sale,

was alfo a Signal of the Murder to the AlTafllns

for them to draw near. They all repair'd to

the Place where the wretched dead Corps lay,

towitd!^ which they barbaroufly ftrip'd to the Shirt, and

tZ^deld vented their Malice in vile and opprobrious

B3dj, ^ Language.

/V;/o NORTH AMERICA. loi

Language. The Surgeon Lictot faid feverr.l ^^^Xij Times in Scorn and Derifion, There thou liej}-^ Great Bajfa, there thou Heft, In Concltl- lion, they dragged it naked among the Bufhes, and lefc it expofed to the ravenous Wild Beafts. So far was it from what a certain Au- thor writes, of their having bury'd him and fee up a Crofs on his Grave.

When thofe Murderers had fatiated their ^^trderers Rage, they fet out to come to us at our Camp, [^^^'(^^^^^ with the dry'd Flefti, which they had caus'd to be brought over the River by the Indians^ who had been Spedators of the Murder and of all the inhuman Adions that had been committed, with Amazement and Contempt of us. When they were come to the Camp, they found Mef- lieurs Cwe//er, the one Brother, the other Ne- phew to th^ murder'd Commander, whom Fa- ther v^w-st/^y^Mj acquainted with the difmal End of our Chief, and enjoyn'd them Silence, which it is eafy to imagine was very hard upon them ; but it was abfolutely neceifary.

However, IVTonfieur Cavelier the Priefi:, could not forbear telling them, that it they would dr> the lame by him, he would torgive them his Murder, and only defir'd them to give him a Qijarter of an Hoar to prepare hlmfelf: They anfwer'd, They had Nothing to fay to him ; that what they had done was the EfFtd of De- fpair, to be reveng'd for the iil Ufage they had receiv'd.

1 was abfent at that Time •, he they aWd Larcheveque^ who, as I have faid, was one of the Confpirators, had fome Kindnefs for me, and knowing they defign'd to make me away too, if

H 3 lltood

102 Monfuur de la 5 a l eV Second Fojage

AUr.i6^7 [ n;ood upon my Defence, he parted from them, ^^^^"V*^ to give me Notice of their mifchievous Refo- lution. He found me on a little rifing Ground, where I was looking upon our Horfes as they grazM in a little adjacent Bottom. His Intel- ligence ftriick me to the Heart, not knowing jhs Author whether I fhould fly or (lay •, but at length, ha- fivdbya vJQg neither Powdernor Shot, nor Arms, and Fncni. j.|^g ^^j^^ Larcheveque giving me AHTuraoces of my Life, provided I was quiet and faid Nothing, I committed my felf to God's Proceclion, and went to them, without taking any Notice of what had been done. Dehauf Dshmt, puffed up with his new gotten Autho- the Murl Hty, procur'd him by his Villany, as foon as he derer^ u- faw me, cry'd out. Every JVIan ought to com- furps the juand in his Turn ^ to which 1 made no An- Comrmnd. ^^^j. ^ ^^^ ^g were all of us oblig'd to ftifle our Refentment, that it might not appear, for our Lives depended on it. However, it was eafy to judge with what Eyes Father Anafiafius^ Mefiieurs Cavelier and 1 beheld thefe Murder- ers, to whom we expeded every Moment to fall Sacrifices. U is true, we diffembled fo well, that they were not very fufpicious of us, and that the Temptation we were under of making them away in Revenge for thofe they had murder'd, would have eafily prevail'd and been put in Execution, had not Monlieur Ca- 'velier^ the Prielt, always politively oppos'd it, a'.ledging, that we ought to leave Vengeance to God. Mxrch However the Murderers feiz'd upon all the

cQuiimd. EfFeds, without any Oppolltion, and then wc began to talk of proceeding on our journey.

We

f'^fo NORTH AMERICA. loj

WedecampM the 21 flr, with omx hidians, and ^ij;;^ march'd with fuch a heavy Rain, that we were ^^ oblig'd to halt on the Bank of a great Stream, where one of theNatives that had left us,arriv'd with his Wife. We went on the iid and 23d, and pafs'd the River, where Father JfiasJafius^ Monfieur Cavelier and I, who could not fwim, had been drown'n, bat that the Natives afliil- ed and fav'd us. The 24th, we went on thro' a marfhy Country, never quitting a fmall Path which led to the Village of the Cents, till the 28th, when we retted on the Bank of a River Cenis i{i- of the fame Name, tho' about ten Leagues di- vir, ftant from the Village.

We had hopM to ford that River, as Monfieur de la Sale had done, when he retum'd from that Country ^ but it v;as fo fvvolkn, that there was no doing it, and we were forced to make a Canoe of Bullocks Hides. Whilfl we were employ'd at that Work, the Indians fwam over and went to give Notice to the Cems of our Arrival.

We found the Country pleafant enough about that River, tho' the Land did not leeni to be any of the bed ^ but ftill it was delightful to the Eye, well planted with fine Trees of feve- ral Sorts, among which, is one that Monlleur de la Sale had nam'd Copal, being very beautiful. Copal the Leaves of it between thofe of the Maple 7/ec. and the Lime Trees inRefemblance, and from it comes a Gum, of a very agreeable Scent. In the fame Place we faw a great Tree, on which the late Monfieur de la Sale had caus'd Crofics and the Arms of Frame to be carv'd.

H 4 The

1 04 Mo^/fJerr/ de la S a l e'j Second Vojagg

Mtr.i^«7. The Hunting of Bullock? had fail'd us, and we ^>yy^ had Ic'eii nane from the Place where our late Leader had been misrder'd. Thus our Provifions began to fall ftiort, and it was refolv'd on the 29ch, to fend fome Men before, to theVillage of Thi Author the Cenis^ to know, whether they had any Indian fen t to the Corn, and were willing to barter for it. 1 was Cenis /or appointed, vvirh the Surgeon Liotot^ the Tef" F'ovifiorfs. jj^^^.^^ and Hiens^ who was a Buccanier, Mon- iieur de la Sale had taken up at Petit Gouave^ to go with him upon this Expedition. I was very iiowiUiiig to undertake that Journey, Vv-ith a MiH'der'er and two of his Compani- ons, of whom [ was fufpicious ; but it was very requiilce to obey, and Duhaut having all the Eff:;ds in h:s]Pone{rion, alledging, thaE a great Part of them helong'd to him, he gave iis Ibrae A^res and Knives to barter for Indian OoxTi^ as alfo tor Horfes, if any were to be had, and accordingly we pafs'd the Ri- ver. ThsCoun. Vv'e found the Country made up jf fevcral i]i ds. little Hills, of an indifferent Height, on which jcriyi. there are Abundance of Wallnut-Trees and Ojks, not fo large as whnt we had feen before, but very agreeable. The Weeds v/hich had beea fome Time before burnt by the Natives, begaa to fpring «p again, and difcover'd large green Fields very pleafing to the Sight.

When we had travell'd fome Time, we dif- cover'd three Men a Horfeback, coming towards us from the Village, and being come near them, faw one drefs'd after the Spanip) Falhion, with a little Doublet, the Bo- dy wherof was of blue, and the Sleeves of white

Fultian,

i>/^ NORTH AMERICA. 105

Faftian, as it were imbroider'd, with very Ma''.i627 ftreight Breeches, white woriled Stockings, ^>^V^^ Woollen-Garters, a broad-brim'd, fiat-crown'd ^ ^^^^ Hat, and long Hair. We prefently concluded aiiliiea. he was a Spaniard^ and the rather becaufe vve spmard. had been told, that fome of them were to come to join in League with the Qw, againfi: an E- iiemy Nation, and we were at a Nonplus •, for if vve tell into their Hands, we mult never ex- peft to get away, but be condemn'd to ferve either in the Mines, or in the Qijarries, in the Kingdom of Mexico^ for which Reafon we pro- vided to give the pretended Spaniard an unkind Reception, and then to make the beft oforr Way back.

Being come up to him, I fpoke fome Words of Spaniflj and Italian^ to which he return'd no Anfwer*, but on the contrary, made ufe of the Word Coujfica^ which in the Lan- guage of the Cenis^ fignifies, / do not under- ii-and you -^ which Anfwer ot his removM our Apprehenfions. The two others were quite naked, one of them being mounted on a fine grey Mare, and on her were btiides two Panniers, handfomly made of Reeds, full of very fine Meal parchM, or roafted. Af- ter ffiveral Qiieftions, to which we had no • very fatisfac^ory Anfwers, we lighted Fire to make them fmoke, and then they prelented us with the two Panniers full of Meal, giv- ing us to underftand, that their Chief ex- pedted us ia the Village, and having ligni- fy'd, that they were fent to meet us, wc gave them fome Knives and Strings of Beads.

We

1 06 MoKJieur de la S A L eV Second Voyage

Mat.\6^7 Weask'd them, whether they had any Men '^/VX-J among them like him that was a Horfeback in the Spani{h Habit, they anfwer'd* there were ty:o ill a Neighbouring Nation, call'd ^Jfony^ and that he who was clad, had been in their Coantry, and brought thence the Cloaths we faw him wear. That Man then Ihew'd us a Sfa- nifli printed Paper, containing the Indulgences granted to the Millioners of New Mexico. After this they left us to go on, to our People, for which Reafoa I writ a Note, giving an Account of our having met them.

We alighted to eat, and let our Horfes graze on the Bank of a Rivulet-, butit wasnot long before the fame Natives, who had beea with us before, appear'd again hard by us. We made Signs to them to draw near and eat with lis ^ which they did, and then went along with us towards the Village, which we would not go into, becaufe it was Night. The Indian that was clad,ftayM all Night with us, and the two others went away.

When ir was Day, we held on our Way to the Village'-, the JndtaH that was with us con- Tui Cents duding us to their Chiefs Cottage. By the Way, meet the ^^ ^^^ ^ Other Cottages, and the Elders jokmn coming to meet us in their Formalities, whfch munner, confilled in feme GoatsSkins drefs'd and painted of feveral Colours, which they wore on their Shoulders like Belts, and Plumes of Feathers of jeveral Colours, on their Heads, like Coro- nets. Six or feven of them had fquare Sword Blades, like the Spanifh, on the Hilts whereof they had fattened great Plumes of Fea- thers, and feveral Hawks Bells ^ fome of them had Clubs, which they call Head-breakers, fome

only

ifjto NORTH AMERICA. 107

only their Bows and Arrows-, others, Bits of ^^^''•16^ white Linen, reaching from Shoulder to Shoul- '^^''V*^ der. All their Faces were daiib'd with black or red. There were twelve Elders, who walk'd in the Middle, and the Youth and Warriors in Rariks, on the Sides of thofe old Men.

Being come up to us in that Manner, he that conduded us, made a Sign for us to halt, which when we had done, all the old Men lifted up their Right Hands above their Heads, crying out in a molt ridiculous Manner; but it behov'd us to have a Care of laughing- That done, they came and imbrac'd us, uling all Sorts of Endearments. Then they made us fraoke, . , and brought to us a French Man of Provsnce^ Min J'^ who was one of thofc that had forfaken the moyjgtkf. late Monfieur de laSaU^ at his firft Journey. indUm.

The whole Compa^iy conduced us after the fame Manner, to their Chief's Cottage ;and af- ter we had ftaid there a (hort Time, they led us to a larger Cottage, a Quarter of a League from thence, being the Hut in which they have their publick Rejoycings, and the great Af- femblies. We found it furnilh'd with Mats for jnHjn-En- us to fit on. The Elders featcd themfclves round tsytdn- about us, and they brought us to eat, fome w;«t. Sagamite^ which is their Pottage, little Beans, Bread made of Indian Corn, and another Sore they make with boil'd Flower, and at lafl: they made us fmoke.

Daring our Repafl-, they entertain'd ns wich the Difcoufc of their Defign to make War 0:1 a Nation, who were their Enemies, and whom they call'd Cannokuntimo. When it was over, we prefented tbera, according to Cuftom, with fome Knives and Strings of Beads for

their

io8 Monpettr de la S A L eV Secorni Voyage

Mir. 1687 their Wives. ^Ve defIrM them to afFord as ^^^^"^ fome Indian Corn, in Exchange for other Things, which they promised, and the French Man who was with them, having told us, that there was a Diftridl, which afforded more Corn, than that where we were, and where his Cottage was, we refolv'd to go thither. We propos'd it to the Elders, who would needs go along with us, attended by a great Number of Youth, and having got ready our Horfes, we fet out for that Place.

By the Way, we faw feveral Cottages at certain Diftances, ftragling up and down, as the ¦ Ground happens to be fit for Tillage. The Field lies about the Cottage, and at other Di- ftances there are other large Huts, not inha- bited, but only ferving for publick AITemblies, either upon Occalion of Rejoycings, or to con- fult about Peace and War. r^ . .„j The Cottages that are inhabited, are not iimiiies ^3^" of them tor a private Family, form fome inihsm. of them there are fifteen or twenty, each of which has its Kook or Corner, Bed and other Urenfilsto itsfeif, but without any Partition to fe pa rate it from the reft : However, they liave Nothing in Common befides the Fire, which' is in the Midft of the Hut, and never goes out. It is made of great Trees, the Ends whereof are laid together, fo that when.6nce lighted, it lalis a long Time, and the firft Comer takes Care to keep it up. Manner of yhe Cottages are round at the Top, afer Sutlitng. ^j^g Manner of a Bee-Hive, or a Reek of Hay. Some of them are fixty Foot Diameter. In Or- der to build them, they plant Trees as thick as a Man's Thigh, tall and ftrait, and placing

them

ifjto NORTH AMERICA. 109

them in a Circle, and joyning the Tops toge- ^ar,i6%7 ther, from the Dome, or round Top, then O^V^^ they lafh and cover them with Weeds. When they remove their Dwellings, they generally burn the Cottages they leave, and build new on the Ground they defign to inhabit.

Their Moveables are fome Bullocks Hides U'lrmove and Goats Skins well cur'd, fome Mats clofe ^^^^** wove, wherewith they adorn their Huts, and fome Earthen Veflels, which they are very skilful at making, and wherein they boil thtir Flefh or Roots, ov Sagamife^ which, as has been faid, is their Pottage. They have alfo fome fmall Baskets made of Canes, ferving to put in their Fruit and other Proviiions. Their Beds are made of Canes, rais'd two or three Foot above the Ground, handfomly fitted with Mats ^ . and Bullocks Hides, or Goats Skins well cur'd, whith fcrve them for Feather Beds, or Qiiilts and Blankets •, and thofe Beds are parted one from another by Mats hung up.

When they delign to Till the Ground, they give one another Notice, and very often above '^^^^i.P' an Hundred of each Sex meet together. When they have till'd that Piece of Land, after their Manner, and fpcnc part of the Day, thofe the Land belongs to, give the others to Eat, and then they fpend the relt of the Day in Dancing and Merry Making. This fame is pradis'd from Canton to Canton, and fo they till Land all together.

This Tillage confiUs in breaking up jufl the j„ ^ Surface of the Earth with a Sort of Wooden ij^ xil^^g^ Inftrument, like a little Pick-axe, which they make by fplitting the End of a thick Piece of Wood, that fervcs for 3 Handle, and putting

another

no Monjieur de la Sal e'j Secopid VojAge

Wif-. 1687 another Piece of Wood fharp Pointed atone ^y^^T^ End into the Slit. This Inftrume>>t fervcs them inftead of a Hoe, or Spade, for they have no Iron Tools. When the Land has been thus Wotmnfom tiU'd or broke up, the Women Sow and Plant the Indian Corn, Beans, Pompions, Water Melons, and other Grain and Garden Ware, which is for their Suftenance.

The Indians arc generally Handfom, but Indians disfigure themfelves by making Scores, or disfigure Streaks on their Faces, from the Top of the tbemfdves. Forehead down the Nofe to the Tip of the Chin ; which is done by pricking the Skin with Needles, or other fharp Inftruments, till it bleeds, whereon they ftrev'v fine Powder of Charcoal, and that finks in and mixes with the Blood within the Skin. They alfo make after the fame Manner, the Figures of living Crea- tures, of Leaves and Flowers on their Shoul- ders, Thighs, and other Parts of their Bodies, and Paint themfelves, as has been faid before, with Black or Red, and fornqtimes both to- gether.

The Women are generally well Shap'd, and Wemcn, would not be difagreeable, did they adhere to Nature ^ but they Difguife themfelves as ridiculoufly as the Men, not only with the Streak they have like them down their Face, but by other Figures they make on it, at the Corners of their Eyes, and on the other Parts of their Bodies-, whereof they make more particular Show on their Bofom, and thofe who have the mod, are reckoned the handfomeft^ tho' that pricking ia that Part be extremely painful to them.

It

into NORTH AMERICA. in

It is they that do all the Work in the Cot- Mar.\6%-j tage, either in Pounding the Indian Corn and ^JjT^'V Baking the Meal, or making the Pottage of ^P^ °^J^ ehe faid Meal, by them call'd Sagamite^ or in Horns, drefling their other Provilions, or drying or parching, or fmoaking their Flefh, fetching the Wood they have Occafion for, or the Fiefii of Bullocks, or other Beafts kill'd by their Husbands in the Woods, which are often at a great Diftance, and afterwards Drefilng them as has been faid. They Sow and Plant, whea the Land has been broke up, and in (hort, do almoft all that is reqailite for the Support of Life.

I did not obferve that thofe Women were naturally given to Lcwdnefs , but their Virtue Tkelr 5e- is not Proof againft fome of our Toys, when ^^'^'^'^*^' prefented them, as Needles, Knives, and more particularly Strings of Beads, whereof they make Necklaces and Bracelets, and that Temp- tation is rarely refilled by them, and the iefs becaufe they have no Religion or Law to pro- hibit that vile Pra(n:ice. Ic is true their Hus- bands, when they take them in the Fad, fome- times do punifh them, either by Separation or otherwife *, but that is rare.

The Country of thofe Indians being generally fubjea to no Cold, almoft all of them go naked *, ^-^^^f- unlefs when the Nort^) Wind blows, then they cover themfelvcs with a Bullock's Hide, or Goat's Skin cur'd. The Women wear nothing but a Skin, Mat, or Clout, hanging round them like a Petticoat, and reaching down half way their Legs, which hides their Nakednefs before and behind. On their Heads they have no- thing

112

Mmners.

^ligion.

MoKJieur de la S a l eV Second Voyage

f^^-;£^7thingbut their Hair platted and knotted be- ^ hind.

As for their Manners, it may be faid of thefe as of all other /»^j^«Jof#that great Con- tinent, that they are not Mifchievous, unlefs wroiio'd or attackM •, in which Cafe they are all Fierce and Revengeful. They watch all Opportunities to be Reveng'd, and never let any flip, when ofFer'd, which is the Caufe of their being continually at Wsr with their Keighbours, and of that Martial Humour, fo Predominant among them.

As to the Knowledge of a God, they did not feera to us to have any fix'd Notion of Him-, it is true, we met with fome on our Way, who as far as we could judge, believ'd, there was fome Superior Being, which was above all Things, and this they teftify'd by lifting up their Hands and Eyes to Heaven, yet without any Manner of Concern, as believing that the faid exalted Being does not regard at all, what is done here below. However none of them having any Places of Worlhip, Ceremonies, or Prayers, to denote the divine Homage, it may be faid of them all, that they have no Re- ligion, at leaft thofethatwe faw.

However, they obferve fome Ceremonies ; but whether they have any Regard to a real or pretended Superior Being, or whether they arc only popular, and proceeding from Cuftom, is what we were not able to difcover. Tbofe Ce- remonies are as follows. When the Corn is ripe, they gather a certain Quantity in a Maund or Basket, which is placed on a Sort of Seat or Stool, dedicated to that Ufe, and ferving on- ly upon thofe mifterious Occafions, which they have a great Veneration for. The

Ceremo flies.

ifjto NORTU AMERICA. u^

The Basket with the Corn being placed on ^.tr^SS-; that honour'd Stool, one of the Elders holds ^^^'^^ out his Hands over it, and talks a long Time ^ after which, the faid old Man didributes the Corn among the Womtn, and no Perfon is al- low'd to eat of the new Corn,till eight Days af- ter that Ceremony. This feems to be in the Nature of Offering up or Bleffing the firft Fruits of their Harveft.

At their Aflemblics, when the Sagamite^ or Pottage, which is the moft eflential Part of their Meal, is boil'd in a great Pot, they place that Pot on the Stool of Ceremony above men- tion'd, and one of the Elders ftretches out his Hands over it, muttering fome Words between his Teeth for a conliderable Time, after which, they fall to eat.

When the young Folks are grown up to be fit to go to the Wars, and take upon thera to be Soldiers, their Garment, confifling of fome Skin, or Clout, together with their Bow, Quiver and Arrows, is placed on the aforefaid Stool, an old Man ftretches out his Hands over them, mutters the Words as above, and then the Gar- ments, Bows, Quivers, and Arrows are given to the Perfons they belong to. This may be compar'd to Something of a Ceremony of Knighting among them. The fame Ceremo- nies are us'd by them in the cultivating of their ^ . Grain and Produd, but particularly of the Ta- bacco, whereof they have a Sort, which has fmaller Leaves than Ours \ it is almolt ever green, and they ufe it in Leaves.

This is what we obferv'd among tht Cer.is^

whofe Cuftoms and Manners differ very little

from thofe of other Nations, which we had feen

jl before^

114

Tphjt is meant hire by it.

Names of

Nations.

Monfieur de la S a l b'^ Second, Voyage

before and faw afterwards. As to the Point of Religion, it is not to be infer'd from what I have faid above, that there is none throughout that vaft Continent.* The Account I have given only regards thofe Nations we faw *, there may be others that have fome Worfhip, and Ire- member I have beard Monfieur de la Sale fay, that the Nation call'd Takenfa, neighbouring on the Iflinois^ ador'd the Fire, and that they had Cottages which they made ufe of, as Tem- ples.

Before I conclude this Ihort Account of the Religion, Cuftoms and Manners of the Cenis^ which belong'd properly to this Place, it is fit here alfo to obferve, that the Word Nation, is not to be underftood, among thofe Indians i to denote a People poffeinng a whole Province, or vaft Extent of Land. Thofe Na- tions are no other than a Parcel of Villages, difpers'd for the Space of twenty or thirty Leagues at mofl, which compofe a diftind Peo- ple or Nation ^ and they differ from one ano- ther rather in Language than in Manners, wherein they are all much alike, or at leaft they vary but little, as has been mention'd above. As for the Names of them, here fol- low thofe of fuch as we travePd through, or were near the Way we held from our leaving our Habitation near the Bay of the Holy Ghofi:, till we came among the Cenis.

The Spicheats, Kabay,es, Thecamons^ ThearemetSy Kiabaha^ Chaumenes^ Kovans^ jirha^u^ Enepiahe^ Aho7:erbopiheim^ Kcienkahe^ Konkone^ Omeaojfe^ Xeremett, yihekouen, Afeghty^ Tetamenes^ Otenmar- herty Kouayon and Aieracouman. All thefe Na- tions are on the North of the River called U

Maligntr.

t/7tO

N;0RTH AMERICA. ii5

Maltgne. Thofe that fonov7, are on the Weil ^^'^''^'j and North-Weit of the fame River. '-^' *

The Kanmhouan^ Tohaha, Pihir, Cagahegux^ Onapien^ Pickar^ Tokau^ Kuaffes^ Chancrss^ 7efe~ rabocretes, Ifefehouen^ Fercouteha^ Panego^ Petao, Petz.are^ Peifacho^ Peihoufiy Orcan and Piou. This laft Nation borders upon the Cenls^ at the En- trance into whofe firft Village I left my Reader, to give an Account of the Inhabitants, and thither I return, to proceed with my Relation and our Journey to the Village, the French Mah wholiv'd amongtheNatives was to conduft os to.

We arriv'd there at Night, and found other Elders coming out to meel us, much after the fame Manner as the others mention'd before. They led us to their Cottage, made us fit down on Mats and fmoke, but not with fo much Ce- remony as the others. That done, it was Time for us to take our Refl-, having given them to underftand that we were weary.

The French Provencal would needs have US go to his Cottage, that is to the Hut where he Frerch had his Dwelling \ for, as I have faid, there Entertain- are fevefal Families in one of them, and that ^t {iU was one of the greateft in the Canton, having been the Habitation of one of their Chief's, lately deceafed.

They allotted us a Place there, for our Goods and Packs, the Women immediately msde 5^- gamite or Pottage, and gave it Us. Having eaten, we ask'd the French Man whether we were fafe, and he anfwering we were, we lay down, but yet could not deep found.

The next Day, being the firft of /^prll, the Elders came to receive and conducted us to the *

Cottage where we had been the Day before. 1 2 After

116 Monfieur de la Sal E'i Second VojAge

^/)r. 1687 After the ufual Ceremonies, we traded with ^^^^^'T^ them for Cernj Meal and Beans, giving in Ex- change for the fame. Needles, Knives, Rings 'fu7^'^ and other Toys. We alfo purchafed a very m for an fine Stone Horfe, that would have been worth . twenty Piftoles in France, for an Ax.

The Day was fpent in driving our fmall Bar- gains and gathering Provifions, which the Wo- men brought. When that was done, it was agreed, that 1 fbould remain there, to lay up more Store, and that the others fhould return to our Company, which we had left near the River, to carry the Provifions and fatisfy them they might come fafely.

Tho' I thought my felf not over fecure a- mong the Indians^ and befides had the Diflatis- faSion of underftanding none of their Lan- guage ; yet was I not unwilling to ftay, that I might have an Opportunity of feeing the two other French Men, who had forfaken the late • Monfieur deU Sale, when he firfl; travelled into that Country, that L might enquire of them, whether they had heard no talk of the Mtjfifipi River, for I flill held my Refolution of parting from our wicked Murderers.

As foon as they were gone, I gave a young Indian a Knife, to go bid thofe two other French Men come to me, and whilft he was go- ing 1 drove on my little Trade for Provifions, and had frequent Vifits from the Elders, who entertain'd me by Signs, with an Account of their intended War 5 to which I ftill anfwer'd, nodding my Head, tho' very often I knew not what they meant. It was fome Difficulty to me to fecure my fmall Merchandize, efpecially at Night,for the Natives were covetous of them.

This

i^Jfo NORTH AMERICA. 117

This Care, which ,kept me from Sleeping "^P";,*^ foand, was the Occal?bn,th3t one Night I heard ^>'^vN' feme Body moving near my Bed, and opening my Eyes, by the Light of the Fire, which ne- ver goes out in thofe Cottages, perceived a Manftark naked, with a Bow and two Arrows ThsJutbor in his Hand, who came and fat down by me, met-ts avo- without faying any Thing. I view'd him for ^j^^'^'^^^^ ibme Time, I fpoke to him, he made me no An- f^JXnl fwer, and not knowing what to think of it, I laid hold of my two Piftols and my Firelock, which the Man perceiving, he went and fat by the Fire. I follow'd, and looking ftedfaftly on him, he knew and fpoke to me, throwing his Arms about and embracing me, and then made himfelf known to be one of the French Men 1 had fent for.

We fell into Difcourfe, I ask'd him for his Comrade, he told me, he durfl: not come, for Fear ofMonficur de la Sals. They were both Sailors, this Man. who was of Brit a/jy^ w«s call'd Buter •,the other, of RochellefiroUet. They had, in that (hort Space of Time, fo perfectly enur'd themfelves to the Cuftoms of the Natives, tun,^d ^^ that they were become meer Savages. They vj^e. were naked, their Faces and Bodies with Fi- gures wrought on thera, like the reft. They had taken feveral Wives, been at the Wars and kiird their Enemies with their Firelocks, which had gain'd thern^ Reputation; but having no more Powder nor Ball, their Arms were gvowa afelefs, and they had been forc'd to learn to Ihoot with Bows and Arrows. As for Religion, they were not troubled with much ot it, and that Libertine Life thev led, was pkaf- ing to them.

¦ I ^. I

1 18 Mon^um de la S a l eV Second Voya-je

'jpr.16'67. I acquainted this Majj with the unfortunate 5>^VVJ Death of Monfr. de la Sale, his Nephew and the red, at which, he was furpris'd and concern'd, at leaft in outward Appearance. I ask'd him, whether he had not heard talk of the Mijfijifi ^ he told me he had not •, bat only that there was a great River forty Leagues from thence to- wards the N. W, where the Natives faid there were many Nations along its Banks. That made me believe, it was the very River we were ia Search of, or at leaft that it muft be the Way to come at it. 1 gave him to eat, and we went to Red:.

The next and the following Days, I conti- • r.u'd trading, and the Elders their Vifits, and their Difccurfe by Signs, concerning, their in- tended War. Some of them gave me tounder- iland,tbat they had been among ihtSfaniards, who are neverthelefs about two hundred Leagues from them. They fpoke fome Words of bro- ken Spanljh^ ss Capita^ inftead of C^p/V^w, a Cap- tain, and Cchavillo inftead of Cavallo^ a Horfe, and fo of fome others. Buter, the Frencl^ Man return'd to his Dwelling, I gave him fome Strings of Beads for his Wives, and dellr'd him to fend the other French Man to me.

in the mean Time my being alone, as to a-

ny Perfon 1 could converfe with, grew very

jyidian irkfome to me, and I know not whether an old

MM Man did not perceive it ; for he thought it

brought to would be proper to bring a Companion, to di-

''•'^^"*^'"^' vert me, and at Night I was furpris'd to fee a

yonng Maid come fit down by me, and to hear

the old Man teil me, he had brought her to be

my Wife, and gave her to me j but 1 had far

different Thoughts to dillurb me. 1 fpoke not

one

/>?/^ NORTH AMERICA/ 119

one Word to that poor Maid ; ihe ftay'd fome ^P''- '^ Time expeding I would take Notice of her, and ^>^V^^ perceiving I did noE ftir, or fpeak one Word, fhe withdrew.

Thus I continu'd, without hearing any News, Fi ench till the Sixth of ^pril, when the two Frevch Men, ^-'f« ^'*« I have fpoken of, came both, in the Lrdian l^^^'^^** Drefs, each of them having only a Clout about him, fome Turky Feathers on their Shoulders, their Heads and Feet bare. The latter of them whofe Name was GrolUt^ had not confented to have his Face mark'd like the other, nor to cut his Hair after the Indian Manner ; for thofe People cut off all theirs, except a fmall Lock on the Crown of the Head, like the Turks, only fome of them have fmall Trefles on the Temples.

I repeated to them the Narrative of Mon- lieur de la Sale's unfortunate Story. They con- firm'd what I had been told before, that the Natives had talk'd to them of the great River, * which was forty Leagues off, cowards the N. E. and that there were People like us, that dwek on the Banks of it. This confirm'd me in the Opinion, that it was the River fo much fought after, andthatwemuft go that Way to return to Canada or towards New England. They told me, they would willingly go with us. I defired them to keep it fecret, which they did not, for being inform'd that Monfieur C^w/w* and the others were coming, they went to mees: them, and I was again left alone.

The 8th, three Men came to me, one of

which Was the Irench Man of Trovencs^ with

each of them a Horfe, fent by our People to

carry away all the Provifions I h(?d got together,

I 4 having

1 2d Mo?}fteur de la Sal e'j Second Voyarre

Jpr.i6^7 leaving taken a Refolution, as thofe Perfons

j-^'YT^ they had fent told us, to return to the Dwel-

deters^re- ^'"S °^ ^^' ^'^^^^t about the Bay of the fame

foivetore- Name, from whence we came^ defigning, as

turn to the they pretended, to bnild a Boat there, to car-

mbiiion ry them over to the Iflands oi America-^ an im-

^f * ^^' prafticable Notion, for all our Carpenters were

dead, and tho'they had beea alive, they were

fo ignorant, that none of them would have

known which Way to go about that Work j

beiides that, we were deftitute of all Neceflaries

for that Effect. However we mult obey, and

fet out with our Provifions. The Rain having

detained us the pth on the Way, we coald not

^ come up to them till the next Day, being the

Tenth.

Father Anaftafius gave me the Confirmation of that Defign, and farther told me how rough- ly they had been treated by thofe Murderers lince my Departure. I know not what it was that mov'd them to it, but they had refolved to feperate themfelves from thofe Villains, and- that we fhould eat apart, 'viz,. Monlieur dz/f/Zer the Prielt, F. Anafiafius^ young Cavelier and I, which was very agreeable to us, becaufeat leaft we could talk ireely, which we durft not do before •, but at the fame Time they allow'd us jio more Provifions than would fuffice to keep us from ftarving, without giving us Share of any Flcdi, tho' they often kill'd.

Oar Tyrants- ftill holding their Refolution to an/otb°rs ^^^^^^ ^^ ^"^ former Habitation, thought they irefoiveto bad not Horfes enough, and therefore deputed yartfrom four of their Number, one of which was the :fhe Mur- fyench Man half turn'd Indian^ to return to the i6rer$. Village of ths Cevis and endeavour to barter for

fome

mto NOKTR AMERICA. 121

fome. At the fame Time we agreed together ^p^-i^^? to let thofe Gentlemen know, that we were too ^^^vT^ much fatigued to return with them to the faid Habitation, and were refolved to remain in the Village of the Cenis, Monlieur Cavelier undertook to be our Speaker, and to defire Du- haut^ who was Mafter of all, to give us fome Axes, Knives and Strings of Beads, Powder and Shot, offering to give him a Note of his Hand for the fame.

To conclude, P^onfieur Caveller made the r ^t- Propofalto Duhaut^ difguis'd it the belt he Was ^iImut" able, and Duhaut took till the next Day to re- diten, turn his Anfwer. He confulted with his Com- panions, and acquainted us, that they would deal handfomely by us, and give us half the Ef- feds and all the Axes, intending to make the molt Speed they could, to get to our former Dwelling, and to put in Execution what they had before defign'd, as to the Building of a Bark, But in Cafe they could not fucceed, for want of Necelfaries, they would immediately return to us and bring F. Zenobius along with them, who would be ferviceable to ns, becaufe, having been with Monfieur de la Sale upon his firlt Dif- covery, he underltood the Language of the Na- tions about the Mijfifpi River. That whilft they .were upon that Journey, we fhould take Care to gather a Stock of Provifions,and that if they fucceeded in building the Bark, they would fend us Word, that we might repair to them. Monfieur Cavelier approv'd of all they faid, tho' we had other Defigns. However it provM we were all Miftaken, for Providence bad order'd Affairs other wife.

We

I 22 Mofijieur de la Sal eV Secofid Voyage

^1^7 Weflay'd there fome Time, expeaing thofe ^-"^"vv. yj^i^Q y^g^g gQj^g j^ ^j^^ Cents, tliey (laying longer

than was requifite for that Journey. The over- flowing of the River was their Pretence, buc the true Reafon was the Women, who as I have faid, are not fo forward as to offer themfelves, but on the other Hand will not be over difficult in complying for fome little Prefent, and thofe who were fent did not grudge their Time. In the mean while the Pofture of our Affairs chang- ed, ^s follows. Murderers ^^^ ofour halfSavage French Men, whom I chavge had acquainted with our Defign to go find the the ir mind. Mijfi/ipi^ communicated it to JHfautot, telling him all the Particulars he had before acquainted me with ^ whereupon Di-haut chang'd his Mind, as to the Dellgn of going to the Habitation of St. Lems^ relolving to follow our intended Way and execute our Projcd. He imparted his Thoughts to his Companions, who were of the fame Opinion, and ail of them acquainted us,that they were ready to put in Execution the Enter- pn"2e we had form'd.

This Change troubled us very much, there being nothing we coveted more than to part with thofe Mifcreants, from whom we could at a long Run expect no better Ufage than they had afforded our Commander and his Friends. However, it was ftill requifite to dif- fcmble, there being no other Remedy at that Time: But God's Juflice provided for and ref- cued U5. We continued in that Camp all the remaining Parr of u^pril^ expeding the Perfons that had been fent to the Cenls^ and Duhaut in- tending to begin to put in Execution his Defiga of going to find out the ^'JPfpi» with us, made

us M

into NORTH AMERICA. 123

us advance towards the River that was near, in Mayve^j. order to pafsit as fooa as fallen, and repair to ^/V*^ the Village of thtCenis.

We ftaid three Days longer in that Poll;, at Murderers the End whereof, he we call'd Larcheve^ue^ one diffa in of thofe that had been fent our, crofs'd the ^P''"'"' River. He was -D«/?<«z/r's Creature, and an Ac- complice in the Murder of Monfieur £^e la Sale. He inform'd Duhnut^ that one they call'd Hiens^ who was alio one of our Mefiengers, and had ilay'd on the other Side of the River, had heard of Buhaut and the reft altering their Re- folution, and that he was not of their Mind. Hiens was a Buccanier^ and by Birth a German. Monfieur de U Sale had brought him from Petit Gouave^ and he was- alfo acceflary to the laie Murders.

After we had been fome Days longer in the fame Place, Hiens arriv'd with the two half Savage French Men and about twenty Natives. He went immediately to Duhaut^ and after fome Difcourfe, told him, he was not for go- ing towards the A'^>Jfi/il>i, becaufe it v»?ould be of dangerous Confequence for them, and therefote demanded bis Share of the Effects he had feiz'd upon. Duhaut refufing to comply, and affirm- ing, that all the Axes were his own ^ Hiem^ who it is likely had laid the Defign before to kill him, immediately drew his Piftol, and fired ^j^^ it upon Duhaut^ who (tagger'd about four Paces ^.///j '^u- from the Place and fell down dead. At the haur, a^^i fame Time Ruter^ who had been with ///>»/, R-"ter fired his Piece upon Liotot^ the Surgeon, and L'^-'-^^* {hot him thro' with three Balls.

Thefe Murders committed before us, put me into a terrible Coniternation : for believing the

fame

124 Monfieur de la S A l e'/ Second, Voyaog

W;2jyi 687. fame was deflgn'd for me, I laid hold of my ^-'^V'^ Fire-Lock to defend my feif ; but Hiens cry'd out to mc, to fear nothing, to lay down ray Arms, and afTurM me he had no Defign againft jne^ but that be had reveng'd his Mafter's Deathc He alfo fatisfy'd Monfieur Cavelier and /- Fathtr yinast a fus^ who were as much frighted as ray felf, declaring he meant them no Harm, and that tho' he had been in the Confpiracy, yet had he been prefent at theTime when Monfieur de la SMe was kill'd, he would not have con- fented, but rather have obllruded it.

Liotot liv'd fome Hours after, and had the good Fortune to iiiake his Confeffion •, after which, the fame Ruter^ put him out of his Pain, with a Piftol-Shot. We dug a Hole in the Earth, and bury'd him in it with Duhaut^ doing them more Honour than they had done to Mon- fieur de U Sale and his Nephew Moran^et^ whom they left to be devour'd by wild Beafts. Thus thofe Murderers met with what they had de- • ferv'djdying the fame Death they had put others to.

The Natives,f//V»^ had brought with him, ha- ving been Spectators of that Murder, were in a Conft^rnation, and that Affair was of dange- rous Gonfeqnence to us, who ftood in Need of them. It was therefore requifite to make the bed of it, giving them to underftand, that there had been Reafon for io punilhing thofe dead Per- f:>ns, becaufe they had all the Powder and Ball, and would not give any to the reft. They re- main'd fatisfy'd with that Excufe, and he who was cail'd Larcheveque^ and who was entirely de- voted to Duhaut^ being Abroad a hunting fince the Morningj and noi knowing what Misfor- tune

hfo NORTH AMERICA. 125

tune had hapned his Protedor, and Hiens being ^^^2^\^-

refolv'd to make away with him, Father u^na- ^-'^v*^

BaCtus and Monfieur Cavelisr took fo much Pains,

that they diflwaded him from it, and I w^nt

out and met Larchevegfue, to give him Notice

of that Difafter, and to inform him, how he

was to behave himfelf. Thus I requited him

for having come to give me Notice ot Monfieur

d« U Sale's Death. I brouglit him to Hiens^ who

declared he defign'd him no Harm, and Larche-

veque gave him the fame Afi^irances on his

Part. Thus all Things are again compos'

and nothing rem?.in'd, but for us to fet oat,

but firfl: to know what we were to do, and

which Way to direft our Courfe.

Hereupon, Heins took upoa him to fpeak, and faid, he had promis'd the Natives to go to the War with them, and defign'd to be as good as his Word *, that if we would expeft his Return, we might by that Time confider which Way he would move, and that in the mean Time we might (lay in the Village among X^tCenis. This was refolv'd on*, we loaded all our Effeds on our Horfes, and repair'd to the fame Place and the fame Cottage, where we had been before, the Chief of it aingning us the one Half to lodge and lay up our Baggage.

When the Day for fetting out for the War six fremi was come, Hie»s departed with the Natives, Aiengo w four of our Comrades and the two half Savage tke H^ars French Men going along with him j fo that there "'^»*. »^ were fix of them, and each took a Horfe. Hiens ¦^'*^'''-''*'' left us all the Effcfts, and defir'd we would ftay for him, which we promis'd, not knowing how to avoid it, confideriog, that the Indians might

have

1 26 Mofjfleur de la S A L e ¦ i Second Voyage

May 1687 have done us Harm, and even have obftruded our ^•yy^ Departure. Thus we reiign'd ourfelves to Pro- videoce, and remain'd fix of us together, viz,. Father Anafiaftus^ Monfieur Cavalier^ his Ne- phew youngf Caveliery young Talon^ another Youth of Taris^ and I. There alfo remaia'd fome old Men, who could not go to the War, and the Women. We were alio join'd by two oxMq^ French Men,who had l?een left on the other Side theRiver,being theProvencal and onQTeiJfier* During our Stay, and our Warriors being ^ .,. abroad upon that Expedition, the old Men of- ^bsNicmo-^^^ vmted US, and told us News from the ryof men Army by Signs, which we underftood nothing iij6/i. of. W^e were from Time to Time alarm'd, feeing the Women weep, without any viable Caufe. The late Monlieur de la Sale had often told us, that the Women bewail'd thofe that were to be kill'd ^ bat we were inform'd, that they did fo, when they call'd to Mind fome who had been flain in the former Wars*, which difpell'd our Apprehenfions. However we were uneafy, becaufe thofe old Men and Wo-^^ men examin'd us every Morning and Evening* when we perform'd our Devotions.

We laid hold of that Opportunity to give them to underftand, that we paid our Duty to one God, the only Supreme Sovereign of all Things, pointing to Heaven, and endeavour- ing in the belt Manner we were able? to fig- nify to them that he was Almighty, that he had made all Things, that he caus'd the Earth to produce it's Fruits to profper, and the Growth of it, which maintain'd them to thrive ^ but this being only by Signs, they did not un- derftand us, and we labour'd in vairi-

The

j>^(? NORTH AMERICA. 127

The 18th, we were furprizM po fee feveral ^-{r 16S7 Women come into our Cottage, their Faces [jQ^, al] befmear'd with Earth, and they let up their j^^.g ^, Throats, linging feveral Songs as'loud as they r/,j«7. were able, v.'hereof we underftood not one Word. That done, they fell a Dancing in a Ring, aad we could not tell, what to thiak of that Rejoicing, which lafted fu'i three Hours •, after v;hich we were infcrm'd, they had re- ceived Advice of the Vi'^o.ry cbtaio'd by their Warriors over their Enemies. The Dance concluded, thofe in the Cottage gave fome Bits of Tabacco to thofe without.

The fame Diy> about Noon, v^e faw him that had brought the News, who afiirm'd they had kill'd at lead Forty of their Eaemie?^. After the Rejoicing, all the Women apply'd therafdvesto make ready their Proviilons, fome to pound Indian Corn, others to boil Meal, which they call Grouller^ and others to bake Bread, to carry to the Warriors. They all feC out the 19th to meet them, and we thought it in Policy convenient to fend Meat to oar Men which was done by the Fre«c^ Man of Provence^ wlio went with the Women.

That fame Day, at Night, the Viclorious Ar- ^,, ^ niy retura'd,and we were inform'd,. that their oftL^Bjt, Enemies, whom they call Cannohatinno» had tie fm^ht t'xpe^ed them boldly, but that having heard hthsQi- the Noife, and felt the Effects of our Mens "'^* Fire Arras, they all fled, fo that the Ctv/ni had either kill'd or taken Forty Eight Men and Women. They had flaia feveral of the lat- ter, who fled to the Tops of Trees, for wane of Time to make their Efcape otherwife.i fo

I2S

May 1687

Burbirity of the Min torvxrds A Wbman

taken*

ofths Wo-

men.

Inbuntini-

Cfutl Tro- phies,

Monjteur de la Sal e'^ Second VoyAge

that many more Women had perifh'd than Men.

They brought Home two of thofe Women alive, one of whom had her Head flead for the Sake of her Hair and Skin. They gave that wretched Creature a Charge of Powder and a Ball, and fent Her home, bidding her starry that Prefent to her Nation, and to afllire them, they fhould be again treated after the fame Manner, that is, killM with Fire Arms.

The other Woman was kept to fall a Sacri- fice to the Rage and Vengeance of the Wo- men and Maids ^ who havine arm'd themfelves with thick Stakes, (harp Pointed at the End, Gondufted that Wretch to a By-Place, where each of thofe Furies began to torment her, fometimes with the Point of their Staff, and fometimes laying on her with all their Might. One tore off her Hair, another cut off her Fin- ger, and every one of thofe outrageous Women endeavour'd to put her to fome exquilite Tor- ture, to revenge the Death of their Husbands and Kififmen, who had been kill'd in the former Wars •, fo that the unfortunate Creature ex- peded her Death Stroke, as Mercy.

Atlaft, one of them gave her a Stroke with a heavy Club on the Head, and another run her Stake feveral Times into her Body, with which Ihe fell down Dead on the Spot. Then they cut that miferable Vidtlm into Morfels, and oblig'd fome Slaves of that Nation, they had been long poIfefsM of to eat them.

Thus our Warriors returned Triumphant from that Expedition. They fpar'd none of the Prifoners they had taken, except two little Boys, and brought Home all the Skins of their

Heads

»• *

into NORTH , AMERIGA. 129

Heads, with the Hair, to be kept as Trophies -^%i6S7. and glorious Memorials of their Vidory. Kj^h'^^

The next Day all thofe Savages met in their Chief's Cottage, whether all the abovemen- tion'd Heads of Hair were carry'd in State. Then they made extraordinary Rejoicings ia that Cottage, whence they went to the Huts of the other Prime Men. to perform the fame Ce- remony. This Rejoicing lafled three Days, our French Companions, who had been the Caufe of their Vidory, being call'd to it, and highly entertain'd, after their Manner. It will noC be difagreeable to the Reader, that I here par- ticularly defcribe that Ceremony, which after having been perform'd in the Cottages of the Chief Men, was repeated in ours.

In the firft Place, the Cottage was made very clean, adorn'd, and abundant of Mats ^^';f^?»J' laid on the Floor, on which the Elders, and "^W'^^'^^ the moft confiderable Perfons fate \ after which, one of them, who is in the Nature of an Ora- tor, or Mailer of the Ceremonies ftood up and made a Speech, of which we underftood not a Word. Soon after that Difcourfe was ended, the Warriors arriv'd, who had flain any in Battle, marching in their proper Order, each of them carrying a Bow and two Arrows, and before every one of them went his Wife, car- rying the Enemies Head ot Hair. Two little Boys, whofe Lives they had fpar'd, as has been faid before, one of them who was wounded being a Horfeback, clos'd the Proceflion ; afi the Head whereof, was a Woman carryings large Reed, or Cane in her Hand.

As they came up to the Orator, the War- rior took the Head of Hair his Wife had K broagh^

1 5© Monfeur de la S a l e'^ Second Foyage

Mjyi6^7' brought, and prefented it to him, which the iy^^r^ faid Orator receiv'd with both his Hands, and after having held iiout towards the four Quar- ters of the World, he laid it down on the Ground, and then took the next, performing the fame Ceremony, till he had gone over them all.

When the Ceremony was ended, they ferv'd up the Sagamite^ in the Nature of Haffcy Pad- ding, which thofe Women had provided, and before any one touch'd it, the Mafter of the Ceremonies took fome in a Veffel, which he car- ry'd as an Offering to thofe Heads of Hair. Then he lighted a Pipe of Tabacco , and blow'd the Smoke upon them. That being performed, they all fell to the Meat, Bits of the Woman that had been facrific'd^ were ferv'd up to the two Boys of her Nation. They alfo ierv'd up dry'd Tongues of their Enemies, and the whole concluded with Dancing and Singing after their Manner : After which, they went to other Cottages to repeat the fame Cere- mony. There was no Talk of our Dellgn till thofe / Rejoycings were over, and I begn to conceive

good Hopes of our Succefs.The two Murderers, Teijfier and Larcheveque, who had both a Hand in the Death of Monfr. de U Sale, had promis'd to go along with us, provided Monfr. Cavelier would pardon them, and he had given them his Word fo to do. In this Expedation wc continued till the 25th, when our French Men, who had been at the War, repair'd to our Cot- tage, aad we confulted abouc our Bulinefs.

Hiens

into NORTH AMERICA. 131

Hiensm^ others of his Gang, difapproving ^^^^21!^ of our Defign, reprefented to us fuch Difficul- ^^^^^^ ties as they look'd upon to be unfurmountable, under which we mult inevitably perifli, or at lead be oblig'd to return to the fame Place. Niens told us, that for his own Part, he would not hazard his Life to return into France, only to have his Head choppM off, and perceiving we anfwer'd Nothing to that, but thai we per- iifted in our Refolution. It is requijite then, faid he, to divide what EffeSis remain.

Accordingly he laid alide, for F. j^nafiafus, ^,^^^ MeQleurs Cavelier^ the Uncle and the Nephew, gives the O' thirty Axes, four or five Dozens of Knives, 2- then what bout thirty Pounds of Powder and 4:he like ^^/''^''/^^» Quantity of Ball. He gave each of the ^^^*'/^{^^^| others two Axes, two Knives, two or three ^j,g ^ffe^s. Pounds of Powder, with as much Ballj and kept ; the relt. As for the Horfes, he kept the belt and left us the three leaft. Monlieur Cavelier ask'd him for fome Strings of Beads, which he granted, and fciz'd upon all the late Monfr. de la SaWs Cloaths, Baggage and other EfFefts, befides above a thoufand Livres in Mo- ney, which belong'd to the late Monfr. le Gros^ whody'datour Dwelling of St. Lewis. Before our Departure, it was a fenfible Aftiidionto us", to fee that Villain walk about, in a fcarlet Coat, with gold Galons, which had belong'd to the late Monfr. de la Sale, and which, as I have faid, he had feiz'd.

After that, Hiens and his Companions with-

drew to their own Cottage, and we rcfolv'd JJl?. ^^'1

^ ^ ^ a. x^ 1 . velier and

not to put off our Departure any longer. Ac- hisComparj

cordingly, we made ready our Horfes, which pan from

much aiarra'd the Natives, and efpecially the tbs others*

K 2 Chief

132 Monpeur de la Sal e'/ Second Voyige

^'y "^ Chief of them, who faid and did all he contd to '¦^^^"^^^^ obftruft our Journey, promiiing us Wives, Plenty of Provifions, reprefenting to us the immenfe Dangers, as well from Enemies, who furrounded them, as from the bad and impaf- fable Ways and the many Woods and Rivers we were to pafs. However, we were not to be moved, and only ask'd one Kindnefs of him, in obtaining of which, fhere were many Diffi- culties, and it was, that he would give us Guides to conduft us to Cappa ; but at length, after much Trouble and many Promifes of a good Reward, one was granted, and two othirs went along with him.

All Things being thus order'd for cur Depar- ture, wfe took Leave of our Hofts, pafs'd by Hiens's Cottage and embrac'd him and his Com- panions. We ask'd him for another Horfe, , which he granted. He delired an Atteftatien in L<2««of Mondeur CaveUer^ that he had noc been concern'd in the Murder of Monlieur de laSal'e^ which was given him, becaufe there was French no refufing of it j and we fet forward without Men ftay Larcheveqm and Meunier^ who did not keep their withths Word with us, but remain'd among thofe Bar- Indians, barians, being infatuated with that Courfe of Libertinifm they had run themfelves into. Thus Only [even there were only fcvenofus that ftiick together fa out for to return to Canada^ viz,. Father Anaftafus^ Canada. Meffieurs Cavelierxht Uncle and the Nephew, the Sieur de Marle^ one Teijfier, a young Man born at Paris, whofe Name was Bartholomew and I, with fix Horfes and the three Indians, who were to be our Guides j a very fmall Number for fo great an Enterprize, but we pur ourfelves entirely into the Hafld§ of Divine Providence,

con-

^Wo NORTH AMERICA. 1^3

confiding in God's Mercy, which did not for- ^^i\^ fake us. t/^v^-'

After the firfl: Day's Journey we incamp'd on the Bank of the River, we had left not long before, lay there that Night, and the next Day, cat down Trees to make a Sort of Bridge or Planks to pafs over it i handing over our Goods from one to another, and fwimming over our Horfes 5 which Work we were frequently o- blig'd to repeat, and as often as we had after- wards Occafion to pafs Rivers on our Way, which we held on till the 29th, every Day meeting with fome Cottage, and at lafl-, a Ham- let or Village, into which we went, and the Indian Inhabitants told us, they were call'd Nahordikhe^ and that they were Allies to the Cents.

We barter'd with them for fome Provifions, and their Chief offer'd to go with us as far as the Ajfonys^ who were not farther off than about Nahor- three Leagues, which he accordingly did *, but dikhes^«i it happening to rain when we came thither, Affony and the Ajjonys having had no Notice before hand, we found but indifferent Reception-

However, we were conducted to the Chiefs Cottage; the Elders had Notice given them, they reforted thither, and when our Horfes were unloaded, and our Goods plac'd in a Cor- ner of the Cottage, which the Chief had al- lotted us, we gave them to underfland, that our Intention was to go farther, to fetch Com- modities to trade with them, at which they were pleas'd. They gave us to eat, and the Elders ftay'd fome Part of the Evening with us, which made us fomewhat Uaeafy, and obiig'd qs K 3 " to

I J4 Monfieur de la S A l eV Second Voyage

^MMe?t6S7 to be upon our Guard ; however the Night Ky^'^K) pafsM without any Difturbance.

The next Morning the Elders came to us a- gain. They had provided Mats without the Cottage, and made Signs to us to go thither and fit down upon theirij as we did, leaving two of our Company to guard the Baggage. We repeated to them what we had faid the Night before, and made them feme Prefents of Axes, Knives, Strings of Beads and Rings. They (ig- nify'd they were forry we would go away, and endeavoar'd the beft they could, to make us fenfibleofthe fame Obftacles the others had fignifyM to us ; but it was all in Vain ; howe- ver, we ftay'd till the firft ofjune^ all the while bartering and gathering the belt Stock of Pro- vifions we could.

The Second, we remov'd from that Cottage, where we had fome Jcaloufy, and went to a^ Good En "°^^^^? ^ Qparter of a League from it, where veruin- ' ^^^ Chief of it gave us a very good Reception, meat An old Woman, who was either his Mother, or Governefs of the Cottage, took particular Care of us .• We were firft ferv'd at eating, and to keep her in that good Mind, we now and then made her fome little Prefents, whillt (he, by her CareandKindnefs, fpar'd our Proviii- ons, which were necefTary for our Jour- ney.

A continual Rain oblig'd us to ftay there till the 13th. During our Stay, the Natives made feveral Fealts, to which we were al- ways invited •, and at length the Rain ceafing, we refolv'd to fet out, notwithltanding all Monfieur Cavelier and the Prielt's Apprehen- iions, which we furmounted, and direded our

Courfe

/^/(?NORTH AMERICA. ij5

Courfe towards the N» E. with iwo hdiafis^Jn»si6Sy who were to condud us only a fmall Way, and ^-^V'^. who accordingly foon left us, whatfoever Pro- mifes we could make them. They departed to return Home, promifing they would come to us again. We encampM that Night on the Bank of a Rivulet.

The 14th and 15th, we held on our WsLy^BaiWaji; frequently meeting with Sloughs, which very much fatigued us, bccaafe we wereoblig'd to unload our Horfes for them to pafs, and pre- vent their flicking in the Mire and fat iloil, whence we could not have drawn them out > and confequently we were fain to carry all our Lug- gage on our own Backs.

Whilft vve halted about Noon, that our Horfes might graze, as was ufaally done by us, we difcorer'd our two u^jfony Indians returning towards us, at which we were much rejoiced, becaufe they had a better Notion than cur- felves of the Way we were to go. We made them eat and fmoke, and then fee out a- gain.

The 1 5th, we came to a great River, which we pafs'd as we had done the firft, and after that, met with very bad Ways.

The 17th, one of our Company being in- difpos'd, we could not fet out till Noon, and held on till theiift, croffingfeveral Sloughs and Rivers, and then one of our Indians being out of Order, It oblig'd us to flay on the Bank of a River we had pafs'd. The other Indian feeing his Comrade iick, went a Hunting, and brought a wild Goat ^ for there are many in that Coun- try. The Indians have the Art of drefling the Heads of thofe Creatures, which they put upon K 4 th?ij;

1^6 Monfieur de la Sal E'i Second Voyage

^urje\6^7 tbeir own, and imitate them fa exacftly, that ^-^''V^ they can come very near to them, and then j^rt to kiU Seldom fail ot killing. The fame Method they Goats and afe for Turkeys and other wild Fowl, and fo WMiovol. draw them clofe to themfelves.

The 2 2d, our /«:>/»^» being fomewhat recover'd we decamp'd and proceeded along a better Way and pleafanter Country, than that we had left behind, and as we enquir'd the heft we could of thofe our Indiaifs^ concerning the Neighbour- ing Nations and thofe we were going towards, among others they nara'd to us, that they call'd Gippa, Ml Cavelier told US, he rememberM he had heard his late' Brother Monfieur de la SaU name that Nition, and fay he had feen it as he vventi from Cmadd towards the JUfipfipT. This put us in Hopes, that we fhould fucceed in oar Dif- covery. fine Med' The 23d, being iicar a Village, we had been dovJS' in Search of, one of our Indians went before, to give Notice of our Arrival. In the mean Time we crofs'd moft lovely Plains and Meadows, border'd with fine Groves of beautiful Trees, ' vvhere the Grafs was fo high, that it hinder'd

our Horfes going, and we were oblig'd to clear the Pailage for them.

When we were within Half a League of the Village, wefaw an Indian, mounted on a large grey Mare, coming along with our Native, ¦^o meet us, and were told, that Horfemaa was the Chief of the Village, attended by fome others of the fame Place. As foon as that Chief came up to us, he exprefs'd very much Kindncfs and Affcdion ^ we gave him to underftand,that we did no Body any Harm, unlefs we were firft «t?ack'd. Then we made him fmoke, and when ¦ -' ~ thai

'into NORTH AMERICA. i^^

that was done, he made Signs to us to follow ^uneie^j him, which we did, till we came to the Bank ^-^'V^ of* a River, where he again defir'd us to ftay, whilft he went to give Notice to the El- ders.

Soon after, a Number of them came, and ha- m. Cave- ving join'd us, llgnify'd, that they were come Wet and to carry us to their Village. Our Indians made »^^ '/^ Signs, that it was the Cu (torn of the Country, J^r^f^j^,^ and we muft fubmit, and let them do as they ohniiavs, thought fie. Tho' we were much out of Counte- nance at that Ceremony, feven of the prime Men among them would have us mount on their Backs or shoulders. Monfieur Caveller being our Chief, mounted firft, and then the rcSdid the fame.

As for my own Part, being of a pretty large Size and loaded with Cloaths, a Firelock, a Cafe of Piftols, Powder and Ball, a Kettle and other Implements, there is no Doubt but I made a fufficient Burden for him that carry'd me, and becaufe I was taller than he and my Feet would have hung upon the Ground, two other Indians held them up for me -, fo that I had three to carry me. Other Indians took hold of our Horfes to lead them, and ia that ridiculous E- qaipage we arriv'd at the Village. Our Carriers, who had gone a long Quarter of a League, had need enough to refc, and we to be fet down, that we might laugh in private, for it behov'd OS to take Care not to do it before them.

As foon as we were come to the Chief's Cot- ceremo- tage, where we found above two hundred Per- niis at fons, who were come to fee us, and that our ^beir i^e. Horfes were unloaded, the Elders gave us to "Option* underftand, that it was their Cultom to wafh

Strangers

138 MoTifieur de la Sal eV SeconciFojage ^'!Xl^'y ?^''^"gers at their firft Coming ^ but that we be^

J

speeches »adc to

Their En- tertain-

msm.

iflg clad, they would only wafli our Faces ; which one of thofe Eiders did, with fair Water they had in a Sort of Earthen Veflel, and he only wafh'd our Forehead.

After this fecocd Ceremony, the Chief made Signs to us, to fit down on a Sort of little Scaf- fold, rais'd about 4 Foot above the Ground, and made of Wood and Canes, where when we were plac'd, the Chiefs of the Villages being four ia Kumber, came and made Speeches to us, one after another. We liftned to them with Pa- tience, tho' we underftood not one Word of what they faid to us ; being tir'd with the Length of their Harangues, and much more with the violent Heat of the Sun, which was lull over our Heads.

When the Speeches were ended, the Purport whereof, as near as we could guefs, was only to ailijre us, that we were very welcome ^ we gave them tounderftand, that we were going into our own Country, defigning to return fpeedily, to bring them feveral Sorts of Commodities and fuch Things as they Ihould ftand in need of.

Kext, we made them the ufual Prefents of Axes, Knives, Striags of Beads, Needles and Pins, for their Wives, telling them, that when we returnd we would give them more.

We farther figmfy'd to them, that if tbey would afford cs fome Corn or Meal, we would give them other Things in Exchange, which they agreed to^ After this they made us eat Sagamite^ or Hafty-pudding, Bread, Beans, Pom-^ pious and other Things, wi)icb we had fufficient

Need

i;ito NORTH AMERICA. 159

Meed of. Moft of us having fcarce eaten any ^unei6^j Thing all that Day, fome for Want, and others i^'V^- out of Devotion, as Monfr. Cavelier^ who would obferve the Faft of St. John BaftifVs Eve, whofe Name he bore. It is to be obfervM, that the Pompions are incomparably better there, than with us.

The 24th, the Elders met again in our Cot- tage. We gave them to uoderftand, they would oblige us, in furnilhing Guides to con- duct us to the Village of Ca^jia^ which was in our Way j but inltead of granting it, they ear- neftly intreated us, to (lay with them and go to the Wars againlt their Eaerai'^s, having been told Wonders of our Firelocks, which we pro. misM to do when we return'd, and that it fljould be fhortly, and they feem'd to reft fatisfy'd.

Thus our Hopes increas'd, but the Joy it oc- cafion'd was allay'd by a difmal Accident thac befell us. Monlieur de Marle^ one of the prime jj^^.. ^^ Men of our Company, having Breakfafted, Marie would needs go Bath himfelf in the River we drovirCd^ had pafs'd the Day before, and not knowing how to fwim, he went too far and ftep'd' into a Hole, whence he could not recover himfelf, but was unfortunately drowned. Young Mon^ fieur Cavdier^ having been told that Monlieur de Marie was going to Bath himfelf, ran after him, and coming to the River, faw he was drowning, he ran back to acquaint us: We hafted thither with a Number of Indians^ who were there before us ; hut all too late, fome of them div'd, and brought him up dead from the Bottom of the Water.

We

- 140 Monfietir de la S A l eV Second, Voyage

^mii6%-i We carry'd hijii to the Cottage, Jhedding '^"O'^^ many Tears, the Indians bore Part in our Sor-

rll. ""' ^^'^t ^°^ ^^ P^'"^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Duties, offering up the ufual Prayers ^ after which he was bury- ed in a fmall Field, behind the Cottage ^ and whereas, during that doleful Ceremony, we pray'd, reading in oar Books, particularly Mon- lieur Cavelier^ the Priefl; and Father Anafiajlus^ the Indians gaz'd on us with Amazement, be- caufe we talk'd, looking upon the Leaves, and we endeavour'd to give them to underftand, that we pray'd to God for the dead Man, pointing up to Heaven. 'jiumimty We mull do this Right to thofe good Peo- cf the In- pie, as to dejclare, that they exprefs'd lingular dunj. Humanity upon that doleful Accident, as ap- pear'd by the fenfible Teftimony of their Adi- ons, and all the Methods they us'd to let us underftand how great a Share they bore in our Sorrow ; which we fhould not have found in fe- veral Parts of Europe. During our ftiort Stay in that Place, we ob- ¦ ferv'd a Ceremony that was perform'd by the •Chiefs Wife, viz.. that every Morning flie hidunCe- ^^^^j. j.^ ^/[onfieur de Marle\ Grave, and car- 'th^'Deli. ^f^ ^ ^'^f ^^ ^^5ket of parch'd Ears of Corn tp ' lay on it, the meaning v;hereof we could not underftand. Before our Departure, we were inform'd, that the Villages belonging to our Hofts, being four in Number, all ally'd toge- ther were call'd, AJfony^ Nathofos, Nachitos and NdtfOMs Cadodaqmo.

On the 27th, having been inform'd by the Natives, that we fhould find Canoes, to pafs a River that was on our Way. Father Anafiapus and I went to fee whether, what they told us

was

i'^^ JluM. i}^%A^ i^n^ WIam (Ju^ m-^aL '^^(^'k '

/ /-., (.

L&r,>

into ^OKTH AMERICA. 141

was true. We foand that River was a Branch ?«»^V>J of it being pleafant and navigable, and faw fome Canoes, in one of which t\iQ -Indians car- ry'd us over to the other Side, whether we went to fee what convenient Place there was for our Horfes to come afliore. We found a very proper Place, and returning, made our Report to Monfieur CavtUer, who being then much out of Order with Pains in his Feet, we were ob- lig'd to ftay there, till the 30th.

During that Time, we were frequently vi- janigssa iited by the Indians^ both Old and Young, and Nmon, of both Sexes, and even the Chiefs of the Na- tion, cali'd Janiquo^ came to fee as, and with them we often conversed in dumb Shov;, and e- veryEvening the Women, attende4»by the 'War- riors, with their Bows and Arrows, reforted to naefui our Cottage, to ling a doleful Sort of Song, Eminaifs^ Ihedding Tears at the fame Time. This would ^f"*- have given us fome Uneafinefs, had we not before feen the fame Ceremony, and been in- fcrni'd, that thofe Women repair in that Man- ner to the Chief's Cottage, to intreat him, fing- ing and weeping, to take Revenge on thofe, who have kill'd their Husbands, or Relations, in former Wars, as I have obferv'd before. In all other Refpefts, the Manners and Cuftoms of this Nation, being much the fame as thofe of the Cefiis^ I Ihall add no more concerning them.

The 2pth, at Night, we gave Notice to the Chief, that we would fet out the next Day, we made him fome Prefents in particular, and the like to his Wife, becaufe flie had taken fpecial Care of us, aad departed on the 30th. The

Chief,

142 Monfietir de la S a l eV Second. Voyage

^unei6S7 Chief, attended by many other Indians, whom ^^''"^'^^ we found in the Cottages on oiir Way, went toCondud us as far as the River, which we crofsM in Canoes, and fwam over our Horfes. There we took Leave of oar Conductors, to whom we gave fome Strings of Beads for their Wives, and their Chief would needs Condud us to the next Village.

By the Way we came to a Cottage, where

our Guide made us halt, and there they gave

Cadoda- "^ ^^ ^^^' Then we held on our Journey to a

quio Yil- Village call'd Cadrdaquio, and were conduced

Ugc» to the Chief's Cottage, who .receivM us courte-

cufly, being a Friend to him that went with us.

It was requilite to unload our Horfes to lie

there, and we fignilied to the Chief, that we

Itood in Need of Provifi^ons. He fpoke to the

Women, who brought us fome Meal, which we

purchafed with Strings of Beads, and the Chief,

who conducted us thither, took his Leave.

Having no Defign to fray there any Time, we had defired the Chief to appoint fome Per- fon to guide us to the Village caird Cahainihoua, which was in our Way. It happen'd by good Fortune, that there were then in that Place fome Men and Women of the faid Village, who who were come to fetch fome Wood, fit to make Bows, there being Plenty of that Sort of Trees they make themof, about the Village we were in. We fignify'd our Defign to them and they gave us to underftand they would be glad to bear us Company. In the Converfation we had with them, they made us comprebend,that they had feen People like us, who had Firelocks and a Houfe, and that they were acquainted with the Cappa^s, which was very pleafing to us*

Becaufe

i^jto NORTK AMERICA. 145

Becaufe they were not to depart till two Days JweidSj." after, we refolvM toftay for them. <^^VNi,

We obferv'd, that there was a Difference between the Language of thofe People and the c«^"^'"' Inhabitants of the Village we were in, from that of the Cenis^ and that they had fome pecu- liar Ceremonies, one whereof is, that when the Women have their Terms, they leave the Company of their Husbands and withdraw into other Cottages appointed for that Purpofe, which no Perfon is to come near, upon Pain of being reputed unclean.

Thofe Women have their Faces ftill more ommms disfigur'd, than the others we had fcen before ^ oj'Womtn, for they make feveral Streaks,or Scores on them, whereas the others had but one. They adorn themfelves with little Locks of fine red Hair ; which they make faft to their Ears, in thi Kature of Pendants. In other Rcfpe^ls they are not difagreeable, and neither Women nor Maids are fo ill-natur'd as to make their Lovers pine for them. They are not difficult of Accefs, and they foon make a Return for a fmall Pre- fent.

The Men wear their Hair fliort, like our ^ _ Capucif7s^ they anoint it with a Sort of Oyl, or Greafe, and curl it like Snails, after which they ftrew on it a Sort of Down, or Lint, died red, as we do Powder, which is done when they de- iign to be very fine, in order to appear in their AfTemblies. They are very fond of their Chil- dren, and all the Way of cbaftifing them they ufe, is to throw Water at them, without ever I?eating or giving them ill Words.

The

144 Monfieur de la Sal eV Second Voyage \

^uljf 1687 The Indians that were of the Village of Co^- ;|!

^•'VNi' hainihoua and to condncft us thither, not being /;^ ready to fetouton IVedfjefday the 2d of July^ as they had promis'd, a young Indian of^'cr^d^ himfelf, faying, he would condud us fife thi-;. ther, and wefet out with him, ftill direding; our Courfe towards the N. E. Wekeptciofe along the fame River we had crofs'd, and found: it very pleafant and navigable, the Banks ofi • it cover'd with fine Trees of feveral Sorts.

We had not travell'd above a League, before our Guide gave us to underftand, that he had . forgot a Piece of hard dry'd Skin he had to make him Shoes, which he would go fetch and , return to us, pointing to us with his Hand, which Way we were to go, and telling us we Ihould foon come to a River.

This fudden Change in the Indian was fome-, what furprizing and very much perplex'd us 5 however we held on our Way, and foon came to the River he had mention'd to us, which was very pleafant and deep. We crofs'd it the next Day, on a Sort of Float, which we made with much Toil and Labour, and our Horfes fwam over. Some Time after we were pafled, we faw the Indians coming, who had promifed to bear us Company, and were glad to find our Float, to crofs the fame River, as they did, and proceeded on our Journey all together.

The 4th, 5th and 6Eh, we did the fame, crolTing a very fine Country, but water'd by

^e^iy of u^any Brooks, Streams and Rivers. We found '*'"^* Abundance of wild Goats, Turkeys and other wild Fowl, whereof our Indians kill'd many.

On the 6th, whilft we halted on the Bank of a River to eat, we heard the Tingling of fome

fmali

ifjfo NORTH AMERICA- 145

fmall Bells-,which making us look about,we fpy'd ?«// 1687 an Indian with a nakedSword-BiaJe in Ills Hand,

He made Signs for us to come to him, and gave us to underftand, that he was Tent by the Elders of the Village, whither we were going, to meet us, carefling us after an extraordinary Manner. I obferv'd that it was a Spanifh Blade he had, and that he took Pleafure in ring- ing the Hawks Bells.

Having traveird about half aLeague with bins, we difeover'd a Dozen of other Indians coming Kl"^ P^-i- towards us, who made very much of and con- ' ^i'"''"' dudted us to the Village, to the Chief's Cottage,* where we found dry'd Bear-Skins laid on the Ground, and they made us fit on them, where we were treated with Eatables, as vvere the Elders after us, and a Throng of Wouica came to fee us.

The 7th, the Elders came to give us a Vifit, bringing us two BullocksHides^four Otters Skins, Frsfcnts, one white V^ild-Goat's Skin, all of them well dry'd, and 4 Bows,in Return for the Prefent we had before made them. The Chief and another came again fome Time after, bringing two Loaves, the finefl: and the befl: we had yet fcen. They look'd as if they had been bak'd in an Oven, and yet we had not obferv'd, that there were Ovens among any of them. That Chief ftay'd with us fome Hours, he feem'd to be very ingenious and difcreet, and ealily underftood our Signs, which vvere raofi: of the Language we had. Having order'd a little Boy to bring us all we had Occafion for, he withdrew.

L Tovyards

1 4^ , MoMpeur de la S A l e'j Second Voyaoe

S'»b ^^^7 Towards the Evening, we were entertain'd j^^^, with aCeremony we had not feen before. ACom- monyof P^ny of Elders, attended by fome young Mea the Pipe, and Women came to our Cottage in a Body, linging as loud as they could roar. The fore- moft of them had a Calumet, fo they call a very long Sort of Tabacco Pipe, adorn'd with feveral Sorts of Feathers. When they had fung a while, before our Cottage, they entered it, ftill finging on, for about a Quarter of an Hour. After that, they took Monfieur Cavelier the Prieft, as being our Chief, led him in folemn Manner out of the Cottage, fupporting him under the Arms. When they were come to a Place they had prepared, one of them laid a great Handful of Grafs on his Feet, two others brought fair Water in an Earthen Dilh, with which they wafh'd his Face, and then made him lit down on a Skin, provided for that Pur- pofe.

When Monfieur Cavelier was feated, the El- ders took their Places, fitting round about him, and the Mafter of the Ceremonies fix'd in the Ground two little wooden Forks, and having laid a Stick acrofs them, all being paint- ed red, he placed on them a Bullock's Hide, dryed, a Goat's Skin over that, and then laid the Pipe thereon. ; ,, The Song was begun again, the Women

mixing in the Chorus, and the Concert was heightned by great hollow Calabalhes or Gourds, in which there were large Gravel Stones, to make a Noife, the Indians ftriking on them by Meafure, to anfwer the Tone of the Choir j and the pleafanteft of all was, that one of the Indtans plac'd himfelf behind Monfieur Cavelier to hold

him

.\^

^^i^

#:^/^ NORTH AMERICA. i47

him up, whilfl at the fame Time he Hiook and SF«^^ dandled him from Side to Side, the Motion ^^^^^^ anfwering to the Muflck.

That Concert was fcarce ended, when the Mailer of the Ceremonies brought two Maids, the pne having in her Hand a Sort of Collar, and the other an Otter's Skin, which they plac'd en the wooden Forks abovemention'd, at the Ends of the Pipe. Then he made them fit down, on each Side of Monfleur Cavelkr^xn fuch a Pof- ture, that they look'd one upon the other, their Legs extended and intermix'd, on which the fame Maflrer of the Ceremonies laid Monlieur Cavelifr's Legs, in fuch Manner, that they lay uppermoft and acrofs thofe of the two Maids.

Whilfl: this Adion was performing, one of the Elders made fall a dy'd Feather to the back Part of Monfieur Cavelier's Head, tying it to his Hair. The Singing ftill continu'd all that Time, fo that Monfieur Cavelier grown weary of its Tedioufnefs, and afham'd to fee himfelf in that Pofture between two Maids, without knowing to what Purpofe, made Signs to us to fignify the fame to the Chief, and having given him to underftand, that he was not well, two of the Indians immediately took hold of him under the Arms, conduced him back to the Cottage and made Signs to him tcr take his Reft. This was about Nine in the Evening, and the /«^<^jfpent all the Might in Singing, infomuch that fome of them could hold out no longer.

In the Morning they return'd to Monfieur Cavelier^ condudted him again out of the Cot- tage, with the fame Ceremony and made him fit down, ftill finging on. Then the Matter ot the Ceremonies took the Pipe, which he fiird L 2 with

148 Monjieur dc la S A l eV Second Voyage

^uly 1687

Cahaync- houa NH' tion.

Indians

expeiiPre

ferns.

with Tabacco, lighted and offered it to Mon- jfieur Cavelier, but drawing back and advancing fix Times before he gave it him. Having at laft put it into his Hands, Monfieur Cavelier made as if he had fmok'd and return'd it to them. Then they made us all fmoke ro^nd, and every one of them whiff 'din his Turn, the Mufick Hill continuing.

About Mine in the Morning, the Sun grow- ing very hot, and Monfieur C^t^eZ/Vr being bare Headed, made Signs that it did him Harm. Then at laft they gave over linging, and con- duced him back into the Cottage,took the Pipe, put it into a Cafe, made of a Wild-Goat's Skin, with the two wooden Forks and the red Stick that lay acrofs themi all which one of the El- ders offer'd to Monfieur Cavelier, affuring him that he might pafs thro' all the Nations that were ally'd to them by Virtue of that Token of Peace, and Ihould be every where well received. This was the firft Place where we faw the Calu- met, or Pipe of Peace, having no Knowledge of it before, as feme have writ. This Nation is called Cahaynohoua.

This Sort of Ceremoaies being never per- form'd among the /«^/^^^ without the Expeda- • tion of receiving fome Prefent, and we having befides obferv'jd, that fome of them had with- drawn themfelves, with Tokens of Diffatis- faftion» perhaps becaufe we had interrupted their Ceremony, we thought it convenient to give them foraething more, and 1 was appoint- ed to carry them an Ax, four Knives and fome Strings of Beads, with which they were fatif-

Wc

f>/^ NORTH AMERICA. 149

We afterwards fliew*d them an Experiment ^u^j'6^7 of our Arms, the Noife and Fire whereof '^-^^V^^J frighted them. They earnellly prefs'd us to ftay with them, offering us Wives and whatfo- ever elfe we fliould want. To be the better qaiiofthera, we promised to return, faying we were going to fetch Commodities, Arms and Tools, which we flood in Need of, that we might afterwards Itay with them, f The pth and loth were fpcnt in Vifits, and we were inform'd by one of the Indians that we were not far from a great River, v.-hich he de- fcribM with a Stick on the Sand, and fliew'd \t had two Branches, at the fame Time pronoun- cing the Word Caffa, which, as I have faid, is 3 Nation near the Alijfijipi. We then made no longer Qiieftion, that we were near what we had been fo long looking after. We entreated the Elders to appoint Ibme Men tocondudus, promifing to reward them well, which they granted, and we fetoutthe 12th, to the great Sorrow of thofe good People, who had enter- tain'd us fo ccurteoufly.

We travell'd feveral different Ways, which we could never have found, had we wanted The^cur^ Guides,and fo proceeded till on the i2th,one of ^'^yp'^)^- our Guides pretended to be lick, and made '^"^" * Signs that he would go back ^ but obferving, that we feem'd to be no Way concern'd, which we did on Purpofe, he confulted with his Com- panion, and then came to tell us, he was re- covered. We made him eat and fmoke, and continued our Journey the 13th, (inding the Way very bad and difficult^

L 3 Tke

150 - Mofijieur de la S A l eV Second Fojage

'^ulyi6%i The 14th, our Indians^ having feen the Track ^-'"'V^ of Buliocks, fignify'd they would go kill feme, to eat the Flelh, which made us halt for two or three Hours. Whilft we ftay'd for our Hunters, we prepar'd fome Sa^amite, or their Sortof Hafty-Pudding. They return'd loaded with Flefh, Part whereof we drefs'd, and eat it with very good Stomachs. Then we proceeded on our Journey till the i8th, and by the Way kill'd threeBuHocks and twoCows,which oblig'd lis toihalt, that we might make ufe of our Flefli, drying it.

The Night between the 19th and the 20th, one of our Horfes breaking loofe, was either taken away by the Natives, or loft in the Woods. That did not obftrud our Departure, tho' the Lofs was grievous to us, and we held on our Way till the 24th, when we met a Com- pany of Indians^ with Axes, going to fetch Barks S^"^ of Trees, to cover their Cottages. They were Mes. furpriz'd to fee us, but having made Signs to them to draw near, they came, carefs'd and pre/ented us with fome Water Melons they had. They put off their Defign of going to fetch Bark till anotl]er Time, and went along with us, and one off our Guides having gone before in the Morning to give Notice of our coming at the next Village, met with other Parcels of Indians^ who were coming to meet us, and exprefs'd extraordinary Kindnefs.

We halted in one of their Cottages, which they call Defert, becaufe they are in the Mid ft of their Fields and Gardens. There we found feveralWomen who had brought Bread, Gourds, Beans and Water Melons, a Sort of Fruil pro- per

//;/^NORTH AMERICA. 151

per to quench Thirfl:, the Pulp of it being no fuiyieS? better than Water. ^ ^^nTV)

We fet out again to come to the Village, and by the Way, met with very pleafmt Woods, in which, there were Abundance offtately Ce- dars. Being come to a River, that was be- a Oofs by tween us and the Village, and looking over to a Rher the further Side,, we difcover'd a great Crofs, '^^^ ^ and at a fmall Diftance from it, a Houfe, built I'Ji^^^r. after the French Fafhion.

It is eafy to imagine what inward Joy we conceived at the Sight of that Emblem of our Salvation. We knelt down, lifting up our Hands and Eyes to Heaven, to return Thanks to the Divine Goodnefs, for having conducted us fo happilyj for we made no Qiieftion of finding French on the other Side of the River, •and of their being Catholicks, fince they had Crofles.

In ihort, having halted fome Time on the Bank of that River, we fpy'd feveral Canoes making towards us, and two Men cloath'd, coming out of the Hosfe we had difcover'd, who, the Moment they faw us, fir'd each of them a Shot to falute us. An Indian being Chief of the Village, who was with them, had done To before, and we were not backward in re- turning their Salute, by diicharging all our Pieces.

When we had pafs'd the River, and were all come together, we foon knew each other to be French Men. Thofe we found were the-^^^^^^^i Sieurs Couture Charpantier and de Laun ay, both-' '^^"''' of them of ^e^«, whom Monlieur lonty^Go- vernor of Fort St. Xfir// among the Jfincis. had left at that Pofl-, when he went dovi n the M'f- L 4 * fipp

152

hrs come 10 the

French Bi' bitxtion.

Who the

frenchmen

were.

Monfieur de la Sal e'^ Second VoyAgs

fifipi to look after Monfr. ^e la Sale -^ and the Nation we were then with, was call'd Jic- cancea.

II is hard to exprefs the Joy concciv'd on both Sides-, oars wasuRfpeakable, for having at la it found, what we had fo earneftly def!rtd,and that the Hopes of returning to our dear Country, was in fome Meafure aflured by thai; happy !^i covery. The others vvere plea fed to fee fiin i^".rr.')ns as might bring them News of that Comrnander, from whom they expecicd the Performance of what he had pro- mis'd them^ but the Account we gave them of Moafr. ^e /<« Sde\ unfortunate Death, was fo affliifting, that it drew Tears from them, and the difiiial Hiftory of his Troubles snd Difa- fters readerM them almoft inconfolabie.

We were conduced to the Houfe, whither all our Baggage was honeftly carry'd by the Indians. There was a very great Throng of thofe People, both Men and Women, which being over, we came to the Relation of the particular Circumftances of our Stories. Ours was dcliver'd by Monfieur Cavelier, whom we honourM as our Chief, for being Brother tohiip, who had been fo.

We were inform'd by them> that they had been Six, fent by Monfr. lonty^ when he re- turn'd from the Voyage he had made down the Colbert or Mijfififi River, purfuant to the Orders fent him by the late Monfr. de la Sale^ at his Departure from France^ and that the faid Sieur Tenty had commanded them to build the aforefaid Houfe. That having never fince re- ceiv'd any News from the faid Monfr. <^ff la

Sale

into NORTH AMERICA. 15J

5^/?, Four of them were pone back to Monfr. ^uiyiSS-; Tonty^ at the Fort of the JJlinois. Ky^sT^

In Goncluflon, it was agreed among us, to go away as foon as pofllble, towards the Jjlimis^ and conceal from the Indians^ the Death of Monfieur ^«/4 5^/e, to keep them ftili ia Awe and under Submiflion, vvhilH we went away with the firfl: Ships that (hould happen to fail ivQm C An adaiov France^ to give an Account at Court of what had happen'd, and to procure Succours. In the mean Time, the Chief of the Laiians camG to invite us to eat. We found Mats laid on the Ground for us to fit on, and all the Village met to fee us.

We gave them to underfland, that we came from Monfieur de la Sale, who had made a Set- tlement on the Bay of Mexico ^ that we had pafs'd thro' many Kations, which we nam'd, and that we were going to Canada for Com- modities, and would retJrn down the Ri^^f *» r-/,,^ 1- that we would bring Men to defend them a- d\ans. * gainft their Enemies and then fettle among them ; that the Nations we had pjfs'd through had appointed Men to guide us, and we defired the fame Favour of them, with fome Canoes and Provifions, and that wc would reward cur Guides and pay for what they furnifii'd us.

The Conveniency of an Interpreter, we then had, gave us the Opportunity of making cur- felves be eafily underftood, and the Chief an- fwer'd to our Propofals, that he would fend Men to the other Villages to acquaint, them without Demands, and to confak with them what was to be done in that Cafe^ that as for the reft, they were ainaz'd at cur having

pafs'd

1 54 Monfieur de la Sal eV Second Vojage

^M^rifiSj. paTs'd thro' fo many Nations, without having '^•^''VN; heen detain'd, or kill'd, conlidering what a fmall ^ Number we were.

: When the Difcourfe was ended, that Chief caiis'd Meat to be fet before us, as dry'd Flefti, Bread made of Indian Corn of feveral Sorts, and Water Melons ; after which he made us fmoke, and then we return'd to our Houfe, where be- ing eas'd of all thofe Impediments, we gave each other an Account of our Affairs, at Lei- fure, and were inform'd, that thofe People im- patiently expefted the Return of Monfieur de la Salc^ which confunvd us in the Refolution of concealing his Death. We obferv'd the Situa- tion of that Poll:, and were made acquainted with the Nature of the Country and the Man- ners of thofe People, of which I Ihall give the following Remarks.

The Houfe we were then in, was built of Pieces of Cedar laid one upon another, and rounded away at the Corners. It is feated on a fmall Eminency, half a Musket-fhot from the Village, in a Country abounding in all Things. The Plains lying on one Side of it, are ftor'd with Beeves, wild Goats, Deer, Turkeys, Bu- ilards, Swans, Ducks, Teal and other Game. rrodufi of TJie Trees produce plenty of Fruit, and ve- theCoun- ry good, as Peaches, Plumbs, Mulberries, Grapes, and Wallnuts. They have a Sort of Fruit they call Piaguimina^ not unlike our Med- lars, but much better and more delicious. Such as live near the Rivers, as that Houfe is, do not want for Filh of all Sorts, and they have Indian Wheat, whereof they make good Bread. There are alfo fine Plains diverfify'd with feveral Sorts of Trees, as I have faid before.

The

French licufi <^

TUlOflg

the

jAccon-

cca's de fmb'd.

trj

into NORTH AMERICA. 155

The Nation of the Accancea's confifls of four JuiyieSy Villages. The firft is call'd Otjctchove, near ^^'^'NJ which we were j the fecond Tonman, both of ^r^^y^^ ^c them feated on the River ^ the third Tongin^a-^ rk-Accaa- a'nd the foarth Capfa^ on the Bank of the Mifft- cea's. fipi. Thefe V^illages are built after a different Manner from the others we had feen before, in this Point, that the Cottages, which are alike as to their Materials and Rounding st the Top, are long, and cover'd with the Bark of Trees, and fb very large, that feverai of them can hold tv/o hundred Perfons, belonging to feveral Fa- milies.

The People are not fo neat as the CemV, or j/oufhold the Ajfonis in their Hoiifes, for fome of them stu^. lie on the Ground, without any Thing under them but fome Mats, or a drefs'd Hide. How. ever, fome of them have more Conveniencies, but the Generality has not. All their Move- ables confift in fome Earthen Veflels and oval wooden Platters, which are neatly made, and with which they drive a Trade.

They are generally very well fhap'd and ships, ;^ adive ^ the Women are hand fome, or at lealt have a much better Prefence than thofe of the other Villages we pafs'd thro' before. They make Canoes all of one Piece, which are well wrought. As for themfelves they are very faithful, good iiaturM, and Warriors like the red. •

The 25th, the Elders being afiembled, came Tko-re- to fee us, and told the Sieur Oi/fwre, that i\{Qy mowy of ths defign'd to fing and dance the Calumet^ or Pipe ^ ripejer- becaufe the others had fung it, fome of them to ^^Z'' ^ '^^ the late Monfieur de la Sale^ and the reft to (j^V^ Monfieur Tonty^ and therefore it was but rca- fonable they fhould do the fame to get a Fire- lock,

1 5'5 Monfieur de la S A l e'j Seconoi Voyaas SrM/;i687 Iqc^ 35 ^eij 35 |.j^^ otliers. Monfieur C^W/fr ^^''"^^'^^^ was inform'd of it, and it wasrequilite tocon- fent to it, to pleafe thofe Indians^ becaufe we ftood in need of them. Cer?mo)iy The Ceremony began with Monfleur Cavelier^ oftkeFipe, yyV,Q ^^5 j^^j under the Arms and feated on a Hide, without the Cottage. The Forks, the Skins laid on it ia Honour of the Pipe,the Sing- ing as loud as they cou'd roar, both by Mea and Women, and all the other Ceremonies were obfervMj as I have mention'd them before j fo that Monfleur Cdvelier being weary of them, he caus'd the Chief to be told, that he was out of Order, and defir'd his Nephew might be put in his Place, which was done accordingly, and they fpent the whole Night in Singing. In the IVIorn- ing they perform'd fome other Ceremonies, doe worth relating.

The Solem.nity being ended, by ^every Man's fmoking of the Pipe, the Indians took il^ with fome Bullocks Hides, and Goats and Otters Skins, and a Collar made of Shells, all which they carry'd to our Houfe, and we gave them a Firelock, two Axes, fix Knives, one hundred Charges of Powder, as much Bail, and fome Strings of Beads for their Wives. The Chief having given Notice of our coming to the other Villages, their Deputies came to fee us ; we en- tertain'd them in the Houfc, and propos'd to them our Dcfigns, as had been done to the Chief. They flood conlidering a While, then held a Sort of Confultation among themfelves, which held not long without talking, and then agreed to grant us what we ask'd, which was a Canoe and a Min of each Village to condud us, upon ^the promis'd Gonfideration, and fb they

went

hto NORTH AMERICA. 157

went away to the Cottage of the Chief of tlie ?«{yi687. Village. ^v^^-Nj,

The 27th, the Chief and the Elders met a- gain to confult about v;hat we demanded of them*, the Length of the Journey made them apprehenfive for thofe, who were to condu

We imbark'd on a Canoe belonging to one of the Chiefs, being at leall twenty Perfons, as well Women as Men, and arriv'd fdkj without any Trouble, at a Village cali'd Toriman^ Totima for we were going down the River. We pro- ^'%-» pos'd it to thefe People, or rather demanded

ii

158 Monfieur de la S A L E'i Second Voyage

^uiy 1687 it of them to confirm what had been granted us ^-"""V^^ by the others, and they referr'd giving us their Anfwer till the next Day ^ for they do Nothing without confulting about it, and we having brought a Sack of hidian Wheat, from the Fref7ch Mens Houfe, defir'd the Chief to caufe Women to pound it, for which we would give 'em Something. Immediately he made a Sign to bis Officers to go call them, and they went as readily.

There were feven or eight of thofe Officers always about him, ftark naked and befmear'd, feme after one Fafhion, and others after ano- ther. Each of them had three or four Cala- bafhes or Gourds, hanging at a Leather Girdle officers, about their Waftes, in which there were feve- ral Pebbles, and behind them hung a Horfe's Tail, fo that when they ran, the Gourds made a ratling Noife, and the Tail being born up by the Wind, flood out at its full Length, fo that Nothing could be feen more ridiculous ^ bat it behooved us to take Heed of Ihewing the leaft Smile.

The remaining Part of the Day was fpent

in going with the Sieur Couture to fee the fa-

'^¦ff^^r^' tal River fo much fought after by us, called

fourdit Colbert, when firft difcover'd, and Mijfifipi.ox,

lift. Mechajjipi by the Natives that were near us.

It is a very fine River and deep, the Breadth

of it about a Quarter of a League, and the

Stream very rapid. The Sieur Couture affiir'd

us, that it has two Branches or Channels,

which parted from each other above us, and

that we had pafs'd its other Branch, when

we came to the lirfl; Village of the Accanced's^

with which Nation we ItiO were.

The

into NORTH AMERICA. 159

The 28th, the Chief and the Elders being.f«0' j^S; aflembled, they granted our Requefts. We ^^^'^"^ were to part, in order to be enter tain'd in fe- veral Places, where we took Notice offome particular Ceremonies, v/hich we had not feen among the other Nations. One of them is, ParticuJir that they ferve up their Meat in two or four Ceremo- large Difhes, which are firft ftt down before »^'^f« the two principal Guells, who are at one End, and when they have eaten a little, thofe Dilhes are fliov'd down lower and others are ferved up in their Place, in the fame ?4anner -, fo that the firft Difhes are fcrv'd at the upper End and thruft down lower as others come in.

He who treats, does not fit down with the Company, nor does he eat, but performs the Part of a Steward, taking Care of the Dreffing and of the Placing of the Meat ferv'd up ^ and to the End he may appear the finer, he never fails to befmear himfeif with Clay, or fome red or black Colouring they make ufe of.

The 29th, we fet out from that Village, and imbark'd on two Canoes to crofs the Mijfijipiz The Chief and about a Score of young Folks xonnia- bore us Company to the next Village call'd Ton- ^xxiViUnge vingua^ feated on the Bank of that River, where we were receiv'd m the Chief's Cottage, as we had been in the others. The Elders treated us in their Turns, and the Defcriptions before given will ferve for this Place, there being but little Difference between them and their Neigh- bours. -.

The 30th, we fet out for Ca^^a^ the laft Vil- v^ihgt lage oii\\t Ac cane en's, eightLeagues diftant from the Place we had left. We were obliged to crofs the River Mijfifip feveral Times in this

Way,

i6o Mofifieur de la Sal e'^ Second Voyage

f^^:\^ Way ; becaiife it winds very much, and we ^^^^^^^ had f jmc foul Weather, which made it late before we could reach Cappa. A great Num- ber of Youth came to meet us, fome of them conduced us to the Chiefs Cottage, and others took Care of our Baggage, which was reftor'd to us very honeftly. We found the Elders waiting for us ; a great Fire was kindled to dry us, and the Cottage was lighted by fcveral burning Reeds, which they makeufeof inftead of Flambeaus ^ after which we were ferv'd as in other Places.

The srfir, we receiv'd Vifits from the Elders^ Their Difcourfe ran upon the War they defign'd to make, thinking to ingage us in it, and we return'd the fame Anfwer as we had done to the others, that we would foon return with all Things we ftood in Need of. We ask'd a Maa of them, which was granted, and the Day en- ded inFeafting. !?«.<,.*.•« We would willingly have fet out the Firlt mem given °^ -^ugup -^ but the Chief came and told us, it bythsinii' couM not be, becaufe the Women had not ^»f. pounded our Corn, which however was done \

but they made ufe of that Pretence to oblige us to ilay, and to have Leifure to give us fome Diverfion, after their Manner. Accordingly, about Ten m the Morning, the Warriors and Youth came together to Dance. They were drefsM after their belt Manner, fome of them wearing Plumes of feveral Colours, wherewith they adorn their Heads, others, inftead of Fea- thers>h3d two Bullocks Horns, and were all befmear'd wich Clay, or Black and Red, fothat they really look'd like a Company of Devils or Monlters, and in thofe Figures they danc'd,

as

fW(? NORTH AMERICA- i6i

as I have defcrib'd it, fpeaking of the other ^ug. 1687 Nations. L/^'^V-»

The Second, we made ready to be going. The Indian given by the firft Village for our Guide, would not go any farther. A Mau» faid to bean Hermaphrodite, offer'd to fupply his Place, faying, he was willing to go to the Iflinois. We took Leiye of the Sieur Couture^ to whom Monfr. Cavelier made an Exhortati- on, encouraging him ro perfevere and have Pa- tience, in Hopes of the Relief we wou'd fend him, and fo v/e imbark'd on tiie Mtjfifioi in a Canoe, being Nine in Number, that is, five ot tis, and the four Indians that were our Guides. We were oblig'd to crofs that River very of- ten, and no lefs frequently to carry our Canoe and Goods, as well on Account of the Rapidi- ty of the River, and to find it flacker on the one or the other Side of it, which was very troublefome to our Guides, as bccaufc of the little Iflands we met with, which are form'd by the impetuous beating of the Water upon the Banks, that oppofe its Courfe, where the Channels happen not to lie ftrait *, there it waflies away the Earth and bears down great Trees, which in Procefs of Time form little Iflands, that divide the Channel. At Night we incamp'd la one of thofe fmall Iflands, for our greaterSafety,for we were then come into an Machiss-. Enemy's Nation, call'd Machi^amea, which put m ti Nath our Indians into great Frights. en-

It is certain our Toil was very great, for we were oblig'd to row in the Canoe, to help our Indians to ftem the Current of the River, be- caufe we were going up, and it was very ftrong and rapid i we were ofcea jseceGicated M to

1 62 Monfteur de la S a l e'/ Second V'oj^ge

'Mg,i6^l to land, and fometimes to travel over miry ^^^f'^^^r^ Lands, where we funk up half way the Leg ^ other Times over barning Sands, which fcorch'd our Feet,having ho Shoes,or elfe over Splinters of Wood, which ran into the Soles of our Feer> and when we were come to the refting Place, we were to provide Fuel to drefs our ivlear, and provide all Thir;gs for our Indians^ who would not have done fo much as go fetch a Cup of Water, tho' we were on the Bank of the River, and yet we were happy enough in having them.

We proceeded on, continually undergoing the fame Toil, till the Seventh, when, we faw the fiifb Bullock, we had met on our Way, fince our coming among the Accmce^s. The Indians^ who had a great Mind to eat Flefh, made a Sign to me, to go kill it. I purfu'd and Shot, but it did not fall, the Indians ran after, kill'd, and came to tell us it mufl; be parch'd, or dry'd, which was accordingly done. I mult here take Notice of a C^itmony gmx Indians performed, when they came near the Bullock, before they flead him. Cenmony \^ thg fuft Place, they adorn'd his Head aBulJock.^ with fome Swans and Buftards Down, dy'd red, and put fome Tabacco into his Nollrils, and between the Clefts of the Hoofs. When they had flead him, they cutout the Tongue, and put a Bit of Tabacco into its Place j then they ftuck two Wooden Forks into the Ground, laid a Stick acrofs them, on which they placM feveral Slices of the Flefh, in the Kature of an Offering. The Ceremony being ended, vve parch'd or dry'd the beft Parts of the Bealt and proceeded on oar Journey.

The

/-*/(7 NORTH AMERICA. i6j

The pth, we found the Banks of the River A^. 16S7 very high, and the Earth of them Yellow, Red '-^''Y^ and White, and thither the Natives came ^<^ fever ticl furnifh themfelves with it, to adorn their Bo- /o«rj. dies, on Feftival Days. We held on our Way till the 14th, when we met a Herd of Bul- locks, whereof we kill'd five, dry'd Part of them, and proceeded till the i8ch.

The 19th, we came to the Mouth of the „ i^ River, call'd Houabache^ faid to come from the che°^/vj* Country of the JroquoiSf towards Nevo England, That is a very fine River, its Water extraor- dinary clear, and the Current of it, gentle. Our Indians olFer'd up to it, by Way of Sacrifice, feme Tabacco and Beef Steaks, which they fix'd on Forks, and left them on the Bank, to be dii- pos'd of as the River thought fit. We obfeiv'd fome ocher Superftitions among thofe poor Peo» pie, one whereof was as follows. ^

There were fome certain Days, on which indUn they Failed, and we knew them, when aflbon f#. as they awak'd, they befmear'd their Faces and Arms, or other Parts of their Bodies, with a (limy Sort of Earth, or pounded Charcoal \ for that Day they did not eat till Ten or Eleven of the Clock at Night, and before they did eafi they were to wipe off that Smearing, and had Water brought them for that Purpofe. The Occafion of their Fading was, as they gave us to underftjnd, that they might have good Succefs in Hunting, and kill Abundance of Bui-* locks.

We held on our Way till the 25th, when the Indians ftiew'd US a Spring of Salt Water, SiUiTiter- within a Musket Shot of us, and made us go spring. afliore to view k. We obferWd the Ground p -'s-'-i ' M z abouc

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BY A. JOURSEAV,

No. 1 Pine street.

Real Estate, StockB, Bonds, &c., at public or prtvat* lie. Out-door sales and sales of furniture at reeidenoM tended to. Houses and stores rented-

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164 Monjieur de la Sal eV Second Voyage

'Jug.xe^^f about it was much beaten by Bullocks Feetj ^^'^'^^^ aad it is likely they love that Salt Water. The" WiliFmt. Country about, was full of Hillocks, cover'd ' with Oaks and Wallnut-Trees, Abundance of Plum-Trees, almofl: all the Plums red and pret- ty good, befides great Store of other Sorts of Fruits, whofe Names we know not, and among them one Ihap'd like a midling Pear, with Stones iti it as big! as large Beans. When ripe it peels like a Peach, the Tafte is indifferent good, but rather of the Sweeteft.

The 27th, having difcover'd a Herd of Beeves, we went afhore to kill fome \ I fhot a Heifer, which was very good Meat, we put a Board the beft of it. and held on our Way till the Evening, when we encamp'd on an Ifland, where we obferv'd an Alteration in the Humour and Behaviour ot our Indians. This put us under fome Apprehenfion, and the more, for that he who was reckoned an Her- maphrodite, told us, they intended to leave us, which oblig'd us to fecure our Arms and double our Watch during the Kight, for Fear they fliould forfake us.

With that Jealoufy we proceeded on our Journey the 28th and 29th, coafting along the Foot of an upright Rock, about fixty, or eighty Foot high, round which the River glides. Held on the 30th and 31ft, and the firft of Septem^ Miffouris her pafs'd by the Mouth of a River caird Mf- F^ver, . fgurisj whofe Water is always thick, and to which our Indians did not forget to offer Sa- crifice. figure 0f The 2d, we yriv'd at the Place, where the a pretend- Figure is of the pretended Monfter fpoken of by UMoHfiir father Marqun, That Monltec conliltsof two

fcuryy

|/;f^NORTH AMERICA. i^^

fcurvy Figures drawn in red, on the fiat Side o^sept^^

a Rock, about ten or twelve Foot high, which ^^f

wants very much of the extraordinary Height

that Relation mentions. However our Indians

paid Homage, by offcriHg Sacrifice to thai

Stone ^ tho' we endeavour'd to give them to

underftand, that the faid Rock had no Manner

of Virtue, and that we worfhipM fomething

above it, pointing up to Heaven •, but it was

to no Purpofe, and they made Signs to us, that

they Ihould die if they did not perform that

Duty. We proceeded, coalting along a Chain

of Mountains, and at length, on the 3d, left ^^''f

the Mtjfifpi, to enter the River of the ip- »''eifi^«^«

nots.

We found a great Alteration in that River, as well with Refpeft to its Courfe, which is very gentle, as to the Country about it, which is much more agreeable and beautiful than that about the great River, by Reafon of the many fine Woods and Variety of Fruit its Banks are adorn'd with. It was a very great Comfort to us, to find fo much Eafe in going up that Ri- ver, by Reafon of its gentle Stream, fo that we all ftay'd in the Canoe and made much more Way. . Indian

Thus we went on till the 8th,without ftcppingV/cjc/.'.- any longer than to kill a Bullock, and one^ of irg raw our Indians, who had a craving Stomach, having •^«-^^' eaten fomc of its Suet hot and raw, was taken very ill, and died of it, as I (hall mention in its Place.

Thepth, we came into a Lake, about half a

League over, which we crofs'd, and returnM

into the Channel of the River, on the Banks

whereof we found feveral Marks of the Natives

M 3 leaving

1 66 Mofjfieur de la S A l eV Second Voyage

jjpr. 1687 having ijggji incamp'd there, when they came

'"¦'^^^tofifhaad dry what they caught. The loth,

we crofsM another Lake, call'd Primitehouy, re-

tarn'd'tothe Ri\rer, and the nth, faw IndUm

before us, incamp'd on the Bank of a River,

whereupon we ftop'd and made ready our

Arms. In the mean Time, one of them came

towards us by Land, and we put on our Canoe

towards him.

When that Indian was near, he flood gazing

Meeting ^^ "^» without fpeaking a Word, and then

roith liW' drawing ftill nearer, we gave him to underftand,

Jiois. that we were fent by Monfieur de la Sale, and

came from him. Then he made Signs to

us, to advance towards his People, whom, he

went before to acquaint with what we had faid

to him, fo that when we were come near them

they fired feveral Shat to falute us, and we an-

fwer'd them with our Firelocks.

After that mutural Salutation, they came into our Canoe, to fignify, they were glad to hear News of Monfieur de la Sale. We ask'd them, What Nation they were of ^ they anfvver'd. They were Iflinois, of a Canton callM Cafcafquia. We enquired whether Monfieur Tonty was at Fort Lewis ^ they gave us to un- derftand, that he was not, but that be was gone to the War againft the Iroquois. They invited us Afhore, to go with them to eat of fuch as they had, we thank'd them, and they brought us feme Gourds and Water Melons, in Ex- change for which, we gave them fome parch'd Ftelh.

Wt had not by the Way taken Notice of a Canoe, in which was a Man with two Wo- men, who, being afraid of us, had hid them-

felvcs

w/(?NORTH AMERICA/ i6j

felves among the Reeds, bat that Man feeing us ¦^^pft'^Sj flop among his Countrymen, took Heart, cime ^-^"VN-* to us, and having told us, that he belong'd to a Village near Fort Lewis, we fet out together, and one of owr Indians went into that Canoe, to help them to (hove, fo they call the Way of pufhing on the Canoe with Poles inftead of rowing.

On Sunday, iht 14th of September, about two Fort Lev- in the Afternoon, we came into the Neigh- '^' dmovg^ bourhood of Fort Lewis, Drawing near, vvc* *^^^ ^^^''^°^* were met by fome Indians that were on the Bank, who having view'd us well, an^ under- ftanding we came from Monfr. de la Sale, and that we belong'd to him, ran to the Fort to carry the News, and. immediately we faw a French Man come out, with a Company of Indi- ans , who fir'd a Volley of feveral Pieces, to fa- lute us. Then the French Man drevy near, and defir'd us to come Aftiore, which we did, leav- ing only one in the Canoe, to take Care of our Baggage^ for the Iflinois are very (harp at car- rying off any thing they can lay their Hands on, and confequently, nothing near fo hojiefc as the Nations we had pafs'd thro\

We all walk'd together towards the Fcrr, and found ihx&t French Men coming to meet us, and among them a Clerk, who had belong'd to Arrival at the late M.oni!v. de la Sale. They immediately FonLtm% ask'd us, where Monfr. de la Sale was, we told them, he had brought us Part of the Way, and left us at a Place about forty Leagues beyond the Cenis, and that he was then in good Heakho All that was true enough • for Monfr, Cavelier and I, who were thePerfons, that then fj^oke., were noi prefent at Monfr. ds la SaU's Death ; M 4 ^ ^

1 68 Monfteur de la Sal e'^ Second Vcyage

Si!pt.i6%'j he was in good Health when he left us, and I ^-^^'"^^^"^ have told the Reafons we had for concealing his Death, till we came into France.

It is no lefs true, that Father jinASiafiusl and he they called Teifter^ could have given a better Account, the one as an Eye Witnefs, and the other, as one of the Murderers, and they were both with us \ but to avoid lying, they faid Nothing. We farther told them, we had Orders to go over into France^ to give aa Account of the Difcoveries made byMonfieur ds la Sale^ and to procure the fending of Succours. At length, we enter'd the Fart, where we found and furpriz'd feveral Perfons who did not expedt us. All the Frenjh were under Arms lecep'm. and made feveral Difcharges to welcome us. Monfieur de Belle Fontaine Lieutenant to Monfr. Tonty^ was at the Head of them and compli- mented us. Then we were conduced to the Chappel, where we return'd Thanks to God, from the Bottom of our Hearts, for having preferv'd and conduced us in Safety j after which we had our Lodgings aflign'd us, Monfr. Cavelier and Father jinafiafius had one Cham* ber, and wc were put into the Magazine, or Ware-houfe. All this While, the Natives came by Intervals^ tb fire their Pieces, to ex' prefs thfir Joy for our Return, and for the iSIews we brought of Monlieur de la Sale^ which refrelh'd our Sorrow for his Misfor- tune ', perceiving that his Prefence would have fettled all Things adyantageoufly.

The Day after our Arrival, one of the ///- dtans^ whohad conduifled us, having been, fick ever finjpc he eat the ra\(V Beef Suet, 1 mention'd before,- iH^d 3 and his Companions took away

and

into NORTH AMERICA. 169

and bary'd him privately. We gave them the sept.ie^j promis'd Reward, and the Part belonging to w/^VN^. the Dead Man, to be deliver'd to bis Relations. They ftay'd fome Time, in the Fort, during the which, we took extraordinary Care ot them, and at lafl: they return'd to their own Homes.

As far as we could gather by half Words dropp'd there by one or other at the Fort, Something had been done there prejudicial to the Service of Monfr. de U SaU^ and againft his Authority, and therefore fome dreaded his Return, but more efpecially a Jefuit was in great Confternation. He was lick, Monfieur Cavelitr, Father Anaftafius and I went to vifit him. He enquired very particularly ot all Point?, and could not conceal his Trouble, which we would not feem to take Notice of.

Our Defign being to make the belt of our Way to Canada^ in Order to fet out Aboard the firft French ^\\\^% that fliould SjH i(^v France^ we enquired how we were to proceed, and met with ieveral Difficulties. The Navigation on that River was very dangerous, by Reafon of *^/^^^' the Falls there are in it, which mufl be care- ^^^' fully avoided, unlefs a Man will run an inevi- table Hazard of perilhing. There were itw Perfons capable of managing that Affair, and the War with the Iroquois made all Men a- fraiJ.

However the Sieur Boifrondet^ Clerk to the late Monfr. de la Snle^ having told us he had a Canoe, in which he defign'd to go down toCanada^ we prepared to make ufe of than Opportunity. Care was taken to gather Prc-

viSons

Falls in the

170 Monjteuy de la S A L eV SecondVojags

Sepi.i6?jj vifions for our Voyage, to get Furs to barter as '^'¦^'^y^ wepafsM by Aficilimaquinay. The Vifits of two Chiefs of Nations, call'd Cafe afquia Per gueria and Cacahouanou.t d'lfcov^r'^d by the late Monfieur^e U Sals^ did not interrupt our Affairs, and all thing,s being got ready, we took Leave of thofe we left in the Fort. Monfieur Cavelier writ a Letter for Monfieur Tonty, which he left there to be delivered to him, and we repair'd to the Lake to imbark.

It would be needlefs to relate all the Trou- bles and HardJhips we met with, in that Jour- ney, it was painful and fruitlefs, for having gone to the Bank of the Lake, in very foul Wea- ther, after waiting there five Days, for that '31. Cave- foul Weather to ceafe, and after we had Iier,C^f. imbark'd, notwithftanding the Storm, we were '/«»r"»i oblig'd to put Afhorc again, to return to the again. Place where we had imbark'd, and there to dig a Hole in the Earth, to bury our Baggage and Provifions, to fave the Trouble of carry- ing them back to Fort Lewis^ whither we leturn'd and arrived there the 7th of O^o^er; where they were furpriz'd to fee us come back.

Thus were we oblig'd to continue in that Fort all the reft of Autumn and Part of the Winter^ to our great Sorrow, and not fo much for our own Difappointment, as for be- ing, by that Means, obllrui^ed from fending of Succours, as foon as we had expefted, as well tothefaid Fort, as to thofe French of our own Company, whom we had left on the Coalt of the Bay of Mexico^

It

hto NORTH AMERICA. 171

It was then the good Seafon for (hooting. ^^- "^^7 Thofe Gentlemen at the Fort had fecur'd two Ky^^^. good /«<^/^« Sportfmen, whenever let us want for Wild Fowl of all Sorts; befides we had good Bread, and as good Fruit, and had there been any Thing to drink befides Water, we had far'd well. The Leifure we had during our Stay there, gave me an Opportunity .of making the following Reniirks, as well of my own Ob- fervation, as wkatl learn'd of the French re- liding there.

Fort Lewis is in the Country of the Jjllnois . . and feated on a deep Rock, about two hundred ,J„g£,yf Foot high, the River running at the Bottom of Lewis ^wi it. It is only fortified with Stakes and Palifades, theCoumry and fome Houfes advancing to the Edge of the About iu Rock. It has a very fpacious Erfplanade, or Place of Arms. The Place is naturally ftrong, and might be made fo by Art, with little Ex- pence. Several of the Natives live in it, in their Huts. I cannot give an Account of the Latitude it ftands in, for Want of proper Inftru- raents to take an Obfervation, but Nothing can be pleafanter ^ and it may be truly affirm'd, that the Country of the Iflinois enjoys all that can make it accomplifh'd, not only as to Orna- ment, but alfo for its plentiful Production of , all Things requifite for the Support of humaa Life.

The Plain, which is water'd by the River, is beautified by two fmall Hills, about half a League diflant from the Fort, and thofe Hills are cover'd with Groves of Oaks, Walnut- Trees and other Sorts I have named elfevvheie. The Fields are full of Grafs, growing up very j^^^^ high. On the Sides of the Hills is found a aayfoT . . gravelly isw^&c.

172 Monfieur de la S a l eV Second Voyage

CB. 16S7 gravelly Sort of Stone, very fit to make Lime Sy^V^^ for Building. There are alfo many Clay Pits, fit for making ot Earthen Ware, Bricks and Tiles, and along the River there are Coal Pits, the Coal whereof has been try'd and found very good. Mmet. There is no Reafon to queftion, but that

there are m this Country, Mines of all Sorts of Metals, and of the richeft, the Climate being the fame as that o{Nem Mexico, We faw feve- ral Spots, where it appeared there were Iron Mines, and found fome Pieces of it on the Bank of the River, which Nature had cleanfed. Travellers who have been at the upper Part of the Mijfifipi, affirm they have found Mines there, ot very good Lead. Troiu[t. That Country is one of the mofl: temperate in the World, and confequently whatfoever is fow'd there, whether Herbs, Roots, Indian and even European Corn thrives very well, as has been try'd by the Sieur Boifrondet^ who fowM of all Sorts, and had a plentiful Crop, and we eat of the Bread, which was very good. And whereas we were allured, that there were Vines which run up, whofe Grapes are very good and delicious, growing along the River, it is reafonable to believe, that if thofe Vines were tranfplanted and prun'd, there might be very good Wine made of them. There is alfo Plenty of wild Apple and Pear Trees, and of feveral other Sorts, which would afford excel- lent Fruit, were they grafted and tranfplant- ed.

All other Sorts of Fruit, as Plumbs, Peaches and others, wherewith the Country abounds, would become exquilite, if the fame Indultry

were

hto NORTH AMERICA. 17}

were us'd, and other Sorts of Fruit we have in <^^- 1687 France would thrive well, if they were carry'd »>''V"^ over. The Earth produces a Sort of Hempi whereof Cloth might be made and Cordage.

As for the Manners and Cuftoms of the /y?/- ^f"f'' ttets, in many Particulars they are the lame as ^^^^ ^ thofe of the other Nations we have feen. They the ifli- arc naturally fierce and revengeful, and among nois. them the Toil of Sowing, Planting, carrying of Burdens, and doing all other Things that y^'omen do belong to the Support of Life, appertains pe- ail ubour. culiarly to the Women. The Men have no 0- ther Bufinefs but going to the War and hunt- ingj and the Women muft fetch the Game when they have kill'd it, which fometimes they are to carry very far to their Dwellings, and there to pareh, ordrefs it any other Way.

When the Corn or other Grain is fow'd, the Women fecure it from the Birds till it comes up. Thofe Birds are a Sort of Starlings, like ours in France, but larger and fly in great Swarms,

The IJlinois have but few Children, and are ChiWem extreamly fond of them % it is the Cuftom a- mong them, as well as others I have mention- ed, never to chide, or beat them, but only to throw Water at them, by Way of Chaftife- ment.

The Nations we have fpoken of before, zxt Th'uvivg. not at all, or very little, addifted to Thieving; but it is not fo with the IJlinois^ and ii Dt ^^ves every Man to watch their Feet as 7^e;l as their Hands, for they know how to turn any Thing out of the Way moft dexteroufly. They are fubjed to the general Vice of all the other In- dians^ which n to boaft very much of their ^°*i^^"Z*

Warliks

1 74 Monjieur de la S A l e'^ Second Voyngs

oB. 1687. WarlikeExploits,aBd that is the main Subjed of ^-^'^''^^^ their Difcourfe, and they are very great Lyars. Care of the They pay a Refpedl to their Dead, as ap- JJead, pears by their fpccial Care of burying them, and even of putting into lofty Coffins the Bodies of fuch 35 are confiderable among them, as their Chiefs and others, which is alfo pradifed a- mong the Accancea^s^ but they differ in this Par- ticular, that the Accancea^s weep and make their Complaints for fome Days, where-^s the Cha- houmous and other People of the I(linois Nation do jaft the Contrary ^ for when any of them die, they wrap them up in Skins, and then put them into Coffins made of the Barks of Trees, then fing and dance about them for twenty four Hoars. Thofe Dancers take Care to tie Cala- bafties, or Gourds about their Bodies, with fome Wi4« Wheat in them,to rattle and make aNoife, and fome of them have a Drum, made of a great Earthen Pot, on which they extend a wild Goat's Skin, and beat thereon with one Stick, like our Tabors. Trefems to During that Rejoicing, they throw their Pre- iheDuL fents on the Coffin, as Bracelets, Pendants, or Pieces of Earthen Ware, and Strings of Beads, encouraging the Singers to perform their Duty well. If any Friend happens to come thither aE that Time, he immediately throws down his Pre- fent and falls a finging and dancing like the reft. When that Ceremony is over, they bury the Body, with Part of the Prefents, making choice of fuch as may be moft proper for it. They alfo bury with it, fome Store of Indian Wheat, with a Pot to boil it in, for fear the dead Petfon fliould be hungry on his long Journey \

and

into NORTH AMERICA. 17s

and they repeat the fame Ceremony at the ^^'?- »<^^7- Year's End. ^>or^i

A good Number of Prefcnts Hill remaining, Q^^g of they divide them into feveral Lots, and play at thsstji^, a Game, call'd of the Stick, to give them to the Winner. That Game is play'd, taking a fliort Stick, very fmooth and greas'd, that it may be the Harder to hold it faft. One of the Elders throws that Stick as far as he can, the young Men run after it, fnatch it from each other, and at laft, he who remains poiTefs'd of it, has the fir ft Lot. The Stick is then thrown again, be who keeps it then has the fecond Lot, and fo on to the End. The Women, whofe Husbands have been (lain in War, often perform the fame Ceremony, and treat the Singers and Dancers whom they have before invited.

The Marriages of the Iflinois laft no longer, ^Arnaizs than the Parties agree together ^ for they freely part after aHuntingBout, each going which Way they pleafe, without any Ceremony. However, the Men are jealous enough of their Wives, and when they catch them in a Fault, they general- ly cut of their Nofes, and 1 faw one who had been fo ferv'd.

Neverthelefs, Adultery is not reckonM any Aiitltny. great Crime among them, and there are Wo- men who make no Secret of having had to do with French Men. Yet are they not fufficiently addided to that Vice to offer themfelves, and they never fall, unlefs they are fued to, when, they are none of the moft difficult in the W orld to be prevaii'd on. The reft i leave to thofe who have liv'd longer there than I.

We

ij6 Monjieur de la Sal eV Second VojAge

OS. 1687. We continu'd fome Time in Fort Lewis^ "^"^^"^ without receiving any News. Our Bufinefs was, after having heard Mafs, which we had j&bw the the good Fortune to do every Day^ to divert Jly^/"''^ our fclves the beft we could. The Indian Wo- men daily brought in fomething frelh, we want- ed not for Water Melons, Bread made of /«- Man Corn, bak'd in the Embers, and other fuch Things, and we rewarded them with little Pre- fents in Return. M T ntv ^^ ^^^ ^'^^^ °^ OSiober^ of the fame Year, comes^to Monfieur Torjty return'd from the War with FortLe- t\\t Iroquois. Our Embraces and the Relation wis. of our Adventures were again repeated •, but ftill concealing from him , the Death of Monfieur de U Sale. He told us all the Parti- culars of that War, and faid, That the /ro^Mwj Wirroitb ^*^^"S g^^ Intelligence of the March of the the Iro. French Forces and their Allies, had all come out quoij. of their Villages and laid therafelves in Am- bu(h by the Way \ but that having made a fiid- den and general Difcharge upon our Men, with their ufual Cries, yet without much Harm done, they had be^n repuls'd with Lofs, took their Flight, and by the Way burnt all their own Villages. That Monfieur d* Hcmonville^ chief Governor of New France^ had caus'd the Army to march, to burn the reft of their Villages, fet Fire to their Country and Corn, but would not proceed any farther. That afterwards he had made himfelf Mafter of feveral Canoes be- longing to the £«^/^jJ;, moflof them laden with Brandy, which had been plunder'd i that the BngUfj had been fent Prifoners to Montreal^ they being come to make fome Attempt upon the Iflinois,

We

iV/(7 NORTH AMERICA- 177

We continued after this Manner, till the Dec.i6Sf. Month of December^ when two Men arrived, L/V^i^ from Montreal. They came to give Notice to Monfr. Tonty^ that three Canoes, la- den with Merchandize, Powder, Ball and other Things, were arriv'd at CbicMgon, that there being too little Water in the River, and what there was being frozen, they could come down no lower ^ fo that it being requifite to fend Men to fetch thofe Things,* Monfr. Tonty de- fir'd the Chief of the Chahouaneus to furnifh him with People. That Chief accordingly provi- ded forty, as well Men as Women, who ^tt oat with fome French Men. The Honefty of the ChAhouanous was the Reafon of preferring them before the IJlmois^ who are naturally Knaves.

That Ammunition and the Merchandize were feb. i6S8." foon brought, and very feafonably, the Fort be- ing then in Want. We ftay'd there till the Bj^^ o{ February^ 1688, at whicji Time we fix'd our Refolution to depart, tho' we had no News from Canada J as we expeded. We found there were fome Canoes ready to under- take that Voyage, and we laid hpld of that Op- portunity to convoy each other to the MicUima^ t^uinay^ where we hop'd to meet fome News from Canada,

Monfieur Cavelier the Priefl:, had taken Care, before the Death of M. de U Sale^ his Brother, to -^^r.idSS get of him a Letter of Credit,to receive either a Sum of Money or Furs in the Country of the Jflinois. He tender'd that Letter to M. Tomy^ who believing M. de la Sale was ftill alive, made no Difficulty of giving him to the Value of about 4000 Livres in Furs, Caftors and Otter Skins, a Canoe afid other Effects, for which, the faid N Moafr*

178 Monfieur de la S a l e'^ Seconei Foyags

jMjr.1688 Monfr. Cavelier gave him his Note, and we pre- V^/^^ par'd for our Journey.

I have before obferv(jd, that there was a Je,* fuit^ whofe Name was Dalouez at Fort Lewis^ ancf who had been very much furpriz'd to hear that Monfr. ete la Sale was to come in a fliort Time, being under great Apprehenfions on Account of a Confpiracy intended to have been carry'd on, againft Monfr. de la Salens Intereft. That Father perceiving our Departure was fixM, mov'd firft, and went away foremolt, to return to Micilimaquinay •, fo that they were left without a Prieft at Fort Lewis^ which was a great Trouble to us, becaufe we were the Occafion of it, and therefore thofe, who were to remain in the Fort, anticipated the Time, and made their Eafier, taking the Advantage of the Prefence of F. Anafiafius and M. Cavelier. At length, vvefetout the 2Uh of Afarch^ ^ , from Fort Lewis, The Sieur Boifrondety wlio was xsntimtL defirous to return to France., join'd us, we im- bark'd on the River, which was then become navigable, and before we had advanc'd five Leagues, met wjth a rapid Stream, which oblig'd us to go Afliore, and then again into the Water, to draw along our Canoe. I had the Misfor- tune to hurt one of my Feet againft a Rock that lay under Water, which troubled me ve- ry much for along Time-, and we being under a Necelfity of going often into the Water, 1 faffer'd extreamly, and more than I had done fince our Departure from the Gulph oiAdexico. We arrivM at Chicagon the 29th oij^fyrch, and our firft Care was to go feek vvh^Vve had conceal'd at our former Voyage, having, as lyas there faid, bury'd our Luggage and Provi- J , " V fions..

>

mto NORTH AMERICA, 1,79

Cons. We found it bad been open'd, and feme ^'^^^^ Furs and Linen taken away, almoft all which be- <-^^ ^^^ long'd to me. This had been done by a hench Man, whom M. Tonty had fent from the Fcrr, during the Winter Seafon, to know whether there were any Canoes at Chicagon^ and whom he had direfted to fee whether any Body had medled with what we had conceal'd, and he made Ufe of that Advice to rob us.

The bad Weather oblig'd us to ftay in that Place, till ^pril. That Time of Reft was advan- tageous for the Healing my Foot -^ and there being but very little Game in that Place, we had Kothing but our Meal or Ifidian Wheat to feed on ^ yet we difcover'd a Kind of Manna^ which was a great Help to us. It was a Sort of Trees, ^^^-"f^^- refemblingour Maple, in which we made Inci- -^IJ^^^^^ lions, whence fiow'd a fweet Liquor, and in it we boil'd our Indian Wheat, which made it de- licious, fweet and pfa very agreeable Reiifb.

There being no Sugar-Canes in that Country* thofe Trees fupply'd that Liquor, which being boilM up and evaporated, turned into a Kind of Sugar fomewhat browniih, hue very good. In the Woods we found a Sort of Garlick, not fo ftrong as ours, and fmall Onions very like ours in Tafte, and fomeCharvel of the fame Re^ lilh as that we have, bat different in the Leaf.

The Weather being fomewhat mended, we imbarkM again and entered upon the Lake on the $th of April, keeping to the North Side to (hun the Iroquois. We had fome Storms alfoj Quineto- and faw fweUing Waves like thofe of the Sea ^ n^aRlveu but arriv'd fafe the 15th at a River call'd Qui- mtonan, near a Village whence, the Inhabicaiics depart during the Winter Seafon, to go a Hunt- .ing, and reUde there all the Samsner, '

^ K 1 Th*

1 80 Monfieur de la S k l e'^ Second VoyAge

jpr. 1688 xhe Sport is not there as in thofe Countries ^''^^"^^^^^ from whence we came^ but on the Contrary, very poor, and we found Nothing but fome very lean Wild Goats, and even thofe very rarely, becaufe the Wolves, which are very nu- merous there, make great Havock of them, taking and devouring great Numbers after this Manner.

When the Wolves Iftve difcover'd a Herd //flTO of Wild Goats, they roufe and fet them a run- Wolves ning. The Wild Goats never fail to take to catchGoats ^he firfl: Lake they meet with. The hunting Wolves, who are ufed to that, guard the Banks carefully, moving along the Edges of them. The poor Goats being pierc'd by the Cold of the Lake,grow weary and fo get out,or elfe the Pviver fwelling forces them out with its Waves, quite benumm'd,ro that they are eafily taken by their Enemies, who devour them. We frequent- ly fdw thofe Wolves watching along the Side of the Lake, and kept off to avoid frightning them, to the End the Wild Goats might quit their Sanduary, that we might catch fome of them, as it fometimes fell out.

The 28th, we arriv'd among the Toutouatan'

Pou'oua- jjIs^ which is half Way to /Mcilimaquin ay ^ where

tanni Ni- ^^ pujchas'd fomc Indian Corn for the reft of

"""* our Voyage. We found no News there from

Ahntreal^ and were forc'd to flay fome Time to

wait an Opportunity to go down the River.

No Man daring to venture, becaufe of the

War with the Iroquois.

There are fome French Men in that Place, Hurons g^jj f^^jj. jefuits, who have a Houfe well built hut>?« ^ with Timber, inclofed with Stakes and N^m, Palifidcs, There are alfo feme Nurons

and

^•;;/(jNORTH AMERICA. i8i

and Outahouacs^ two Neighbouring Nations, ^^'^y 168 5 whom thofe Fathers take Care to inftrudl, not ^-/"V^^ without very much Trouble, thofe People being downright Libertines, and there are very often none but a few Women in their Churches. Thofe Fathers have each of them the Charge of inftrudinga Nation, and to that Effed have tranflated the proper Prayers into the Language peculiar to each of them, as alfo all other Things relating to the Gatholick Faith and Re- ligion.

They offer'd Father Anafiafws and Monfleur 5F«»"688 Cavelier a Room, which they accepted of, and we took up our Lodging in a little Hovel fome Travellers had made. There we continued the reft oi May and Part of June, till after the Feail of Whitfontide. The Natives of the Country aboutjtill the Land and fow India?t Corn, Me- lons and Gourds, but they do not thrive fo well as in the Country we came from. However they live on them, and befides they have Fifh they catch in the Lake, tor Fielh is very fcarce among them.

On the 4th o{June, there arriv*d four Canoes, commanded by iVTonfieur dePomeuf ^coming from Montreal, and bringing News from the Marques d' Hennonville, and Orders to fend to the Set- tlements which were towards the Lake des Puans and others higher up, towards the Source of the River Colbert, to know the Poflure and Condition of Affairs. We prepar'd to be gone with the two Canoes. Monfieur Cavelier bought another, to carry our Baggage, and left Part of his Furs with a Merchant, who gave him a Note to receive Money at Momre/tl. I did the fame with thofe few Furs I had, the reH of them having been left at Mtalimaquifiay^ .We

182 Monfieur de la S a L eV Second Vojdge

fuiy 168S We took Leave of the Jefuits, and fet out la '-/V^ four Canoes, viz. two belonging to Monlieur de Forfieuf^ and two to Monfieur Cavelier^ one of which had been brought from Fort Lewis^ and the other bought, as I have juft now faid, we being twenty nine of us in thofe four Canoes. We row'd on til] the 24th, when Monfieur de Fornevf left US to go to St. Maryh Fall, to carry the Orders given him. The 2$th, we got iQInois out of the Lake of the Jflinois^ to enter that of ai^d Hu- the Hurom^ on the Banks whereof ftands the *'^°^" Village, call'd Teffalon, where Monfieur de Tor^ muf came again to us, with a Canoe of the Natives, and with him we held on our Way. French We proceeded to Chebonatjy the 30th of June, Xtver. and the 3d of July, enter'd the French River, where we were forc'd feveral Times to carry cur Canoes to avoid the Falls and the rapid Streams, obfcrving as we went a barren and dry Country, full of Rocks, on which there grew Cedars and Fir Trees, which take Root in the Clefts of thofe Rocks. Kipscin- The 5th, we enter'd upon the little Lake of £ue uke, Nipiclngue, adjoining to a Nation of that Name. We got out of it again and enter'd upon the J great River, where, after having pafs'd the

great Fall, we arriv'd the 13th, at the Point of the Ifland of Montreal. We landed at a Vil- JrrivaJat ^^S^ call'd la Chine, which had belong'd to the ^dontreal late Monfr de la Sale. Monfr, Cavelier fet out the 14th, for Montreal, where we came to him the 17th.

At Montreal we found the Marques d^ Hen->^ nonville^ Monfieur de Noroy the Iniendant and

other

i;?/d>NORTH AMERICA. i8|

other Gentlemen, to whom we gave an Account ^«j?.»688 of our long and painful Travels, with the Par- Vy^V*\/ ticulars of what we had feen, which they lifl:- ned to with Satisfaftion, but without mention- ing Monfieur de la Sale's Death. We told them the Occallon of "our going over into France^ and they approv'd of it, being of Opinion with us, that we ought to haften our Departure as much as poflible.

We made us fome Cloaths, whereof we ftood in Need. The Sieur Teijfier, who came along with us, and was of the Reform'd Religion, knowing the Exercife of it was forbid ia Francey abjur'd it in the great Church oi Mon- treal.

The 27th, we went aboard a Bark to go down Arrhiiit, the River to Quebec.^ where we arrived the 29th, Q^cbcck Father Anafiafius carry'd us to the Monaftery of the Fathers of his Order, feated half a League from the Town, on a little River, where we were uioft kindly recciv'd by the Fa- ther Guardian and the other Religious Men, who exprefsM much Joy to fee us, and we ftill more for being in a Place of Safety, after fo many Perils and Toils, for which we returned our humble Thanks to Almighty God, our Pro- teftor.

We chofe rather to take up our Lodging there than in the Town, to avoid the Vifits and troublefome Queftions every one would be putting to us with much Importunity, which we muft have been obligM to bear patiently. Monfieur Cavelier and his Nephew, whom we had left at Montreal, arrivM fome Days after ns, and were lodg'd in the Seminary.

^ 4 We

184 Mortfteur de la Sal e'^ Second Voyage

'Jug.\6%S. We ftay'd in that Monaftcry till the 21ft oi ^^'W^ j4ugufi, whea we imbark'd on a large Boat, eighteea Perfons of us, to go down the River of St. Laurence^ a Board a Ship, that was taking in and fifhing of Cod. We went a Board it the 30th of the fame Month, and after hearing Mafs, made ready and fail'd for our dear Country, arrfv'd fafe at Rochelle on Saturday the pth of 05iober i588, whence, fecting out by Land, the 15th, the fame Providence, which had proteded and condu(!l:ed us, brought us without any Misfortune to Roan^ the 7th of O^O" hr, the fame Year.

The End «/ f ^? J O U R N A L:

The Rem aimer of the 'LETTER, written

by him who revised this Journal, the other Part whereof is at the Begi?3ni»g cf it, this being the Sequel to the faid Journal;

Note, TP H R E E feveral Authors have given aa That thefe JL Account of this Voyage *, Firfi^ Father bive vfrit le Clerk, upon the Relations he had from the of thofe Fathers Zenobius an^ Anaftafius^ Recolets, as mne*Jf^^ he was himfelf and both of themEye- Witnefles : tbh par- Secondly ^ The ChcvaMer Tonty^ who was alfo a $icuiar Witnefs to a confiderable Part of thofe Adven- ^•y-fg^* tures : And, Laftly, Father Hemepn, a FUm'-

tni^Z%

fV^ NORTH AMERICA. 185

hiing^ of the lame Order of the Reeolets, has done it more largely, he feems to be well ac- quainted with the Country, and had a great iihare in thofe Difcoveries; but the Truth of his Relations is much controverted. It was he who went to the Northward, and towards < the Source of the Mijfifipl^whkh he c^Ws Mecha' ¦ fipi, and who printed, at Paris^ an Account of the Country about the River, giving it the i^iame o( Louifiana. He ought to have ftopp'd there, and not to have gone, as he did, into Holland, to fet forth another Edition, very much e;ilarg'd,and perhaps not fo true,which he dedicated to William the Third, Prince of Orange^ and afterwards King of Great Bri^ tAin. An Adion tor a Religious Man no lefs ridiculous than extravagant, Dot to give it a worfe Name \ for after many great and te- dious Encomiums given thafi Proteilant Prince, be exhorts and conjtjres him to turn his Thoughts towards thofc vafb Countries, as yet unknown, to conquer them and lend Colo' nies thither, to make known to thofe Savage Nations the true God and his Worlhip, ajpd to preach the Gofpel. That good Religious Man, whom many have falfly tliought, on Account of that Extravagancy, to have renounc'd his Religion, did not coniider what he faid, and confcquently has fcandaliz'd the Catholicks, and turnilh'd the Hugomts with Matter of Laughter jfor is it likely,that they bcingEnemies to the Roman Church, would employ Reeolets to go preach yp Popery,^s they call it in Canada ? Or would they introduce any other Religioa than their own ? Can Father Hennepn be ex- cufeable in this Point?

la

iZ6 Monjteur de la S a l eV Second Voyage

In fine it appears, by all that has been wrifi by thofe feveral Perfons concerning that Ea- terprize, that the Murder committed on the Perfon of Monfieur de U Sale was the Occafion of its mifcarrying \ but that which obftrufted the making of feme Provifion in that Cafe was, the faid Murders being conceal'd for the Space of two Years, and that the Spaniards of Mexico having been informed of all the Affair, fent Sai-'^f l^ Men, who carry'd off the weak Garrifon Mon-

taien by ^^"'' ^^ ^'^ ^'^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ '" ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^V

rftfSpani- him, near the Place of his Landing, before he ards. penetrated into the Country, to find out the Mijft/ipi. They alfo entirely raz'd that Fort, fo that Seven or Eight Years elaps'd, till Mon- fieur de Hiberville^ a Gentleman of Canada^ and a Perfoa of Capacity and Courage, famoas for his notable Exploits in Hudfon's Bay and other Parts, refolv'd to reaffume and revive that Pro- je£t. He came over into France M^on that De- lign, and made an Armament about the Year 1698, fet out and fail'd to the Gulf of Mexico. M.delli- Being an able Seaman, he fearch'd along the ^^^^eiition ^°^^ ^® narrowly, that he found the Mouth SJ^Lm?- of that fml Miji/ipi and built a Fort on it, fifipi. leaving Men there, with a good Quantity of Ammunition and Provifions, and return'd to France^ intending to go back with a Reinforce- Bient, as he did, and having penetrated far into the Country, difcover'd feveral Savage Nations, and join'd Friendfliip and Alliance with them, as alfo built another Fort| which he left well ftor'd with Men and Neceffaries, returnM into France ?, but attempting a third Voyage, he dy'd lay the Way, and thus, for want of Relief and

Sup«

hto NORTH AMERICA. 1S7

Support, that noble Enterprize mifcarry'd again.

But God has now provided for it, and it is the Concern of Heaven, for if France is inte- refted on Account of the Temporal Advan- tages it expcds, the Church is fo in like Man- ner, for the Converfion of the Indians it hopes will follow. Accordingly, Providence has takea the Affair in Hand, having rais'd the Man, who is the fittelt to revive and fupport fo im- portant a Projed^. This is Monfieur Crozat^ Secretary to the King, a Man of fingular Worth, very Intelligent, Well-meaning, and prodigioufly Rich, who without going out of his Clofet, has been the Occafion of many no- table Voyages by Sea, and all of them fuccefs- ful. To him, his Majefty, by his Letters Pa- tent, bearing Date the 14th of Septemb. 171 2. has granted the fole Power to trade and fettle f„'i^l^^ Colonies in the Countries defcrib'd in this pi Jjf ^Ij^, Journal, and which are known to us by the rites and I^ame of Louifuna and the River Mijftjtpiy from ^''^'^5 ?" hence forward to be call'd the River of St. Lewis, Louifiana. The Grant is made to him for 15 Years, under feveral Conditions mention'd in the faid Let- ters Patent, which have been made publick.

And whereas fuch a Grant cannot fabfi|fc without Blacks, he is alfo allow'd to fend a Ship to Guinea to purchafe them. They may perhaps find there the famous Black AniAga^ Brother to a King of Guinea^ whom Captaia Velbee brought over into France^ above Thirty Years ago. The King was pleased to have him Educated, Inftrufted and Baptiz'd, the Dauphin being his G(!^fatheri then put him into his Troop of Mufquetiers, and afterwards made

hio)

iS8 Monpeur de la S A L eV Second. Voyags

hinr a Captain in his own Regiment, where he fetv'd Honourably. Being defiroas to fee his own Country again, where he promisM to pro- mote the French Trade, and the fettling of Mif- 'AT^'iici fioners, his Majefty loaded him with Pre- Ifti in fents, and order'd a Ship to carry hira back to France Guinea ; but as foon as he was there, he no lon- ^/"¦^''r" S^*" ^^n^^niber'd he had been baptiz'd, and ^ms! "' tui'^'d again as perfect a Black, as he had been before. A Friend of mine, who was an Officer aboard a Ship, and hapned to be on that Coaft in the Year 1708, had two or three Interviews with that Black, who came aboard him. He was a great Man in that Country, for his Bro- ther was King. He exprefs'd much Gratitude for the Kindnefs that had been Ihewn him in France, and was extraordinary Courteous, and made great Offers to thofe aboard the Ship, and to all fuch of the Nation as would go into Guinea,

This Navigation to Lovipana will farther pro- cure as a free Refort to the two famous Ports of the Gulf of Mexico, viz,. The Havana and Veracruz,, vi\\tvc Strangers did notufe to be ad- mitted, and which we knew only by their Names and their Situation in our Maps. Veracruz « The latter of tbofe Towns is the Port of in Ne* New Spain, at the Bottom of the Bay or Gulf, SpaiB. in 18 Degrees of North Latitude, Seated in a Sandy Plain, encompafs'd with Mountains ; be- yond which there are Woods and Meadows, well Stock'd with Cattle and wild Fowl. The Air is very Hot, and not Healthy, when any Winds blow, except the North, which rifes commonly once in Eight or Fifteen Days, and hqjds for the Space of Twenty Four Hours,

blowing

t%

t;?f(? NORTH AMERICA.

blowing fo hard, that there k no going afhore from the Ships, and then the Cold is very piercing. When the Weather is clear there plainly appear, on the Road to A^exico^ twa Mountains rifing above the Clouds, and forty Leagues diftant, all cover'd with Snow, The Streets of Feracruz. are ftreight as a Line j the Houfes are handfome and regular; the For- tifications next the Land inconliderable, but the Front of the Town next the Sea forms a Semicircle, with a little Fort at each End. Direftly before that Front, a Quarter of a League out at Sea, there ftands, on a Spot of Ground, inacceffible, by Reafon of the Breaking of the Sea, a flrong Citadel, well built and furnifhed with all Neceflaries, a good Garrifon and double Batteries of two hundred Pieces of brafs Cannon. Ships cannot anchor any where, but between that Citadel and the Town 5 bcfides that, it require^ feveral Pre- cautions, becaufe it is difficult coming to an Anchor.

Molt of the Inhabitants arc MuUttoes^ thag is of a tawny dark Colour, who live molt upon Chocolate and Sweetmeats, extraordinary fober, and eating little Flefli.TheMen are haughty,the Women keep retired above Stairs, not to be feen by Strangers, and feldom going abroad, and then in Coaches or Chairs, and thofe who cannot reach to it, cover'd with fine lilk Veils, which reach from the Crown of their Heads to their Feet, leaving only a fmall Opening on the Right Side, for them to fee their Way. In their own Apartments they wear nothing but a Smock and a lilk Petticoat, with gold or lilver Laces, without any Thing on their Heads,

and

i^o Monfiem- de la S A L E'i Second Voyage

and their Hair platted with Ribbons, a gold Chain about their Neck, Bracelets of the fame and Pendants of Emeralds in their Ears.They could well enough like the Behaviour and Com- pany of the French, but that the jealous Tem- per of the Men obftruds them. There being a Pidure of Fhili^ King of S^ain^ now reigning* aboard the Ship in which my Friend was, who gave me this Account, the People fwarm'd a- board to fee it, they were never fatisfy'd with gazing at it, and there was a moft magnificent Feftival kept in the Town, on Account of the Birth of the Prince of u4fiurias.

They underftand Trade very well, but are iloathful and averfe to Labour, fond of State and Eafe. They wear great Strings of Beads about their Necks, their Houfes are full of Pic- tures and Images of Devotion, decently furnilh'd with Furceline and China Goods. The Churches are magnificently adorned with Plate.

All Strangers are forbid Trading there, yet fome come by Stealth and deal Underhand, by Means of Prefents made to fuch Perfons as can favour them. If thofe Mulattoes call themfelves white,it is only to honour themfelves and by Way of Diftindtion from their Slaves, who are all Blacks, and having got much Mony by their Labour, ranfome themfelves and fome- timcs become confiderable Merchants.

The City oi Mexico^ Capital of the Country^ . and the Refidence of the Vice-roy, is abouE ch^^^^ eighty Leagues diftant from reracruz,^ to the Weftward, the Way to it very bad and ill furnifliM with Provifions. That Country would be better in fome Parts, were it well

cukiYat^d

Citj

hto NORTH AMERICA. 191

cultivated by the Inhabitants. They fow but little of our Wheat, and are fatisficd with hdian Corn and Cafabi Root, whereof they make Gakes, as is praftis'd in the Iflands. Their Trees and Fruits are the fame as in other hot Countries. About the Town ofTeracruz^ there are Bulhesofa Sort of Thorn, without Leaves, among which grows an extraordinary Plant ; for tho' it has but a fmall Stem, it (hoots out Leaves of a Cabbage Green, as thick as a Man's Finger, which grow our, one at the End of ano- ther, in the Shape of a Racket, and the Plant itfelf is fo caird. From thofe Leaves there grows out a Sort of red Figs, very juicy, with Seeds like thofe of the Pomgranate y the juice is of a Violet Colour, but unfavoury. There is a Sort of Flies that cleave to it £nd are fo fond of tbe Tafte of the Fruit, that they burfl: and drop down dead. They are carefully gatherM and dry'd»and are the Scar- let Dye, call'd Cochinilla, which is brought into Europe, and makes that beautiful Co- loor. The Birds aud Bealls are much the fame as in other Countries of Amerkn. There is a Sort of Bird, all red, which for that Reafon is call'd the Cardinal ^ this they often tame and teach to ling like a Canary Bird. This is what I have been told concerning the Tov^nof ^''eracruz..

As for the Havana, a Town and Port no lefs famous, in the Ifland of Cuba, belonging as ^"^'^^ well as the other to the Crown oiSpain^ it ftands towards the Weflern End, and on the North Side of that Ulind, almoft under the Tropick of Cancer^ and about four or five hundred Leagues on this Side of Veracruz* U is large and beauti- ful

194 Monjiiur de la S a l e'*x Seccnd Foyage fill ^ the Port good, fecurM by two Forts on the two Sides, and Brafs Guns, from twenty four to thirty fix Pounders, the Entrance fo nar- row, th4t only one VelTel can go in at once. The Town is encompafsM by a good Wall, for- tify'd with five Baftions, furnilh'd with Cannon. The Streets are all as ftrait as a Line, and level, the Houfes very handfome, but ill fnrnilh'd. In the Midll: of it is a fine Square, the Buildings about all uniform. The Churches are magnifi- cent, and enrich'd with Gold and Silver, Lamps, Candlefticks, and Ornaments for the Altars. There are fome Lamps curioufly wrought, which weigh two hundred Marks of Silver, each Mark being half a Pound. The Reve- nue of the Bifhoprick amounts to fifty thoa- fand Crowns, and he who enjoy'd it in the Year 1703, as I was inform'd by my Friend, who gave me this Account of what he had feen, was the greateft Ornament of that City, for his Virtues and Charity, being fatisfy'd with Ne- cefTariss, and fpending all the reft upon the Poor, and in repairing decay'd Churches. The* Strangers are prohibited to trade there, yet it is eafier carried on than ztVeracruz,, The In- habitants are more familiar •, the Women have more Liberty, yet they do not go Abroad with- out their Veils to wrap and hide them. Many of them fpeak French^ and drefs after the French Fafhion, and fome of our Nation have fettled themfelves there. When my Friend was there, a magnificent Feftival was celebrated for fif- teen Days fucceflively, in Honour of K. Vhili^ the Fifth, and Monfieur du Caffs being then there, with his Squadron, the City defir'd him to joia with them. To that Purpofe, he fet

aihore

info NORTH AMERICA. ip^

alhore five hundred Men, who performed the Martial Exercife in the great Square, which was muchadmir'd. ThQ Havana is the Place, where the Galeoos meet. Provifions are dear there, efpecially Bread ^ but the Wine is not, tho* it is good. Filh and Flefli there are un- favory. The Inhabitants are Spaniards.

We have thought fit to defcribe thofe two famous Ports of the Bay of Mexico, as well be- caufe it has not been fo exadly done before, as in Regard that the Settlement which is going to be made in Louifiana^ may have forae De- pendance on them •, for the Havana lying in the Way, thofe who perform the Voyage may have the Conveniency of taking in Refrelhments there, of putting in for Shelter in foul Wea- ther, and of careening or refitting. As for the . Veracruz.^ tho' farther out of the Way, the Correfpondence there may be advantagious for the Securing of the Colony of Louifiana.

But how can that fail of fucceeding, under the Conduft of Monfieur Croz.at^ who has the Charge of that Enterprize, and whom Pr<3vi- dence feems to have in a Manner ingag'^ "*^ ""^^ Vance in Wealth and Honour, to t.«- Amaze- ment of the World, and yet fr- *5°"^ f^^^* from Jealoufy, and from any c^c of Complaints.

There is therefore no Re-^^ .^° P''i^^^ ""^^T wife than well of the ^^^^ ?^ ^^'' ^^^'"^ \ ^^^ Blelfiags God ha- P^^'^ ^ ^°^" "P°" ^^^ ?^^ former Underminings, feem to be a Security for what *'=* to follow. There is Reafon to hope fur itill greater Blefllngs on ^ this Pro)ed of a Settlement in Louijiana, as being equally advan- tagious to Religion and the State ^ for the pro- pagating of the Knowledge and Service of God O among

Monfeur de la Sal e'j SeconA Voyage

among an infinite Number of Savages, by Means of the Miflloners, who are to be fent to and maintain'd in thofe vaft Countries ; the Plant- ing of the Faith in that new World, only the Name whereof is known tous^ and the Redu- cing of it to be a Chriftian'and ^French Province, under the Dominion of our Aiiguft Monarch, and to the eternal Memory of his Reign, will be the Confequences and the Fruits of Monfieur Crez.at'% Care and Expence, the Glory of his Enterprise, the Security of the large Fortune he has made in this Life, and what is rare a- mong fuch rich Men, the Earneft of much bet- ter in the Next, Heaven grant our Hopes and Wiflies may be anfwer'd.

jAin^ &:c.

The Letters Fatent granted by the KJng of.

JFrance ^f? M. Crozat. riaiO

.-. .. c ^

L^5^"<^, by the Grace of God, King of trance ._j jsfavatre : To all who fliaU fee thefe prefe.. betters, Greeting. The: Care we have alway. .^^ ^^ ^^^^^ \^^ yj^,^.. fare and Advantage of o.. s^bjefts having ia-; duced us notwithftanding t.. jij„oft continual Wars which we have been ohu^^ ^^ fupport' from the Beginning of our Reign, to fe^k^ for all poffibie Opportunities of enlarging and extending the Trade of biir American' Colonies, Wtdidin thlCtar l6d$^ive' ojtr Orders'

into NO R T H A M E R I C A. 1 97

to undertake a Dlfcovery of the Countries and Lands which are fttuated in the Nothern Part of America, between New Frante and New Mexi- co : And the Sieur de la Sile^ to whom we committed that Enterpriz.e^ having had Succefs enough to confirm a Belief that a Communication might be fettled from New France to the Gulph of Mexico by Means of large Rivers ^ This obliged us immediately after the Peace o/RyfwiCk to give Orders for the eflablifl)ing a Colony there^ and maint^aining a Garrifon which has kept and freferved the Pofleflion, we had taken in the z^ery Tear 1683 of the Lands ^ Coafts and /(lands which are fttuated ir the Gulph of A^ex:co^ between Carolina on the Eafl^ and Old and New Mexico on the Weft. But a new War having broke oat in Europe fhortly after, there was no Pofiibility, . till now, of reaping from that new Colony the Advantages that might have been expeded from thence, becaufe the private Men, who are concerned in the Sea Trade, were all under Engagements with other Colonies, which they have been obliged to follow : And whereas upon the Information we have received concerning the Difpofition and Situation of the faid Coun- tries known at prefent by the Name of the Province of Louipana^ yvc are of Opinion that there may be eftablilhed therein a confiderable Commerce, fo much the more advantageous to our Kingdom in that there has hitherto been a Neceflity of fetching from Foreigners the greateft Part of the Commodities which may be brought from thence, and becaufe in Ex- change thereof we need carry thither nothing but Commodities of the Growth and Manu- fa(^ure of our own Kingdom •, we have refolv-

O z ed

198 Mofift^ur de la S a l eV Second VojAge

ed to grant the Commerce of the Country of Louijiana to the Sienr Authony Croz^at our Coun- cellor, Secretary of the Houfhold, Crown and Revenue, to whom we entrult the Executioa of this Projeft. We are the more readily inclined hereunto, becaufe his Zeal and the fingular Knowledge he has acquired in maritime Commerce, encourage us to hope for as good Sficcefs as he has hitherto had in the divers and fundry Enterprises he has gone upon, and which have procured to our Kingdom great Quantities of Gold and Silver in fuch Conjun- durcs as have rendred them very welcome to us*

FOR THESE REASONS being delirous to fbcw our Favour to him, and to regulate the Conditions upon which we mean to grant him the faid Commerce, after having deliberated this Affair in our Council, Of our certain Knowledge, full Power and Royal Authority, We by thefe Prefents figned by our Hand, have appointed and do appoint the faid Sieur Croz.at folely to carry on a Trade in all the Lands poifeiTed by Us, and bounded by New Mexico, and by the Lands of the Englilh of Carolina, all the EflablijJ^ment^ PortSj Havens^ Mivers^ and principally the Fort and Havsn of the J(le Dauphine, heretofore called Maflacre j the River of St. Ltms^heretofore called Miffilipi, /?'«•»? the Edge of the Ssa as far as the Illinois j to- gether with the River 0/ St. Philip, heretofore called the MifTourys, and of St. Jerome, heretofore called Ovabache, with all the Countries^ Terrttories^ Lakes within Land^ and the Rivers which tfall di' reBly or indire^ly into that Part of the River of Si.'Lewis.

^ THE

into NORTH AMERICA. 199

The A R T I C L E S. I. Our Pleafure is, that all the aforefaid Lands, Countries Streams, Rivers and Iflands be and remain comprifed under the Name of The Government of Louifiana, which JIjhU he defendant upon the General Government of Neio France, to which it is fubordinatc ; and further, that all the Lands which we poflefs from the JJlinois be united, fo far as Occafion requires, to the General Government of Nevo France^ and become Part thereof, referving however to Ourfelves the Liberty of enlarging as We (hall think fit the Extent of the Government of the faid Country o{ Louifana.

IL We grant to the faid Slew Croz,at for Fifteen fucceflive Years, to be reckoned from the Day of Inrolling thefe prefents, a Right and Power to tranfport all Sortsof Goods and Merchandize from France into the faid Country ot Louifiana^ and to traffick thither as he fliall think fit. We forbid all and every Perfon and Perfons, Company and Companies of what Quality or Condition foever, and under any Pretence whatever, to trade thither, under Penalty of Confifcation of Goods, Ships, and other more fevere Puniflim.ents, as Occafion Ihall require j for this Purpofe we order our Governours and other Officers commanding our Troops in the faidCountry forcibly to aber, aid and affift the Dire

IIL We permit him to fearch for, open and dig all Sorts of Mines, Veins and Minerals throughout the whole Extent of the faid Coun- try of Louifiana^ and to tranfport the Profits thereof into any Port ot France during the faid 48 3 Fif--

200 Mcnfieur de la Sal e'^ Sicond Voyage

Fifteen Years j and we grant in Perpetuity to him, his Heirs, and others claiming under him or them, the Property of, in and to the Mines, Veins and Minerals which he (hall bring to bear, paying us, in Lieu of all Claim, the Fifth Fart of the Gold and Silver which the faid Sieur Croz.at (hall caufe to be tranfported to France at his own Charges into what Port he pleafes, {'of which Fifth we will run the Rifque of the Sea and of War,) and the Tenth Part of what Effects he (hall draw from the other Mines, Veins and Minerals, which Tenth he ' (hall transfer and convey to our ?vlagazines in the faid Country oi Lout fan a.

Wc likewife permit him to fearch for precious Stones and Pearls, paying us the Fifth Pari in the fame Manner as is mention'd for the Gold and Silver.

We will that the faid Sieur Croz.at, his Heirs, or thofe claiming under him or them the perpe- tual Right, (hall forfeit the Propriety of the faid Mines, Veins and Minerals, if they difcontinue the Work during three Years, and that in fuch Cafe the faid Mines, Veins and Minerals (hall be fully reunited to our Domaine, by Virtue of this prefent Article, without the Formality of any Procefsof Law, but only an Ordinance of Re-union from the Subdelcgate of the Intendant of New France^ who (hall be in the faid Country, nor do wc mean that the faid Penalty of Forfeiture in Default of work- ing for three Years, be reputed a Comminatory Penalty. * IV. The faid Sieur Crozat may vend all fuch Merchandize, Goods, Wares, Commodities, Arms, and Ammunition as he Ihall have caufed

^ to

f»toNOKTH AMERICA. 201

to be tranfported into the faid Country and Government oi Louipana^^^ well to the French^ as Savages who are or fhall be there fetled ; nor fhall any Perfon or Pcrfons under any Pretence whatfoever be capable of doing the like without his Leav^e exprefled in Writing.

V. He may purchafe in the faid Country, all Sorts of Furs, Skins, Leather, Wool^, and other Commodities and EfFeds of the faid Country, and tranfport them to France during the faid Fifteen Years : And as our Intention is to favour, as much as we can, our Inhabi- tants of Nero France^ and to hinder the Lef- fening of their Trade, we forbid him Traffick-* ing for Caftor in the faid Country under any Pretence whatfoever % nor to Convey any from thence into our" Kingdom or Foreign Countries.

VI. We Grant to the Sieur Croz,at^\\i% Heirs or thofe claiming under him or th^m, the Property of, in and to all Settlements and Manufadories which he (hall eredi or fet up in the faid Coun- try for Silk, Indigo, Wooll, Leather, Mines, Veins and Minerals,as likewife the Property of, in and to the Lands which he fhall caufe to be Cultivated, with the Manfions, Mills, and Strudtares which he fhall caufe to be built there- on, taking Grants thereof from Us, which Grants he (hall obtain upon the Verbil Procefs and Opinion of our Governor and of the Sub- delegate of the Intendant Qi New France \n the faid Country, to be by him P^eported unto Us.

We will that the faid Sieur Crozat^ his Heirs, or thofe claiming under him or them, (hall keep in Repair the faid Settlements, Manufadures, Lands and Mills jand in Default thereof during the Space of three Years, he and they fhalJ O 4 Forfeit

202 Monfteur de la Sal e'^ Second Voyage

Forfeit the fame, and the faid Settlements^ Manufaftories, Lands and Mills fliall be Re- united to our Domaine fully and amply, and in the fame Manner as is mentioned above ia the Third Article concerning the Mines, Veins and Minerals.

VII. Our Edi<3:s. Ordinances and Culloros, and the Ufages of the Mayoralty and Shree- valty of Parisy fhall be obferved for Laws and Caftoms in the faid Country of Louifiana,

VIII. The faid Sieur Croz^at (hall be oblig'd to fend to the faid Country of Louifiana Two Ships every Year, which he fhall caufe to fet out in the proper Seafon, in each of which Ships he (hall caufe to be imbitk'd, without paying any Freight, 25 Tun of Victuals, EfFeds, and necef- fary Ammunition, for the Maintenance of the Garrifon and Forts of the Louifiana ^ and ia Cafe wc ihould caufe to be laden above the faid 25 Tun in each Ship, we confent to pay the Freight to the faid Sieur Croz^at^ at the common Merchantile Rates.

He fhall be oblig'd to convey our Officers of Louifiana in the Ships which he fhall fend thither, and to furnifh them with Subflftance and a Captain's Table for 30 Sols per Day, which we will caufe to be paid for each.

He fhall likewife give Paffage in the faid Ships, to the ooldiers, which we fhall pleafe to fend to the faid Country •, and we will caufe the ne- ceffary Provilions for their Subfiltance to be furnilh'd to him, or vail pay him for them at the fame Price as is paid to the Purveyor-Gene- ral of our Marine.

He (hall be furthermore oblig'd to fend on Board each Ship, which he fhall cau^p to fet out

for

i/?/^ NORTH AMERICA- 205

for the faid Country, Ten young Men or Wo- men, at his own Ekftion.

IX. We will caufe to be delivered out of our Magazines to the {aid S'lcur Crozat, loooo Weight of Gunpowder every Year, which he ihall pay us for ac the Price that it fhall colt us, and this for fo long Time as the prefenE Privilege Ihall laft.

X. The Wares and Merchandize which the faid Sieur Croz^at ihall configu to the faid Conn- try oi Lomfian a ^diW be exempt from all Duties of Exportation, laid or to be laid, on Condition^ that hi> Diredors, Deputies or Clerks, fhall en- gage to give within the Space of a Year, to be reckon'd from the Date thereof, a Certificate of their Unlading in the faid Country of Lou- ifiasa; under Penalty, in Cafe of Contraven- tion, to pay the Quadruple of the Duties, re- ferving to our felves the Power of giving him a longer Refpite in fuch Cafes and Occurrences as we fhall think proper.

XI. And as for the Goods and Merchandize, which the Sieur Ctotlm fhall caufe to be broughc from the faid Country of Louifiana^ and up- on his Account, into tlie Ports of our Kingdom, and (hall afterwards ciufe to be tranfported into Foreign Countries, they fhall pay no Du- ties either of Importation or Exportation, and Ihall be depofited in the Cultom-Houfe, V/are- houfes of Ports where they fhaii arrive, until they be taken away t, and when the Deputies and Clerks of the faid Sieur Croz^at fhaU be minded to caufe them to be tranfported in- Foreign Countries, either by Sea or Land, they fhall be oblig'd to give Security to bring within a certain Time, a Certificate from the

hit

204 Monfieur de la S A l eV Second Voyage

lafl: Office, containing what they Exported there, and another Ortificatc of their un- lading in Foreigi? Countries.

XII. In Cafe the faid Sieur Croz^m be obliged, for the furtherance of his Commerce to fetch from Foreign Countries feme Goods and Mer- chandize of Foreign Manufadure, in order to TR ANSPORT them into the faid Coun- try of Louijiana. He (hall make Us Ac- quainted therewith, and lay before Us States thereof ; upon which we, if we think fit, will Grant him our Particular Permiflion with Ex- emptions from ail Duties of Importation and Exportation, Provided the faid Goods and Merchandize be Depofited afterwards in our Cuftom-houfe Ware-houfes until they be Ladea in the Ships of the faid Sieur Croz^at^ who Ihall be obliged to bring in one Year, to be reckoned from the Day of the Date hereof, a Certificate of their unlading in the fiid Country of Louifana^ under Penalty, in Cafe of Contra- vention, to pay qaadruple the Duties : Re- ferving to our felves, in like Manner, the Li- berty of granting to the faid Sieur Croz^at^ a a longer Refpite, if it be nccellary.

XIU. The Feluccaes, Canoes, andotherVef- fels belonging to us* and which are in the faid Country oi Loui(iana^{ha\\ ferve for loading, un- loading and tranfporting the Effefts of the faid Suur Croz^atj who (hall be bound to keep them in good Condition, and after the Expiration of the faid Fifteen Years Jhall reftore them, or a like Number of equal Bulk and Goodnefs, to our Governor in the faid Country.

XIV. If for the Cultures and Plantations which the faid Sieur CrQs,(i% is minded to make

he

irjto NORTH AMERICA. 205

he finds ic proper to have Blacks in the faid Country of the Louifana^ he may fend a Ship every Year to trade for them diredly upon the Coalt of Guinea^ taking Permifiion from the Guinea Company fo to do, he may fell thofe Blacks, to the Inhabitants of the Colony of Louipana •, and we forbid all other Companies and Perfons whatfoever, under any Pretence whatfoever, to introduce Bhcks or Traffick for them in the faid Country, nor fhall the faid Sieur Croz.at carry any Blacks eife where.

XV. He fhall not fend any Ships into the faid Country of Louijlana but direftly from France^ and he fhall Caufe the faid Ships to Re- turn thither again ^ the whole under Pain of Confifcatioii and Forfieture of the Prefent Pri- viledge.

XVI. THE faid Sieur Crozat fhall be 0- bliged, after the Expiration of the firft nine Years of this Grant, to Pay the Officers and the Garrifon which fiiall be in the faid Country During the Six laft Years of the Continuance of this Prefent Priviledge : The faid Sieur Croz^at may in that Time propofe and nominate the Officers, as Vacancies fhall fall, and fuch Of- ficers, fhall be Confirmed by us, if we approve of them.

Given at FONTAINBLEAV the Fourteenth Day of September in the Year of Grace 1712. And of Our Reign the 7bth.

SIGNED LOVIS By the K I N G

P HELJPEAVX^&c.

Reglfter'd zt? A S^lSxn the Parliament, the Four and Twentieth of September, 1712.

THE

N D E X.

A.

ACitncei^sJni'un Nation, their Houihold Stuff, Shape, Oic.

Accidents befallen the ^coJets 72 Account given by an Indiun 92 Adventure, a ftrange one 61 Adultery among the Jjlmois, not much regarded 17^

\Amiabky Snip, caft away 36 Alligator eaten ¦ 12

Alligators 64

Apdache Bay 19

Arrival at Fort Lsnis 168

Art of Indians to kill Goats and and wild Fowl 136

^(fonis} Indian Natloa 1:^5

B. Banks of a River of feveral Co- lours 165 Barbarity towards dead Bodies 100. Of Men towards Women and of Women 128 Bxfbier (the Sieurj marries 72 Battle tought by theCew/i 109 Beaujeu (M.de) Commander of the Man of War, forfakes M. de Id Sale 44 Beds of the Cents 109 Belle (la) Bark loft 67. How and what was [iv'd of her 69 Black Bread in frjwfe jSis Eoaftingof che/yj/wwj 173

Boat loft 38* 5 J

Building, Manner of it among the Cenis joS

Bullocks found afhore 25

Ba//octs (River of) 54.

Buskinsof raw Hides inftead of Shoes 8a

C. Cadodaquio River 142

Cahaynehora^ Indian NatioQ 148 Calumet, or Pipe 146

Canoe porrable 88

Canoes (Riverof^ 96

Cappa\i\hge 159

Care of the Dead among the JJli- nois 175

Carpenter loft 52

Cavelier (Monfr.) with his Com- pany, parts from the Murder- ers 1 3 1. Comes to a Srencb Ha- -bitation ij2

Cayman Ifland 11

Cenis River 105

C(?»», their Country defcrib'd 104 They meet the trench in fo- lemo Manner 10^. An Enter- taioment given by them 107 Their Moveables 109. Disfi- gure themfelves 110. Their Manners, Religion, and Cere, monies 1 1 2. facile fought by them 117

Ccfc«

INDEX,

Ciremoay of the Calumet, or

Pipe 146,1^5. Of rejoiciDgi29

At the Reception of the French

137. Ochcr Ceremonies 159

Of dreffing a Bullock 162,

Children of the //?/?7£?/f 173

Choumnns, Ivi'nvs 92

Climate of the Bay of St, Leuis

66 Controverfy about Privilege 77 Confpiracy dircover'd 50. Ano- ther to murder iA.delaSale

91

Copal Tree 103

Corriemes Cipe 13

Country where they landed.

Account of it 29. A fine one

50 Crofs by a River 151

Croiat (M.de) only toplact Co.

lonies in Z.<7«/^^W(« 187

Cruel Trophies 12S

Currents 17

Cuftom of Indiun Women 143

D.

Dangerous Fruit 64.

Dead, indian Ceremony to them 140. Care of them among the Jflinois 1 74

Dilfereoce between the Com- maaders 4, 26,44

Difcontents occafion'd by M.Mo- ranget 97

Difcoveries made 74

Doleful Entertainment 141

Ducking of Seamen 5

Duhiut returns from "iA. dsU Sals 59. Endeavours to occalion a Mutiny 73. Conrpires to mur- der M. de /

E.

Encounter with Nafivei 71

Entertainment of the Indians 134, i38,i

Fa ft of bidians 165

Fatigue of the Men 52

Figure of a pretended Monfter

164, FiniSerre Cape 4

Fifh, Plenty of it taken 47

Fifh at the Bay of Sr, Lewis 6s Flying Fifh 5

Fort built 45. Another 49. The firit abandon'd 51, TheFoliiirc oftheStcond 51. All reforttoit

5i French Men, Hx kill'd by rhc /a-

diafji 5p. Seveo loft and foiiC dcfcrt 74. Two kiii'd 75, Three thdc bad been loft heard of 94. One anong the Jtjdum 107. Ente.'tain'd by the Na* tivcs 115. Some turn'd Sa- vage 117, 119. Six go to the Wars with the Natives 125 Some ftay with the Indians 132 Only feven i'ci oxit iox Canada ibid. Carry'd on the Backs of Indiifis ^ joy

French River ' x

G.

Game ©f the S:ick 175

Goats and Bullocks found a- Qjore 2-^

Cros CMonfr. /

H. ''

Habit of Indians 143

HavanA 101

Jiebjhimo Indians 84

/jiberviUe'i Expeditioa to the

Mijfifipi 186 £^i€fis

I N D E X,

Hiens kills Duhaut 123. Seizes Che Effe^s and gives what he pleafes to Che reft 131

'JJifpanioh Ifland 6

JJoly Gtoft Bay 19

Horfe purchasM of the Indians 91. Onefold for an Ax 116 Uouabicbe River 163

Houfe builc af-er the 'French Manner 151. Defcription of it 154

Hunter dies wich Cold tjS

Uur on s 'Hzt\on iSo, 181, 182 Huts containing feveral Fami- lies io5i I. ^miquo, Indian Nation 141 Indian Ceremony of the Dead,

140 Jndidn dies of eating raw Suet

Indians corae aboard 21. Pre- fenced and fcnt afhore 2z. FriendlyBehaviouroffome 34. Their Camp35. Their Enter- tainment 36. AiFrcnt givea them 41. Their Revenge 42. Come to the Fort 48. Rill fix of the French*^9. Some en- rertain'd by M. ds la Sale 80 One clad like a Spumard 105 Expett Prefents 148. Some met with Axes 148

Inhumanity 128

loftrument for Tillage among the Cenis 109

Intrenching with Trees 81

;^ciMte/CMonfr.) the Perfon that writes this Journal I. Believes they were at the Mouth of the Miffifipi and flip'd it 18. Com- mands a Company 30. Isfav'd from being murder'd by a

Friend 102. Sent to the Cms for Provifions 104. Meets a French Man among the Indians 117. Hasan Indian Maid of- L-i'dhimfora Wife 118. He and others refolve to part from the Murderers 12c. Part from them 131. Profccutc the Jour- ney 149. Comes to a French Habitation 152. Continues hi« Journey 157. Arrives at Fore Lewis 167. Sets out for Cdtf*- ^¦i, and returns again 170

Ijlinois River 165

Jjlinois People met with 166 Their Manners and Cuftoms, Women, Children, Thieving, Boafting 173. Care of the Dead 174. Game of the Stick, Marriages, Adultery 175. More of them 182

K-

Ketch taken by the Spaniards 10 Kind Indians 152

L.

Landing, the tirit 18, The fe-

cond 24. The third 28

Lataniersy Palm Trees 14

Lewis (Fort) among the Ijlinois

167 Defcription of it and Country 171 Lime, and Clay for Bricks 171 Living Creatures about the Bay of St. Iew/5 6i

M. Machigamen River i6i

Madera Ifland 4

Maligne River 60, 87

Manners and Cuftoms of the Ijli- nois i7j Marie (Monjy,de) drown'd 139 HisFund^al 140 Iv^rriages of the Ijlinois 17^ Mca*

INDEX.

Meadows very fine 136

Memory of-Men kill'd, bewail'd

127 Men fenf to difcover by Land 31 Six kiU'd by the Natives 19 Mexico C'liy i9^

Mines i;72

Mirchief prevented 124.

Mijftftpi River, the Mouth of ic pafi'd by 27

Found atlaft 158

MiJpJurisK'wcv 164.

Montreal, arrival there 182

Morxnget (Monfr.) Nephew to ¦ Monfr. d.e h Sale 30. Wounded by the Natives 43. Gives an Account of what he faw among theJttdiiKSt he was feot to 92 Difcontents occafion'd by him gj. Is murder'd 98

Moveables ot the C(?»/V 109

Murders committed by fome Vil- lains 9? Murderers return to !hc. Camp 101 Refolve to return to the Fort of. St. Lerois 120. Their Delign 121 Change their Mind 122 Differ in Opinion 123 N Ndhordikhs Indians 133 Nation, what is meant by it ii.j. Nations of Indians 90, 114, 140

O

Officers attending an Indian

Chief 158

OriSj and Dfjloges (the Sieurs)

kiird by the Natives - '42

^ar^fcoKjM Nation 180

P Perfons that went with M. de Ix Sale 2. Left in the Setclement when M. de la Sale departed 71. Thofc tbac fct euc with iiim 96

Pines Iflani - it, la

Plants at the Bayof.St. Letoij 65 Port de pjix 10

PoiitcuatanniNiUon 183

Prefenrs made by Indians 14s . To the Dead 174

FroduQcf the Countfy of the . jicanceas 154- Of the Country . about Fort Lewis 172

Prpvjfions hid, fpoilt 96

Qiiinetofian River i8i

j^

K Rats ^7

Rattle Snake bites M.leCros 4?

67 ¦ Reception of Indians 145. Az~ Vot: Lerois if%

Riv-r, a Hne oce 3a

/^>f/;fZ/£f, Depircure thence 2

^pcbforr. Return <:hither 3

S.iblomere River ^j

Saga ro ite, Hafty Pudding 113 St. Antony Cape 15

St. Lewis's Bay 57. Dcfcripniia of the Country 62

Sals (M. dg la) his Reputation t HisMiftake 20. Much wrong'd 44. Goes to difcover up a" Ri- ver 45. Returns and fers out again 46. Goes again to dif- cover 57. Returns to the Fort 67. Sets our upon another Ex- pedition 68. His Difcoveries and Return 74. RefolvcsupoE a third Expedition 75. Wet! receiv'd by the Natives 89, Coofpiracy to murder him 97 Goes (0 feek his Men and is mufder'd by Dubaut 99. Hii Charaftcr 100

Salt

INDEX,

ialt found in Pits 48

Salutation^ an 6dd one 39

Santdna Cape 7

Settlement, vide Fort

Ships that went with Monfr. de

la Sale 2

Sombrero Ifland 7

Spainards, Indians give an Account

of them gz. Take Monfr. de

In Sale's, Fort i85

Spanijh Veffel feen 46

Speeches made to the French

138 Spring of Salt Water 163

T Tabacco 113

Thieving of the JJlinois 173

Tillage among the Cenis 109 3"o»»i»£M^ Village 159

Tom (Monfr.) Mifbake in his Account of this Voyage 14 Comes to Fort Lewis 176

Torfm^ Village 157

tortugi Ifland S

Tortoifes ^3

Trade Wind 5

Travel continu'd 17S

travellers, hew they liv'd 175

Trees about St. Leteis^i Bay 64,

V

Variation 1^

Venomous Creatures 63

Veracrui in new Spain 18S

Village abaridon'd by Indians 82

Inhabited 86. Another 89

W.

War with the Iroquois ijS

Water from a Tree rw«et 179

W3y from St. L^ms*i Bay to find

the Mijjtfipi 78

Ways very bad 133

Wild Fowl plentiful 28, 29, 82,

144 Wild Fruit 164

Wild Swine 12

Wolves, how they catch Goats

180 Women fow among the Cenis 82 Defcriptionof them lb. Do the Work at Home, their Behavi- our and Habit III. Cuftom of fome 143. Their Orna- ments 143, Do all Labour a- moT\g the IJJinois 173

Woods very'Thick 82

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