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Louisiana Anthology

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.
The Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.













THE JOURNALS OF LEWIS AND CLARK





THE JOURNALS OF LEWIS AND CLARK





[Clark, May 14, 1804]

May the 14th-Monday Set out from Camp River a Dubois at 4 oClock P.M. and proceded up the Missouris under Sail to the first Island in the Missouri and Camped on the upper point opposit a Creek on the South Side below a ledge of limestone rock Called Colewater, made 41/2 miles, the Party Consisted of 2, Self one frenchman and 22 Men in the Boat of 20 ores, 1 Serjt. & 7 french in a large Perogue, a Corp and 6 Soldiers in a large Perogue. a Cloudy rainey day. wind from the N E. men in high Spirits



[Clark, May 14, 1804]

Monday May 14th 1804 Rained the forepart of the day I determined to go as far as St. Charles a french Village 7 Leags. up the Missourie, and wait at that place untill Capt. Lewis Could finish the business in which he was obliged to attend to at St Louis and join me by Land from that place 24 miles; by this movement I calculated that if any alterations in the loading of the Vestles or other Changes necessary, that they might be made at St. Charles I Set out at 4 oClock P.M. in the presence of many of the Neighbouring inhabitents, and proceeded on under a jentle brease up the Missourie to the upper Point of the 1st Island 4 Miles and Camped on the Island which is Situated Close on the right (or Starboard) Side, and opposit the mouth of a Small Creek called Cold water, a heavy rain this after-noon The Course of this day nearly West wind from N. E




[Lewis, May 15, 1804]

Tuesday May 15th It rained during the greater part of last night and continued untill 7 OCk. A.M. after which the Prarty proceeded, passed two Islands and incamped on the Stard. shore at Mr. Fifer's landing opposite an Island, the evening was fair. some wild gees with their young brudes were seen today. the barge run foul three several times — on logs, and in one instance it was with much difficulty they could get her off; happily no injury was sustained, tho the barge was several minutes in eminent danger; this was cased by her being too heavily laden in the stern. Persons accustomed to the navigation of the Missouri and the Mississippi also below the mouth of this river, uniformly take the precaution to load their vessels heavyest in the bow when they ascend the stream in order to avoid the danger incedent to runing foul of the concealed timber which lyes in great quantities in the beds of these rivers.



[Clark, May 15, 1804]

Tuesday 15 — rained all last night and this morning untill 7 oClock, all our fire extinguished, Some Provisions on the top of the Perogus wet, I sent two men to the Countrey to hunt, & proceed on at 9 oClock, and proceeded on 9 miles and Camped at a Mr Pip. Landing just below a Coal Bank on the South Side the prarie Comes with 1/4 of a mile of the river on the N. Side I sent to the Setlements in the Pairie & purchased fowls &. one of the Perogue are not Sufficently maned to Keep up.

Refurences from the 15th of May (2) a large Island to the Starboard; (3) passed a Small Island in the bend to the Starbord, opposit Passage De Soux and with 11/2 miles of the mississippi, observed a number of Gosselins on the edge of the river many passing down, Strong water & wind from the N E — Passed a Place Lbord Called the Plattes, a flat rock projecting from the foot of a hill, where there is a farm, (5) pass an Small Isld near the Center of the river, run on Several logs this after noon, Camped at Mr. Pipers Landing.



[Clark, May 15, 1804]

May 15th Tuesday Rained the greater part of the last night, and this morning untile 7 oClock — at 9 oClock Set out and proceeded on 9 miles passed two Islands & incamped on the Starbd. Side at a Mr. Pipers Landing opposit an Island, the Boat run on Logs three times to day, owing her being too heavyly loaded a Sturn, a fair after noon, I Saw a number of Goslings to day on the Shore, the water excessively rapid, & Banks falling in-.



[Clark, May 16, 1804]

Wednesday May 16th A fair morning, Set out at 5 oClock passed the Coal hill (Call by the natives Carbonear) this hill appears to Contain great quantytes of Coal, and also ore of a rich appearance haveing greatly the resemblance of Silver Arrived Opposit St Charles at 12 oClock, this Village is at the foot of a Hill from which it takes its real name Peeteite Coete or the little hill, it contains about 100 indefferent houses, and abot 450 Inhabetents principally frinch, those people appear pore and extreemly kind, the Countrey around I am told is butifull. interspursed with Praries & timber alturnetly and has a number of American Settlers

Took equal altituds with Sextion M a 68°37'30" Dined with the Comdr. & Mr. Ducetts family — (1) Passed an Island on the L Side just above the bank one just above, two Small ones oposut under the St. Shore, one on Lb. Side below St Charles, arrived at this place at 12 oClock a fine Day



[Clark, May 16, 1804]

May 16th Wednesday a fair morning Set out at 5 oClk pass a remarkable Coal Hill on the Larboard Side Called by the French Carbonere, this hill appear to Contain great quantity of Coal & ore of a ——— appearance from this hill the village of St Charles may be Seen at 7 miles distance — we arrived at St. Charles at 12 oClock a number Spectators french & Indians flocked to the bank to See the party. This Village is about one mile in length, Situated on the North Side of the Missourie at the foot of a hill from which it takes its name Petiete Coete or the Little hill This village Contns. about 100 houses, the most of them Small and indefferent and about 450 inhabitents Chiefly French, those people appear pore, polite & harmonious — I was invited to Dine with a Mr. Ducett this gentleman was once a merchant from Canadia, from misfortunes aded to the loss of a Cargo Sold to the late judge Turner he has become Somewhat reduced, he has a Charming wife an eligent Situation on the hill Serounded by orchards & a excellent gardain.



[Clark, May 17, 1804]

Thursday the 17th 1804 a fine Day 3 men Confined for misconduct, I had a Court martial & punishment Several Indians, who informed me that the Saukees had lately Crossed to war against the Osage Nation Som aplicasions, I took equal altitudes made the m a. to be 84° 39' 15" measured the Missouries at this place and made it 720 yards wide, in Banks. a Boat came up this evening, I punished Hall agreeable to his Sentence in part, a fine after noon; Suped with Mr. Ducett an agreeable man more agreeable Lady, this Gentleman has a Delightfull Situation & garden.



[Clark, May 17, 1804]

May the 17th Thursday 1804 a fair day Compelled to punish for misconduct. Several Kickapoos Indians Visit me to day, George Drewyer arrive. Took equal altitudes of Suns L L made it 84° 39' 15" ap T. Measured the river found it to be 720 yards wide, a Keel Boat Came up to day — Several of the inhabitents Came abord to day receved Several Speces of Vegatables from the inhabitents to day

[Ordway, May 17, 1804] Orders St. Charles Thursdy the 17th of May 1804- a Sergeant and four men of the Party destined for the Missourri Expidition will convene at 11 oClock to day on the quarter Deck of the Boat, and form themselves into a Court martial to hear and determine (in behalf of the Capt.) the evidences aduced against William Warner & Hugh Hall for being absent last night without leave; contrary to orders;-& John Collins 1st for being absent without leave — 2nd for behaveing in an unbecomeing manner at the Ball last night — 3rdly for Speaking in a language last night after his return tending to bring into disrespect the orders of the Commanding officer

Signd. W. Clark Comdg.
Detail for Court martial
Segt. John Ordway Prs.

members
R. Fields
R. Windsor
J. Whitehouse
Jo. Potts

The Court convened agreeable to orders on the 17th of May 1804 Sgt. John Ordway P. members Joseph Whitehouse Rueben Fields Potts Richard Windsor after being duly Sworn the Court proceded to the trial of William Warner & Hugh Hall on the following Charges Viz: for being absent without leave last night contrary to orders, to this Charge the Prisoners plead Guilty. The Court one of oppinion that the Prisoners Warner & Hall are Both Guilty of being absent from camp without leave it being a breach of the Rules and articles of war and do Sentence them Each to receive twentyfive lashes on their naked back, but the Court recommend them from their former Good conduct, to the mercy of the commanding officer. — at the Same court was tried John Collins Charged 1st for being absent without leave — 2d. for behaveing in an unbecomming manner at the ball last night idly for Speaking in a languguage after his return to camp tending to bring into disrespect the orders of the Commanding officer — The Prisoner Pleads Guilty to the first Charge but not Guilty to the two last chrges. — after mature deliberation & agreeable to the evidence aduced. The Court are of oppinion that the Prisnair is Guilty of all the charges alledged against him it being a breach of the rules & articles of War and do Sentence him to receive fifty lashes on his naked back — The Commanding officer approves of the proceedings & Desicon of the Court martial and orders that the punishment of John Collins take place this evening at Sun Set in the Presence of the Party. — The punishment ordered to be inflicted on William Warner & Hugh Hall, is remitted under the assurence arriveing from a confidence which the Commanding officer has of the Sincerity of the recommendation from the Court. — after the punishment, Warner Hall & Collins will return to their squads and Duty

The Court is Disolved.
Sign. Wm. Clark



[Clark, May 18, 1804]

Friday May the 18th 1804 a fine morning took equal altitude and made it 97° 42′ 37″ M. A

I had the Boat & Pierogue reloded So as to Cause them to be heavyer in bow than asturn recved of Mr. Lyon 136 lb. Tobacco on act. of Mr. Choteau Gave out tin Cups & 3 Knives to the French hands, Mr. Lauriesme returned from the Kickapoo Town to day delayed a Short time & Set out for St. Louis, I Sent George Drewyer with Mr. Lauriesmus to St Louis & wrote to Cap Lewis Mr. Ducett made me a present of rivr Catts & Some Herbs our french hands bring me eggs milk &c. &. to day The wind hard from the S. W. Two Keel Boats came up to this place to day from Kentucky



[Clark, May 18, 1804]

May the 18th Friday 1804 a fine morning, I had the loading in the Boat & perogue examined and changed So as the Bow of each may be heavyer laded than the Stern, Mr. Lauremus who had been Sent by Cap Lewis to the Kickapoo Town on public business return'd and after a Short delay proceeded on to St Louis, I Sent George Drewyer with a Letter to Capt Lewis Two Keel Boats arrive from Kentucky to day loaded with whiskey Hats &c. &. the wind from the SW. Took equal altitudes with Sexetn Made it 97°42' 37" MT.



[Clark, May 19, 1804]

Satturday May the 19th 1804 a Violent Wind last night from the W. S W, Suckceeded by rain with lasted Som hours, a Cloudy Morning, many persons Came to the boat to day I took equal altitudes. mar time 76° 33' 7"

I heard of my Brothers illness to day which has given me much Concurn, I settle with the men and take receipts for Pay up to the 1st of Decr. next, I am invited to a ball in the Village, let Several of the men go, — R Fields Kill a Deer George Drewyear returned with a hundred Dollars, he lost



[Clark, May 19, 1804]

May 19th Satturday 1804 A Violent Wind last night from the W. S. W. accompanied with rain which lasted about three hours Cleared away this morn'g at 8 oClock, I took receipt for the pay of the men up to the 1st. of Decr. next, R. Fields Kill a Deer to day, I recve an invitation to a Ball, it is not in my power to go. George Drewyer return from St Louis and brought 99 Dollars, he lost a letter from Cap Lewis to me, Seven Ladies visit me to day


[Lewis, May 20, 1804]

Sunday May 20th 1804 The morning was fair, and the weather pleasent; at 10 oCk A M. agreably to an appointment of the preceeding day, I was joined by Capt. Stoddard, Lieuts. Milford & Worrell together with Messrs. A. Chouteau, C. Gratiot, and many other respectable inhabitants of St. Louis, who had engaged to accompany me to the Vilage of St. Charles; accordingly at 12 Oclk after bidding an affectionate adieu to my Hostis, that excellent woman the spouse of Mr. Peter Chouteau, and some of my fair friends of St. Louis, we set forward to that village in order to join my friend companion and fellow labourer Capt. William Clark who had previously arrived at that place with the party destined for the discovery of the interior of the continent of North America the first 5 miles of our rout laid through a beatifull high leavel and fertile prarie which incircles the town of St. Louis from N. W. to S. E. the lands through which we then passed are somewhat broken up fertile the plains and woodlands are here indiscriminately interspersed untill you arrive within three miles of the vilage when the woodland commences and continues to the Missouri the latter is extreamly fertile. At half after one P.M. our progress was interrupted the near approach of a violent thunder storm from the N. W. and concluded to take shelter in a little cabbin hard by untill the rain should be over; accordingly we alighted and remained about an hour and a half and regailed ourselves with a could collation which we had taken the precaution to bring with us from St. Louis.

The clouds continued to follow each other in rapaid succession, insomuch that there was but little prospect of it's ceasing to rain this evening; as I had determined to reach St. Charles this evening and knowing that there was now no time to be lost I set forward in the rain, most of the gentlemen continued with me, we arrived at half after six and joined Capt Clark, found the party in good health and sperits. suped this evening with Monsr. Charles Tayong a Spanish Ensign & late Commandant of St. Charles at an early hour I retired to rest on board the barge — St. Charles is situated on the North bank of the Missouri 21 Miles above it's junction with the Mississippi, and about the same distance N. W. from St. Louis; it is bisected by one principal street about a mile in length runing nearly parrallel with the river, the plain on which it stands-is narrow tho sufficiently elivated to secure it against the annual inundations of the river, which usually happen in the month of June, and in the rear it is terminated by a range of small hills, hence the appellation of petit Cote, a name by which this vilage is better known to the French inhabitants of the Illinois than that of St. Charles. The Vilage contains a Chappel, one hundred dwelling houses, and about 450 inhabitants; their houses are generally small and but illy constructed; a great majority of the inhabitants are miserably pour, illiterate and when at home excessively lazy, tho they are polite hospitable and by no means deficient in point of natural genious, they live in a perfect state of harmony among each other; and plase as implicit confidence in the doctrines of their speritual pastor, the Roman Catholic priest, as they yeald passive obedience to the will of their temporal master the commandant. a small garden of vegetables is the usual extent of their cultivation, and this is commonly imposed on the old men and boys; the men in the vigor of life consider the cultivation of the earth a degrading occupation, and in order to gain the necessary subsistence for themselves and families, either undertake hunting voyages on their own account, or engage themselves as hirelings to such persons as possess sufficient capital to extend their traffic to the natives of the interior parts of the country; on those voyages in either case, they are frequently absent from their families or homes the term of six twelve or eighteen months and alwas subjected to severe and incessant labour, exposed to the ferosity of the lawless savages, the vicissitudes of weather and climate, and dependant on chance or accident alone for food, raiment or relief in the event of malady. These people are principally the decendants of the Canadian French, and it is not an inconsiderable proportian of them that can boast a small dash of the pure blood of the aboriginees of America. On consulting with my friend Capt. C. I found it necessary that we should pospone our departure untill 2 P M. the next day and accordingly gave orders to the party to hold themselves in readiness to depart at that hour.

Captn. Clark now informed me that having gotten all the stores on board the Barge and perogues on the evening of the 13th of May he determined to leave our winter cantainment at the mouth of River Dubois the next day, and to ascend the Missouri as far as the Vilage of St. Charles, where as it had been previously concerted between us, he was to wait my arrival; this movement while it advanced us a small distance on our rout, would also enable him to determine whether the vessels had been judiciously loaded and if not timely to make the necessary alterations; accordingly at 4 P.M. on Monday the 14th of May 1804, he embarked with the party in the presence of a number of the neighbouring Citizens who had assembled to witness his departure. during the fore part of this day it rained excessively hard. In my last letter to the President dated at St. Louis I mentioned the departure of Capt. Clark from River Dubois on the 15th Inst, which was the day that had been calculated on, but having completed the arrangements a day earlyer he departed on the 14th as before mentioned. On the evening of the 14th the party halted and encamped on the upper point of the first Island which lyes near the Larbord shore, on the same side and nearly opposite the center of this Island a small Creek disimbogues called Couldwater.

The course and distance of this day was West 4 Miles the Wind from N. E.







[Clark, May 20, 1804]

Sunday 20th May a Cloudy morning rained and a hard wind last night I continue to write Rolls, Send 20 men to Church to day one man Sick Capt Lewis and Several Gentlemen arrive from St Louis thro a violent Shoure of rain, the most of the party go to the Church.



[Clark, May 20, 1804]

Sunday 20th May A Cloudy morning rained and hard wind from the ____ last night, The letter George lost yesterday found by a Country man, I gave the party leave to go and hear a Sermon to day delivered by Mr. ____ a romon Carthlick Priest at 3 oClock Capt. Lewis Capt. Stoddard accompanied by the Officers & Several Gentlemen of St Louis arrived in a heavy Showr of Rain Mssr. Lutenants Minford & Werness. Mr. Choteau Grattiot, Deloney, Laber Dee Ranken Dr. SoDrang rained the greater part of this evening. Suped with Mr. Charles Tayon, the late Comdt. of St Charles a Spanish Ensign.



[Clark, May 21, 1804]

Monday 21st May Dine with Mr. Ducete & Set out from St. Charles at three oClock after getting every matter arranged, proceeded on under a jentle Breese, at one mile a Violent rain with Wind from the S. W. we landed at the upper point of the first Island on the Stbd Side & Camped, Soon after it commenced raining & continued the greater part of the night; 3 french men got leave to return to Town, and return early (refur to Fig. 2.)

25st refured to fig. 2 Left St. Charles May 21st 1804. Steered N. 15° W 13/4 Ms N 52°W to the upper point of the Island and Camped dureing a rain which had been falling half an hour, opposit this Isd. Corns in a Small creek on the St. Sd. and at the head one on the Ld. Side rains powerfully.



[Clark, May 21, 1804]

May 21st 1804 Monday All the forepart of the Day Arranging our party and prcureing the different articles necessary for them at this place — Dined with Mr. Ducett and Set out at half passed three oClock under three Cheers from the gentlemen on the bank and proceeded on to the head of the Island (which is Situated on the Stbd Side) 3 miles Soon after we Set out to day a hard Wind from the W. S W accompanied with a hard rain, which lasted with Short intervales all night, opposit our Camp a Small creek corns in on the Lbd Side-



[Clark, May 22, 1804]

Tuesday May 22nd delayed a Short time for the three french men who returned and we Set out at 6 oClock a Cloudy morning rained Violently hard last night Saw Several people on the bank to day & passed Several Small farms. Capt. Lewis walk on Shore a little & passed a Camp of Kickapoo Indians, & incamped in the mouth of a Small Creek in a large Bend on the Stbd Side.



[Clark, May 22, 1804]

May 22nd Tuesday 1804 a Cloudy morning Delay one hour for 4 french men who got liberty to return to arrange Some business they had forgotten in Town, at 6 oClock we proceeded on, passed Several Small farms on the bank, and a large creek on the Lbd. Side Called Bonom a Camp of Kickapoos on the St. Side Those Indians told me Several days ago that they would Come on & hunt and by the time I got to their Camp they would have Some Provisions for us, we Camped in a Bend at the Mo. of a Small creek, Soon after we came too the Indians arrived with 4 Deer as a Present, for which we gave them two qts. of whiskey-

This Day we passed Several Islands, and Some high lands on the Starboard Side, Verry hard water.



[Clark, May 23, 1804]

Wednesday May 23rd 8 Indians Kick. Came to Camp with meat we recved their pesents of 3 Deer & gave them Whisky.

Set out early run on a log under water and Detained one hour proceeded on the Same Course of last night, (2 miles) passed the mouth of a creek on the Sbd. Side called Woman of Osage River about 30 yds. over, abounding in fish, Stoped one hour where their was maney people assembled to See us, halted at an endented part of a Rock which juted over the water, Called by the french the tavern which is a Cave 40 yds. long with the river 4 feet Deep & about 20 feet high, this is a place the Indians & french Pay omage to, many names are wrote up on the rock Mine among others, at one mile above this rock coms in a small Creek called Tavern Creek, abov one other Small Creek, camped at 6 oClock (after expirencing great dificuselty in passing Some Drifts) on the Stb Side, examined the mens arms found all in good order except the Detachment of Solds in the Perogue — R Field Killed a Deer.



[Clark, May 23, 1804]

May 23rd Course of last night S 75 W Contined 2 miles to the Said point St. Side passed the upper Point of the Island Thence S 52° W. 7 Miles to a pt. on St. Sd. passing Tavern Island two Small Isd. in a bend to the St. side the Mo. of Oge womans River at 1 m. the Cave Called the Tavern, Lbd Side at 5 m. Situated in the Clifts, opposit a Small Island on the Stbd Side (R. & Jo. Fields came in) with many people, passed the Tavern Cave, Capt Lewis assended the hill which has peninsulis projecting in raged points to the river, and was near falling from a Peninsulia hard water all Day Saved himself by the assistance of his Knife, passed a Creek 15 yds. wide at 1 mile called Creek of the Tavern on the Lbd. Side, Camped opposit the pt. which the Last Course was to. one man Sick.



[Clark, May 23, 1804]

May 23rd Wednesday 1804 We Set out early ran on a Log and detained one hour, proceeded the Course of Last night 2 Miles to the mouth of a Creek on the Stbd. Side Called Osage Womans R, about 30 yds. wide, opposit a large Island and a Settlement. (on this Creek 30 or 40 famlys are Settled) Crossed to the Settlemt. and took in R & Jo. Fields who had been Sent to purchase Corn & Butter &c. many people Came to See us, we passed a large Cave on the Lbd. Side about 120 feet wide 40 feet Deep & 20 feet high many different immages are Painted on the Rock at this place. the Inds & French pay omage. many hams are wrote on the rock, Stoped about one mile above for Capt Lewis who had assended the Clifts which is at the Said Cave 300 fee high, hanging over the Water, the water excessively Swift to day, we incamped below a Small Isld. in the Meadle of the river, Sent out two hunters, one Killed a Deer

This evening we examined the arms and amunition found those mens arms in the perogue in bad order a fair evening Capt. Lewis near falling from the Pencelia of rocks 300 feet, he caught at 20 foot.



[Clark, May 24, 1804]

Thursday May the 24th 1804 Set out early passed a Small Isd in the Midlle of the river, opposit the on the Lbd. Side is projecting Rock of 1/2 a mile in extent against which the Current runs, this place is called the Devils race grounds,1 above this Coms in a Small Creek called the little quiver, a Sand Island on the Stbd Side, passed Several Islands & 2 creeks, on the Stbd Side a Small Island on the Lbd Side above we wer verry near loseing our Boat in Toeing She Struck the Sands the Violence of the Current was so great that the Toe roap Broke, the Boat turned Broadside, as the Current Washed the Sand from under her She wheeled & lodged on the bank below as often as three times, before we got her in Deep water, nothing Saved her but



[Clark, May 24, 1804]

May 24th Set out early, Killed a Deer last night. examined the mens arms, & Saw that all was prepared for action, passed an Island in the M. R, opposit a hard place of water called the Devill race grown, S 63° W 4 miles to a point on the Sd. Starboard Side N 68 W to a point on Lbd Side 3 ms. Passd. a Small Willow Island on the Lbd. Side to the point of a Isd. L Side — S 75° W to a point on Stbd Side 3 Miles, Passed the upper point of the Island. Crossed and in a verry bad place we got our Boat a ground & She Bocke the Toe Roap & turned the Land, the in Wheeling three times, got off returned to the head of the aforesaid Island, and Came up under a falling Bank. hard water this place being the worst I ever Saw, I call it the retregrade bend. Camped at an old house.



[Clark, May 24, 1804]

May 24th Thursday 1804 Set out early passed a Verry bad part of the River Called the Deavels race ground, this is where the Current Sets against Some projecting rocks for half a mile on the Labd. Side, above this place is the mouth of a Small Creek Called queivere, passed Several Islands, two Small Creeks on the Stbd. Side, and passed between a Isld. an the Lbd. Shore a narrow pass above this Isld is a Verry bad part of the river, we attempted to pass up under the Lbd. Bank which was falling in So fast that the evident danger obliged us to Cross between the Starbd. Side and a Sand bar in the middle of the river, we hove up near the head of the Sand bar, the Sand moveing & banking caused us to run on the Sand. The Swiftness of the Current wheeled the boat, Broke our Toe rope, and was nearly over Setting the boat, all hand jumped out on the upper Side and bore on that Side untill the Sand washed from under the boat and wheeled on the next bank by the time She wheeled a 3rd Time got a rope fast to her Stern and by the means of Swimmers was Carred to Shore and when her Stern was down whilst in the act of Swinging a third time into Deep water near the Shore, we returned, to the Island where we Set out and assended under the Bank which I have just mentioned, as falling in, here George Drewyer & Willard, two of our men who left us at St. Charles to Come on by land joined us, we Camped about 1 mile above where we were So nearly being lost, on the Labd Side at a Plantation. all in Spirits. This place I call the retragrade bend as we were obliged to fall back 2 miles



[Clark, May 25, 1804]

25 May Set out early Course West to a Point on Sbd. Side at 2 Miles passd a Willow Isd. in a Bend to the Lbd. a creek called wood rivr Lbd. Side N 57° W. to a pt. on the Sb. Side 3 Miles passed the Mouth of a Creek St. Side Called Le quever, this Same course continued to a Point Ld. Side 21/2 Miles further. opposit a Isd. on Sd Side Passed a Creek Called R. La freeau at the pt. N 20° W 2 miles To a Small french Village called La Charatt of five families only, in the bend to the Starbord This is the Last Settlement of Whites, an Island opposit







[Clark, May 25, 1804]

May 25th Friday 1804 rain last night river fall Several inches, Set out early psd. Several Islands passed wood River on the Lbd Side at 2 miles passed Creek on the St. Side Called La Querer at 5 miles passed a Creek at 8 mile, opsd. an Isd. on the Lbd Side, Camped at the mouth of a Creek called River a Chauritte, above a Small french Village of 7 houses and as many families, Settled at this place to be convt. to hunt, & trade with the Indians, here we met with Mr. Louisell imedeately down from the Seeeder Isld. Situated in the Countrey of the Suxex 400 Leagues up he gave us a good Deel of information Some letters he informed us that he Saw no Indians on the river below the Poncrars — Some hard rain this evening

The people at this Village is pore, houses Small, they Sent us milk & eggs to eat.



[Clark, May 26, 1804]

May 26th 1804. Set out at 7 oClock after a hard rain & Wind, & proceed on verry well under Sale. Wind from the E N E

The wind favourable to day we made 18 miles a Cloud rais & wind & rain Closed the Day



[Clark, May 26, 1804]

May the 26th Sattarday 1804. Set out at 7 oClock after a heavy Shour of rain (George Drewyer & John Shields, Sent by Land with the two horses with directions to proceed on one day & hunt the next) The wind favourable from the E N E passed Beef Island and river on Lbd Side at 31/2 Ms Passed a Creek on the Lbd. Side Called Shepperds Creek, passed Several Islands to day great Deal of Deer Sign on the Bank one man out hunting, w Camped on an Island on the Starboard Side near the Southern extrem of Luter Island.



[Lewis, May 26, 1804]

Detatchment Orders. May 26th 1804. The Commanding Officers direct, that the three Squads under the command of Sergts. Floyd Ordway and Pryor heretofore forming two messes each, shall untill further orders constitute three messes only, the same being altered and organized as follows (viz)

1 Sergt. Charles Floyd. (1)

Privates:
2 Hugh McNeal
3 Patric Gass
4 Reubin Fields (2)
5 John B Thompson
+ 6 John Newman
7 Richard Winsor
+ Francis Rivet &
8 Joseph Fields (3)
9 Sergt. John Ordway.

Privates.
10 William Bratton (4)
11 John Colter (5)
X 12 Moses B. Reed
13 Alexander Willard
14 William Warner
15 Silas Goodrich
16 John Potts &
17 Hugh Hall
18 Sergt. Nathaniel Pryor. (6)

Privates.
19 George Gibson (7)
20 George Shannon (8)
21 John Shields (9)
22 John Collins
23 Joseph Whitehouse
24 Peter Wiser
F 25 Peter Crusat &
F 26 Francis Labuche

The commanding officers further direct that the remainder of the detatchmen shall form two messes; and that the same be constituded as follows. (viz)

Patroon, Baptist Dechamps

Engages
Etienne Mabbauf
Paul Primaut
Charles Hébert
Baptist La Jeunesse
Peter Pinaut
Peter Roi &
Joseph Collin

1 Corpl. Richard Warvington.

Privates.
2 Robert Frasier
3 John Boleye
4 John Dame
5 Ebinezer Tuttle &
6 Isaac White

The Commanding officers further direct that the messes of Sergts. Floyd, Ordway and Pryor shall untill further orders form the crew of the Batteaux; the Mess of the Patroon La Jeunesse will form the permanent crew of the red Perogue; Corpl. Warvington's mess forming that of the white perogue.

Whenever by any casualty it becomes necessary to furnish additional men to assist in navigating the Perogues, the same shall be furnished by daily detale from the Privates who form the crew of Batteaux, exempting only from such detale, Thomas P. Howard and the men who are assigned to the two bow and the two stern oars. — For the present one man will be furnished daily to assist the crew of the white perogue; this man must be an expert boatman.

The posts and duties of the Sergts. shall be as follows (viz) — when the Batteaux is under way, one Sergt. shall be stationed at the helm, one in the center on the rear of the Starboard locker, and one at the bow. The Sergt. at the helm, shall steer the boat, and see that the baggage on the quarterdeck is properly arranged and stowed away in the most advantageous manner; to see that no cooking utensels or loos lumber of any kind is left on the deck to obstruct the passage between the burths — he will also attend to the compas when necessary.

The Sergt at the center will command the guard, manage the sails, see that the men at the oars do their duty; that they come on board at a proper season in the morning, and that the boat gets under way in due time; he will keep a good lookout for the mouths of all rivers, creeks, Islands and other remarkable places and shall immediately report the same to the commanding officers; he will attend to the issues of sperituous liquors; he shall regulate the halting of the batteaux through the day to give the men refreshment, and will also regulate the time of her departure taking care that not more time than is necessary shall be expended at each halt — it shall be his duty also to post a centinel on the bank, near the boat whenever we come too and halt in the course of the day, at the same time he will (acompanied by two his guard) reconnoiter the forrest arround the place of landing to the distance of at least one hundred paces. when we come too for the purpose of encamping at night, the Sergt. of the guard shall post two centinels immediately on our landing; one of whom shal be posted near the boat, and the other at a convenient distance in rear of the encampment; at night the Sergt. must be always present with his guard, and he is positively forbidden to suffer any man of his guard to absent himself on any pretext whatever; he will at each relief through the night, accompanyed by the two men last off their posts, reconnoiter in every direction around the camp to the distance of at least one hundred and fifty paces, and also examine the situation of the boat and perogues, and see that they ly safe and free from the bank

It shall be the duty of the sergt. at the bow, to keep a good look out for all danger which may approach, either of the enimy, or obstructions which may present themselves to passage of the boat; of the first he will notify the Sergt. at the center, who will communicate the information to the commanding officers, and of the second or obstructions to the boat he will notify the Sergt. at the helm; he will also report to the commanding officers through the Sergt. at the center all perogues boats canoes or other craft which he may discover in the river, and all hunting camps or parties of Indians in view of which we may pass. he will at all times be provided with a seting pole and assist the bowsman in poling and managing the bow of the boat. it will be his duty also to give and answer all signals, which may hereafter be established for the government of the perogues and parties on shore.

The Sergts. will on each morning before our departure relieve each other in the following manner — The Sergt. at the helm will parade the new guard, relieve the Sergt. and the old guard, and occupy the middle station in the boat; the Sergt. of the old guard will occupy the station at the bow, and the Sergt. who had been stationed the preceeding day at the bow will place himself at the helm. — The sergts. in addition to those duties are directed each to keep a seperate journal from day today of all passing occurences, and such other observations on the country &c. as shall appear to them worthy of notice

The Sergts. are relieved and exempt from all labour of making fires, pitching tents or cooking, and will direct and make the men of their several messes perform an equal propotion of those duties.

The guard shall hereafter consist of one sergeant and six privates & engages.

Patroon, Dechamp, Copl. Warvington, and George Drewyer, are exempt from guad duty; the two former will attend particularly to their perogues at all times, and see that their lading is in good order, and that the same is kept perfectly free from rain or other moisture; the latter will perform certain duties on shore which will be assigned him from time to time. all other soldiers and engaged men of whatever discription must perform their regular tour of guad duty.

All detales for guard or other duty will be made in the evening when we encamp, and the duty to be performed will be entered on, by the individuals so warned, the next morning. — provision for one day will be issued to the party on each evening after we have encamped; the same will be cooked on that evening by the several messes, and a proportion of it reserved for the next day as no cooking will be allowed in the day while on the mach

Sergt. John Ordway will continue to issue the provisions and make the detales for guard or other duty. — The day after tomorrow lyed corn and grece will be issued to the party, the next day Poark and flour, and the day following indian meal and poark; and in conformity to that ratiene provisions will continue to be issued to the party untill further orders. — should any of the messes prefer indian meal to flour they may recieve it accordingly — no poark is to be issued when we have fresh meat on hand.

Labuche and Crusat will man the larboard bow oar alternately, and the one not engaged at the oar will attend as the Bows-man, and when the attention of both these persons is necessary at the bow, their oar is to be maned by any idle hand on board.

Meriwether Lewis Capt. Wm. Clark Cpt.



[Clark, May 27, 1804]

Sunday May 27th as we were Setting out this morning two Canoos loaded with Bever elk Deer Skins & Buffalow Robes, from the Mahars nation, they inform that they left that place 2 months, a gentle Breese from the S. E, we camped on an Isd in the mouth of Gasconade R, this river is 157 yards wide a butifull stream of clear water. 19 foot Deep Hills on the lower Side







[Clark, May 27, 1804]

May 27th Sunday 1804 as we were pushing off this Morning two Canoos Loaded with fur &c. Came to from the Mahars nation, which place they had left two months, at about 10 oClock 4 Cajaux or rafts loaded with furs and peltres came too one from the Paunees, the other from Grand Osage, they informed nothing of Consequence, passed a Creek on the Lbd Side Called ash Creek 20 yds wide, passed the upper point of a large Island on the Stbd Side back of which Comes in three Creeks one Called Orter Creek, her the men we left hunting Came in we camped on a Willow Island in the mouth of Gasconnade River. George Shannon Killed a Deer this evening



[Clark, May 28, 1804]

Monday 28th May rained hard all the last night Some wind from the S W, one Deer Killed to day, one Man fell in with Six Indians hunting, onloaded the perogue, & found Several articles Wet, Some Tobacco Spoiled. river begin to rise



[Clark, May 28, 1804]

May 28th Munday 1804 Gasconnade Rained hard all last night Some thunder & lightening hard wind in the forepart of the night from the S W. Ruben Fields Killed a Deer Several hunter out to day I measured the river found the Gasconnade to be 157 yds. wide and 19 foot Deep the Course of this R. is S 29° W, one of the hunters fell in with 6 Inds. hunting, onloaded the large Perogue on board of which was 8 french hands found many things wet by their cearlenessness, put all the articles which was wet out to Dry — this day So Cloudy that no observations could be taken, the river begin to rise, examine the mens arms and equapage, all in Order



[Clark, May 29, 1804]

Tuesday 29th May Sent out hunters, got a morning obsvtn and one at 12 oClock, rained last night, the river rises fast The Musquetors are verry bad, Load the pierogue



[Clark, May 29, 1804]

May 29th 1804 Set out from the mouth of the gasconnade, where we took obsevn &c. left a Perogue for a man lost in the woods, Course N. 54 W 2 m to a point Lb. Side. Passed the Isd. on which we Camped, river still rised, water verry muddey N. 78° W 2 Ms. to a pt. on Lb Side passed two willow Islands first Smaller and a Creek on Lbd. called Deer Creek one oposit the point St. Side and incamped on the Lb Side rain all night the tents together along the N; 76° W 25° Poles S 26° W, to the point above — S 19° to the pot below the River



[Clark, May 29, 1804]

May 29th Tuesday rained last night, Cloudy morning 4 hunters Sent out with Orders to return at 12 oClock Took equal altitudes of Suns Lower limb found it 105° 31' 45"

Cap Lewis observed meridean altitude of sun U L-back observation with the octant & artificeal horozen — gave for altitude on the Limb 38° 44' 00" sun octant Error 2 0 0 +

had the Perogues loaded and all perpared to Set out at 4 oClock after finishing the observations & all things necessary found that one of the hunters had not returned, we deturmined to proceed on & leave one perogue to wate for him, accordingly at half past four we Set out and came on 4 miles & camped on the Lbd Side above a Small Creek Called Deer Creek, Soon after we came too we heard Several guns fire down the river, we answered them by a Discharge of a Swivile on the Bow



[Clark, May 30, 1804]

May 30th, Wednesday, Set out at 7 oClock after a heavy rain, rained all last night, a little after Dark last night Several guns were herd below, I expect the French men fireing for Whitehous who was lost in the woods.



[Clark, May 30, 1804]

May 30th Wednesday 1804 Rained all last night Set out at 6 oClock after a heavy Shower, and proceeded on, passed a large Island a Creek opposit on the St. Side just abov a Cave Called Monbrun Tavern & River, passed a Creek on the Lbd. Side Call Rush Creek at 4 Miles Several Showers of rain the Current Verry Swift river riseing fast Passed Big Miry River at 11 Miles on the Starboard Side, at the lower point of a Island, this River is about 50 yards Wide, Camped at the mouth of a Creek on Lbd Sd of abt 25 yds. Wide Called Grinestone Creek, opposit the head of a Isd. and the mouth of Little Miry River on the St Side, a heavy wind accompanied with rain & hail we Made 14 miles to day, the river Continue to rise, the County on each Side appear full of Water.



[Clark, May 31, 1804]

May 31st Thursday 1804 rained the greater part of last night, the wind from the West raised and blew with great force untile 5 oClock p.m.which obliged us to lay by a Cajaux of Bear Skins and pelteries came down from the Grand Osarge, one french man one Indian, and a Squar, they had letters from the man Mr. Choteau Sent to that part of the Osarge Nation Settled on Arkansa River mentioning that his letter was Commited to the flaims, the Inds. not believeing that the Americans had possession of the Countrey they disregarded St Louis & their Supplies &c. — Several rats of Considerable Size was Cought in the woods to day — Capt Lewis went out to the woods & found many curious Plants & Srubs, one Deer killed this evening



[Clark, June 1, 1804]

June 1st Friday 1804 Set out early, the Same Course S 48° W of Wednesday contd. 4 ms passed the Mouth of Little Miry on the Stb & high rich Land on the Lb Side, S. 45°W to an Island opposit a hill on the S. Sd. 6 Ms. this Isd is on the Lbd. passed the Mo. of Bear creek 25 yds wide at 2 ms. & three Small Isd., Some Swift water and banks falling in, Wind a head from the West, S 39° W 3 ms. to the Pt. above the mouth of Osage River Larb Side, Camped fell a number of Trees in the Point to take observation a fair after noon, Sit up untill 1 oClock to take Som observations &c.



[Clark, June 1, 1804]

June 1st 1804 Friday Set out early a fair morning Passed the mouth Bear Creek 25 yds. Wide at 6 Miles, Several Small Islands in the river the wind a head from the West the Current exceedingly rapid Came to on the point of the Osarges River on the Labd Side of Missouries this osages river Verry high, felled all the Trees in the point to Make observations Sit up untill 12 oClock taken oservation this night



[Clark, June 2, 1804]

June 2nd — Took the Dirts. of Son & moon &c &c. I measured the Osage & Missouris at this place made ther width as follows, the Missoure 875 yd. wide The Osage R 397 yds. wide, the distance between the 2 rivers 80 poles up is 40 Ps. Took equal altitudes & Mredian altitude also-and made them ____ I assended the hill in the point 80 ps. from the pt. found it about 100 foot high, on the top is 2 graves, or mouns, a Delightfull prospect from this hill which Comds. both rivers

Drewyer & Shields came to the opposit Side to day at SunSet we sent across & brought them over, they had been absent 7 Days Swam many creeks, much worsted. They informed us that the Countrey on both Sides of muddy river's to the hill called by the french ____ 3 ms. below this place, a Small Praries below the hill, 4 Deer Killed to day I assend a hill &. after measuring the river &c. &c. &c.



[Clark, June 2, 1804]

June 2nd Satturday Cap Lewis Took the Time & Distance of suns & moons nearest limbs, the Sun East — and Meridean altitude of Suns U. L. with Octant, back observation gave for altitude 37° 28"00".

Error of Octant 2° 00' 00" +. made Several other observations — I made an angle for the Wedth of the two rivers. The Missourie from the Point to the N. Side is 875 yards wide the Osage River from the point to the S. E Side is 397 yards wide, the destance between the two rivers at the pt. of high Land (ioo foot above the bottom) and 80 poles up the Missouries from the point is 40 poles, on the top of this high land under which is a limestone rock two Mouns or graves are raised — from this pt. which Comds both rivers I had a delightful) prospect of the Missouries up & down, also the Osage R. up. George Drewyer & John Shields who we had Sent with the horses by Land on the N Side joined us this evening much worsted, they being absent Seven Days depending on their gun, the greater part of the time rain, they were obliged to raft or Swim many Creeks, those men gave a flattering account of the Countrey Commencing below the first hill on the N Side and extendg Parrelal with the river for 30 or 40 Ms. The Two Muddey river passing Thro & som fine Springs & Streams our hunters kill Several Deer to day, Some Small licks on the S E of the Osage River.



[Clark, June 3, 1804]

June Sunday 3rd 1804 the fore part of the day fair I attempted to take equal alltitudes, & M Altitudes, but was disapointed, the Clouds obsured the Sun, took the D. of sun & moon Capt Lewis & George Drewyer went out & Killed a Deer, We Set out at 5 oClock P M Cloudy & rain, West 5 Ms. to the mo. of Murrow Creek Lb Sd. a pt. St. Side Keeping along the Lbd Side 1 Ms., passed the mouth of a Creek on Lbd Side 3 ms., I call Cupboard, Creek, mouths behind a rock which projects into the river, Camped in the mouth of the Creek aforesaid, at the mouth of this Creek I saw much fresh Signs of Indians, haveing Crossed 2 Deer Killed to day. I have a verry Sore Throat, & am Tormented with Musquetors & Small ticks.



[Clark, June 3, 1804]

June 3rd Sunday 1804 The forepart of the day fair Took meridional altitude of suns U:L with the Octant and Glass Horrison adjusted back observation. the instrument gave 38° 2' 00" — it was Cloudy and the Suns disk much obsured, and Cannot be Depended on.

We made other Observations in the evening after the return of Capt Lewis from a walk of three or four ms. round — We Set out at 5 oClock P.M. proceeded on five miles to the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. 20 yds. wide Called Murow, passed a Creek at 3 ms. which I call Cupbord Creek as it Mouths above a rock of that appearance. Several Deer Killed to dayat the mouth of the Murow Creek I Saw much Sign of war parties of Inds. haveing Crossed from the mouth of this Creek. I have a bad Cold with a Sore throat. Near West 5 Miles



[Clark, June 4, 1804]

June 4th 1804 Monday, a fair Day Sent out 3 hunters, our mast broke by the boat running under a tree Passed an Islands on Stbd Side on which grow Seeder a Creek at ____ miles on the Starbd Sd. Course N. 30° W 4 ms. to pt. on St. Side below 2d Isd. passed a Creek on Lbd Side 15 yd. wide, I call Nightingale Creek. this Bird Sang all last night and is the first of the kind I ever herd, below this Creek and the last Passed a Small Isd on the Stbd. N. 25 W. 3 ms. to a pt. on St. Sd. passed a Sm. Isd. on St. Sd. and Seeder Creek on the Same Side 20 yds wide passed a Creek on Lbd Sd. 20 yd wide, I call Mast Creek, this is a Short Creek, fine land above & below the mouth. Jentle rise of about 50 foot, Delightfull Timber of Oake ash walnut hickory &c. &c. wind from N W. by W. N. 58° W. 71/2 ms. passed a Creek Called Zoncar on the Lbd Side, N 75° W 3 me. to a pt, S. Sd. called Batue a De charm, a plain on the hill opposit. I got out & walked on the L Sd. thro a Charming Bottom of rich Land about one mile then I assended a hill of about 170 foot on the top of which is a Moun and about 100 acres of Land of Dead timber on this hill one of the party says he has found Lead ore a verry extensive Cave under this hill next the river, the Land on the top is fine, This is a very bad part of the river Seven Deer Killed to day by our hunters — one of the horses is Snaged, the other lost his Shous to day the Bottom on the St. Side to day is covered with rushes, not verry good ____ the high land Comes to the bank on the Labd Side and good 2d rate land.



[Clark, June 4, 1804]

June 4th Monday 1804 a fair day three men out on the right flank passed a large Island on the St. Side Called Seeder Island, this Isd. has a great Deel of Ceedar on it, passed a Small Creek at 1 ms. 15 yd. Wide which we named Nightingale Creek from a Bird of that discription which Sang for us all last night, and is the first of the Kind I ever heard. passed the mouth of Seeder Creek at 7 ms. on the S. S. abt. 20 yds. Wide above Some Small Isds. passed a Creek on the L. S. abt. 15 yds. wide. Mast Creek, here the Sergt. at the helm run under a bending Tree & broke the mast, Some delightful) Land, with a jentle assent about the Creek, well timbered, Oake, Ash, walnut &c. &c. passed, wind N W. by W. passed a Small Creek Called Zan Can C on the L. S; at this last point I got out and walked on the L. Sd. thro a rush bottom for 1 Miles & a Short Distance thro Nettles as high as my brest assended a hill of about 170 foot to a place where the french report that Lead ore has been found, I saw no mineral of that description, Capt Lewis Camped imediately under this hill, to wate which gave me Some time to examine the hill, on the top is a moun of about 6 foot high and about 100 Acres of land which the large timber is Dead in Decending about 50 foot a projecting lime Stone rock under which is a Cave at one place in this projecting rocks I went on one which Spured up and hung over the Water from the top of this rock I had a prospect of the river for 20 or 30 ms. up, from the Cave which incumposed the hill I decended by a Steep decent to the foot, a verry bad part of the river opposit this hill, the river Continu to fall Slowly, our hunters killed 7 Deer to day The land our hunters passed thro to day on the S. S. was Verry fine the latter part of to day. the high land on the S. S. is about 2d rate



[Clark, June 5, 1804]

June 5th Tuesday, Jurked the Vennison Killed yesterday, after Seting over the Scouting Party or hunder of 3 men Set out at 6 oClock Course N 57° W to a pt. on S. Sd. 5 ms. passed a Creek on L. Sd. I call Lead C of 15 yds passed one on the S. Called Lit. good-womans Creek about 20 yds. wide Passed a Willow Isd. a Butifull Prarie approaching near the river above Lead C & extends to the Mine river in a westerly Derection, passed the Mouth of the Creek of the Big Rock 15 yds Wide at 4 ms. on the Lbd Sd. at 11 oClock brought a Caissie in which was 2 men, from 80 League up the Kansias River, where they wintered and caught a great qty of Beever but unfortunatey lost it by the burning of the plains, the Kansas Nation hunted on the Missourie last Winter and are now persueing the Buffalow in the Plains, passed a Projecting Rock called the Manitou a Painting from this Deavel to the Pt. on the Lbd Side N 23° W 71/2 Ms. The Same course 21/2 ms. Creek Cld. Manitou passed a on the Lbd. Side about 40 yd. wide, a Sand bar in the middle of the River passed up between the Sand & L. Shore one Mile to a Small Creek 10 yd. wide, (I call Sand C). We run on the Sand and was obliged to return to the Starbd Side, I am verry unwell with a Slight feever from a bad cold caught three days ago at the Grand so R — passed a Small Willow Isd. on S. Side, a large one in the Middle of the river, York Swam to the Isd. to pick greens, and Swam back with his greens, the Boat Drew too much water to cross the quick Sands which intervened, She draws 4 foot water, a fair wind our mast being broke by accidence provented our takeing the advantage of it passed the lower point of a large Island, opposit the Current devides between 4 Small Isds on the St Side. we found the water excessively hard for 12 Miles as we were oblged to pass up the center of the Current between two of the Isds. & round the heads of the other 2 the Current Setting imediately against the points which was choked up with Drift for a mile — Above those Isd. on the St. Side we camped altogether our Hunter or Spis discovered the sign of a war party of abt. 10 Men



[Clark, June 5, 1804]

June 5th Tuesday 1804 after Jurking the meet Killed yesterday and Crossing the hunting party we Set out at 6 oClock, from the last Course & distance, N 51° W. 5 ms. to a pt. on the St. Sd. passed a Small Creek on the Ld. S. I call Lead C. passed a Creek on the S. S. of 20 yds. wide Cald. Lit. Good Womans C. on the L. S. a Prarie extends from Lead C. parrelel with the river to Mine river, at 4 ms. Passed the Creek of the big rock about 15 yds. wide on the L. Sd. at 11 oClock brought too a Small Caissee in which was two french men, from 80 Leagues up the Kansias R. where they wintered, and Cought a great quantity of Beaver, the greater part of which they lost by fire from the Praries, those men inform that the Kansas Nation are now out in the plains hunting Buffalow, they hunted last winter on this river Passed a projecting rock on which was painted a figue and a Creek at 2 ms. above Called Little Manitou Creek from the Painted rock this Creek 20 yds. wide on the L. Sd. passed a Small Creek on L. S. opposit a Verry bad Sand bar of Several ms. in extent, which we named Sand C here my Servent York Swam to the Sand bar to geather greens for our Dinner and returnd with a Sufficent quantity wild Creases or Teng grass, we passed up for 2 ms on the L. S. of this Sand and was obliged to return, the Watr. uncertain the quick Sand Moveing we had a fine wind, but could not make use of it, our Mast being broke, we passed between 2 Small Islands in the Middle of the Current, & round the head of three a rapid Current for one mile and Camped on the S. S. opsd. a large Island in the middle of the river; one Perogue did not get up for two hours, our Scout discovd. the fresh sign of about 10 Inds. I expect that those Indians are on their way to war against the Osages nation probably they are the Saukees



[Clark, June 6, 1804]

Wednesday the 6th of June 1804. Mended our mast this morning and Set out at 7 oClock, under a Jentle Braise from the S, E by S N 28° W 31/2 miles to a hill on St Sd. passg the N. beige of the Island Called Split rock Island, the river rose last night a foot the Countrey about this Isd. is delightfull large rush bottom of rushes below on the St. Side N 49° W, 11/2 Ms. to the mouth of Split rock River ____ yds. wide on the Starboard Side opod. the pt. of a Isd. passed a place in the projecting rock Called the hole thro the rock, a round Cave pass thro the Pt. of rock's West 11/2 ms. to a pt. on Std. Sd. opposit a Clift of rocks abt 200 foot N 31° W. 4 ms 1/2 to a pt. on L. Side passed Saline Creek on the L. Side a large Salt Lick & Spring 9 me. up the Creek, one bushel of water will make 7 lb. of good Salt

(Information) Took Meridian altitude of sun Limb. 37° 6' 0" equat to ____ of Lattidude.

on this Creek, So great a no of Salt Springs are on it that the water is brackish N 51° W to a Belge of an Isd on the S. Sd. at 3 ms. Passed a Willow Isd. in Middle, Some wind in the after part of to day from the S E, (the Banks are falling in greatly in this part of the river) as also is one Side or the other in all the Course, we assended on the North Side of the Isd. and finding that the perogues Could not Keep up Camped 2 hs. by Sun. on the Sd Sd the land below this is good.



[Clark, June 6, 1804]

June 6th Wednesday 1804 Mended our Mast this morning &, Set out at 7 oClock under a jentle breise from S. E. by S passed the large Island, and a Creek Called Split rock Creek at 5 ms. on the S. S. psd. a place to the rock from which 20 yds we. this Creek takes its name, a projecting rock with a hole thro a point of the rock, at 8 ms. passed the mouth of a Creek Called Saline or Salt R on the L. Sd. this River is about 30 yds. wide, and has So many Licks & Salt Springs on its banks that the Water of the Creek is Brackish, one Verry large Lick is 9 ms. up on the left Side the water of the Spring in this Lick is Strong as one bushel of the water is said to make 7 lb. of good Salt passed a large Isd. & Several Small ones, the water excessivly Strong, So much So that we Camped Sooner than the usial time to waite for the pirogue, The banks are falling in Verry much to day river rose last night a foot.

Capt. Lewis took meridean altd. of Suns U. L. with the octant above Split Rock C. &made the altitude 37° 6' 00 error of octt. as useal 2° 0' 0" + The Countrey for Several miles below is good, on the top of the high land back is also tolerable land Some buffalow Sign to day

I am Still verry unwell with a Sore throat & head ake



[Clark, June 7, 1804]

Thursday 7th of June 1804 Set out early passed the head of the Isd from the Isd. N. 61° W. to the mouth of a Creek Called big monitu on St. Sd. 41/2 ms. psd. a Sand bar in the river, Som Buffalow Sign Sent out George Drewyer & Newmon to hunt Capt Lewis and 6 men went to a Lick up this Creek on the right Side over 2 mes. & 2 other not far above the water runs out of the bank & not verry Strong. 3 to 500 G for a bushell.

S 88° W. 2 Miles to a pt. on Lbd. Side, high bluff on the Stbd. Side, Monitou Creek is 30 yds. Wide at the mouth, passed a painted part of a Projecting rock we found ther a Den of rattle Snakes, Killed 3 proceeded on passed, S 81°W 4 ms. to apt. on S. Side passed an Island in the Middle of the river, S. 87° W. to a pt. of high Land on the L. S. pass'g over the Middle of a willow Island, ms. 31/2 proceed on 1/2 a mile on this Course a Camped at the mouth of Good womans river on the S. S. about 35 yds wide, & navagable Som D. our hunters brought in 3 bear this evening-& infd. that the Countrey between this R. & the Monitou R is rich and well watered, Capt. Lewis went out an hour this evening



[Clark, June 7, 1804]

June 7th Thursday 1804 Set out early passed the head of the Island opposit which we Camped last night, and brackfast at the Mouth of a large Creek on the S. S. Of 30 yds wide Called big Monetou, from the pt. of the Isd. or Course of last night to the mouth of this Creek is N 61° W 41/2 ms. a Short distance above the mouth of this Creek, is Several Courious Paintings and Carveing in the projecting rock of Limestone inlade with white red & blue flint, of a verry good quallity, the Indians have taken of this flint great quantities. We landed at this Inscription and found it a Den of rattle Snakes, we had not landed 3 minutes before three verry large Snakes wer observed on the Crevises of the rocks & Killed — at the mouth of the last mentioned Creek Capt. Lewis took four or five men & went to Some Licks or Springs of Salt water from two to four miles up the Creek on Rt. Side the water of those Springs are not Strong, Say from 4 to 600 Gs. of water for a Bushel of Salt passed Some Small willow Islands and Camped at the Mouth of a Small river called Good Womans River this river is about 35 yards wide and Said to be navagable for Perogues Several Leagues Capt. Lewis with 2 men went up the Creek a Short distance. our Hunters brought in three Bear this evening, and informs that the Countrey thro which they passed from the last Creek is fine rich land, & well watered.



[Clark, June 8, 1804]

June 8th Friday Set out at Daylight proceeded on the Course of last night S 87° W 3 ms passed a Willow Island, from the Point of last Course S 81° W. 3 ms. to a pt. on S. S. passd a ____ Isd. in the middle of the river, passd a run on the Ld S. above a pt. of rocks 3 ms. on which thir is a number of Deer Licks, N 88° W. 3 Ms. to a pt L S. N. 83° W 2 ms. to the Mo of Mine River, psd an Isd. — This river is 90 yards wide & navagable for Perogues about 90 Ms. I went out on the L S. about 4 ms. below this R. and found the Countrey for one mile back good Land and well watered the hills not high with a gentle assent from the river, well timbered with oake, walnit Hickory ash, &c. the land Still further back becoms thin and open, with Black & rasp Berries, and Still further back the Plains Commence, The french inform that Lead ore is found on this river in Several places, it heads up between the Osagees & Kansas River the right hand folk passes in a Short distance of the Missourie at the antient Little Ozages Villages our hunter Killed, 2 Deer, after Staying one hour at the mouth of this River, Cap Lewis went out & proceeded on one Mile & came in, he fount the land in the point high and fine Course N. 64° W 1 Ms. to a pt. on S. S. N. 80° W to the Lower pot a Id. on L. S. passed a Small Isd. in the m. R. at (3 Ms.) met 3 men on a Caussee from R Dis Soux, above The Mahar Nation loaded with fur. Camped on the Lower point of an Id. L. S. called the Mills, here I found Kegs an Pummey stone, and a place that fur or Skins had been burred by the hunters our Hunters Killed 5 Deer, Some rain, the Countrey on the S. S. is Verry fine



[Clark, June 8, 1804]

8th of June, Friday 1804 Set out this morning at Daylight proceeden on the Course of last night Passed two willow Islands & a Small Creek above a Rock point on the L. S. at 6 miles on which there is a number of Deer Licks, passed the Mine River at 9 ms. this river is about 70 yards wide at its mouth and is Said to be navagable for Perogues 80 or 90 ms. the main branch passes near the place where the Little osage Village formerly Stood on the Missouries, & heads between the Osarge & Kansias Rivers, the left hand fork head with nearer Branches of the Osage River, The french inform that Lead Ore has been found in defferent parts of this river, I took Sjt. Floyd and went out 4 Ms. below this river, I found the land Verry good for a Mile or 11/2 Ms. back and Sufficiently watered with Small Streams which lost themselves in the Missouries bottom, the Land rose gradeuelly from the river to the Summit of the high Countrey which is not more that 120 foot above High Water mark, we joined the Boat & Dined in the point above the mouth of this River, Capt. Lewis went out above the river & proceeded on one mile, finding the Countrey rich, the wedes & Vines So thick & high he came to the Boat — proceeded on passed an Island and Camped at the lower point of an Island on the L. S. Called the Island of mills about 4 ms. above Mine River at this place I found Kanteens, Axs, Pumey Stone & peltrey hid & buried (I suppose by some hunters) none of them (except the pumey Stone) was teched by one of our party, our hunters Killed 5 Deer to day, Commenced raining Soon after we Came too which prevented the party Cooking their provisions- our Spies inform that the Countrey they passed thro on S. S. is a fine high bottom, no water.

This day we met 3 men on a Cajaux from the River of the Soux above the Mahar nation those men had been hunting 12 mo. & made about 900$ in pelts. & furs they were out of Provesions and out of Powder. rained this night



[Clark, June 9, 1804]

9th of June Satterday Set out early, water verry Swift got fast on a log, detained us 1/4 hour Hard rain last night. N 39° W 31/2 Ms. to a pt. on the S. S. opposit the Commencement of the 1st Prarie, Called Prarie of the Arrows,1 the river at this place about 300 yds. Wide passed a Small Creek, Arrow Creek 8 yds. wide L. Sd. the Current exceedingly Strong

N 34° E 2 ms. to the Belg of a Small Island Situated on the L. Sd. Passed the mo. of Arrow Creek N 83°W 11/2 ms. to a pt on L. S. opposit Black bird C Small passed the head of the Isd. & a small Willow one to the L. S. (Os merdn. altd. back obsvn. 37 00' 00) N. 39° W 2 Ms. to a pt. of High Land on the L. Side opst. a pt. on St. S. River about 350 yds. wide at this pt. a Wind from the S at 4 oClock (Handson Sutn) on the High pt. a prarie & Small Lake below N 32° E 31/2 Ms. to a pt. on L. S. passed an Isld. in the mid R — in passing up on the S. S. opsd. the Isd. the Sturn of the boat Struck a log which was not proceiveable the Curt. Struck her bow and turn the boat against Some drift & Snags which below with great force; This was a disagreeable and Dangerous Situation, particularly as immense large trees were Drifting down and we lay imediately in their Course, — Some of our men being prepared for all Situations leaped into the water Swam ashore with a roap, and fixed themselves in Such Situations, that the boat was off in a fiew minits, I can Say with Confidence that our party is not inferior to any that was ever on the waters of the Missoppie we Crossed to the Island and Camped, our hunters lay on the S. S. the wind from the S. W. the river continue to rise Slowly Current excessive rapid — The Countrey on the S. S. high bottom & Delghtfull land that on the L. S. is up land or hills of from 50 to 100 foot higher than the bottom & a thinly wooded, Countrey, Lands tolerably Good; Comminced raining at 5 oClock and continued by intervales the greater part of the night. We discovered that one of our French hands had a Conpt. — We Commsd Doctering, I hope the Success in this case, usial to



[Clark, June 9, 1804]

9th of June 1804 Satturday a fair morning, the River rise a little we got fast on a Snag Soon after we Set out which detained us a Short time passed the upper Point of the Island Several Small Chanels running out of the River below a Bluff & Prarie (Called the Prariee of Arrows) where the river is confined within the width of 300 yds. Passed a Creek of 8 yds. wide Called Creek of Arrows, this Creek is Short and heads in the Praries on the L. S. passed a Small Creek Called Blackbird Creek S. S. and One Islands below & a Prarie above on the L. S. a Small Lake above the Prarie — opposit the Lower point of the 2d. Island on the S. S. we had like to have Stove our boat, in going round a Snag her Stern Struck a log under Water & She Swung round on the Snag, with her broad Side to the Current expd. to the Drifting timber, by the active exertions of our party we got her off in a fiew Mints. without engerey and Crossed to the Island where we Campd. our hunters lay on the S. S. the Perogue Crossed without Seeing them & the banks too uncertain to Send her over- Some wind from the S accompanied with rain this evening — The Lands on the S. S. is a high rich bottom the L. S. appears oven and of a good quallity runing gradually to from fifty to 100 foot.



[Clark, June 10, 1804]

June 10th Sunday 1804 Some rain last night we set out early Saw a number of Goslings this morning, Continued on the Course of last night, thence N. 8 E. 21/2 ms. to a pt. on the L. S. passed a part of the River that the banks are falling in takeing with them large trees of Cotton woods which is the Common groth in the Bottoms Subject to the flud North 1 Me along the L. Side N. 40° W. 1 ms. along the L, S. opposit the two Charletons, on the N. Side, those rivers mouth together, the 1st 40 yds. wide the next 90 yds. Wide and navagable Some distance in the Countrey, the land below is high & not verry good. Came to and took Mdnl. altd. of Sons U. L. back obsvn. with the octant Made it 37° 12' 00", delayed 11/2 Hour. N. 70° W 1/2 of a me. along the L. Sd. — S 60° W 1/2 m. on L. S. the Same Course to the Pt. S. S. 11/2 Ms. We halted and Capt Lewis Killed a Buck the Current is excessively Swift about this place N. 80° W. 3 ms to a pt. on S. S. passed a Isd. Called Sheeco Islan wind from the N W Camped in a Prarie on the L. S., Capt Lewis & my Self Walked out 3 ms. found the Country roleing open & rich, with plenty of water, great qts of Deer I discovered a Plumb which grows on bushes the hight of Hasle, those plumbs are in great numbers, the bushes beare Verry full, about double the Sise of the wild plumb Called the Osage Plumb & am told they are finely flavoured.



[Clark, June 10, 1804]

10th of June 1804 A hard rain last night, we Set out this morning verry early passed Some bad placies in the river Saw a number of Goslings morning pass near a Bank which was falling in at the time we passed, passed the two River of Charletons which mouth together, above Some high land which has a great quantity of Stone Calculated for whetstons the first of those rivers is about 30 yds. Wide & the other is 70 yds wd. and heads Close to the R.

Dumoin The Aieways Nation have a Village on the head of these River they run through an even Countrey and is navagable for Perogues Cap Lewis took Medn. altd. of sun U. L with Octant, back obsvn. made it 37° 12' 00" — delayd 11/2 hours.

Capt. Lewis Killed a large Buck, passed a large Isd. called Shecco and Camped in a Prarie on the L. S. I walked out three miles, found the prarie composed of good Land and plenty of water roleing & interspursed with points of timberd land, Those Praries are not like those, or a number of those E. of the Mississippi Void of every thing except grass, they abound with Hasel Grapes & a wild plumb of a Superior quallity, called the Osages Plumb Grows on a bush the hight of a Hasel and hang in great quantities on the bushes I Saw great numbers of Deer in the Praries, the evening is Cloudy, our party in high Spirits.



[Clark, June 11, 1804]

11 June Monday — as the wind blew all this day from the N, W. which was imedeately a head we Could not Stur, but took the advantage of the Delay and Dried our wet articles examined provisons and Cleaned arms, my Cold is yet verry bad — the river begining to fall our hunters killed two Deer, G Drewry killed 2 Bear in the Prareie to day, men verry lively Danceing & Singing &c.



[Clark, June 11, 1804]

11th June 1804 Monday The N W. wind blew hard & Cold as this wind was imediately a head, we Could not proceed we took the advantage of this Delay and Dried our wet articles examin'd Provisions &c. &c. the river begining to fall the hunters killed two Deer G. Drewyer Killed two Bear in the Prarie, they were not fat. we had the meat Jurked and also the Venison, which is a Constant Practice to have all the fresh meat not used, Dried in this way.



[Clark, June 12, 1804]

12th of June, Tuesday We Set out early, passed thro a verry bad bend N. 25° W. 31/2 to apt. L. S. N. 70° W. 21/2 ms to apt. on S. S. passed a Sand bar-N 60° W 31/2 ms. to a pt. on S. S. passed Plumb. C at 1/2 a me. on L. S. and halted to Dine, and 2 Caussease Came Down from the Soux nation, we found in the party an old man who had been with the Soux 20 years & had great influence with them, we provld. on this old man Mr. Duriaur to return with us, with a view to get Some of the Soux Chiefs to go to the U. S. purchased 300 lb. of Voyagers Grece @ 5$ Hd. made Some exchanges & purchuses of Mockersons & found it Late & concluded to incamp.

Those people inform that no Indians are on the river, The Countrey on each Side of the river is good



[Clark, June 12, 1804]

12th of June, Tuesday 1804 Set out early passed Some bad Placies, and a Small Creek on the L. S. Called plumb Creek at abt. 1 me. at 1 oClock we brought too two Chaussies one Loaded with furs & Pelteries, the other with Greece buffalow grease & tallow We purchased 300 lb. of Greese, and finding that old Mr. Durioun was of the party we questioned him untill it was too late to Go further and Concluded to Camp for the night, those people inform nothing of much information Colcluded to take old Durioun back as fur as the Soux nation with a view to get some of their Chiefs to Visit the Presdt.

of the United S. (This man being a verry Confidential friend of those people, he having resided with the nation 20 odd years) and to accompany them on



[Clark, June 13, 1804]

13th June Wednesday we Set out early passed a verry round bend to L. S. passed two Creeks 1 me. apt. Called Creeks of the round Bend, between those Creeks Stbd S. is a butifull Prarie, in which the antient Missourie Indians had a Village, at this place 300 of them were killed by the Saukees, a fair Day. Passed the antient Missouries villages on right Course N 40° W 21/2 pt. L S., S 29° W 3 ms. pt. S. S., this nation once the Most Noumerous is now almost extinct, about 30 of them, liveing with Otteaus on the R. Platt, the remainder all distroyed, took altd. of S. U L with qdt. which gave N 28 W. 11/2 ms to a pt. S. S. Passed some Charming land, I have not Seen any high hils above Charliton and the hits below for Several days Cannot to turmed hills but high Land, not exceeding 100 abov the high water mark N 30° W, to a pt. L. S. 2 ms. passed a verry bad Sand bar, where the boat was nearly turning & fastening in the quick Sand and came too in the mouth of Grand R. S. S. this River is about 120 yards wide and navigable for Purogues a great distance, it heads with the River Dumoine, passing the river Carlton. a Butifull open Prarie Coms to the river below its mouth, we landed and walked to the hills which is abt. 1/2 a mile. the Lower prarie over flows. the hunters Killd. a Bare & Dere, this is a butifull place the Prarie rich & extinsive, Took Some Looner Observations which Kept Cap L. & my Self up untill half past 11 oClock.



[Clark, June 13, 1804]

13th June Wednesday, 1804 We Set out early passed a round bend to the S. S. and two Creeks Called the round bend Creeks between those two Creeks and behind a Small willow Island in the bend is a Prarie in which the Missouries Indians once lived and the Spot where 300 of them fell a Sacrifise to the fury of the Saukees This nation (Missouries) once the most noumerous nation in this part of the Continent now reduced to about 80 fes. and that fiew under the protection of the Otteaus on R Platt who themselves are declineing passed Som willow Isds. and bad Sand bars, Twook Medn. altitude with Octent back observation it gave for altd. on its Low L 36° 58' 0" the E Enstrement 2° 00' 00" +. the Hills or high land for Several days past or above the 2 Charletons does not exceed 100 foot passed a Batteau or Sand roleing where the Boat was nearly turning over by her Strikeing & turning on the Sand. We came too in the Mouth of Grand River on S. S. and Camped for the night, this River is from 80 to 100 yards wide at its Mouth and navagable for Perogues a great distance This river heads with the R. Dumoine below its mouth is a butifull Plain of bbttom land the hills rise at 1/2 a mile back

The lands about this place is either Plain or over flown bottom Capt Lewis and my Self walked to the hill from the top of which we had a butifull prospect of Serounding Countrey in the open Prarie we Caught a racoon, our hunters brought in a Bear & Deer we took Some Luner observation this evening.



[Clark, June 14, 1804]

14th June, Thursday We set out at 6 oClock after a thick fog proceeded on verry well S. 33 W 2 Ms. to the lower pt of an Isld. S. S. S. 60° W. thro a narrow 1 me channel to a Small prarie S. S. opposit this Isd. on L. L. is a Butifull high Plain. from the Isd. S. 70'W. to a pt. L. S. 21/2 ms. just below a piec of High Land on the S. S. Called the place of Snakes, passed the worst place I have Seen on L. S. a Sand bar makeing out 2/3 Cross the river Sand Collecting &c forming Bars and Bars washg a way, the boat Struck and turned, She was near oversetting we saved her by Some extrodany exertions of our party (ever ready to inconture any fatigue for the premotion of the enterpris), I went out to walk on the Sand Beech, & Killed a Deer & Turky during the time I was from the boat a Caussee came too from the Pania nation loaded with furs We gave them Some whiskey and Tobacco & Settled Some desputes & parted S. 5 E. 3 ms. to pt. on S. S. passed a Creek S. S. 25 yds. wd. Called Snake Creek or (____) passed a bad Sand bar S. S. in passing which we were obliged to run great Sesque of Loseing both Boat & men, Camped above, G. Drewyer tels of a remarkable Snake inhabiting a Small lake 5 ms. below which gobbles like a Turkey & may be herd Several miles, This Snake is of Size.



[Clark, June 14, 1804]

14th, June Thursday we Set out at 6 oClock, after a thick fog passed thro a narrow pass on the S. S. which forms a large Isd. opposit the upper point of this Island on the L. S. is one of the worst quick or moveing Sand bars which I have Seen not withstanding all our precaustons to Clear the Sands & pass between them (which was the way we were Compd. to pass from the immens Current & falling banks on the S. S.) the Boat Struck the point of one from the active exertions of the men, prevented her turning, if She had turned She must have overset. we met a Causseu from the Pania on the River Platt, we detained 2 hours with a view of engageing one of the hands to go to the Pania nation with a View to get those people to meet us on the river. I went out (Shot a Deer) we passd a highland &clay bluff on the S. S. Called the Snake bluff from the number of Snakes about this place, we passd a Creek above the Bluff about 18 yds. wide, This Creek is Called Snake Creek, a bad Sand bar Just below which we found difficuelty in passing & Campd above, our Hunters Came in. George Drewyer, gives the following act. of a Pond, & at abt. 5 miles below the S. S. Passed a Small Lake in which there was many Deer feeding he heard in this Pond a Snake makeing Goubleing Noises like a turkey. he fired his gun & the noise was increased, he has heard the indians Mention This Species of Snake one Frenchman give a Similar account



[Clark, June 15, 1804]

15 June Friday 1804, we Set out early proceeded on about 1 me. and the Boat turned on a Sawyer which was near doeing her great damage, the river is riseing fast & the water exceedingly Swift, passd. a bad Sand bar on which we Stuck for a Short time this is Said to be the worst part of the river and Camped opsd. the bend in which the Antient Villages of the little Osarge & Missouries, the lower or first of those villagies (L. Osages) is Situated in Butifull Plain at the foot of Some riseing land, in front of their Viliges next the river is a butifull bottom Plain in which they raised their Corn &c. back of the Village the high Prarie extends back to the Osarge River, about 3 Ms. above & in view the Missouries Nation resided under the protection of the Osarges, after their nation was riducd by the Saukees below, thos built their Village in the Same low Prarie and lived there many years, the war was So hot & both nations becom So reduced that the Little Osage & a fiew of the Missoures moved & built a village 5 ms near the Grand Osage, the rest of the Missoures went and took protection under the Otteaus on Platt river



[Clark, June 15, 1804]

15th, June, Friday 1804 Set out early and had not proceeded far e'er we wheeled on a Sawyer which was near injuring us Verry much, passed a plain on the L. S. a Small Isd. in the midle the river riseing, water verry Swift Passed a Creek on the L. S. passed between two Islands, a verry bad place, Moveing Sands, we were nearly being Swallowed up by the roleing Sands over which the Current was So Strong that we Could not Stem it with our Sales under a Stiff breese in addition to our ores, we were Compelled to pass under a bank which was falling in, and use the Toe rope occasionally, Continued up pass two other Small Islands and Camped on the S. S. Nearly opposit the Antient Village of the Little Osarges and below the Antt. Village of the Missoures both Situations in view an within three Ms. of each other, the Osage were Settled at the foot a hill in a butifell Plain which extends back quite to the Osage River, in front of the Vilg. Next to the river is an ellegent bottom Plain which extends Several miles in length on the river in this low Prarie the Missouries lived after They were reduced by the Saukees at Their Town Some Dists. below. The little osage finding themselves much oppressed by the Saukees & other nations, left this place & built a village 5 ms. from the Grand Osarge Town about ____ years ago. a few of the Missoures accompanied them, the remainder of that nation went to the Otteaus on the River Platt. The River at this place is about 1 ms. wide our hunters did not Come in this evening the river beginning to fall



[Clark, June 16, 1804]

16th June Satterday Set out at 7 oClock Proceed on N. 68°W. 21/2 ms. passed a Isd. close on the S. S. at the lower point Drewer & Willard had camped & had with them 2 bear & 2 Deer we took in the meat & proceeded on. Some rain this morning West 2 Ms. pass an Isd on S. S. & prarie, to a Belge of Snag Isd. L. S. a butifull extensive Prarie on S. S. Hills to about 9 ms. distant. Mr. Mackey has Laid down the rems. of an old fort in this Prarie, which I cannot find S 85 W. 1 me. along the Isd. L. S. — S 61° W alg L. S. 1 me. S 30° W, 3, ms. to pt. S. S. opsd. an Isd. & head of the last S 40° W 1 me. S. S. Passed a verry bad place where the Sand was moving constantly, I walked on Shore obsd. fine high Bottom land on S. S. Camped late this evening.



[Clark, June 16, 1804]

16th, June Satturday 1804 Set out at 7 oClock at about a mile 1/2 we Came to the Camp of our hunters, they had two Bear & two Deer proceeded on pass a Island on the S. S. a heavy rain came on & lasted a Short time, we came to on the S. S. in a Prarie at the place where Mr. Mackey lay down a old french fort, I could See no traces of a Settlement of any Kind, in this plain I discovered a Kind of Grass resembling Timothey which appeared well calculated for Hay, this Plain is verry extensive in the evening I walked on the S. S. to see if any timber was Convt. to make Oars, which we were much in want of, I found Som indifferent timber and Struck the river above the Boat at a bad Sand bar the worst I had Seen which the boat must pass or Drop back Several Miles & Stem a Swift Current on the opsd Side of an Isd. the Boat however assended the middle of the Streem which was diffucult Dangerious We Came to above this place at Dark and Camped in a bad place, the misquitoes and Ticks are noumerous & bad.



[Clark, June 17, 1804]

June 17 1804 Rope walk Camp The Current of the River at this place is a Stick will float 48 poles 6 feet in the rapidest part in 23 Seconds, further out is 34, Still further 65 — 74 — 78 — & 82 are the Trials we have made.



[Clark, June 17, 1804]

June 17 Sunday 1804 Cloudy Wind, S. E. Set out early S. 65° W 1 Me. Came too to Make ores, and a Cord for a Toe Rope all this day imployed in getting out Ores, & makeing for the use of the Boat out of a large Cable rope which we have, G Drewyer Came up a Bear & 2 Deer, also a fine horse which he found in the woods, Supposed to have been left by Some war party from the osages, The Ticks are numerous and large and have been trousom all the way and the Musquetors are beginning to be verry troublesome, my Cold Continues verry bad the French higherlins Complain for the want of Provisions, Saying they are accustomed to eat 5 & 6 times a day, they are roughly rebuked for their presumption, the Country about abounds in Bear Deer & Elk and the S. S. the lands are well timbered and rich for 2 ms. to a butifull Prarie which risies into hills At 8 or 9 ms. back — on the L. S a Prarie coms. on the bank which is high and contines back rich & well watered as far



[Clark, June 17, 1804]

June 17th Sunday 1804 (S. 65°W. me. S. Side-) Cloudy morning wind from the S. E. we Set out early and proceeded on one mile & came too to make oars, & repair our Cable & toe rope &c. &c. which was necessary for the Boat & Perogues, Sent out Sjt. Pryor and Some men to get ash timber for ores, and Set Some men to make a Toe Rope out of the Cords of a Cable which had been provided by Capt Lewis at Pitts burg for the Cable of the boat — George Drewyer our hunter and one man came in with 2 Deer & a Bear, also a young Horse, they had found in the Prarie, this horse has been in the Prarie a long time and is fat, I suppose he has been left by Some war party against the Osage, This is a Crossing place for the war partis against that nation from the Saukees, Aiaouez, & Souix. The party is much aflicted with Boils and Several have the Decissentary, which I contribute to the water

The Countrey about this place is butifull on the river rich & well timbered on the S. S. about two miles back a Prarie coms. which is rich and interspursud with groves of timber, the County rises at 7 or 8 miles Still further back and is roleing — on the L. S. the high lands & Prarie Corns. in the bank of the river and Continus back, well watered and abounds in Der Elk & Bear The Ticks & Musquetors are verry troublesom.



[Clark, June 18, 1804]

June 18th Monday Some raind last night, Sent out 6 Hunters to day across the R. they Killed 5 Deer & Colter a Bear verry fat we continue to repare our ropes & make oars all day, heavy rain all the fore pt. of the day, the party Drying meat & greesing themselves, Several men with the Disentary, and two thirds of them with ulsers or Boils, Some with 8 or 10 of those Turners Mesquetors verry bad we finish our Cords & oars this evening Men in Spirits



[Clark, June 18, 1804]

June 18th Monday Some rain last night, and Some hard Showers this morning which delay our work verry much, Send out Six hunters in the Prarie on the L S. they kill 5 Deer & Coltr a Bear, which verry large & fat, the party to wok at the oars, make rope, & jurk their meat all Day Dry our wet Sales &c. in the evening, The misquiter verry bad



[Clark, June 19, 1804]

June 19th Tuesday rain last night after fixing the new Oars and makeing all necessary arrangements, we Set out under a jentle breese from the S. E. and proceeded on passed two large Islands on the S. S. leaving J. Shields and one man to go by land with the horses Some verry hard water, passed Several Islands & Sand bars to day at the head of one we were obliged to cleare away Driftwood to pass, passed a Creek on the L. Side Called Tabboe 15 yds. wide passed a large Creek at the head of an Island Called Tiger River on the S. S. The Island below this Isd. is large and Called the Isle Of Panters, formed on the S. S. by a narrow Channel, I observed on the Shore Goose & Rasp berries in abundance in passing Some hard water round a Point of rocks on the L. S. we were obliged to take out the roape & Draw up the Boat for 1/2 a mile, we Came too on the L. S. near a Lake of the Sircumfrance of Several miles Situated on the L. S. about two miles from the river this Lake is Said to abound in all kinds of fowls, great quanties of Deer frequent this Lake dureing Summer Season, and feed on the hows &c. &c. they find on the edgers the Lands on the North Side of the river is rich and Sufficiently high to afford Settlements, the Lds. on the South Side assends Gradually from the river not So rich, but of a good quallity and appear well watered



[Clark, June 20, 1804]

June 20th, Wednesday Set out after a heavy Shower of rain and proceeded on the Same Course of last night passed a large butifull Prarie on the S. S. opposit a large Island, Calld Saukee Prarie, a gentle breese from the S. W. Some butiful high lands on the L. S. passed Som verry Swift water to day, I saw Pelicans to day on a Sand bar, my servant York nearly loseing an eye by a man throwing Sand into it, we came too at the lower Point of a Small Island, the party on Shore we have not Seen Since we passed Tiger R — The Land appeard verry good on each Side of the River to day and well timbered, we took Some Loner observations, which detained us untill 1 oClock a butifull night but the air exceedingly Damp, & the mosquiters verry troublesom



[Clark, June 21, 1804]

21st June Thursday 1804 river raised 3 Inches last night after our bow man Peter Crousat a half Mahar Indian examined round this Small Isd. for the best water, we Set out determined to assd. on the North Side, and Sometimes rowing Poleing & Drawing up with a Strong Rope we assended without wheeling or receving any damige more than breakeing one of my S. Windows, and looseing Some oars which were Swong under the windows

Two men Sent out to hunt this afternoon Came in with a Deer, at Sun Set The ellement had every appearance of wind, The hunters inform me that the high Countrey on the S. S. is of a good quallity, and well timbd. The High lands on the L. Side is equally good The bottom land on this river is alike, 1st low and covd. with Cotton wood & willows Subject to over flow the 2nd is higher groth Cotton Walnut ash Mulberry Linn & Sycomore



[Clark, June 21, 1804]

21st June Thursday The river rose 3 Inches last night after the Bows man Peter Crousat viewed The water on each Side of the Island which presented a most unfavourable prospect of Swift water over roleing Sands which rored like an immence falls, we Concluded to assend on the right Side, and with much dificuilty, with the assistance of a long Cord or Tow rope, & the anchor we got the Boat up with out any furthr dang. than Bracking a Cabbin window & loseing Some oars which were Swong under the windows, passed four Isds to day two large & two Small, behind the first large Island two Creeks mouth Called (1) Eue-bert Creek & River & Isd. the upper of those Creeks head against the Mine River & is large, passed a verry remarkable bend in the River to the S. forming an accute angle, the high lands come to the river on the S. S. opposit the upper large Island, this Isd. is formed by a narrow chanel thro. the Pt. of the remarkable bend just mentiond below this Isd. on the L. S. is a Couenter Current of about a mile — passed between Several Small Islands Situated near the L. Side and camped above on the Same Side, Two men Sent out to hunt this evening brought in a Buck & a pore Turkey.

at Sun Set the atmespier presented every appearance of wind, Blue & white Streeks Centering at the Sun as She disappeared and the Clouds Situated to the S. W, Guilded in the most butifull manner. The Countrey and Lands on each Side of the river is various as usial and may be classed as follows. viz: the low or over flown points or bottom land, of the groth of Cotton & Willow, the 2nd or high bottom of rich furtile Soils of the groth of Cotton, Walnut, Som ash, Hack berry, Mulberry, Lynn & Sycamore. the third or high Lands risees gradually from the 2nd bottom (cauht whin it Coms to the river then from the river) about 80 or 100 foot roleing back Supplied with water the Small runs of (which losees themselves in the bottom land) and are covered with a variety of timber Such as Oake of different Kinds Blue ash, walnut &c. &c. as far as the Praries, which I am informed lie back from the river at some places near & others a great Distance



[Clark, June 22, 1804]

22nd June Friday after a Violent gust of wind accompanied with rain from the West, which commenced at Day brake, and lasted about one hour, we Set out under a gentle Breeze from the N W. and proceeded on S. 14°W. 21/2 ms. to pt. on L. S. Ord Killed a goose, S 25 W 3 Ms. to a pt. on S. S. psd. Snags and Swift water on the S. S. — S. 66° W. 1/2 a me. on S pt. N 60 W 41/2 me. to pt. L. S. passed a large Isd. on the S. S. (Ferenthiers Thermometr at 3 oClock P.M. 87 d which is 11 d above Summr heat) and one on the L. S. opposit against which there is a handsom Prarie of high Bottom & up Land, Capt Lewis went out in this Prarie & walked Several miles, Come to opposit the mouth of a large Creek on the S. S. Called River of the Fire Prarie at the mouth of this creek the party on Shore Shields & Collins was camped waiting for our arrival & inform that they Pass'd thro Some fine Lands, and well watered G D. Killed a fine Bear to day



[Clark, June 22, 1804]

22nd June Friday river rose 4 Inchs last night. I was waken'd before day light this morning by the guard prepareing the boat to receve an apparent Storm which threttened violence from the West at day light a violent wind accompanied with rain cam from the W. and lasted about one hour, it Cleared away, and we Set out and proceeded on under a gentle breeze from the N. W. passed Some verry Swift water Crouded with Snags, pass two large Island opposit each other, and immediately opposit a large & extensive Prarie on the Labd Side, This Prarie is butifull a high bottom for 11/2 a mile back and risees to the Common leavel of the Countrey about 70 or 80 feet and extends back out of view. Capt. L walked on Shore a few miles this after noon (at 3 oClock P M. Ferents Thermometer Stood at 87°: = to 11 d above Summer heat) we came to on the L. Side opposit the mouth of a large Creek Called the River of the Fire Prarie, at the mouth of this Creek the Party on Shore were waiting our arrival, they informed that the Lands thro which they passed was fine & well watered



[Clark, June 23, 1804]

23rd June Satturday Some wind this morning from the N W. Set out at 7 oC Proceeded on N. 70 d. W 2 Ms. to an Isd. Close on the S. S. I went on Shore & walked up thro a rich bottom for about Six miles, Killed a Deer & much fatigued N. 75 E. to a point in a bend L. S. 11/2 the river fell 8 Inches last night.



[Clark, June 23, 1804]

23rd June Satturday Some wind this morning from the N. W. we Set out at 7 oClock, and proceeded on to the head of a Island on the S. S. the wind blew hard and down the river which prevented the Pty moveing from this Island the whole day, Cap. Lewis had the arms examined &c. at the lower end of this Island I got out of the boat to walk on Shore, & expected the party on Shore would overtake me at the head of the Island, they did not & I proceeded on round a round and extensive bend in the river, I Killed a Deer & made a fire expecting the boat would Come up in the evening. the wind continueing to blow prevented their moveing, as the distance by land was too great for me to return by night I concluded to Camp, Peeled Some bark to lay on, and geathered wood to make fires to Keep off the musquitor & Knats. Heard the party on Shore fire, at Dark Drewyer came to me with the horses, one fat bear & a Deer, river fell 8 Inches last night



[Lewis and Clark, June 24, 1804]

Sunday June 24th set out at 1/2 after six continuing the course on the Lard. side N. 80 E 1/4 of a mile to point Lard. N. 551/4 of a mile to point Lard. Due west to a point Stard 3 miles good water

(I joined the Boat theis morning with a fat Bear & two Deer, last evining I Struck the river about 6 miles (by land) abov the Boat, and finding it too late to get to the Boat, and the wind blowing So hard Down the river that She could not assend, I concluded to Camp, altho I had nothing but my hunting Dress, & the Musquitors Ticks & Knats verry troublesom, I concid to hunt on a Willow Isd. Situated close under the Shore, in Crossing from an Island, I got mired, and was obliged to Craul oat, a disegreeable Situation & a Diverting one of any one who Could have Seen me after I got out, all Covered with mud, I went my Camp & Craped off the Mud and washed my Clothes, and fired off my gun which was answered by George Drewyer who was in persute of me & came up at Dark we feasted of meet & water the latter we made great use of being much fatigued & thirsty — The meet which hung up near the water a large Snake made Several attempts to get to it and was so Detirmined that I Killed him in his attempt, the Snake appeared to make to that part of the meet which Contained the milk of a Doe, On this part of the River I observe great quantites of Bear Sign, they are after Mulbiries which are in great quantities)

N 85 d W. 41/2 ms. to a pt. on L Side, Came to above the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. abt. 20 yds. Wide Called Hay Cabbin Creek Latd. of this place is 38° 37'5" North — Capt. Lewis took Sergt. Floyd and walked on Shore, George Drewyer Killed 2 Deer R Fields Killed a Deer dureing the time we wer Jurking the meet I brought in, West 1/2 ml. along the L. S.

S 21° W. 3 ms. to a pt. on the S. S. pass 2 Creek on the S. S. just above Some rocks Some distance from Shore 1 of These Creek is Called Sharriton-Cartie, a Prarie on the L. S. near the river. Capt Lewis Killed a Deer, & Collins 3. emince number of Deer on both Sides of the river, we pass between two Sand bars at head of which we had to raise the boat 8 Inch to get her over, Camped at the Lower point of a Isd. on the L S. the Party in high Spirits.



[Clark, June 24, 1804]

24th, June Sunday Set out at half after Six. I joined the boat this morng at 8 oClock (I will only remark that dureing the time I lay on the band waiting for the boat, a large Snake Swam to the bank imediately under the Deer which was hanging over the water, and no great distance from it, I threw chunks and drove this Snake off Several times. I found that he was So determined on getting to the meet I was Compelld to Kill him, the part of the Deer which attracted this Snake I think was the milk from the bag of the Doe.) I observed great quts. of Bear Signs, where they had passed in all Directions thro the bottoms in Serch of Mulberries, which were in great numbers in all the bottoms thro which our party passed.)

Passed the mouth of a Creek 20 yds. wide name Hay Cabbin Creek from camps of Straw built on it came to about 1/2 me. above this Creek & jurked, the meet killed yesterday and this morning Lattitude of this place 38° 37' 5" N. Capt. Lewis walked on Shore & Killed a Deer, pass a bad part of the river, on the S. S. the rocks projected into the river Some distance, a Creek above Called Sharston Carta, in the evening we Passed thro betwen two Sand bars at the head we had to raise the Boat 8 Inches together over, Camped near the lower point of an Island on the L. Side, party in high Spirrits. The Countrey on each Side of the river is fine interspersed with Praries, in which imence herds of Deer is Seen, on the banks of the river we observe numbers of Deer watering and feeding on the young willow, Several Killed to day



[Clark, June 25, 1804]

Monday June 25th a heavy fog Detaind us about an hour Set out passed the Isd on a course from the last point S 49° W, 3 Ms to a point on the S. S. S 55° W 1/2 Me. S. S. a Coal-Bank on the opposit or L. S Side, this bank appears to Contain great quantity of excellente CoaL the wind from the N. W a Small Creek Called Coal or (Chabonea)3 N 50° W to the Pt, L. S. 31/2 Miles Hard water & logs, Bank falling in, Passed a Small Creek L. S. Called Labeenie a Prarie is Situated on the S. S. a Short Distance from the river, which contains great quantities of wild apples of the Size of the Common apple, the French Say is well flavered when ripe, which is the time the leaves begin to fall N 70°W 1/2 me. along the right Side of a Willow Isd. Situated on the L. Side S. 80° W 1/2 me. L. S. S 55° W. 1/2 me. to Pt. of Smal Isd. L. S. S 15° W 1/2 me. L. S. — S. 2° E 2 me. pt on Lbd S. (here I will only remark that the Deer in the Morning & evening are feeding in great numbers on the banks of the River, they feed on young willow, and amuse themselves running on the open beeches or points) We have hard water this afternoon round the heads of Small Islds. on the L. Side below a Small High Prarie S. 48° W. 2 Ms. pt. S. S. passd. a small Isd. on which we Camped The party on Shore did not join us to day, or have we Seen or her of them river falling fast about 8 Inches in 24 hours, the Hills on the L. S. this evening higher than usial about 160 or 180 feet. the lands appear of a Simalier to those passed



[Clark, June 25, 1804]

25th, June Monday a thick fog detained us untile 8 oClock, passed a Island, at 3 miles passed a Coal-mine, or Bank of Stone Coal, on the South Side, this bank appears to Contain great quantity of fine Coal, the river being high prevented our Seeeing that contained in the Cliffs of the best quallity, a Small Creek mouth's below This bank Call'd after the bank Chabonea Creek the Wind from the N. W. passed a Small Creek on the L. Side at 12 oClock, Called Bennet's Creek The Praries Come within a Short distance of the river on each Side which Contains in addition to Plumbs Raspberries & vast quantities of wild apples, great numbs. of Deer are seen feeding on the young willows & earbage in the Banks and on the Sand bars in the river. our party on Shores did not join us this evening we Camped on an Island Situated on the S. Side, opposit some hills higher than Common, Say 160 or 180 feet above the Bottom. The river is Still falling last night it fell 8 Inches



[Clark, June 26, 1804]

June 26th Tuesday 1804 we Set out early, the river falling a little, the wind from the S. W. Passed the mouth of a Small river on the L. Side above the upper point of a Small Island, Called Blue water river, this river heads in Praries back with the Mine River about 30 yds. wide Lattitude of a pt. 4 ms. above this river is 38° 32' 15" North, the high lands which is on the Northe Side does not exceed 80 feet high, at this Place the river appears to be Confd. in a verry narrow Channel, and the Current Still more So by Couenter Current or Whirl on one Side & high bank on the other, passed a Small Isd. in the bend to the L. Side we Killed a large rattle Snake, Sunning himself in the bank passed a bad Sand bar, where our tow rope broke twice, & with great exertions we rowed round it and Came to & Camped in the Point above the Kansas River lobserved a great number of Parrot queets this evening, our Party Killed Several 7 Deer to day



[Clark, June 27, 1804]

June 27th, Wednesday a fair warm morning, the river rose a little last night. we determin to delay at this Place three or four Days to make observations & recruit the party Several men out Hunting, unloaded one Perogue, and turned her up to Dry with a view of repairing her after Completeing a Strong redoubt or brest work frome one river to the other, of logs & Bushes Six feet high, The Countrey about the mouth of this river is verry fine on each Side as well as the North of the Missouries the bottom, in the Point is low, & overflown for 250 yards. it rises a little above high water mark and Continus up that hight of good quallity back to the hills ____ A high Clift, on the upper Side of the Kansis 1/2 a mile up below the Kanses the hills is about 11/2 miles from the point on the North Side of the Missouries the Hill or high lands is Several miles back, we compareed the instrmts Took equal altitudes, and the Meridian altituade of the Suns L L to day Lattitude 38° 31' 13" Longitude ____ Measured The width of the Kansas River by an angle and made it 230 yds 1/4 wide, it is wider above the mouth the Missouries at this place is about 500 yards wide, The Course from the Point down the midle. of the Missourie is S. 32° E, & turns to the North. up is N 21°W. up the right side of the Kansas is S. 54° E, & the river turns to the left, Several Deer Killed to day.



[Clark, June 28, 1804]

28 June Thursday took equal altitudes &c. &c. &c. & varaitian of the Compass repaired the Perogue Cleaned out the Boat Suned our Powder wollen articles examined every thing 8 or 10 huntrs. out to day in different direction, in examineing our private Store of Provisions we found Several articles Spoiled from the wet or dampness they had received, a verry warm Day, the wind from the South, The river Missourie has raised yesterday last night & to day about 2 foot. this evening it is on a Stand, Capt. Lewis weighed the water of the Two rivers The Missouris 78° The Kansais 72° To Describe the most probable of the various accounts of this great river of the Kansas, would be too lengthy & uncertain to insert here, it heads with the river Del Norid in the black Mountain or ridge which Divides the waters of the Kansas Del Nord, & Callarado & oppsoitly from those of the Missoureis (and not well assertaind) This River recves its name from a nation which dwells at this time on its banks & 2 villages one about 20 Leagues & the other 40 Leagues up, those Indians are not verry noumerous at this time, reduced by war with their neighbours, &c. they formerly liveid on the South banks of the Missouries 24 Leagues above this river in a open & butifull plain and were verry noumerous at the time the french first Settled the Illinois, I am told they are a fierce & warlike people, being badly Supplied with fire arms, become easily conquered by the Aiauway & Saukees who are better furnished with those materials of war, This nation is now out in the plains hunting the Buffalow our hunters Killed Several Deer and Saw Buffalow, men impd Dressing Skins & makeing themselves Comfortable, the high lands Coms to the river Kanses on the upper Side at about a mile, full in view, and a butifull place for a fort, good landing place, the waters of the Kansas is verry disigreeably tasted to me.



[Clark, June 29, 1804]

29th of June 1804, Set out from the Kansas river 1/2 past 4 oClock, proceeded on passed a Small run on the L. S. at 1/2 Mile a (1) Island on the S. S. at 11/2 me. Hills above the upr. pt of Isd. L. S. a large Sand bar in the middle. Passed a verry bad place of water, the Sturn of the Boat Struck a moveing Sand & turned within 6 Inches of a large Sawyer, if the Boat had Struck the Sawyer, her Bow must have been Knocked off & in Course She must hav Sunk in the Deep water below Came to & camped on the S. S. late in the eveninge.



[Clark, June 29, 1804]

29th June Friday obsvd. the distance of (D & )),took Equal & maridinal altd. and after makeing Some arrangements, and inflicting a little punishment to two men we Set out at 1/2 past 4 oClock and proceeded on (i ) passed a large Island on the S. Side, opposit a large Sand bar, the Boat turned and was within Six Inches of Strikeing the rapidity with which the Boat turned was so great that if her bow had Struck the Snag, She must have either turned over or the bow nocked off S W wind



[Clark, June 29, 1804]

Camp mouth of the Kanseis June 29th 1804. Ordered a Court martial will Set this day at 11 oClock, to Consist of five members, for the trial of John Collins and Hugh Hall, Confined on Charges exhibited against them by Sergeant Floyd, agreeable to the articles of War.

Detail for the Court

Sergt Nat. Pryor presd.

mbs: 2 John Colter 3 John Newmon 4 Pat. Gass 1 J. B. Thompson

John Potts to act as judge advocate.

The Court Convened agreeable to order and proceeded to the trial of the Prisoners Viz John Collins Charged "with getting drunk on his post this morning out of whiskey put under his Charge as a Sentinal and for Suffering Hugh Hall to draw whiskey out of the Said Barrel intended for the party"

To this Charge the prisoner plead not guilty.

The Court after mature deliveration on the evidence abduced &c. are of oppinion that the prisoner is Guilty of the Charge exibited against him, and do therefore Sentence him to recive one hundred Lashes on his bear Back.

Hugh Hall was brought with "takeing whiskey out of a Keg this morning which whiskey was Stored on the Bank (and under the Charge of the guard) Contrary to all order, rule, or regulation"

To this Charge the prisoner "Pleades Guilty."

The Court find the prisoner guilty and Sentence him to receive fifty Lashes on his bear Back.

The Commanding Officers approve of the Sentence of the Court and orders that the Punishment take place at half past three this evening, at which time the party will Parrade for inspection-



[Clark, June 29, 1804]

at the Mouth of the River Kansies June 26" 27" 28 & 29th- This river is 366 miles above the mouth of Missouri it is in Lattitude 38° 31' 13" North

it is 230 yds. wide at its mouth & wider above from the point up the Missourie for about 3 ms. N. 21° W, Down the Middle of the Missourie is S. 32° E, up the upper bank of the Kansais, is S. 54° E the river turns to the East above a pt. of high land, well Situated for a fort & in view of the Missouris one mile up & on the upper Side, the width of the Missouris at this place is about 500 yds.

Missourie Water weighs 78. The Kanseis weghs 72 river Miss raised in the time at the Kanseis 2 foot and begun to fall.

The wood land on each side of the Mouth of this river is extensive and of a good quallity as far as our hunters was back, but badly watered with Springs, only two being Seen by them

Some punishment of two men Hall & Collins for takeing whiskey out of the Barrel last night agreeable to the Sentences of a Court Mtl of the party who we have always found verry ready to punish Such Crimes

Many Deer Killed to day

Allarm post or order of Battle arms to be Situated & the Duty &c. Messes of men under a Serjiant who is to detail for every day one man of his Squad to Cook &c. who Shall have the management of the provisions dureing that day or issue, each Days rations must be divided &c. &c Order of encampment, Tents, fires & Duty



[Clark, June 30, 1804]

30th June, Set out verry early this Morng Saw a verry large wolf on the Sand bar this morning walking near a gange of Turkeys (1) at 10 miles above the Kansis passed the mouth of a Small River Call the (Petite Plate) or the little Shole river, this river is about 70 yds. Wide and has Several rapids & falls, well Calculatd for mills, the land on this river is Said to be Roaling, Killed 2 Deer Bucks Swinging the river the wind from the S. W. here we opened the Bag of Bread given us by which we found verry good, our Bacon which was given us by we examined and found Sound and good Some of that purchased in the Illinois Spoiled, a relish of this old bacon this morning was verry agreeable, Deer to be Seen in every direction and their tracks ar as plenty as Hogs about a farm, our hunts. Killed 9 Deer to day the land below the last river is good, that above, between the two rivers which is near together is Slaik'y and bad on the N. Side, the other Side is good land, Landed on the L. S. below an Isd called Dimond Island



[Clark, June 30, 1804]

30th June Satturday 1804 Set out verry early this morning, a verry large wolf Came to the bank and looked at us this morning, passd the (1) mouth of a Small river 10 ms. above the Kanseis Called by the french Petite River Platte (or Shoal river) from the number of falls in it, this river is about 60 yards wide at its mouth and runs Parrilel with the Missouries for ten or twelve miles, I am told that the lands on this Small river is good, and on its Several falls well Calculated for mills, the wind from S. W. came to at 12 oClock & rested three hours, the... being hot the men becom verry feeble, Farnsts. Thermometer at 3 oClock Stood at 96° above 0, emence numbs. of Deer on the banks, Skipping in every derection, the party Killed nine Bucks on the river & Bank to day, The Countrey on the S. S. between the Shoal River & Missouris is indifferent Subject to overflow, that below and on the L. S. is high & appers well timbered, Camped on the L. S. opsd. the Lower point of a Isd. Called diamond Island, Broke our mast



[Clark, July 1, 1804]

July 1st 1804, last night one of the Sentinals Chang'd either a man or Beast, which run off, all prepared for action, Set out early passed the Dimond Isd. pass a Small Creek on the L. S. as this Creek is without name we Call it Biscuit Creek Brackfast on the upper point of a Sand beech, The river still falling a little a verry warm Day. I took Some medison last night which has worked me very much party all in helth except Boils-

passed a Sand bar in the river above the Isd. Covered for a me. with Drift Wood, Came to Capt Lewis took Medn. altitude & we delayed three hours, the day being excessively hot, Turkeys are plenty on the Shore, G. Drewyer inform that he Saw PueCanns Trees on S. S. yesterday great quantities of raspburies an Grapes, (2) pass a Creek on the L. S. called remore (Tree Frog) Creek, an Isd above in the Mid. and 2 Willow Isds on the S. S. all of the Same name; The two Willow Isds. has been made within 3 years & the Main Chant. runs now on the L S. of the large Island where there was no runing water at low water from this Island the range of Hills up the river to the N, W, pass a run on the L. S. a Butifull extensive Prarie, Two Islands just above Called (Isles des Parques) or Field Islands, those Islands are, one of our French hands tels me that the French intended to Settle here once & brought their Cows and put them on those Islands, Mr Mackey Says the first village of the Kanseis was a little above this Island & made use of as fields, no trace of anything of that Kind remains to be Seen on the Isds. fine Land on the L. Side, Hills near the river all day, Camped on the lower pot. of 1st Isd.



[Clark, July 1, 1804]

July 1st, Sunday 1804 a Small allarm last night all prepared for action, Set out early this morning passed on the North Side of Dimond Island, a Small Creek mouths opposit I call Biscuit Creek, — a large Sand bar in the middle of the river 11/2 ms. above the Isd. Covered with Drift wood. river fall a little. The wind from S. W. Came to above this Drift and delayed three hours to refresh the men who were verry much over powered with the heat, Great quantity of Grapes & raspberries, (2) passed a Small Creek on the L. S. below one large and two small Islands. This Creek and Isds. are Called Remore (or Tree Frog) a large Pond on the S. S., the main Current of Water run'g on the L. S. of the Island, I am told that Three years ago the main Current run on the S. S. of the Island and no appearance of the two Smaller Islands, Camped on the lower point of one of the two large & 2 Small Isds. Called Isles des Parques or field Islds a high butifull Prarie on the L. S. one of the french hands Says "that the french Kept their Cattle & horses on those Islands at the time they had in this quarter a fort & trading establishment."

paecaun Trees Seen on the S. S. Deer and turkeys in great quantities on the bank



[Clark, July 2, 1804]

July the 2nd 1804 Set out verry early this morning passd on the Left of the Isles des parques High butifull Situation — on the L S. the land indifferent lands a Creek coms in on the S. S. Called parques, all at once the river became Crowded with drift that it was dangerous to cross this I Suppose was from the caveing in of the banks at the head of Some Island above, (3) passed a Creek on the L. S. called Turquie or Turkey Creek passed a verry bad Sand bar on the L. S. the 20 Oars & Poals could with much dificuelty Stem the Current, passed a large Island on the S. S. Called by the Inds. Wau-car-ba war-con-da or the Bear Medison Island, at 12 oClock came to on the Island and put in a mast, detained four hours, exceedingly hot, wind in forepart of the day from the S. E, George Drewyer informs that the Lands he pass through yesterday & to day on the S. S. was generally Verry fine he Saw two Springs of fresh water near the Island, Deer Sign has become So Common it is hardly necessary to mention them, we Camped after dark on the S. S. opposit the 1st old Village of the Kanzas which was Situated in a Valley between two points of high land, on the river back of their village commenced an extensive Prarie a large Island in front which appears to have made on that Side and thrown the Current of the river against the place the Village formerly Stood, and washes away the bank in that part. The french formerly had a Fort at this place, to protect the trade of this nation, the Situation appears to be a verry elligable one for a Town, the valley rich & extensive, with a Small Brook Meanding through it and one part of the bank affording yet a good Landing for Boats The High Lands above the Fere river on each Side of the Missouries appear to approach each other much nearer than below that plaice, being from 3 to 6 miles between them, to the Kansas, above that place from 3 to 5 Ms. apart and higher Some places being 160 or 180 feet the river not So wide We made a Mast of Cotton wood, to day in the Course of the evening & night it turned of a butifull red Colour



[Clark, July 2, 1804]

July 2nd, 1804 Set out early and proceeed on the left of the islands, two of which are large a high bottom Situated on the L. S. passed the mouth of a Creek on the S. S. Called Turquie Creike, at this place I observed that the river was Crouded with Drift wood, and dangerous to pass as this dead timber Continued only about half an our, I concluded that Some Island of Drift had given way (3) passed a Creek on the L. S. called Turky Creek, a bad Sand bar on the L. S. we could with dificuelty Stem the Current with our 20 oars & and all the poles we had, passed a large Island on the S. S. Called by the Indians Wau-car-ba war-cand-da or the Bear Medesin Island, at 12 oClock landed on the Island & put up a mast which detained us four hours — a verry hot day winds from the S. E. — George Drewyer inform's that the Lands he passed through yesterday and to day on the S. S. was verry fine, few Springs, we Camped after dark on the S. S. above the Island & opposit the 1st old village of the Kanzes which was Situated in a valley, between two points of high Land, and imediatly on the river bank, back of the village and on a riseing ground at about one mile The French had a garrison for Some time and made use of water out of a Spring running into Turkey Creek. an extensive Prarie, as the Current of the river Sets against the banke and washes it away the landing place for Boats is indifferent — The high lands above the Fire river, approaches nearer each than below, being from 3 to 6 miles distant and above Kansas from 3 to 5 miles distant and the Hills at Some places are from 160 to 180 feet above the bottom







[Clark, July 3, 1804]

July 3rd 1804 Set out verry early this morning and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the South passed two Islands one a Small Willow Island on the L. S. (1) The other a large Island Called Cow 1. (Isle Vache), this Island is large, opposit to the head on the S. S. is a (2) large Pond, a Bad Sand bar on the S. S. we attemptd without Success, & was oblige to Cross back, I Saw a White horse on the L. S. in view of the upper point of the Island, (3) passed a large Sand bar at the S. point, we halted to day about a mile above the Island and found a horse, which had been lost by the Indians, verry fat and jentle, Sent him on to join the others which was ahead on the L S at this place, the french had a tradeing house, for to trade with the Kanzes on a high bottom on the L. S. near the hills which is Prarie proceeded on round a large Sand bar on the L. S. & Camped (opposit a large Sand bar in the middle of the river). on the L. S. a Butifull Small Stream passes back of the trading house, before mentioned



[Clark, July 3, 1804]

July 3rd, Tusday 1804 Set out verry early this morning and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. passed two Islands (1) one a Small willow Island on the L. S. the other large Called by the french Isle de Vache or Cow Island, opposit the head on the S. S. is a large Pond Containg Beever, & fowl, a bad Sandbar on the S. S. above the Island, on the L. S. we halted at an old Tradeing house, here we found a verry fat horse, which appears to have been lost a long time a butifull Small run passes back of the Tradeing house near the high land, we came to at a round bend on the L. S. and Camped



[Clark, July 4, 1804]

July 4th Wednesday 1804, Set out early passed the mouth of a Beyeue leading from a Lake on the S. S. this Lake is large and was once the bend of the River, it reaches Parrelel for Several miles, Came to on the L. S. to Dine & rest a Short time, a Snake bit Jo. Fields on the Side of his foot which Swelled much, apply Barks to the wound, pass a Creek on the L. S. about 15 yards wide cuming out of an extensive Prarie as this Creek has no name, and this day is the 4th of July, we name this Independance us. Creek above this Creek the wood land is about 200 yards, back of those wood is an extensive Prarie open and high, which may be Seen six or seven below — Saw great Nos. of Goslins to day nearly Grown, the last mentioned prarie I call Jo Fields Snake Prarie, Capt Lewis walked on Shore & Saw a large moun & 3 roads leading We Camped in the plain one of the most butifull Plains, I ever Saw, open & butifully diversified with hills & vallies all presenting themselves to the river covered with grass and a few scattering trees a handsom Creek meandering thro at this place the Kansaw Inds. formerly lived and had a verry large Town passed a Creek (4) I observed Spring braking out of the bank, a good Situation for a fort on a hill at the upper part

The Plains of this countrey are covered with a Leek Green Grass, well calculated for the sweetest and most norushing hay-interspersed with Cops of trees, Spreding ther lofty branchs over Pools Springs or Brooks of fine water. Groops of Shrubs covered with the most delicious froot is to be seen in every direction, and nature appears to have exerted herself to butify the Senery by the variety of flours Delicately and highly flavered raised above the Grass, which Strikes & profumes the Sensation, and amuses the mind throws it into Conjecterng the cause of So magnificent a Senerey in a Country thus Situated far removed from the Sivilised world to be enjoyed by nothing but the Buffalo Elk Deer & Bear in which it abounds & Savage Indians

The names of the french Ingishees, or Hirelens-

in Perogue

1 Battist de Shone Patrn
2 Joseph Le bartee
3 Lasoness
4 Paul Preemau
5 Chalo
6 E. Cann
7 Roie
8 Charlo Cougee

in the large Boat
*J. Le bartee
Rivee

bow men
Pieter Crousatt half Indian
William La Beice Mallat

3 Sergts. & 23 men for the Boat
George Drewyer. Hunter & 4 Horses
1 Corpl & 4 Privates in a Perogue to be Sent back from Plate river
Mr. Dueron inteptr for the Sues Capt. Lewis my Self & York
in all 46 men July 4th 4 horses & a Dog



[Clark, July 4, 1804]

July 4th Wednesday ussered in the day by a discharge of one shot from our Bow piece, proceeded on, passed the mouth of a (1) Bayeau lading from a large Lake on the S. S. which has the apperance of being once the bed of the river & reaches parrelel for Several Miles Came to on the L. S. to refresh ourselves &. Jos. Fields got bit by a Snake, which was quickly doctered with Bark by Cap Lewis. (2) Passed a Creek 12 yds. wide on L. S. comeing out of an extensive Prarie reching within 200 yards of the river, as, this Creek has no name, and this being the we Dine (on corn) the 4th of July the day of the independance of the U. S. call it 4th of July 1804 Creek, Capt. Lewis walked on Shore above this Creek and discovered a high moun from the top of which he had an extensive view, 3 paths Concentering at the moun Saw great numbers of Goslings to day which Were nearly grown, the before mentioned Lake is clear and Contain great quantities of fish an Gees & Goslings, The great quantity of those fowl in this Lake induce me to Call it the Gosling Lake, a Small Creek & Several Springs run in to the Lake on the East Side from the hills the land on that Side verry good — (3) We came to and camped in the lower edge of a Plain where 2d old Kanzas village formerly Stood, above the mouth of a Creek 20 yds wide this Creek we call Creek Independence as we approached this place the Praree had a most butifull appearance Hills & Valies interspsd with Coops of Timber gave a pleasing deversity to the Senery. the right fork of Creek Independence Meandering thro the middle of the Plain a point of high Land near the river givs an allivated Situation. at this place the Kanzas Indians formerley lived. this Town appears to have covd. a large Space, the nation must have been noumerous at the time they lived here, the Cause of their moveing to the Kanzas River, I have never heard, nor Can I learn; war with their neghbors must have reduced this nation and Compelled them to retire to a Situation in the plains better Calculated for their defence and one where they may make use of their horses with good effect, in persueing their enemey, we Closed the by a Discharge from our bow piece, an extra Gill of whiskey.



[Clark, July 5, 1804]

July the 5th 1804 Set out verry early this morning, Swam the horse across the river, proceeded on for two miles under the bank where the old Kansas town formerly stood The Cause of those people moveing from this place I cannot learn, but naterally conclude that War has reduced their nation & compelled them to retire further into the Plains with a view of defending themselves & opposeing their enemey (more effectuall) on hors back (I neglected to mention yesterday that the Lake on the S. S. was large Say 3/4 me. wide & 7 or 8 long one creek & Several brooks running into it from the hills, it contains Great quantities of Sun fish & Gosling's from which we gave it the name,) passed Some verry bad Sand bars Situated parrelel to each other, (1) the Boat turned three times once on the ____ of a Drift wood. She recved no proceiviable damage, we came to for Dinner at a Beever house, Cap Lewis's Dog Seamon went in & drove them out. the high Lands on the L. S. is open, a few trees Scattering (2) passed a Small Creek on the L. S. in the 1s bend to the left I call yellow oaker creek from a bank of that Mineral just above. we camped on the L. S. under a high bank Latd. 39° 25' 41" North

on the banks of this river I observe great quants of Grapes, berries & roses Deer is not So plenty in this three days past as they were below that. Elks are plenty about those Praries. Some Buffalow Sign.



[Clark, July 5, 1804]

July 5th Thursday 1804 Set out verry early, proceeded on near the bank where the old village Stood for two miles, (Swam the hors found a few days ago) passed Some bad Sand bars, The Origan of this old village is uncertain M. de Bourgmont a French officer who Comdd. a fort near the Town of the Missouris in about the year 1724 and in July of the Same year he visited this Village at that time the nation was noumerous & well desposed towards the french Mr. Du Pratz must have been badly informed as to the Cane opposd this place we have not Seen one Stalk of reed or cane on the Missouries, he States that the "Indians that accompanied M De Bourgmont Crossed to the Canzes Village on floats of Cane"

Those people must have been verry noumerous at that time as Mr. De B. was accompanied by 300 Warriers, 500 young people & 300 Dogs of burthen out of this Village

The Cause of Those Indians moveing over to the Kanzis river I have never lernt — we passed Some bad Sand bars, Situated parrelel to each other (1) The Boat turned twice on the quick Sand & once on a raft of Drift, no procievable damage Prarie Contine on the high land on the L. S. passd a Small Creek (2) on L. S. in the first bend to the L S. I call Yellow-Oaker Creek from a quantity of that Mineral in a bank a little above

The river Continue to fall a little — I observe great quantities of Summer & fall Grapes, Berries & Wild roases on the banks — Deer is not so plenty as usual, great Deel of Elk Sign. (Wind from S E)



[Clark, July 6, 1804]

6th July Friday. We Set out early this morning & Proceeded on (the river falls Slowly) wind S. W) passed a Sand bar in 1st bend to the right (1) passed a Small Island at the S. pt. a verry warm day (worthy of remark that the water of this river or Some other Cause, I think that the most Probable throws out a greater preposn. of Swet than I could Suppose Could pass thro the humane body Those men that do not work at all will wet a Shirt in a Few minits & those who work, the Swet will run off in Streams) opposit the 3rd point passed a Prarie on the S. S. Called Reeveys Prarie (fro a man of that name being Killed in it) opposit this Prarie the river is Confined in a verry narrow Space Crowded on S. S. by Sands which were moveing and difficuelt to pass. the Hunts. Sent in 3 Deer Jurked on the 4th point of to day is a Small Island & a Sand bar 2 miles out in the river, this is Called the Grand Bend, or Grande de Tour, I walked on this Sand bar found it a light Sand intersperced with Small Pebbles of various Kinds, also pit Coal of an excellent quallity was lodged on the Sand, We camped on the L. S. at a small creek a whiper will perched on the boat for a Short time, I gave his name to the Creek



[Clark, July 6, 1804]

July 6th, Friday We Set out early this morning, wind from the S. W. passed a large Sand bar in the 1st. bend to the right. (1) passed a Small Island at the S. point opposit the 3rd point we passed a Prarie on the S. S. Called Reeveys Prarie at this place the river is Confined in a verry narrow Channel Crouded by a Sand bar from the L. Point This Sand bar from the L. Point, this Sand bar is verry bad, at the 4th Point from the S. S. is a verry extensive bar, at the Point of which is a Small willow Island this is Called the Grand Detour or Great bend

I walked on this Sand bar and found the Sand was light, with Collection of Small pebble, & some Pit Coal I observe that the men Swet more than is Common from Some Cause, I think the Missouries water is the principal Cause our hunters Sent in 3 Bucks today The river Still fall a little



[Clark, July 7, 1804]

7th of July Satturday 1804 Set out early passed Some verry Swift water on the L. S. which Compelled us to Draw up by the Cord. a verry warm morning, passed a butifull Prarie on the right Side which extends back, those Praries has much the appearance from the river of farms, Divided by narrow Strips of woods those Strips of timber grows along the runs which rise on the hill & pass to the river a Cleft above, one man sick (Frasure) Struck with the Sun, Saw a large rat on the Side of the bank, Killed a wolf on the Bank passed (2) a verry narrow part of the river, all confined within 200 yards, a yellow bank above, passed a Small willow Island on the S. point, (in Low water those Small Willow Islands are joined to the Sand bars makeing out from the Points) a pond on the S. S near the prarie we passed yesterday in which G D. Saw Several young Swans we Came to and Camped on the L. S. and two men Sent out last evening with the horses did not join us this evening agreeable to orders — a hard wind with Some rain from the N, E at 7 oClock which lasted half an hour, with thunder & lightning. river fall a little



[Clark, July 7, 1804]

July the 7th Satturday 1804 Set out early passed Some Swift water, which obliged us to draw up by roapes, a Sand bare at the point opposit a butifull Prarie on the S. Side Calld. (1) St. Michul, those Praries on the river has verry much the appearence of farms from the river Divided by narrow Strips of wood land, which wood land is Situatd. on the runs leading to the river. passed a Bluff of yellow Clay above the Prarie. Saw a large rat on the bank. Killed a Wolf. at 4 oClock pass a Verry narrow part of the river water Confd. in a bead not more than 200 yards wide at this place the Current runs against the L. Side. no Sand to Confine the Current on the S. S. passed a Small sand Island above the Small Islds. Situated at the points, in low water form a part of the Sand bars makeing out from those points

Incamped on the S. S. at 7 oClock a Violent Ghust of wind from the N. E. with Some rain, which lasted half an hour (G D. informs me that he Saw in a Pond on the S. S. which we passed yesterday; a number of young Swans-,) one man verry Sick, Struck with the Sun, Capt. Lewis bled him & gave Niter which has revived him much



[Clark, July 8, 1804]

8th of July Sunday Set out early this morning, the Sick man much better, Serjt. Oddeway was waiting at a Creek on the S. S. below an Island, passed (1) two Island on the S. S. and came to at the upper point, G Drewyer went out R. Fields & Guterich, five men Sick to day with a violent Head ake &c. and Several with Boils, we appoint a Cook to each mess to take Charge of the Provisions. in Serjt. Pryor's = Collens in Sjt. Ordway's Werner in Sergt. Floyd's Thompson, The french men Killed a young Deer on the Bank, (2) passed up a narrow Channel of about 80 or 100 yds wide about 5 miles to the mouth of Nadawa River which corns in to this channel from the N W. and is abt. 70 yards wide at its mouth ____ feet Deep and has a jentle Current, Perogues can navagate this river near its head, which is between the Missourie & the Grand River, passed up the gut 3/4 of a mile to the river at the head of the Island & camped opposit the head of this Island is another nearest the Middle R this Island Nadawa is the largest I have Seen, formed by a Channel washing into the Nadawa river. — "8 or 10000 acrs"



[Clark, July 8, 1804]

July the 8th Sunday 1804 Set out early passed a Small Creek on the S. S. and two (1) Small Islands on the S S. five men Sick to day with a violent head ake &c. we made Some arrangements as to provisions & Messes, came to for Dinner at the lower point of a very large Island Situated near the S. S. after a delay of two hours we passed a narrow channel of 45 to 80 yds wide five miles to the mouth of (3) Nkdawa River, This river Coms in from the North and is navagable for Perogues Some distance. it is about 70 yards wide a little above the mouth, at the mouth not So wide, the mud of the Gut running out of the Missourie is thrown and Settles in the mouth half a mile higher up this Channel or gut is the upper point of the Said Island, This Island is Called Nadawa, & is the largest I have Seen in the river, containing 7 or 8000 acres of Land Seldom overflowed we Camped at the head of this Island on the S. S. opposit the head or our Camp is a Small Island near the middle of the river, river Still falling. our flank party did not join us this evening



[Lewis, July 8, 1804]

Detachment Orders Nadawa Island July 8th 1804. In order to insure a prudent and regular use of all provisions issued to the crew of the Batteaux in future, as also to provide for the equal distribution of the same among the individuals of the several messes, The Commanding Officers Do appoint the following persons to recieve, cook, and take charges of the provisions which may from time to time be issued to their respective messes, (viz) John B. Thompson to Sergt. Floyd's mess,

William Warner to Sergt. Ordway's mess, and John Collins to Sergt. Pryor's Mess. — These Superintendants of Provision, are held immediately respon sible to the commanding Officers for a judicious consumption of the provi sion which they recieve; they are to cook the same for their several messes in due time, and in such manner as is most wholesome and best calculated to afford the greatest proportion of nutriment; in their mode of cooking they are to exercise their own judgment; they shall allso point out what part, and what proportion of the mess provisions are to be consumed at each stated meal (i. e.) morning, noon and night; nor is any man at any time to take or consume any part of the mess provisions without the privity, knowledge and consent of the Superintendant. The superintendant is also held responsible for all the cooking eutensels of his mess. in considera tion of the duties imposed by this order on Thompson, Warner, and Collins, they will in future be exempt from guard duty, tho they will still be held on the royster for that duty, and their regular tour-shall be per formed by some one of their rispective messes; they are exempted also from pitching the tents of the mess, collecting firewood, and forks poles &c. for cooking and drying such fresh meat as may be furnished them; those duties are to be also performed by the other members of the mess. M. Lewis Wm. Clark



[Clark, July 9, 1804]

July the 9th Monday 1804 Sent one man back to the mouth of the River to mark a tree, to let the party on Shore See that the Boat had passed the river, Set out early passed (1) the head of the Island Situated in the middle of the river a Sand bar at the head, (2) passed the mouth of a Creek or Bayou on the S. S. leading from a large Pond of about three miles in length, at 8 oClock it commenced raining, the wind changed from N E. to S. W. (3) at 6 miles passed the mouth of a Small Creek on the L. S. called Monters Creek, the river at this place is wide with a Sand bar in the Middle, passed a place on the L. S. about 2 miles above the Creek, where Several french men camped two years to hunt — (4) passed a Island on the S S. of the river in a bend, opsd. a high Land on the L. S. wind Shifted to the N. W. in the evining, opsd. this Island, and on the L. S. Loup or Wolf River Coms in, this river is about 60 yards Wide, but little water running at the mouth, this river heads with the waters of the Kanzas, and has a perogue navigation Some distance, it abounds with Beaver, Camped opposit the head of the Island on the L. S. Saw a fire on the S. S. Supposedly the four flankers, to be theire, Sent a perogue for them, the Patroon & Bowman of the Perogue French, they returned & informed, that when they approached the fire, it was put out, which caused them to return, this report causd. us to look out Supposeing a pty. of Soux going to war, firierd the bow piec to allarm & put on their guard the men on Shore everey thing in readiness for Defence.



[Clark, July 9, 1804]

July 9th Monday 1804 one man Sent back to the river we passed last night to Blase a tree with a view to notify the party on Shore of our passing Set out and passed the head of the (1) Island which was Situated opposit to our Camp last night a Sand bar at the head (2) opsd. this Island a Creek or Bayaue Corns in from a large Pond on the Starboard Side, as our flanking party Saw great numbers of Pike in this Pond, I have laid it down with that name anex'd,v at 8 oClock the wind Shifted from the N, E to S W and it commenced raining. (3) at Six miles passed the mouth of Creek on the L. S. Called Monter's Creek, about two mile above is some Cabins where our Bowman & Several frenchmen Campd. two years (4) passed an Island on the S. S. in a Bend of the river opposit Some Clifts on the L. S. the wind Shifted to the N W opposit this Island and on the L. Side (Loup) or Wolf River Coms in, this river is about 60 yards wide and heads with the waters of the Kansis, and is navagable for Perogues "Some destance up" Camped at a point on the L. S. opposit the head of the Island, our party was incamped on the Opposit Side, their not answering our Signals Caused us to Suspect the persons Camped opposit to us was a war party of Soux, we fired the Bow piece to alarm the party on Shore, ailed prepared to oppose if attacted



[Clark, July 10, 1804]

July 10th Tuesday Set out this morning with a view to Land near the fire Seen last night, & recornetre, but Soon discovered that our men were at the fire, they were a Sleep early last evening, and from the Course of the Wind which blew hard, their yells were not heard by party in the perogue, a mistake altogether-. proceeded on, passed Prarie on the upper Side of Woolf River, at 4 miles passed (1) a Small Creek L. S. Called R. Pape this Creek is about 15 yds. Wide-and called after a Spanierd who killed himself at the mouth. (2) Dined on an Island Called de Selamen and delayed 3 hours, and proceeded on, opposit this Isld. on the L. S. is a (3) butifull Bottom Prarie whuch will Contain about 2000 acres of Land covered with wild rye & wild Potatoes, gread numbers of Goslings on the Banks & in the Ponds near the river, Capt Lewis Killed two this evening, we came to & Camped for the night. at a point on the S. S. opposit a yellow Clay Clift. — our men all getting well but much fatigued, the river is on a Stand nether rise nor fall, The bottom on the S. S. is verry extensive & thick. the Hills or high land is near the river on the L. S. and but thinly timbered, back of those hills is open plains.



[Clark, July 10, 1804]

July 10th Tuesday 1804 Set out early this morning and Crossd the river with a view to See who the party was that Camped on the other Side, we Soon discovered them to be our men, — proceeded on passed a Prarie on the L. S. at 4 miles passed a Creek L. S Called (1) Pappie after a man who Killed himself at its mouth, this Creek is 15 yds wide — (2) Dined on an Isld. Called de Salamin Delayed 3 hours on this Island to recruit the men opposit on the L. S. is a butifull bottom Plain of about 2000 acres (3) Covered with wild rye & Potatoes, intermix't with the grass, we camped on the S. S. opposit a yellow Clay Clift, Capt. Lewis Killed two young Gees or Goslings this evening — The men of the party getting better, but much fatigued — The river on a Stand — The bottom is verry extensive on the S. S. and thickly intersperced with Vines The High Land approaches near the river on the L. S. and well timbered next to the river, back of those hills the Plains Commence.



[Clark, July 11, 1804]

July 11th Wednesday, Set out early proceeded on passed a Willow (1) Island in a bend to the S. S. Sent out Dreweyer & Jo. Fields to hunt, Back of this Island a creek corns in on the S. S. called by the Indians Little Tarkio Creek I went on Shore above this Island on the S. S. found the bottom Subject for overflow wet and verry thickly interwoven with grape Vines — proceeded on at about 1/2 a miles from the river about 3 ms. and observed fresh Sign of a horse, I prosueed the track, with an expectation of finding a Camp of Indians on the river, when I got to the river, I saw a horse on the Beech, this horse as appears was left last winter by Some hunting party, probable the Othouez, I joined the Boat on the Sand Island Situated opposit the mouth of the Ne Ma har River, this river Coms in on the L. S. is about 80 yds Wide and navagable for Perogues Some Distance up the praries Commnce above the mouth and Continus on both Sides of this R Drewyer killed 6 Deer to day J. Field one Several hunters Sent out up the Nemahar R



[Clark, July 11, 1804]

July 11th, Wednesday 1804 Set out early passed a Willow Island (1) in a bend on the S. S. back of this Island a Creek Corns in Called by the Indians Tar-ki-o

I went on Shore above this Creek and walked up parrelel with the river at ab ut half a mile distant, the bottom I found low & Subject to overflow, Still further out, the under groth & vines wer So thick that I could not get thro with ease after walking about three or 4 miles I observed a fresh horse track where he had been feeding I turned my course to the river and prosud the track and found him on a Sand beach This horse Probably had been left by Some party of Otteaus hunters who wintered or hunted in this quarter last fall or Wintr. I joined the party on a large Sand Island imediately opposit the mouth of Ne Ma haw River, at which place they had Camped, this Island is Sand about half of it Covered with Small Willows of two different Kinds, one Narrow & the other a Broad Leaf. Several hunters Sent out to day on both Sides of the river, Seven Deer Killed to day. Drewyer Killd Six of them, made Some Luner observations this evening.



[Clark, July 12, 1804]

July 12th Thursday Som hunters out on the S. S. those on the L. S. did not return last night, our object in delaying here is to tak Some Observations and rest the men who are much fatigued made Sundery observations, after an early Brackfast I took five men and went up the River Ne Ma har about three miles, to an open leavel part of an emence prarie, at the Mouth of a Small Creek on the Lower Side, I went on Shore, & passed thro the plain passed Several noles to the top of a high artificial Noal from the top of this noal I had an emence, extensive & pleaseing prospect, of the Countrey around, I could See the meandering of the Little River for at least 10 miles winding thro a meadow of 15 or 20000 acres of high bottom land covered with Grass about 41/2 feet high, the high lands which rose irregularly, & were toped with Mounds or antent Graves which is to me a Strong evidence of this Countrey haveing been thickly Settled-.This River is about 80 yards wide with a gentle Current and heads up near the Parnee Village on River Blue a branch of Kansas, a little timbered land near the mouth for 1 mile above, only a fiew Trees, and thickets of Plumbs Cheres &c are Seen on its banks the Creeks & little reveens makeing into the river have also Some timber — I got grapes on the banks nearly ripe, observed great quantities, of Grapes, plums Crab apls and a wild Cherry, Growing like a Comn. Wild Cherry only larger & grows on a Small bush, on the side of a clift Sand Stone 1/2 me. up & on Lower Side I marked my name & day of the month near an Indian Mark or Image of animals & a boat Tried Willard for Sleeping on his post, our hunters killed some Deer, Saw Elk & Buffalow.



[Clark, July 12, 1804]

July 12th, Thursday 1804 Concluded to Delay here to day with a view of takeing equal altitudes & makeing observations as well as refreshing our men who are much fatigued — after an early Brackfast I with five men in a Perogue assended the River Ne-Ma-haw about 2 miles to the mouth of a Small Creek on the Lower Side, here I got out of the Perogue, after going to Several Small Mounds in a leavel plain, I assended a hill on the Lower Side, on this hill Several Artificial Mounds were raised, from the top of the highest of those Mounds I had an extensive view of the Serounding Plains, which afforded one of the most pleasing prospects I ever beheld, under me a Butifull River of Clear water of about 80 yards wide Meandering thro a leavel and extensive Meadow, as far as I could See, the prospect Much enlivened by the fine Trees & Srubs which is bordering the bank of the river, and the Creeks & runs falling into it,-. The bottom land is covered with Grass of about 41/2 feet high, and appears as leavel as a Smoth Surfice, the 2 bottom is also covered with Grass and rich weeds & flours, interspersed with Copses of the Osage Plumb. on the riseing lands, Small groves of trees are Seen, with a numbers of Grapes and a Wild Cherry resembling the Common Wild Cherry, only larger and grows on a Small bush on the tops of those hills in every derection. I observed artifical mounds (or as I may more justly term Graves) which to me is a Strong indication of this Country being once Thickly Settled. (The Indians of the Missouris Still Keep up the Custom of Burrying their dead on high ground) after a ramble of about two miles about I returned to the perogue and decended down the River, gathd. Som grapes nearly ripe, on a Sandstone Bluff about 1/4 of a mile from its mouth on the Lower Side I observed Some Indian marks, went to the rock which jutted over the water and marked my name & the day of the month & year — This river heads near one of the Villages of the Pania on the River Blue, a branch of the Kansas River. — above this river about half a mile the Prarie Comes to the Missouri after my return to Camp on the Island Completed Som observations, Tred tried a man for sleeping on his Post & inspected the arms amunition &c. of the party found all complete, Took Some Luner Obsevations. three Deer killed to day. Latd. 39° 55' 56" N.



[Lewis and Clark, July 12, 1804]

Camp New Island July 12th 1804. A Court matial consisting of the two commanding officers will convene this day at 1 OCk. P.M. for the trial of such prisoners as may be brought before them; one of the court will act as judge Advocate. M. Lewis Wm. Clark

The Commanding officers. Capt. M. Lewis & W. Clark constituted themselves a Court martial for the trial of Such prisoners as are Guilty of Capatol Crimes, and under the rules and articles of War punishable by Death,

Alexander Willard was brought foward Charged with "Lying down and Sleeping on his post whilst a Sentinal, on the night of the 11th. Instant" (by John Ordway Sergeant of the Guard)

To this Charge the prisoner pleads. Guilty of Lying Down, and not Guilty, of Going to Sleep. The Court after Duly Considering the evidence aduced, are of oppinion that the Prisoner Alexdn. Willard is guilty of every part of the Charge exhibited against him. it being a breach of the rules and articles of War (as well as tending to the probable distruction of the party) do Sentence him to receive One hundred lashes on his bear back, at four different times in equal propation. — and order that the punishment Commence this evening at Sunset, and Continue to be inflicted, (by the Guard) every evening untill Completed Wm Clark M. Lewis



[Clark, July 13, 1804]

My notes of the 13th of July by a Most unfortunate accident blew over Board in a Storm in the morning of the 14th obliges me to refur to the Journals of Serjeants, and my own recollection the accurrences Courses Distance &c. of that day — last night a violent Storm from the N. N, E. (1) passed Tar-ki-o River, at 2 miles a chant. running into this river 3 ms. abov forms St Josephs Isld. Passed an elegt Prarie in the 1st bend to the left. Containg a grass resmlg Timothy, with Seed like flax, (2) passed a Island in a bend to the S. S. at 12 ms. I walked on Shore S. S. lands, low & overflows, Killed two Goslings nearly Grown, Sailed under a Wind from the South all day, Camped on a Sand Island on the L. Pt. opposit a high & extensiv Prarie, on the S. S. the Hills about 4 or 5 me. off, this Plain appears extensive, great appearance of a Storm from the North W. this evening verry agreeable the wind Still from the South-

from the Osagies Nation with twenty odd of the Natives or chiefs of the Nation with him sailed dowen the Mississippi bound to St Louis & 3 guns fired showers of rain Showers of Rain all that night



[Clark, July 13, 1804]

July 13th Friday 1804 Set out at Sun rise, and prosd. on under a gentle Breeze, at two miles passed the mouth of a Small river on the S. S. Called by the Indians Tarki-o, a Channel running out of the river three miles above (which is now filled up with Sand) runs into this Creek & and formed a Island Called St.

Josephs Several Sand bars parralel to each other above — In the first bend to the left is Situated a Butifull & extensive plain, Cover'd with Grass resembling Timothy except the Seed which resembles Flax Seed, this plain also abounds in Grapes of defferent Kinds Some nearly ripe. I Killed two Goslings nearly Grown, Several others Killed and cought on Shore, also one old Goose, with pin fethers, She Could not fly — at about 12 miles passd. a Island Situated in a bend on the S. S. above this Island is a large Sand bar Covered with willows. The wind from the South, Camped on a large Sand Bar makeing out from the L. P. opposit a high hanson Prarie, the hills about 4 or 5 miles on S. S. this plain appeard extensive, the Clouds appear to geather to the N. W. a most agreeable Breeze from the South (I walked on Shore on the S. S. the lands are low Subject to overflow)

Last night at about 10 oClock a violent Storm of wind from the N. N. E. which lasted with Great violence for about one hour, at which time a Shower of rain Succeeded.

The men on Shore did not join us this after noon — The river nearly on a Stand — the high lands on the S. S. has only been Seen at a Distance above the Nordaway River, those on the S. L. aproaching the river at every bend, on the Side next to the river well timbered, the opsd. Side open & the Commencmt. of Plains.



[Clark, July 14, 1804]

July the 14th Satturday Some hard Shours of rain accompaned with Some wind detained us untill about 7 oClock, we then Set out and proceeded on about a mile and th atmispeir became Suddenly darkened by a blak & dismal looking Cloud, we wer in a Situation, near the upper point of a Sd. Isd. & the opsd Shore falling in in this Situation a Violent Storm of Wint from the N, E (passing over an Open plain, Struck the boat nearly Starboard, quatering, & blowing down the Current) the exerssions of all our Men who were out in an instant, aded to a Strong Cable and Anchor was Scrcely Sufficent to Keep the boat from being thrown up on the Sand Island, and dashed to peices the Waves dasthed over on the Side next to the wind the lockers which was covered with Tarpoling prevented them coming into the boat untill the Boat was Creaned on the Side from the Wind in this Situation we continued about 40 minits, the two perogues about a quater of a mile above, one of them in a Similer Situation with the Boat, the other under the charge of George Gibson in a much better position, with her Ster faceing the wind, this Storm Suddenly Seased, & 1 minit the river was as Smoth as glass, the wind Shifted to the S. E and we Set Sail, and proceeded on passed (1) a Small Island on the S. S. and Dined — R. Fields who has charge of the horses &c. on Shore did not join us last night-. passed a old fort where Mr. Bennet of St Louis winttered 2 years & traded with the Otteaus & Parties on the S. S. 1 me. abov the little Island, I went out on the L. S. and observed two Elk on a land in the river, in attempting to get near those elk obseved one near us I Shot one. continued on Shore & thro the bottom which was extensive, Some Small Praries, and a peponce of high rich & well timbered bottom, in the Glades I saw wild Timothy, Lams quarter Cuckle burs & rich weed, on the edges Plumbs of different kinds Grapes, and Goose berries, Camped on the L. S. Ruben Fields and Gulrich joined the Party two men unwell, one a Felin on his finger, river fall



[Clark, July 14, 1804]

July 14th, Satturday 1804 Some hard Showers of rain this morning prevented our Setting out untill 7 oClock, at half past Seven, the atmispr. became Sudenly darkened by a black and dismal looking Cloud, at the time we were in a Situation (not to be bettered) near the upper point of the Sand Island, on which we lay, and the opposit Shore, the bank was falling in and lined with Snags as far as we could See down,-. in this Situation The Storm which passd over an open Plain from the N. E. Struck the our boat on the Starbd. quarter, and would have thrown her up on the Sand Island dashed to peces in an Instant, had not the party leeped out on the Leward Side and kept her off with the assistance of the ancker & Cable, untill the Storm was over, the waves Dashed over her windward Side and She must have filled with water if the Lockers which is covered with Tarpoling & Threw of the water & prevented any quantity Getting into Bilge of the Boat

In this Situation we continued about 40 Minits. when the Storm Sudenly Seased and the river become Instancetaniously as Smoth as Glass.

The two perogus dureing this Storm was in a Similar Situation with the boat about half a mile above — The wind Shifted to the S. E & We Saled up passed a Small (1) Isld. Situated on the S. S. and Dined & Continud two hours, men examine their arms — about a Mile above this Island, passed a Small Tradeing fort on the S. S. where, Mr. Bennet of St. Louis Traded with the Otteaus & Panies two years. I went on Shore to Shoot Some Elk on a Sand bar to the L. S. I fired at one but did not get him, went out into a large extensive bottom the greater part of which overflows, the part that dose not overflow, is rich and well timbered, Some Small open Praries near the hills, the Boat passed the lower part of a large Island Situated on the S. S. above the Lower point of this Island on the S. S. a (2) large Creek corns into the river Called by the Maha's Indians Neesh-nah-ba-to-na 50 yds this is a considerable Creek nearly as large as the Mine River, and runs parrelel with the Missouri, the Greater part of its Course. In those Small Praries or glades I saw wild Timothey, lambs-quarter, Cuckle burs; & rich weed. on the edges Grows Sumr. Grapes, Plum's, & Gooseberries. I Joined the boat which had Came to and Camped in a bend opposd. the large Island before mentioned on the L. S. Several men unwell with Boils, Felns, &c. The river falls a little.



[Clark, July 15, 1804]

July 15th Sunday 1804. a heavy fog this morning which Detained us untill 7 oClock, put Drewyer Sgt. Floyd on Shore, at 9 I took two Men and went on Shore, with a view to Kill Some elk, passed thro open plains, and barroney lands Crossed three butifull Small Streams of water, Saw great quantity of Cherres Plums, Grapes & Berries of Difft. Kinds, the lands Generally of a good quallity, on the Streams the wood escapes the fire, at about 7 miles I Struck the river at the mouth Ne ma har Creek about 40 yds wide, near this Creek on a high part of the Prarie I had a extensive View of the river & Countrey on both Sides. on S. a contnuation of the plain as far as I could See, on the N. a bottom Prarie of about 5 ms. wide & 18 or 20 long, hills back of this Plain. I Swam across the Creek and waited for the Boat about three miles above, we camped opsd. an Island.



[Clark, July 15, 1804]

July 15th, Sunday a heavy Fog this morning prevented our Setting out before 7 oClock, at nine I took two men and walked on the L. S. I crossed three butifull Streems of runnig water heading in the Praries on those Streem the lands verry fine covered with pea Vine & rich weed the high Praries are also good land Covered with Grass entirely void of timber except what grows on the water, I proceeded on thro those praries Several miles to the mouth of a large Creek on the L. S. called (2) Ne ma har this is a Small river, about 100 yds. above the mouth it is 40 yards wide, at the mouth (as all other Creeks & rivers falling into the Missourie are) much narrower than a little distance up. after continueing at the mouth of this Creek about an hour, I Swam across and proceeded on about 3 miles and halted to wate for the boat, which was Some distance below — In all this days march thro woods & Praries, I only Saw three Deer & 3 fawns — I had at one part of the Prarie a verry extensive view of all the Countrey around up and down the river a Considerable distance, on the Larbd. Sd. one Continul Plain, on the S. S. Some timber on the bank of the river, for a Short distance back of this timber is a bottom Plain of four or five miles back to the hills and under the hills between them & the river this plain appeared to extend 20 or 30 miles, those Hills have but little timber, and the Plain appears to Continu back of them — I Saw Great quantities of Grapes, Plums, or 2 Kinds wild Cherries of 2 Kinds, Hazelnuts, and Goosberries.

we Camped in a point of woods on the Larboard S. opsd. a large Island.



[Lewis, July 15, 1804]

Sunday July 15th This evening I discovered that my Chronometer had stoped, nor can I assign any cause for this accedent; she had been wound up the preceding noon as usual. This is the third instance in which this instrument has stopt in a similar manner since she nas been in my possession, tho the first only since our departure from the River Dubois. in the two preceding cases when she was again set in motion, and her rate of going determined by a series of equal altitudes of the sun taken for that purpose, it was found to be the same precisely as that mentioned in the preliminary remarks to these observations, or 15 s & 5 tenths too slow in 24 h-as her rate of going after stoping, and begin again set in motion has in two instances proved to be the same, I have concluded, that whatever this impediment may procede from, it is not caused by any material injury which her works have sustained, and that when she is in motion, her error on mean time above stated, may be depended on as accurate. In consequence of the chronometer's having thus accedentally stoped, I determined to come too at the first convenient place and make such observations as were necessary to ascertain her error, establish the Latitude & Longitude, and determine the variation of the nedle, in order to fix a second point of departure.



[Clark, July 16, 1804]

July 16 1804 Monday Set out verry early and proceeded on the Side of a Prarie passd the head of the Island opsd. which we Camped last night, (1) passed a Small willow Island off the L. point, hills make near the river (2) passed a large Island nearest the L. S. below the pt. a Small willow Isd. also one on the Side. this large Island is called fair Sun the wind favourable from the South. Boat run on a Sawyer, (4) pass a place on the L. S. where the hill abt. 20 acres has Sliped into the river lately just above passed under a clift of Sand Stone L. S. a number of Burds Nests in the holes & crevises of this rock which Continus 2 miles, (5) passed a willow Island in a Deep bend to the S. S. river 2 mile wide at this place, note Deed Snags across, passed the Lower point of a Island called Isle Chauvin Situated on the L. Point opposit an extensive Prarie on the S. S., This prarie I call Ball pated Prarie from the range ball hills, at from 3 to 6 miles from the river as far as my Sight will extend, we camped in a point of woods opsd. the Isd. on S. S. in a bend.



[Clark, July 16, 1804]

July 16th Monday 1804 Set out this morning verry early and proceeded on under a gentle breeze from the S passed the upper point of the Island an extensive Prarie on the L. S. passed a large (1) Island Called Fair Sun Isd. a Small willow Isld. at the lower point on the L. S. the boat passd on the L. S. of those Islands Several Small Sand Islands in the Channel, the Boat run on the point of a Snag, (2) passed a place above the Island L. S. where about 20 acres of the hill has latterly Sliped into the river above a clift of Sand Stone for about two miles, the resort of burds of Different Kinds to reare their young. (5) Passed a willow Island in a Deep Bend to the S. S. opposit the river is about two miles wide, and not verry Deep as the Snag may be Seen across, Scattering, passed the Lower point of an Island called by French Chauvin's Situated off the L. Point opposit an extensive Prarie on the S. S. This Prarie I call Ball gated Prarie, from a range of Ball Hills parrelel to the river & at from 3 to 6 miles distant from it, and extends as far up & Down as I Can See, we Camped in a point of woods on the L. S. above the Lower point of the Island. river falling.



[Lewis, July 16, 1804]

Monday 16th we set out at an early hour; the morning was cloudy; could find no convenient situation for observation; proceeded untill a little before noon when we came too On the Lard. Shore opposite to the center of good Island where I observed the meridian altitude of O's L. L. with Octant by the back observation, wich gave me the Latitude — 40° 20′ 12″ N.

I now set the Chronometer as near noon as this observation would enable me, and proceeded untill evening, when we came too on the Stard. shore opposite the lower point of the Island of the Bald prarie where we encamped.







[Clark, July 17, 1804]

July 17th Tuesday, we concluded to lay by today to fix the Longitude, and get the Cronometer right, (She run down Day before yesterday), Several men out hunting to day Capt. Lewis rode out to Neesh-nahba-to na Creek which passes thro. the Prarie (on which there is Some few trees) within ____ Mile of the Missoureis, wind from the S E. Several of the party have tumers of different Kinds Some of which is verry troublesom and dificuilty to cure. I took a meridian altitude (43° 27') which made the Lattitude of this place 40° 27' 6" 4/10 North. — (The Ball Hills bear N 25° W for 30 mes. The bend on L. S. passing the Isd. on the right Side is N. 28° W. 4 ms.) Took equal altitudes Tried a part of the comn pt. of the Current in 40 Seconds the water run 50 fathem 30" & 20" in places

Cap Lewers returned, Saw Some hand Som Countrey, the Creek near the high land is rapid and nearly as muddy as the river, & rising Gutrich caught two verry fat Cat fish G Drewyer Killed 3 Deer, & R Fields one, a puff of wind brought Swarms of Misquitors, which disapeared in two hours, blown off by a Continuation of the Same brees.



[Clark, July 17, 1804]

Bald Pated Prarie July 17th, Tuesday 1804 We Concluded lay by at this place to day to fix the Lattitude & Longitude of this place to Correct the cromometer run down Sunday) Several men out by day light hunting Capt. Lewis Concid. to ride out to Neesh-nah-ba-to-na Creek which passes under the ball hills near this place and at one place a little above this Camp is within 300 yards of the Missouris on this Creek grows Some few trees of oake walnut & mulberry. I took Meridian altitude of sun L. L. (43° 27') which made the Lattitude 40° 27' 5" 4/10 North — wind from the South E. Several of the party much aflicted with turners of different Kinds, Som of which is verry troublesom and dificuelt to cure. Capt. Louis returned in the evening. he Saw Som hand Some Countrey & Says that the aforesaid Creek is rapid muddey and running — This Creek which is at 10 or 12 from its mouth, within 300 yds of the river is at least 16 foot Lower than the river — The high Lands from our Camp in this Bald Pated Prarie bears N 25° W. up the R.

The Common Current taken with a Log runs 50 fathen in 40"Some places much Swifter in 30" and even 20 Seconds of time — five Deer killed to day



[Clark, July 18, 1804]

July 18th Wednesday a fair morning the river falling fast, Set out at Sunrise under a gentle Breeze from S. E by S. at 3 miles passed the head of the Island on L. S. called by the French Chauve or bald pate (1) opsd. the middle of this Island the Creek on L. S. is within 300 yds. of the river. back of this Island the lower point of (2) another Island in the bend to the L. S. passed large Sand bar making out from each point with many channels passing through them, "Current runs 50 fathm. in 41 Seconds" but little timber on either Side of the river, except the Isds. & points which are low wet & Covered with lofty trees, Cotton wood Mulberry Elm &c. &c. passed the head of a long Island in high water at this time no water passes thro the Channel (3) opposit the Lower point of a Island on the L. S. pass the Island and opsd. the point (4) above & on the L. S. the hills come to the river, This Hill has Sliped into the river for about 3/4 of a mile, and leaves a Bluff of considerable hight back of it this Hill is about 200 foot high compsd. of Sand Stone inter mingled with Iron ore of an inferior quallity on a bed of Soft Slate Stone.

We passed a verry bad Sand bar (4) a little above the hill and incmpd on the L. S. opposit a Small Island in the river, Saw a Dog this evening appeared to be nearly Starved to death, he must have been left by Some party of Hunters we gave him Some meet, he would not come near, G Drewrer brought in 2 Deer this evening



[Clark, July 18, 1804]

July 18th Wednesday 1804 a fair morning the river falling fast Set out this morning at Sun rise under a Gentle Breeze from the S. E. by S. passing over the Prarie, at about 3 Miles we passed the head of the Island L. S. Called by the French Chaube or Bald pate opposit the middle of (1) This Island the Creek on the S. S. is nearest the river, In high water an Island is formed in the bind above the last (2)- Measured the Current and found that in forty one Seconds it run yo fathoms but little timber is to be Seen except in the Low points on Islands & on Creeks, the Groth of timber is generally cotton Mulberry Elm Sycomore &c &c. passed a Island on the 2d point to the S. S. opposite the water (3) whin high passes out in the Plain oppsid this Island on the L. S. the hills jut to the river (4) this Hill has Sliped from the top which forms a Bluff above & 200 foot above the water, about 3/4 of a mile in length & about 200 feet in Depth has Sliped into the river it is Composed of Sand Stone intermixed with an indiffert. Iron ore near the bottom or next to the water is a Soft Slate Stone, Som pebble is also intermixt, we passed a verry bad Sand bar and incamped on the L. S. at the lower point of the oven Islands & opposit the Prarie Calld. by the french Four le Tourtue Saw a Dog nearly Starved on the bank, gave him Som meet, he would not follow, our hunters killed 2 Deer to day



[Clark, July 19, 1804]

July 19th after breakfast which was on a rosted Ribs of a Deer a little and a little Coffee I walked on Shore intending only to Keep up with the Boat, Soon after I got on Shore, Saw Some fresh elk Sign, which I was induced to prosue those animals by their track to the hills after assending and passing thro a narrow Strip of wood Land, Came Suddenly into an open and bound less Prarie, I Say bound less because I could not See the extent of the plain in any Derection, the timber appeared to be confined to the River Creeks & Small branches, this Prarie was Covered with grass about 18 Inches or 2 feat high and contained little of any thing else, except as before mentioned on the River Creeks &c, This prospect was So Sudden & entertaining that I forgot the object of my prosute and turned my attention to the Variety which presented themselves to my view after continueing on this rise for Some minits, I deturmined to make my course to a line of woods to S. E. I found in this wood a butifull Streem of running water, in prosuing it down Several others Joined it and at 3 miles fell into the river between 2 clifts, I went up & under one clift of dark rich Clay for 1/2 me. above this a Clay bank which had Sliped in here I found Sand Stone Containing Iron ore, this ore appears to be inbeded under the Clay just above the water



[Clark, July 19, 1804]

July 19th Thursday 1804 Set out early pass between 2 Islands one in mid. & the other L. S. opsd. wher Prarie aproaches the river S. S. This place is called the Bakers oven or in french Four le Tour tere passd. Some highlands 41/2 ms. above the Isds. on the L. S. forming a Clift to the river of yellow earth, on the top a Prarie, passd. many a bad Sand bar in this distance, & the river wide & Shallow, above this Clift 2 Small butiffull runs Come from the Plains & fall into the river, a Deer lick on the first, above those two Creeks, I found in my walk on Shore Some ore in a bank which had Sliped in to the river 3/4 me. above the Creeks, I took a cerequite around & found that those two runs mentioned contained a good proposion of wood Surrounded by a plain, with grass about 18 Inchs. high, (Capt Lewis walked on Shore after Dinner) in the first bind to the right above those Runs passed a Small Island opsd. is a Sand bar I call this Island Butter Island, as at this place we mad use of the last of our butter, as we approach this Great River Platt the Sand bars are much more noumerous than they were, and the quick & roleing Sands much more danjerous, where the Praries aproach the river it is verry wide, the banks of those Plains being much easier to undermine and fall than the wood land passed (4) a willow Island Situated near the middle of the river, a Sand bar on the S. S. and a Deep bend to the L S. camped on the right Side of the Willow Island-W. Bratten hunting on the L. S Swam to the Island. Hunters Drewyer killed 2 Deer, Saw great numbers of young gees. The river Still falling a little Sand bars thick always in view.



[Clark, July 19, 1804]

July 19th, Thursday 1804 Set out early passed between two Small Islands, one in the middle of the river, the other Close on the L S. opposit a prarie S. S. Called (1) by the french Four le tourtre, The Bakers oven Islands, passed (2) Some high Clift 41/2 miles above the Islands on the L. S. of yellow earth passed Several Sand bars that were wide and at one place verry Shallow (two Small butifull runs falls into the river near each other at this Clift, a Deer Lick 200 yards up the Lowest of those runs) Those runs head at no great distance in the plains and pass thro of timber to the river. In my walk on Shore I found Some ore in the bank above those runs which I take to be Iron ore (3) at this place the Side of the hill has Sliped about half way into the river for 3/4 of a Mile forming a Clift from the top of the hill above. In the first bend to the right passed a Small Island a Sand bar opposit, — worthey of remark as we approach this great River Plate the Sand bars much more numerous and the quick or moveing Sands much worst than they were below at the places where Praries approach the river it is verry wide those places being much easier to wash & under Mine than the wood Land's. (4) passed a Willow Isd. Situated near the Middle of the river and a large Sand makeing out from the S. S. a Deep bend to the L S. we Camped at the head of this Island on the Starboard Side of it, Hunters Killed Two Deer. Saw great numbers of young Gees River falling a little.



[Clark, July 20, 1804]

July 20th Friday 1804, a fog this morning and verry Cool George Drewyer Sick proceed on over a Sand bar, Bratten Swam the river to get his gun & Clothes left last night psd a large willow Isd. on the L. S. (1) passed the mouth of l'Eau que pleure the English of which is the water which Cry's this Creek is about 20 yards wide falls into the river above a Gift of brown Clay L. S. opposit a willow Island, at this Creek I went on Shore took R Fields with me and went up this Creek Several miles & crossed thro the plains to the river above with the view of finding Elk, we walked all day through those praries without Seeing any, I killed an emence large yellow Wolf-The Countrey throu which we walked after leaveing the Creek was good land covered with Grass interspersed with Groves & Scattering timber near and about the heads of Branches one of them without Suckcess, Camped above the bar on the L. S. a verry agreeable Breeze all night Serjt. Pryor & Jo. Fields brought in two Deer river Still falling. a large Spring 3/4 me. below camp



[Clark, July 20, 1804]

July 20th, Friday 1804 a cool morning passed a large willow Island (1) on the S. S. and the mouth of Creek about 25 yds. wide on the L. S. Called by the french l'Eue-que pleure, or the the Water Which Cry's this Creek falls into the river above a Clift of brown Clay opposit the Willow Island, I went out above the mouth of this Creek and walked the greater part of the day thro Plains interspesed with Small Groves of Timber on the branches and Some Scattering trees about the heads of the runs, I Killed a Verry large yellow wolf, The Soil of Those Praries appears rich but much Parched with the frequent fires-" after I returned to the Boat we proceeded around a large Sand bar makeing out from the L. S. opsd. a fountain of water comeing out of a hill L. S. and affording water Suffient to turn a mill

The Praries as far as I was out appeared to be well watered, with Small Streems of running water Serjt. Pryor & Jo. Fields brought in two Deer this evening — a verry Pleasent Breeze from the N. W. all night — river falling a little, It is wothey of observation to mention that our party has been much healthier on the Voyage than parties of the Same Number is in any other Situation Turners have been troublesom to them all

From this evenings incampment a man may walk to the Pane Village on the S bank of the Platt River in two days, and to the Otteaus in one day all those Indians are Situated on the South bank of the Plate River, as those Indians are now out in the praries following & Hunting the buffalow, I fear we will not See them.



[Lewis, July 21, 1804]

July 21, 1804 by a boiling motion or ebolition of it's waters occasioned no doubt by the roling and irregular motion of the sand of which its bed is entirely composed. the particles of this sand being remarkably small and light it is easily boied up and is hurried by this impetuous torrent in large masses from place to place in with irristable forse, collecting and forming sandbars in the course of a few hours which as suddingly disapated to form others and give place perhaps to the deepest channel of the river. where it enters the Missouri it's superior force changes and directs the courant of that river against it's northern bank where it is compressed within a channel less than one third of the width it had just before occupyed. it dose not furnish the missouri with it's colouring matter as has been asserted by some, but it throws into it immence quantities of sand and gives a celerity to it's courant of which it abates but little untill it's junction with the Mississippy. the water of this river is turbid at all seasons of the year but is by no means as much so as that of the Missourie. The sediment it deposits, consists of very fine particles of white sand while that of the Missoury is composed principally of a dark rich loam-in much greater quantity

21st July from the experiments and observations we were enabled to make with rispect to the comparative velocities of the courants of the rivers Mississippi Missouri and Plat it results that a vessel will float in the Mississippi below the entrance of the Missouri at the rate of four miles an hour. in the Missouri from it's junction with the Mississsippi to the entrance of the Osage river from 51/2 to 6 from thence to the mouth of the Kanzas from 61/2 to 7. from thence to the Platte 51/2 while the Plat is at least 8. — The Missouri above the junction of the river plat is equal to about 31/2 miles an hour as far as the mouth of the Chyenne where its courant still abates and becomes equal to about three miles an hour from information it dose not increase it's volocity for



[Clark, July 21, 1804]

July 21st Satturday, Set out verry early and a Gentle Breeze from the S. E proceeded on very well, passed a (1) Willow Island L. S. opsd. a bad Sand bar passed Some high land covered with Timber, in this Hill is Semented rock & Limestone the water runs out and forms Several little Islands in (2) high water on the S. S. a large Sand bar on the S. S. above and opposit the wooded High Land, at about 7 oClock the wind Seased and it Commenced raining passed many Sand bars opposit or in the Mouth of the Great River Plate this river which is much more rapid than the Missourie has thrown out imence quantities of Sand forming large Sand Banks at its mouth and forced the Missourie Close under the S. S. the Sands of this river Comes roleing down with the Current which is Crowded with Sand bars and not 5 feet water at any place across its mouth, the Rapidity of the Current of this river which is greater than that of the Missourie, its width at the Mouth across the bars is about 3/4 of a mile, higher up I am told by one of the bowmen that he was 2 winters on this river above and that it does not rise 7 feet, but Spreds over 3 miles at Some places, Capt Lewis & my Self went up Some Distance & Crossed found it Shallow. This river does not rise over 6 or 7 feet

Proceeded on passed the mouth of Papillion or Butter fly Creek 3 miles on the L. S. a large Sand bar opposit on that Side Camped above this baron L. S. a great number of wolves about us all night R. Fields killed a Deer hard wind N. W. cold



[Clark, July 21, 1804]

July 21st, Satturday 1804 Set out early under a gentle breeze from the S. E. proceeded on verry well, passed (1) a willow Island on the L. S. opposit a bad Sand bar, Some high lands covered with timber L. S in this hill is limestone & Seminted rock of Shels &c. (2) in high water the opposit Side is cut thro by Several Small Channels, forming Small Islands, a large Sand bar opposit the Hill at 7 oClock the wind luled and it Commnc'd raining, arrived at the lower Mouth of the Great River Platt at 10 oClock (about 3 ms. above the Hill of wood land, the Same range of High land Continus within 3/4 of a mile of the mouth below) This Great river being much more rapid than the Missourie forces its current against the opposit Shore, The Current of This river Comes with great Velocity roleing its Sands into the Missouri, filling up its Bend & Compelling it to incroach on the S Shore — we found great dificuelty in passing around the Sand at the mouth of this River Capt Lewis and My Self with 6 men in a perogue went up this Great river Plate about 1 miles, found the Current verry rapid roleing over Sands, passing through different Channels none of them more than five or Six feet deep, about 600 yards Wide at the mouth — I am told by one of our Party who wintered two winters on This river that "it is much wider above, and does not rise more than five or Six feet" Spreds verry and from its rapidity & roleing Sands Cannot be navagated with Boats or Perogues — The Indians pass this river in Skin Boats which is flat and will not turn over. The Otteaus a Small nation reside on the South Side 10 Leagues up, the Panies on the Same Side 5 Leagus higher up — about 10 Leagus up this river on the S. Side a Small river Comes into the Platt Called Salt River, "The waters So brackish that it Can't be Drank at Some Seasons" above this river & on the North Side a Small river falls into the Platt Called Elk River This river runs Parralal withe the Missouri — at 3 miles passed a Small river on the L. S. Called Papillion or Butterfly C. 18 yds. wide a large Sand bar off the mouth, we proceeded on to get to a good place to Camp and Delay a fiew days, passed around this Sand bar and Came to for the night on the L. S. a verry hard wind from the N. W. I went on Shore S. S. and proceeded up one mile thro high Bottom land open a Great number of wolves about us this evening



[Clark, July 22, 1804]

July 22nd Sunday Set out verry early with a view of getting Some timbered land & a good Situation to take equil altitudes in time proceeded on nearly a North 15° W 7 ms. to a pt. S. S. opposit Some high Lands on L. S. above the upper point of a long willow Island in the middle of the river 6 Deer killed to Day we deturmined to Stay here 4 or 5 days to take & make obsvts. & refresh our men also to Send Despatches back to govement — Wind hard N. W. Cold



[Clark, July 22, 1804]

22nd of July 1804 Completlly arranged our Camp, posted two Sentinals So as to Completely guard the Camp, formd bowers for the min $cc. &. Course from R Plate N 15° W. 10 Ms.



[Clark, July 22, 1804]

July 22nd, Sunday 1804 Set out verry early with a view of Getting to Some Situation above in time to take equal altitudes and take Observations, as well as one Calculated to make our party Comfortabl in a Situation where they Could recive the benifit of a Shade — passed a large Sand bar opposit a Small river on the L. S. at 3 miles above Plate Called Papillion or Butterfly Creek a Sand bar & an Willow Island opposit a Creek 9 ms. above the Plate on the S. S. Called Mosquitos Creek Prarie on both Sides of the river. Came too and formed a Camp on the S. S. above a Small Willow Island, and opposit the first Hill which aproach the river on the L. S. and covered with timbers of Oake Walnut Elm &c. &. This being a good Situation and much nearer the Otteaus town than the Mouth of the Platt, we concluded to delay at this place a fiew days and Send for Some of the Chiefs of that nation to let them Know of the Change of Government, The wishes of our Government to Cultivate friendship with them, the Objects of our journy and to present them with a flag and Some Small presents

Some of our Provisions in the French Perogue being wet it became necessary to Dry them a fiew days — Wind hard from N W. five Deer Killed to day — The river rise a little



[Lewis, July 22, 1804]

July 22nd 1804. A summary discription of the apparatus employed in the following observations; containing also some remarks on the manner in which they have been employed, and the method observed in recording the observations made with them.

1st — a brass Sextant of 10 Inches radius, graduated to 15 which by the assistance of the nonius was devisible to 15"; and half of this sum by means of the micrometer could readily be distinguished, therefore-7.5" of an angle was perceptible with this instrument; she was also furnished with three eye-pieces, consisting of a hollow tube and two telescopes one of which last reversed the images of observed objects. finding on experiment that the reversing telescope when employed as the eye-piece gave me a more full and perfect image than either of the others, I have most generally imployed it in all the observations made with this instrument; when thus prepared I found from a series of observations that the quantity of her index error was 8' 45"-; this sum is therefore considered as the standing error of the instrument unless otherwise expressly mentioned. the altitudes of all objects, observed as well with this instrument as with the Octant were by means of a reflecting surface; and those stated to have been taken with the sextant are the degrees, minutes, &c shewn by the graduated limb of the instrument at the time of observation and are of course the double altitudes of the objects observed.

2ed — A common Octant of 14 Inches radius, graduated to 20', which by means of the nonius was devisbile to 1', half of this sum, or 30" was perceptible by means of a micrometer. this instrument was prepared for both the fore and back observation; her error in the fore observation is 2°+, & and in the back observtion 2° r 1' 40.3" + at the time of our departure from the River Dubois untill the present moment, the sun's altitude at noon has been too great to be reached with my sextant, for this purpose I have therefore employed the Octant by the back observation. the degrees ' & ", recorded for the sun's altitude by the back observation express only the angle given by the graduated limb of the instrument at the time of observation, and are the complyment of the double Altitude of the sun's observed limb; if therefore the angle recorded be taken from 180° the remainder will be the double altitude of the observed object, or that which would be given by the fore observation with a reflecting surface.

3rd — An Artificial Horizon on the construction recommended and practiced by Mr. Andrw. Ellicott of Lancaster, Pensyla., in which water is used as the reflecting surface; believing this artificial Horizon liable to less error than any other in my possession, I have uniformly used it when the object observed was sufficiently bright to reflect a distinct immage; but as much light is lost by reflection from water I found it inconvenient in most cases to take the altitude of the moon with this horizon, and that of a star impracticable with any degree of accuracy.

4th — An Artificial Horizon constructed in the manner recommended by Mr. Patterson of Philadelphia; glass is here used as the reflecting surface. this horizon consists of a glass plane with a single reflecting surface, cemented to the flat side of the larger segment of a wooden ball; adjusted by means of a sperit-level and a triangular stand with a triangular mortice cut through it's center sufficiently large to admit of the wooden ball partially; the stand rests on three screws inserted near it's angles, which serve as feet for it to rest on while they assist also in the adjustment. this horizon I have employed in taking the altitude of the sun when his image he has been reather too dull for a perfect reflection from water; I have used it generally in taking the altitude of the moon, and in some cases of the stars also; it gives the moon's image very perfectly, and when carefully adjusted I consider it as liable to but little error.

5th — An Artificial Horizon formed of the index specula of a Sextant cemented to a flat board; adjusted by means of a sperit level and the triangular stand before discribed. as this glass reflects from both surfaces it gives the images of all objects much more bright than either of the other horizons; I have therefore most generally employed it in observing the altitudes of stars

6th — A Chronometer; her ballance-wheel and escapement were on the most improved construction. she rested on her back, in a small case prepared for her, suspended by an universal joint. she was carefully wound up every day at twelve oclock. Her rate of going as asscertained by a series of observations made by myself for that purpose was found to be 15 Seconds and a 5 tenths of a second too slow in twenty four howers on Mean Solar time. This is nearly the same result as that found by Mr. Andrew Ellicott who was so obliging as to examine her rate of going for the space of fourteen days, in the summer 1803. her rate of going as ascertained by that gentleman was 15.6 s too slow M. T. in 24 h. and that she went from 3 to 4 s. slower the last 12 h, than she did the first 12 h. after being wound up.

at 12 OCk. on the 14th day of may 1804 (being the day on which the detachment left the mouth of the River Dubois) the Chronometer was too fast M. T. 6 m. 32 s. & 2/10. — This time-piece was regulated on meantime, and the time entered in the following observations is that shewn by her at the place of observation. the day is recconed on Civil time, (i e) commencing at midnight.

7th — A Circumferentor, circle 6 Inches diameter, on the common construction; by means of this instrument adjusted with the sperit level, I have taken the magnetic azimuth of the sun and pole Star. It has also been employed in taking the traverse of the river: — from the courses thus obtained, together with the distances estimated from point to point, the chart of the Missouri has been formed which now accompanys these observations. the several points of observation are marked with a cross of red ink, and numbered in such manner as to correspond with the celestial observations made at those points respectively.



[Clark, July 23, 1804]

Camp 10 Ms. above the river Plate Monday July the 23rd a fair morning — Sent out a party of 5 men to look to timber for Ores two other parties to hunt at 11 oClock Sent, G. Drewyer & Peter Crusett 1/2 Indn. to the Otteaus Village about 18 ms. West of our Camp, to invite the Chiefs & principal men of that nation to come & talk with us &. &., also the panic if they Should meet with any of that nation (also on the S. Side of the Plate 30 ms. higher up) (at this Season of the year all the Indians in this quater are in the Plains hunting the Buffalow from Some Signs Seen by our hunter and the Praries being on fire in the derection of the Village induce a belief that the Nation have returned to get green Corn) raised a flag Staff put out Some provisions which got wet in the french Perogue to Sun & Dry — I commenced Coppying my map of the river to Send to the Presdt. of U S. by the Return of a pty of Soldiers, from Illinois five Deer Killed — one man a bad riseing on his left breast. Wind from the N. W.



[Clark, July 23, 1804]

Camp White Catfish 10 Miles above the Platt River Monday the 23rd of July 1804 A fair morning Set a party to look for timber for Ores, two parties to hunt. at 11 oClock Sent off George Drewyer & Peter Crousett with Some tobacco to invite the Otteaus if at their town and Panies if they Saw them to Come and talk with us at our Camp &c. &c. (at this Season the Indians on this river are in the Praries Hunting the Buffalow but from Some Signs of hunters near this place & the Plains being on fire near their towns induce a belief that they this nation have returned to get Some Green Corn or rosting Ears) raised a flag Staff Sund & Dryed our provisions &c. I commence Coppying a map of the river below to Send to the P. ____ U S five Deer Killed to day one man with a turner on his breast, Prepared our Camp the men put their arms in order

Wind hard this afternoon from the N. W.

Equal altitudes taken at the White Catfish Camp, 10 miles above the river Platt-



[Clark, July 24, 1804]

White Catfish Camp 24th of July Tuesday. a fair morning the wind rose with the Sun & blows hard from the S. thos Southerley Breezes are dry Cool & refreshing. the Northerley Breezes which is more frequent is much Cooler, and moist, I continue my Drawing. Cap Lewis also ingaged prepareing Som paper to Send back, one of the men cought a white Catfish, the eyes Small, & Tale resembling that of a Dolfin.



[Clark, July 24, 1804]

White Catfish Camp 10 Ms. above Platt 24th, of July 1804 Tuesday a fair day the wind blows hard from the South, the Breezes which are verry frequent on this part of the Missouri is cool and refreshing. Several hunters out to day; but as the game of all Kinds are Scarce only two Deer were brought in — I am much engaged drawing off a map, Capt. Lewis also much engaged in prepareing Papers to Send back by a pirogue — Which we intended to Send back from the river Plate — observations at this place makes the Lattitude 41° 3' 19" North

This evening Guthrege Cought a white Catfish, its eyes Small & tale much like that of a Dolfin



[Clark, July 25, 1804]

White Catfish Camp 25th of July Wednesday. Several hunters Sent out. at 2 oClock the Two men Sent to the Otteaz Village returned and informed that no Indians were at the Town they Saw Some fresh Sign near that place which they persued, but Could not find them, they having taken precausions to Conceal the rout which they went out from the Villagethe Inds. of the Missouries being at war with one & the other or other Indians, move in large bodies and Sometimes the whole nation Continue to Camp together on their hunting pls. Those men inform that they passed thro a open Plain all the way to the Town a feiw Trees excepted on the watercourses — they Cross the papillion or the Butterfly Creek within a feiw miles of Camp and near the Village a handsm. river of 100 yards Wide Called the Corne de chearf or the Elkhorn, which mouths below the Town in the Plate N. Side. Wind from the S. E. 2 Deer & a Turkey Killed to Day Several Grous Seen in the Prarie



[Clark, July 25, 1804]

White Catfish Camp 25th of July Wednesday a fair morning Several hunters out today at 2 oClock Drewyer & Peter returned from the Otteaus Village; and informs that no Indians were at their towns, They Saw Some fresh Signs of a Small party but Could not find them. in their rout to the Towns (Which is about 18 miles West) they passed thro a open Prarie Crossed papillion or Butterfly Creek and a Small butifull river which run into the Platt a little below the Town Called Corne de charf or Elk Horn river this river is about 100 yards wide with Clear water & a gravely Channel. — wind from the S. E two Deer Killed to day 1 Turkey Several Grous Seen to day.



[Clark, July 26, 1804]

Whit Catfish Camp 26th of July Thursday. the wind blew Verry hard all Day from the South with Clouds of Sand which incomoded me verry much in my tent, and as I could not Draw in the Boat was obliged Combat with the Misqutr. under a Shade in the woods-. I opened the Breast of a man the discharge gave him ease &c. 5 beaver Caught near Camp-only 1 Deer Killed to day. The Countrey back from Camp on the S. S. is a bottom of about 5 ms. wide one half the Distn. timber, the other high bottom Prarie, the opsd. Side a high Hill about 170 foot rock foundatio. Timbered back & below. a Prarie



[Clark, July 26, 1804]

Catfish which is White Camp 26th of July Thursday 1804 the wind blustering and hard from the South all day which blowed the Clouds of Sand in Such a manner that I could not complete my pan in the tent, the Boat roled in Such a manner that I could do nothing in that, I was Compessed to go to the woods and Combat with the Musqutors, I opened the Turner of a man on the left breast, which discharged half a point.

five Beever Cought near this Camp the flesh of which we made use of- This evening we found verry pleasent — only one Deer Killed to day. The Countrey back from Camp on the S. S. is a bottom of about five mile wide, one half the distance wood & the ball. plain high & Dry. the opposed Side a high Hill about 170 foot rock foundation, Covd. with timber, back & below is a Plain.



[Lewis, July 27, 1804]

white Catfish Camp July 27th Friday, Charged the Boat and Perogue after a Small Shower of rain, Completed our ores & poles, Crossed over the two horses, with a View of their going on the S W. Side of the Missouri and Set out at Half past 1 oClock proceeded on Verry well under a gentle Breeze. passed a high Island of high wood land on the L. Side just above Camp, this Island is formed by a pond Supplied by a great number of Springs from this hill, this Pond has 2 out lets, & when the river is high the water passes thro the pond, passed a Sand Island in the 2nd bend to the right. Camped in a bend to the L. S. in Some wood, I took R. Fields & walked on Shore & Killed a Deer, and did not get to the Boat untile after night a butifull Breeze from the N W. this evening which would have been verry agreeable, had the Misquiters been tolerably Pacifick, but thy were rageing all night, Some about the Sise of house flais



[Clark, July 27, 1804]

White Catfish Camp 10 ms above Platt 27th of July Friday, a Small Shower of rain this morning, at 10 oClock Commence Loading the Boat & perogue; had all the Ores Completely fixed; Swam over the two remaining horses to the L. S. with the view of the Hunters going on that Side, after Getting everry thing Complete, we Set Sale under a gentle breeze from the South and proceeded on, passed a Island (formd by a Pond fed by Springs) on the L. S. of high Land Covered with timber, in the 2nd bend to the right a large Sand Island in the river a high Prarie on the S. S. as we were Setting out to day one man Killed a Buck & another Cut his Knee verry bad Camped in a Bend to the L. Side in a Coops of Trees, a verry agreeable Breeze from the N W. this evening. I Killed a Deer in the Prarie and found the Misquitors So thick & troublesom that it was disagreeable and painfull to Continue a moment Still.

I took one man R. Fields and walked on Shore with a View of examoning Som mounds on the L. S. of the river — those mounds I found to be of Deffirent hight Shape & Size, Some Composed of Sand Some earth & Sand, the highest next to the river all of which covered about 200 acres of land, in a circular form on the Side from the river a low bottom & Small Pond. The Otteaus formerly lived here I did not get to the boat untile after night.



[Clark, July 28, 1804]

July 28th Satturday Set out this morning early, the wind blou from the N. W. by N. a Dark Smokey Morning, Some rain at 1 me. passed a Bluff on the S. S. it being the first high land approachig the river above the Nodaway, a Island and Creek S. S. just abov this creek I call Indian Knob G. Drewyer Came with a Deer &informs he heard fireing to the S. W. I walked on Shore on the S. S. found some good Prarie out from the S. pt. The High Lands approach the river 1st bend to left The party on Shore brought in a Missouri Indian who resides with the Otteauz, this Indian & 2 others were Hunting in the Prarie their Camp is about 4 miles off. This Indian informs that his nation is in the Plains hunting the Buffalow, the party with which he is encamped is about 20 familey Hunting the Elk, we landed on S. S. below an Island



[Clark, July 28, 1804]

July the 28th, Satturday 1804 Set out this morning early, the wind from the N W. by N. a Dark Smokey morning Some rain passed at 1 me. a Bluff on the S. S. the first high land above the Nodaway aproaching the river on that Side a Island and Creek 15 yds. wide on the S. S. above this Bluff, as this Creek has no name call it Indian Knob Creek our party on Shore Came to the river and informs that they heard fireing to the S W. below this High Land on the S. S. the Aiawuay Indians formerly lived, The flank came in & informed they heard two Guns to the S. W. the highland approaches in the 1st bend to the left, we camped on the S. S. below the point of an Island, G Drewyer brought in a Missourie Indian which he met with hunting in the Prarie This Indian is one of the fiew remaining of that nation, & lives with the Otteauz, his Camp about 4 miles from the river, he informs that the great gangue of the nation were hunting the Buffalow in the Plains. hs party was Small Consisting only of about 20 Lodges, ____ miles furthr a nother Camp where there was a french man, who lived in the nation, This Indian appeard spritely, and appeared to make use of the Same pronouncation of the Osarge, Calling a Chief Inca July 29th SundayWe Sent one frenchman le Liberty & the Indian to the Camp to envite the party to meet us at the next bend of High Land on the L. S. a Dark morning wind from the W. N. W. rained all last night Set out at 5 oClock &, proceeded on passed the Island, opposit this Island on the S. S. the Creek called Indian Knob Creek which mouths Several miles on a Direct line below, is within 20 feet of the Missouri & about 5 feet higher

Cought three large Cat fish to day verry fat one of them nearly white those Cat are So plenty that they may be Cought in any part of this river but fiew fish of any other Kind.

(4) at the commencement of this course passed much fallen timber apparently the ravages of a dreadful haricane which had passed obliquely across the river from N. W. to S. E. about twelve months since. many trees were broken off near the ground the trunks of which were sound and four feet in diameter.

Willard lost his gun in Bowyers R. R. Fields Dive & brought it up All the Wood Land on this part of the Missouries Appear to be Confined to the Points & Islands.

Boyers River is provably 25 yds. Wide, Willard near loseing his Gun in this river, two men Sick & Sevral with Boils, a Cold Day Wind from the N W. Som rain the fore part of the Day.



[Clark, July 29, 1804]

July 29th Sunday 1804 Sent a french man la Liberty with the Indian to Otteaze Camp to invite the Indians to meet us on the river above — a Dark rainey morning wind from the W. N. W. — rained all the last night — Set out at 5 oClock opposit the (1) Island, the bend to the right or S. S. is within 20 feet of Indian Knob Creek, the water of this Creek is 5 feet higher than that of the River. passed the Isld. we Stoped to Dine under Some high Trees near the high land on the L. S. in a fiew minits Cought three verry large Catfish (3) one nearly white, Those fish are in great plenty on the Sides of the river and verry fat, a quart of Oile Came out of the Surpolous fat of one of these fish (4) above this high land & on the S. S. passed much falling timber apparently the ravages of a Dreadfull harican which had passed obliquely across the river from N. W. to S E about twelve months Since, many trees were broken off near the ground the trunks of which were Sound and four feet in Diameter, (2) about 3/4 of a Me. above the Island on the S. S. a Creek corns in Called Boyers R. this Creek is 25 yards wide, one man in attempting to Cross this Creek on a log let his gun fall in, R. Fields Dived & brought it up proceeded on to a Point on the S. S. and Camped.



[Clark, July 30, 1804]

July the 30th Monday Set out early & proceeded on West 33/4 mes. passd. one pt. to the L. S and one to the S. S. to a Clear open Prarie on the L. S. which is on a rise of about 70 feet higher than the bottom which is also a prarie covered with high grass Plumbs Grape Vine & Hezel-both forming a Bluff to the River, the Lower Prarie is above high water mark at the foot of the riseing ground & below the High Bluff we came to in a grove of timber and formed a Camp raised a flag Pole, and deturmind to waite for the Ottu Indians — The white Horse which we found below Died last night, after posting out the Guards &c. &. Sent out 4 men to hunt I am ingaged in ____ and Drawing off my courses to accompany the map Drawn at White Catfish Camp, Capt. Lewis and my Self walked in the Prarie on the top of the Bluff and observed the most butifull prospects imagionable, this Prarie is Covered with grass about 10 or 12 Inch high, (Land rich) rises about 1/2 a mile back Something higher and is a Plain as fur as Can be Seen, under those high Lands next the river is butifull Bottom interspersed with Groves of timber, the River may be Seen for a great Distance both above & below meandering thro the plains between two ranges of High land which appear to be from 4 to 20 ms. apart, each bend of the river forming a point which Contains tall timber, principally Willow Cotton wood some Mulberry elm Sycamore & ash. the groves Contain walnit coffeenut & Oake in addition & Hickory & Lynn Jo. Fields Killed Brarow or as the Ponie call it Cho car tooch, this animale burrows in the ground & feeds on Bugs and flesh principally the little Dogs of the Prarie, also Something of Vegetable Kind his Shape & Size is like that of a Beever, his head Mouth &c. is like a Dog with its ears Cut off, his tale and hair like that of a Ground hog Something longer and lighter, his interals like a Hogs, his Skin thick & loose, white & hair Short under its belly, of the Species of the Bear, and it has a white Streake from its nose to its Sholders, the Toe nails of its fore feet which is large is 1 Inch and 3/4 qtr. long and those of his hind feet which is much Smaller is 3/4 long. We have this animale Skined and Stuffed. Short legs, raseing himself just above the ground when in motion Jo & R. fields Killed Som Deer at a Distance and Came in for a horse to bring them in, they have not returned this evening, a gred number of Swans in a pond above L. S. to our Camp. Serjt. Floyd verry unwell a bad Cold &c. Several men with Boils, great qts. of Catfish G. D. Cought one Small Beever alive. Som Turkey & Gees Killed to day. arms & all things in order. a fair evining, and Cool.



[Clark, July 30, 1804]

July 30th Monday 1804 Set out this morning early proceeded on to a Clear open Prarie on the L. S. on a rise of about 70 feet higher than the bottom which is also a Prarie both forming Bluffs to the river of High Grass & Plumb bush Grapes &c. and Situated above high water is a Small Grove of timber at the foot of the Riseing Ground between those two priraries, and below the Bluffs of the high Prarie we Came too and formed a Camp, intending to waite the return of the french man & Indians — the white horse which we found near the Kanzeis River, Died Last night

posted out our guard and Sent out 4 men, Captn. Lewis & went up the Bank and walked a Short Distance in the high Prarie. this Prairie is covered with Grass of 10 or 12 inches in hight. Soil of good quallity &, Still further back at the Distance of about a mile the Countrey rises about 80 or 90 feet higher, and is one Continual Plain as fur as Can be Seen, from the Bluff on the 2d rise imediately above our Camp the most butifull prospect of the River up & Down and the Countrey opsd. prosented it Self which I ever beheld; The River meandering the open and butifull Plains, interspursed with Groves of timber, and each point Covered with Tall timber, Such as willow Cotton Sun Mulberry, Elm, Sucamore, Lynn & ash (The Groves Contain Hickory, Walnut, Coffeenut & Oake in addition)

Two ranges of High Land parrelel to each other and from 4 to 10 miles Distant between which the river & its bottoms are Contained. (from 70 to 300 feet high)

Joseph Fields Killed and brought in an Anamale Called by the French Brarow, and by the Ponies Cho car tooch this Anamale Burrows in the Ground and feeds on Flesh, (Prarie Dogs), Bugs, & vigatables — "His Shape & Size is like that of a Beaver, his head mouth &c. is like a Dogs with Short Ears, his Tail and Hair like that of a Ground Hog, and longer, and lighter. his Interals like the interals of a Hog," his Skin thick and loose, his Belly is White and the Hair Short — a white Streek from his nose to his Sholders.

The toe nails of his fore feet is one Inch & 3/4 long, & feet large; the nails of his hind feet 3/4 of an Inch long, the hind feet Small and toes Crooked, his legs are Short and when he Moves Just Suffcent to raise his body above the Ground He is of the Bear Species. we hav his Skin Stuffed

Jo. & R. Fields did not return this evening, Several men with Verry bad Boils — Cat fish is Cought in any part of the river Turkeys Gees & a Beaver Killed & Cought every thing in prime order men in high Spirits. a fair Still evening Great no. misquitors this evening



[Lewis, July 30, 1804]

July the 30th this day Joseph Fields killed a Braro as it is called by the French engages. this is a singular anamal not common to any part of the United States. it's weight is sixteen pounds. — it is a carniverous anamal. on both sides of the upper jaw is fexed one long and sharp canine tooth. it's eye are small black and piercing.



[Clark, July 31, 1804]

July 31st Tuesday a fair Day 3 hunters out this morning G. Drewyer Killed a verry fat Buck one Inch fat on the ribs Merdn. altd Latd. is 41° 18' 0" 5/10-North. R & Jo. Fields returned at 10 oClock the Killed 3 Deer, and lost the horses, Cought a Small Beever which is already taim, Several men out hunting the horses without Sukcess, The Ottoes not yet arrived, I complete the Copy of the Courses &c. &c. Musqueters verry troubleson



[Clark, July 31, 1804]

July 31st, Tuesday a fair Day three Hunters out, Took meridian altitude made the Lattd. 41° 18' 1" 5/10 N. R. & Jo. Fields returned to Camp They Killed 3 Deer. — The Horses Strayed off last night. Drewyer Killed a Buck one inch of fat on the ribs, R. & Jo. Fields returned without any meet haveing been in persuit of the horses — The Indians not yet arrived. Cought a young Beever alive which is already quit tame-. Cought a Buffalow fish — The evening verry Cool, The Musqutors are yet troublesom.



[Clark, August 1, 1804]

August the 1st 1804 a fair morning, Sent out two men after the horses & one back to examine if the Indians have been there, ____ Beever Cought last night, the air is Cool and pleasing

Prepared the Pipe of Peace verry flashey. wind rose at 10 oClock and blowed from the W. S. W. very pleasent all day Several men geathering grapes &c. two men after the horses which Strayed the night before last. those Praries produce the Blue Current Common in the U. S. the Goose Berry Common in the U. S, two Kind of Honeysuckle, the Bush which I have Seen in Kentucky, with a paile Pink flower, also one which grow in Clusters about 4 or 5 feet high bearing a Short flour in clusters of the like Colour. the leaves Single. 3 Deer & an Elk Killed to day. This being my birth day I order'd a Saddle of fat Vennison, an Elk fleece & a Bevertail to be cooked and a Desert of Cheries, Plumbs, Raspberries Currents and grapes of a Supr. quallity. The Indians not yet arrived. a Cool fine eveninge Musquetors verry troublesom, the Praries Contain Cheres, Apple, Grapes, Currents, Rasp burry, Gooseberris Hastlenuts and a great Variety of Plants & flours not Common to the U S. What a field for a Botents and a natirless



[Clark, August 1, 1804]

August the 1st 1804 a fair morning Despatched two men after the horses lost yesterday, one man back to the place from which the messinger was Sent for the Ottoes to See if any Indians was or had been there Since our deptr. he return'd and informed that no person had been there Sence we left it. The Prarie which is Situated below our Camp is above the high water leavel and rich Covered with Grass from 5 to 8 feet high intersperced with Copse of Hazel, Plumbs, Currents (like those of the U.S.) Rasberries & Grapes of Dift. Kinds. also produceing a Variety of Plants and flowers not Common in the United States, two Kind of honey Suckle one which grows to a kind of a Srub. Common about Harrods burgh in Kentucky the other are not So large or tall and bears a flower in Clusters Short and of a light Pink Colour, the leaves differ from any of the othe Kind in as much as the Lieves are Distinkd & does not Surround the Stalk as all the other Kind does one Elk and three Deer Killed to day also two Beever Cought

The wind rose at 10 oClock from the W. S. W. and blew a Steedy and agreeable Breeze all Day.

The Musqutors verry troublesom this evening in the bottoms.

Took equal altitudes to day and the azmuth with the Commencement of the A.M.







[Clark, August 2, 1804]

August 2nd 1804 wind from the SE G. Drewery returned with the horses & one Doe Elk the countrey thro which he passed is like what we See from the Bluff above Camp three men out Hunting one Beaver caught this morning.

at Sunset 6 chiefs and their warries of the Ottos, and Missoures, with a french man by the name of Far fonge, we Shook hands and gave them Some Tobacco & Provisions, they Sent us Water Millions Three verry large & fat Bucks Killed to day the wind Continue hard from the S. E. the 4 qtr. of one Buck weigh'd 147 wt 11/2 Inch fat on the ribs



[Clark, August 2, 1804]

August 2nd Thursday 1804 A verry pleasent Breeze from the S. E. The Two men Drewyer & Colter returned with the horses loaded with Elk, those horses they found about 12 miles in a Southerly Derection from Camp.

The Countrey thro which they passed is Similar to what we See from Camp. one Beaver & a foot of Beaver caught in trap Cought this morning at Sunset Mr. Fairfong and a pt. of Otteau & Missourie Nation Came to Camp, among those Indians 6 were Chiefs, the principal Chiefs Capt. Lewis & myself met those Indians & informed them we were glad to See them, and would Speak to them tomorrow, Sent them Som rosted meat Pork flour & meal, in return they Sent us Water millions. every man on his Guard & ready for any thing Three fat Bucks Killed this evening the 4 qtrs. of one weighed 147 lbs.



[Lewis, August 2, 1804]

August 2ed 1804. This day one of our Hunters brought me a white Heron. this bird as an inhabitant of ponds and Marasses, and feeds upon tadpoles, frogs, small fish &c — they are common to the Mississipi and the lower part of the ohio River, (ie) as high as the falls of that river.

this bird weighed two lbs. — it's plumage is perfectly white and very thin

F I. from extremity of beak to the extremity of toe 4 71/4 from tipp to tip of wing on the back 4 11

it's beak is yellow pointed, flated crosswise and 5 Inches in length from the upper region of the bill to the eye is one inch in length, covered with a smoth yellow skin the plumage of the head projecting towards the upper bill and coming to a point a an Inch beyond the eyes on the center of the upper bill. The mouth opens to distance of the eyes — The eye is full and projecting reather, it is 7/10 of half an inch. four joints in the wing

Inches 1st joint from body in length 6 2ed Do. 81/4 3rd Do. 31/2 4th Do. 1 1st joint Number of feathers 7 Length of 3 2nd 18 6 3 6 from 10 to 12 4th 5 12

it's legs are black — the neck and beak occupy 1/2 it's length. it has four toes on a foot — the outer toe on the right foot is from the joining of the leg to extremity of toe nale 4 Inch & 1/4 has four joints exclusive of the nail joint — the next is 43/4 inches has three joints exclusive of the nale joint. the next is 33/4 and has two joints, the heel toe has one joint only and is 3 Inches in length. the nails are long sharp and black — the eye is of a deep seagreen colour, with a circle of of pale yellow around the sight forming a border to the outer part of the eye of about half the width of the whole eye. the tale has 12 feathers of six inches in length. — the wings when folded are the same length with the tale.

has 2 remarkable tufts of long feathers on each side joining the body at the upper joint of the wing. these cover the feathers of the 1st joint of the wings when they are over extended



[Clark, August 3, 1804]

August 3rd Friday prepare a Small preasent for those Indians and hold a Councul Delivered a Speech & made 8 6 chief... gave a fiew preasents and, a Smoke a Dram, Some Powder & Ball — the man we Sent not yet come up, Those people express great Satisfaction at the Speech Delivered they are no Oreters, big, open Counternances, ottoes large Missor Small

at 4 oClock Set out under a gentle Breeze from the S. E proceeded on N. 5° E 5 Ms. Passed a Pt. on the S. S. and round a large Sand bar on the L. S. and Camped above, below a great number of Snags quit across the river, The Musquitors more numerous than I ever Saw them, all in Spirrits, we had Some rough Convasation G. Dr. about boys.

The Osage & Kansies are the Same language

the Ottoes & Mahars Speek many words of the Osarge language

The Ottos, Aiaways, & Missouries Speake the Same language the Panies & Recreries Speak the Same language also the Loups & repub. the Mahar, & Poncarar the Same Language The Cheaun, Mandin & Grovanter the Same The Probibility is that those defferant tribes have once formed 3 great nats. Viz: the Missouries, Osarge, Kanzes, Ottoes, Mahars, & Poncaras & Aiauaies one nation.

The Panies, Loups, Republican, Recrerees the 2nd

The Mandans Cheeons, & Grovanters the 3rd The tribes of the Soux all retain the name 4th

It is possible that the, Mahar & Poncarear may have been a Distinct nation, as they only Speek Some words of the osage which have the Same Signification 25 Days to St Ta fee S. of W. Cross the heads of Arkansies around the head of Kanzies River after Delivering a Speech informing thos Children of ours of the Change which had taken place, the wishes of our government to Cultivate friendship & good understanding, the method of have good advice & Some Directions, we made 1 Great Chief to the who was not present, to whom we adresed the Speech & Sent Some presents or Meadels & flag, we made 2 Second Chiefs one for the Missouris & another for the Ottos (those two tribes are nearly equal 1'70 each) and 4 principal men, to thos principal men to thos we gave a Small Comtn. to each man to whom we gave authority, a preasn of Br. Ch. Gart. g. Paint & a med. or Contn a Small Corns. was delivered for the whole each Chief & principal man delivered a Speech acknowledging ther approbation to what they had heard and promised to prosue the good advice and Caustion, they were happy w new fathers who gave good advice & to be Depended on all Concluded by asking a little Powder & a Drop of Milk.

I answered those Speeches gave them 50 balls one Canister of Powder & a Dram — after Cap Lewis Shot his air gun a few times which astonished the nativs, we Set Sail. recved from thos people water millions & The Cheifs & Principal men of the Ottoes & Missouris made by M L. & W C the 3rd August 1804

from this place I am told by Mr. Faufong the interpeter that it will take a man 25 Days to go to St. a fee pass, the heads of Arkansas, round the Kansas head, across Some mountains from the top of which the City may be Seen the Spaniards have envited those Indians & the Panies to trade with them & Some french & a few indians are gorn from the Panias to that City this Summer-

The Situation of this place which we Call Council Bluff which is handsom ellevated a Spot well Calculated for a Tradeing establishment, the Bank high & leavel on top well Calculated for a fort to Command the Countrey and river the low bottom above high water & well Situated under the Command of the Hill for Houses to trade with the Natives a butifull Plain both abov and below at no other bend on either Side does the High land touch the river for Some distance up, as I am told.

those Bluffs afford good Clay for Brick, a great quantity on the 3 points one Opsd. one abov &one below. — the Situation I am informed is, within 1 Days march of the Ottoes, 11/2 of the Panias, 2 of the Mahars, & 21/2 of the Loups Villages, also Convenient to the roveing Bands of Soux, Those people are now at war with each other, an establishment here would bring about peace and be the means of Keeping of it.

Augt. 3d Camped on the upper point of a large Sand bar L. S. Misquters verry bad. Some place near Conncill Bluff will be the most proper place for a tradeing establishment, for maney of the nations, the distance is to the Ottoes one Days, Ponies 11/2 days, to the Mahar, 2 days, to Loups 2 Days & a half 16 or 1800 men-and convenient for Some bands of the Sues,



[Clark, August 3, 1804]

August 3rd, Friday 1804 made up a Small preasent for those people in perpotion to their Consiqunce. also a package with a meadile to accompany a Speech for the Grand Chief after Brackfast we Collected those Indians under an orning of our Main Sail, in presence of our Party paraded & Delivered a long Speech to them expressive of our journey the wirkes of our Government, Some advice to them and Directions how They were to Conduct themselves, the princapal Chief for the nation being absente we sent him the Speech flag Meadel & Some Cloathes. after hering what they had to say Delivered a medal of Second Grade to one for the Ottos & and one for the Missourie present and 4 medals of a third Grade to the inferior Chief two for each tribe. Those two parts of nations, Ottos & Missouries now residing together is about 250 men are the Ottoes Composeing 2/3d and Missourie 1/3 part

Those Chiefs all Delivered a Speech acknowledgeing Their approbation to the Speech and promissing to prosue the advice & Derictions given them that they wer happy to find that they had fathers which might be depended on &c.

We gave them a Cannister of Powder and a Bottle of whiskey and delivered a few presents to the whole after giveing a Br. Cth. Some Paint guartering & a Meadele to those we made Cheifs after Capt Lewis's Shooting the air gun a feiw Shots (which astonished those nativs) we Set out and proceeded on five miles on a Direct line passed a point on the S. S. & round a large Sand bar on the L. S. & Camped on the upper point. The Misquitors excessively troublesom this evening Great appearance of wind and rain to the N. W. we prepare to rec've it — The man Liberty whome we Sent for the Ottoes has not Come up he left the Ottoes Town one Day before the Indians. This man has eithered tired his horse or, lost himself in the Plains Some Indians are to hunt for him, The Situation of our last Camp Councill Bluff or Handssom Prarie appears to be a verry proper place for a Tradeing establishment & fortification The Soil of the Bluff well adapted for Brick, Great deel of timbers abov in the two Points. many other advantages of a Small nature. and I am told Senteral to Several nations Viz. one Days march from the Ottoe Town, one Day & a half from the great Pania village, 2 days from the Mahar Towns, two 1/4 Days from the Loups Village, & Convenient to the Countrey thro which Bands of the Soux hunt. perhaps no other Situation is as well Calculated for a Tradeing establishment. The air is pure and helthy So far as we can judge.



[Clark, August 4, 1804]

August 4th at 7 oClock the heavens darkened and a violent wind from the N W. Suckceeded which lasted about an hour, with a little rain.

Set out this morning early thro a narrow part of the, the whole Channel Confined in Some parts between the (1) Sand on one Side & the bank on the other (which is washing in) within 200 yards, this Chanl. Crouded with Snags. at 11/2 m. passed an old tradeing house L. S. where one of our Crew passed 2 years P. C tradeing with the Mahar; & Ponies-above 1 me. a (3) Creek Coms in opsd. a large bad (2) Sand bar this (3) Creek is the outlett of 3 ponds, which recved ther water from the Smaller Streams running from the hills on the L. S, Great qts. of Gees, passed in the next bend L. S. an out let to the Pond, Butifull bottom Prarie on both Sides of the river, Pumey Stone is found on the Sides of the river of various Sizes. Wind a head. Reed the man who went back to the Camp of last night for his Knife has not Come up this evening-we Camped at a pt. on the L. S. at a Beaver house. 1 Buck Killed to daye.



[Clark, August 4, 1804]

August 4th Satturdaye Set out early — (at 7 oClock last night we had a Violent wind from the N W Som little rain Succeeded, the wind lasted with violence for one hour after the wind it was clear Sereen and Cool all night.) proceeded on passed thro betwen Snags which was quit across the Rivr the Channel Confined within 200 yards one Side a Sand pt. S S. the other a Bend, the Banks washing away & trees falling in constantly for 1 mile, abov this place is the remains of an old Tradeing establishment L. S. where Petr. Crusett one of our hands Stayed two years & traded with the Mahars a Short distance above is a Creek (3) the out let of Three Ponds comunicateing with each other, those Ponds or rether Lakes are fed by Springs & Small runs from the hills. (2) a large Sand Island opposit this Creek makeing out from the L. Point, from the Camp of last night to this Creek, the river has latterly Changed its bed incroaching on the L. Side, in this Sand bar I Saw great Nos. of wild gees — passed a Small Creek on the L. S about 3 miles above the last both of those Creek's are out lets from the Small Lake which reive their water from the Small Streems running from the high land — great many Pamey Stones on the Shore of various Sises the wind blew hard — Reed a man who went back to Camp for his knife has not joined us. we camped at a Beaver house on the L. S.one Buck Killed to day-



[Clark, August 5, 1804]

August 5th Set out early wind from N E. Great appearance of Wind & rain, (I have remarked that I have not heard much thunder in this Countrey) a verry large Snake was Killed to day called the Bull Snake, his Colour Some thing like a rattle Snake Something lighter — the bends of the river to day is washing away the banks, haveing nothing to oppose the turbelance of the river when Confined by large hard Sand Points, forceing this Current against the bends — the Soil of the entire bottom between the high land, being the mud or Ooze of the river of Some former period mixed with Sand & Clay easely melts and Slips, or washies into the river the mud mixes with the water & the Sand collects on the points Camped on the S. S. — I went on Shore S. S. this evening Saw Some turkeys and in persueing them Struk the river 12 miles below the place by water I went out, I think the Peninsuly is about 370 yards across Subjuct to overflow; & washes into numerous Channels, Great quantities of Graps ripe & of three Defferent Kind Some large & fine. I Killed a Turkey, and made Camp in the Night, Musqutors verry troubleson — Reed the man who went back for his Knife has not yet joined us



[Clark, August 5, 1804]

5th of August Sunday 1804 Set out early great appearance of wind and rain (I have observed that Thundor & lightning is not as common in this Countrey as it is in the atlantic States) Snakes are not plenty, one was killed to day large and resembling the rattle Snake only Something lighter-. I walked on Shore this evening S. S. in Pursueing Some Turkeys I struck the river twelve miles below within 370 yards, the high water passes thro this Peninsulia; and agreeable to the Customary Changes of the river I Concld. that in two years the main Current of the river will pass through. In every bend the banks are falling in from the Current being thrown against those bends by the Sand points which inlarges and the Soil I believe from unquestionable appearns. of the entire bottom from one hill to the other being the mud or ooze of the River at Some former Period mixed with Sand and Clay easily melts and Slips into the River, and the mud mixes with the water & the Sand is washed down and lodges on the points — Great quantites of Grapes on the banks, I observe three different Kinds at this time ripe, one Of the no. is large & has the flaver of the Purple grape. camped on the S. S. the Musquitors verry troubleson. The man who went back after his Knife has not yet come up, we have Some reasons to believe he has Deserted



[Lewis, August 5, 1804]

August 5th 1804 Killed a serpent on the bank of the river adjoining a large prarie.

F Inch Length from nose to tail 5 2 Circumpherence in largest part — 41/2 Number of scuta on belly — 221 Do. on Tale — 53

No pison teeth therefore think him perfectly inocent — eyes, center black with a border of pale brown yellow Colour of skin on head yellowish green with black specks on the extremity of the scuta which are pointed or triangular colour of back, transverse stripes of black and dark brown of an inch in width, succeeded by a yellowish brown of half that width the end of the tale hard and pointed like a cock's spur the sides are speckled with yellowish brown and black. — two roes of black spots on a lite yellow ground pass throughout his whole length on the upper points of the scuta of the belly and tale 1/2 Inch apart this snake is vulgarly called the cow or bull snake from a bellowing nois which it is said sometimes to make resembling that anamal, tho as to this fact I am unable to attest it never having heard them make that or any other noise myself.

I have frequently observed an acquatic bird in the cours of asscending this river but have never been able to procure one before today, this day I was so fortunate as to kill two of them, they are here more plenty than on the river below. they lay their eggs on the sand bars without shelter or nest, and produce their young from the 15th to the last of June, the young ones of which we caught several are covered with down of a yellowish white colour and on the back some small specks of a dark brown. they bear a great resemblance to the young quale of ten days oald, and apear like them to be able to runabout and peck their food as soon as they are hatched — this bird, lives on small fish, worms and bugs which it takes on the virge of the water it is seldom seen to light on trees an quite as seldom do they lite in the water and swim tho the foot would indicate that they did it's being webbed I believe them to be a native of this country and probly a constant resident.

the weight of the male bird is one ounce and a half, its length from beak to toe 71/2 inches from tip to tip of wing across the back one foot seven inches and a half the beak is one 1/8 inch lonong, large where it joins the head Elated on the sides and tapering to a sharp point, a little declining and curvated, a fine yellow, with a shade of black on the extremity of upper beak; the eye is prominent, black and on a angular scale of 1/2 Inc; occupyse 3 1/3 in width. the upper part of the head is black from the beak as low as the middle of the eye and a little below the joining of the neck except however some white which joins the upper part of the beak which forks and passing over the sides of the forehead terminate above each eye — the under part of the bird, that is the throat and cheeks as high as the eye, the neck brest belly and under part of the wings and tail are of a fine white, the upper part of the neck, back, and wings are of a fine, quaker colour, or bright dove colour with reather more of a bluish tint-except however the three first or larger feathers in the wing which on upper side are of a deep black. the wing has four joints

No. Joint Length of joint No. of feathers Length of do. 1 11/2 a Clump of feathers not strong but loosly connect with the flesh of the wing 11/2 2 2 16 2 3 11/2 7 from 21/2 to 41/2 4 3/4 3 51/2

the tail has eleven feathers the outer of which are an inch longer than those in the center gradually tapering inwards which gives the tale a forked appearance like that of the swally the largest or outer feather is 23/4 that of the shortest 13/4 — the leg and thye are three inches long the leg occupying one half this length the thye is covered with feathers except about 1/4 of an inch above the knee the leg is of a bright yellow and nails long sharp and black the foot is webbed and has three toes forward; the heel or back toe is fixed to the leg above the palm of the foot, and is unconnected by a web to the other toes, it has no nail. the wings when foalded lap like those of the swallow and extend at least an inch and a half beyond the tale. this bird is very noysey when flying which is dose exttreemly swift the motion of the wing is much like that of kildee it has two notes one like the squaking of a small pig only on reather a high kee, and the other kit'-tee'- kit'-tee' — as near as letters can express the sound — the beak of the female is black and the black and quaker colour of the male in her is yellowish brown mixed with dove colour



[Clark, August 6, 1804]

August 6th Monday 1804 at 12 oClock last night a Violent Storm of wind & rain from the N. W. one perogue (Bapteest Le joness Patroon) lost her Colours Set out early & proceeded on passed a large Island on the S. S. back of this Island Rivie de Soldiert Come in on the S. S. — the Solder's River is about the Sise of Nodaway 20 yd. wide at the mouth, passed two remarkable places, where the River had once Passed — We have every reason to belive that one man has Deserted Moses B. Reed he has been absent three Days and one french man we Sent to the Indian Camps has not joined us, we have reasons to beleve he lost himself in attempting to join us at the Council Bluff — we are deturmind to Send back 4 men to take reede Dead or alive, also hunt La Liberty and to meet us at the Mahar nation as Soon as the order is executed.



[Clark, August 6, 1804]

6th August, Monday 1804 At 12 oClock last nigh a violent Storm of wind from the N W. Some rain one pr. of Colours lost in the Storm from the bige Perogue. Set out early and proceeded on passed a large Island on the S. S. back of this Isd. Soldiers River mouths, I am told by one of the men that this river is about the Size of Nadawa river 40 yards wide at the mouth. Reed has not yet come up. neither has La Liberty the frenchman whome we Sent to the Indian Camps a fiew miles below the Council Bluffs.



[Clark, August 7, 1804]

August 7th Tuesday last night about 8 oClock a Storm of wind from the N. W. which lasted 3/4 of an hour mosquitors more troublesom last night than I ever Saw them, Set out late this morning wind N.



[Clark, August 7, 1804]

7th August Tuesday 1804 last night at 8 oClock a Storm from the N W. lasted 3/4 of an hour let out late this morning wind from the North — at 1 oClock dispatched George Drewyer, R. Fields, Wm. Bratten & Wm. Labieche back after the Deserter reid with order if he did not give up Peaceibly to put him to Death &c. to go to the Ottoes Village & enquire for La Liberty and bring him to the Mahars Village, also with a Speech on the occasion to the Ottoes & Missouries — and directing a few of their Chiefs to come to the Mahars, & we would make a peace between them & the Mahar and Souex, a String of wompom & a Carrot of Tobacco. proceeded on and Camped on the S. S.

I walked on Shore with one man Collies,-the bottoms Covered with very Collin Killed an elk, I fired 4 times at one & have reasons to think I Kiled him but could not find him, The Misqutors were So troublesom and Misqutors thick in the Plains that I could not Keep them out of my eyes, with a bush. in my absens Capt Lewis Killed a Pelican on Pelicans Island, at which place maney Hundreds had Collected, they left 3 fish which was. fresh and very good, we camped on the S. S. in a Streght part of the river-



[Clark, August 8, 1804]

August the 8th 1804 Set out this morning at the usial time at about 2 miles (1) passed a part of the river So choked up with Snags that we found a little dificult to get thro with Safty, the wind as usial from the N W. one of the Soldiers Killed a Pilican on the Sand Isd. passed the mouth of Little (2) River de Cueoux on the S. S. this river is about 80 yards wide & navagable for Pirogus Some distance & runs parrelel to the Missourie it corns in from the River from the N E, it contains great Quantitys offish Common to the Countrey. two Miles above is (3) an Island the Channel formerly run on the right with Sand. — the Current runs to the left. many hundreds of Pelicans on this Island — we call it Pelican Isld. Cap Lewis Killed one This river Soux Called by the Sueoux Ed-Neah Wau-de-pon i'e Stone R heads in three Leagues of the river Demoin, and passes thro a Lake about 20 Legues in Sircfs. which is also within 5 Leagus of the Demoin, this lake at one place is confined by two rocks within a narrow Space — this lake of Different widths, with many Small Islands, from the Lake to the Mahars about distant 4 Days march to the Dog Plains 90 Leagues, one Principal branch of the Demoin is calld. Cat river, the Lake which this river Litt Souex heads in is Called Despree



[Clark, August 8, 1804]

8th August Wednesday 1804 Set out this morning at the usial time at two miles passed (1) a bend to L. S. Choaked up with Snags our boat run on two in turning to pass through, we got through with Safty the wind from N W. (2) passed the mouth of a River on the S. Side Called by the Soux Indians Ed-neah Wau de pon (or Stone river) the French call this river Petite Rivre de Cuouex it is about 80 yards wide and as (Mr. Durion Says whos been on the heads of it and the Country abt) is navagable for Perogues Som Distance runs Parrelel to the Missourie Some Distance, then falls down from N E thro a roleing Countrey open, the head of this river is 9 miles from the R Demon at which place the Demoin is 80 yd wide, this Little Cuouex passes thro a lake called Despree which is within 5 Leagues of the Deemoin the Said Lake is about 20 Leagues in Circumfrance and is divided into 2 by two rocks approaching Verry near each other, this Lake is of various width, Containing many Islands- from this Lake to the Maha 4 days march, as is Said to be near the Dog Plains one princpal branch of the Demoin is Called Cat River The Demoin is Sholey

Capt. Lewis took Medn. Altitude of the Sun made it 56° 9' 00" Lat 41° 42' 34" and I took one man and went on Shore the man Killed an Elk I fired 4 times at one & did not Kill him, my ball being Small I think was the reason, the misqutors So bad in the Praries that with the assistance of a bush I could not Keep them out of my eyes, the boat turned Several tims to day on Sand bars — in my absenc the boat passed a Island 2 miles above the litte Scouex R on the upper point of the Isld Some hundreds of Pelicans were Collected, they left 3 fish on the Sand which was verry fine, Capt Lewis Killed one & took his dimentions, I joined the boat and we Camped on the S S.

worthe of remark that Snakes are not plenty in this part of the Missourie



[Lewis, August 8, 1804]

August 8th 1804 we had seen but a few aquatic fouls of any kind on the river since we commenced our journey up the Missouri, a few geese accompanied by their young, the wood duck which is common to every part of this country & crains of several kinds which will be discribed in their respective places — this day after we had passed the river Souix as called by Mr. MacKay (or as is more properly called the stone river,) I saw a great number of feathers floating down the river those feathers had a very extraordinary appearance as they appeared in such quantities as to cover pretty generally sixty or seventy yards of the breadth of the river. for three miles after I saw those feathers continuing to run in that manner, we did not percieve from whence they came, at length we were surprised by the appearance of a flock of Pillican at rest on a large sand bar attatched to a small Island the number of which would if estimated appear almost in credible; they apeared to cover several acres of ground, and were no doubt engaged in procuring their ordinary food; which is fish, on our approach they flew and left behind them several small fish of about eight inches in length, none of which I had seen before — the Pellican rested again on a sand bar above the Island which we called after them from the number we saw on it. we now approached them within about three hundred yards before they flew; I then fired at random among the flock with my rifle and brought one down; the discription of this bird is as follows.

Habits

They are a bird of clime remain on the coast of Floriday and the borders of the Gulph of mexico & even the lower portion of the Mississippi during the winter and in the Spring (see for date my thermometrical observations at the river Dubois.) visit this country and that farther north for the purpose of raising their young — this duty seems now to have been accomplished from the appearance of a young Pilacon which was killed by one of our men this morning, and they are now in large flocks on their return to their winter quarters. they lay usually two eggs only and chuise for a nest a couple of logs of drift wood near the water's edge and with out any other preperation but the thraught formed by the proximity of those two logs which form a trough they set and hatch their young which after nurture with fish their common food Measure

  Feet Inches
From beak to toe 5 8
Tip to tip of wing 9 4
Beak Length 1 3
Do. Width 2 to 1 1/2
Neck Length 1 11
1st joint of wing 1 1
2ed Do. 1 4 1/2
3rd Do. — - 7
4th do. — - 2 3/4
Length of leg including foot 10
Do. of thy 11

Discription of Colour &c

The beak is a whiteish yellow the under part connected to a bladder like pouch, this pounch is connected to both sides of the lower beak and extends down on the under side of the neck and terminates in the stomach — this pouch is uncovered with feathers, and is formed two skins the one on the inner and the other on the center side a small quantity of flesh and strings of which the anamal has at pleasure the power of moving or drawing in such manner as to contract it at pleasure. in the present subject I measured this pouch and found it's contents 5 gallons of water

The feet are webbed large and of a yellow colour, it has four toes the hinder toe is longer than in most aquatic fouls, the nails are black, not sharp and 1/2 an inch in length

The plumage generally is white, the feathers are thin compared with the swan goose or most aquatick fouls and has but little or no down on the body. the upper part of the head is covered with black feathers short, as far as the back part of the head — the yellow skin unfeathered extends back from the upper beak and opening of the mouth and comes to a point just behind the eye

The large feathers of the wings are of a deep black colour — the 1st & 2nd joint of from the body above the same is covered with a second layer of white feathers which extend quite half the length of those large feathers of the wing — the thye is covered with feathers within a quarter of an inch of the knee.

Inch
1st joint of wing has feathers No. 21 Length 9 Black
2ed Do. No. 17 Length 13 Inch
3rd Do. No. 5 Length 18 Inch
4th Do. No. 3 Length 19 Inch

it has a curious frothy substance which seems to devide its feathers from the flesh of the body and seems to be composes of globles of air and perfectly imbraces the part of the feather which extends through the skin.the wind pipe terminates in the center of the lower part of the upper and unfeathered part of the pouch and is secured by an elastic valve commanded at pleasure.

The green insect known in the U States by the name of the sawyer or chittediddle, was first heard to cry on the 27th of July, we were then in latitude 41° some minutes.

The prarie hen or grouse, was seen in the praries between the Missouri and the river platte



[Clark, August 9, 1804]

9th Augt Thursday 1804 The fog of this morning detained us untill 1/2 passed 7 oClock at which time we left our moreing and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. E, I went on Shore found the Land the Same as yesterday Killed a Turkey and Camped on the L. S. great deel of Beaver Sign to day one Beaver Cought Musquetors worse this evening than ever I have Seen them.



[Clark, August 9, 1804]

9th August Thursday 1804 The fog being thick detained us untile half pasd. 7 oClock at which time we Set out and proceeded on under Gentle Breeze from the S E I walked on Shore, Saw an Elk, crossed a Istmust of 3/4 of a mile to the river, & returned to the boat Camped on the L. S. above a Beaver Den. Musqutors verry troubleson.



[Clark, August 11, 1804]

August 11th Satturday 1804 about day this morning a hard wind from the N. W. followed by rain, we landed at the foot of the hill on which Black Bird The late King of the mahar who Died 4 years ago & 400 of his nation with the Small pox was buried (1) and went up and fixed a white flag bound with Blue white & read on the Grave which was about 12 foot Base & circueller, on the top of a Penical about 300 foot above the water of the river, from the top of this hill may be Seen the bends or meanderings of the river for 60 or 70 miles round & all the County around the base of this high land is a Soft Sand Stone Bluff of about 40 or 150 foot, the Crooked, passed a Creek Called Wau-Con di peche C or Bad God Creek of bad Spirits on the L. S above the Bluff on this Creek the Mahars had the Small pox 4 years ago, Lattitude 42° 1'3" 8/10 taken on the Point above the Creek. the river is verry Crooked, we are now within 3/4 of a mile of the river at a place we Shall not get around to untill tomorrow noon — We er 3 Legues from the Mahars by land and the great deel of Beaver sign induce a belief that those people do not hunt much.

I have observed a number of places where the river has Changd its Bead at different times



[Clark, August 11, 1804]

11th August Satturday 1804. about day light this Morning a hard wind from the N W. with Some rain proceeded on arround the right of the Isld.

a hard wind accompanied with rain from the S. E. after the rain was over Capt. Lewis myself & 10 men assended the Hill on the L. S. under which there was Some fine Springs to the top of a high point where the Mahars King Black Bird was burried 4 years ago. a mound of earth about 12 Diamuter at the base & 6 feet high is raised over him turfed, and a pole 8 feet high in the Center on this pole we fixed a white flage bound with red Blue & white; this hill about 300 feet above the water forming a Bluff between that & the Water of Various hight from 40 to 150 feet in hight yellow Soft Sand Stone from the tops of this Nole the river may be Seen Meandering for 60 or 70 Miles, we Decended & Set out N. 24 to W. 1/2 me. passing over a Sand bar on the S. pt. along the Willows. to the river opposit a Small Beyeau on the L. S. which is the Conveyance of the high water from a bend which appears near in a northerly direction, haveing passed a Creek in a Deep bend to the L. S. Called by the Mahars Wau can di Peeche (Great Spirrit is bad) on this Creek & Hills near it about 400 of the Mahar Died with the Small Pox- Took Medn. Altitude & made the Latd. 42° 1' 3" 8/10 N. also the Moons Distanc from the Sun I have observed a number of places where the River has onced run and now filled or filling up & growing with willows & cottonwood



[Clark, August 12, 1804]

12th August Sunday 1804 a South wind We Set out early the river wider than usial, and Shallow, at 12 we halted in a bend to the left to take the Meridian altitude, & Dine, & Sent one man across where we took Dinner yesterday to Step off the Distance across Isthmus, he made it 974 yards, and the bend around is 183/4 miles above this bend about 4 miles, a yellow & Brown Bluff Comnuces and Continus 3 or 4 miles on the L. S. this Bluff has Some Sand Stone, Some rich Black mole mixed with yellow Clay, a fiew Red Ceeder on the tope, which is, from 20 to 150 foot high the hill Still riseing back, I think may be estemated at 200 foot on the top is timber, the wind for a few hours this evening was hard and from the S. E. In the evening about 5 oClock Cap L. & My Self wen on Shore to Shoot a Prarie wolf which was barking at us as we passed This Prarie Wolf barked like a large fest and is not much larger, the Beaver is verry plenty, not with Standing we are almost in Sight of the Mahar Town — Cought a verry Large Catfish this morniong, prepared the Indian present which we intend given to the Mahars. P. Wiser apt. Cook to Serjt. Floyds Squad from to day



[Clark, August 12, 1804]

12th August Sunday 1804 Set out early under a gentle Breeze from the South the river wider than usial and Shallow (1) at 12 oClock we halted to take a meridian altd. of the Sun & Sent a man back or I may Say across to the Bind of the river where Capt. Lewis took the Mdn. altitude yesterday, to Step off the distance, he made it 974 yards across, the Distance arround the bend is 183/4 miles — about 4 miles above the bend on the L. S. is the Commencement of a Bluff which is about 4 miles extending on the river, of yellow and brown Clay in Some parts in it near the river a Soft Sand Stone is inbeded on the top (which is from 20 to 150 feet above the water, & rises back) is Covered with timber, a fiew red Ceider is on this Bluff, the wind Comes round to the S. E. a Prarie Wolf Come near the bank and Barked at us this evening, we made an attempt but could not git him, this Animale Barkes like a large feste Dog. Beever is verry Plenty on this part of the river. I prepare Some presents for to give the Indians of the Mahars nation. Wiser apt. Cook & Supentdt. of the Provisions of Sergt. Floyds Squad. we Camped on a Sand Island in a bend to the S. S. Musquitors verry troublesom untile the wind rose. at one or 2 oClock



[Clark, August 13, 1804]

13th of August Munday 1804. Set out this morning at Day light the usial time and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. passed the Island.

From this Fish Camp the River is N 55° West as far as Can be Seen, the Sand bar only changeing the Derection of the Current the Hills leave the river on the L. Side



[Clark, August 13, 1804]

August 13th Monday 1804 Set out this morning at Light the usial time and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S E



[Clark, August 14, 1804]

14th of August at 12 oClock the Party Sent yesterday to the Towns returned, and informed that they Could not find any Indians, they had not returned from hunting the Buffalow in the Praries, wind Shifted to the N W. Our party Sent after the Deserter and to the Otteau towns, have not Came up as yet

The Situation of this Village, now in ruins Siround by enunbl. hosts of grave the ravages of the Small Pox (4 years ago) they follow the Buf. and tend no Corn



[Clark, August 14, 1804]

14th August Tuesday 1804 a fine morning wind from the S E The men Sent to the Mahar Town last evening has not returned we Conclude to Send a Spye to Know the cause of Their delay at about 12 oClock the Party returned and in-formed. us that they Could not find the Indians nor any fresh Sign, those people have not returned from their Buffalow hunt, Those people haveing no houses no Corn or any thing more than the graves of their ancesters to attach them to the old Village, Continue in pursuite of the Buffalow longer than others who had greater attachments to their native Villagethe ravages of the Small Pox (which Swept off 400 men & women & Children in perpoposion) has reduced this Nation not exceeding 300 men and left them to the insults of their weaker neighbours which before was glad to be on friendly turms with them — I am told whin this fatal malady was among them they Carried ther franzey to verry extroadinary length, not only of burning their Village, but they put their wives & Children to Death with a view of their all going together to Some better Countrey — They burry their Dead on the tops of high hills and rais mounds on the top of them, — The cause or way those people took the Small Pox is uncertain, the most Probable from Some other Nation by means of a warparty

Observed Time and Distance of the Sun & Moon the Moon East the 13th of August Monday 1804, three Miles NE of the Mahars old village at Fish Camp-



[Clark, August 15, 1804]

August 15th Wendesday I took ten men & went out to Beaver Dam across a Creek about a mile S W from Camp, and with a Brush Drag caught 308 fish, of the following kind (i'e) Pike, Samon, Bass, Pirch, Red horse, Small Cat, & a kind of Perch Called on the Ohio Silverfish I also Caught the Srimp which is Common to the Lower part of the Mississippi, in this Creek & in the Beaver Pond is emince beads of Mustles Verry large & fat — in my absence Capt Lewis Send the Souex interpr & a party to a Smoke which appeared to rise at no great distance to the north with a view to find Some Band of that nation, they returned and informed that they had been made Some time by Some Small party, and the hard wind of to day had set the Prarie on fire from Some high trees, which was left burning all well, Party from Ottoes not come up.

Camp three Miles N. E of the Mahar Village



[Clark, August 15, 1804]

August 15th Wednesday 1804 I went with ten men to a Creek Damed by the Beavers about half way to the Village, with Some Small willow & Bark we mad a Drag and haulted up the Creek, and Cought 318 fish of different kind i'e Peke, Bass, Salmon, perch, red horse, Small Cat, and a kind of perch Called Silverfish, on the Ohio. — I cought a Srimp prosisely of Shape Size & flavour of those about N. Orleans & the lower party of the Mississippi in this Creek which is only the pass or Streight from Beaver Pond to another, is Crouded with large Mustles Verry fat, Ducks, Pliver of different Kinds are on those Ponds as well as on the river in My absence Capt. Lewis Sent Mr. Durioue the Souix interpeter & three men to examine a fire which threw up an emence Smoke from the Praries on the N. E. Side of the River and at no great distance from Camp — the Object of this party was to find Some Bands of Seouex which the inptr. thought was near the Smoke and get them to Come in — in the evening this Party returned and infoermed, that the fire arrose from Some trees which had been left burning by a Small party of Seoux whom had passed Several Days — the wind Setting from that point, blew the Smoke from that pt. over our Camp. our party all in health and Sperrits the men Sent to the Ottoes & in pursute of the Deserter Reed has not yet returned or joined our party.



[Clark, August 16, 1804]

Aug. 16th 1804 a Verry cool morning the winds as usial from the N W. Capt Lewis with men went out to the Creek & Pond & Caught about 800 fine fish with a Bush Drag of the following kind i.e. 79 Pike, 8 Salmon, 1 Rock, 1 flat Back, 127 Buffalow & readHorse, 4 Bass & 490 Cat, with many Small & large Silver fish, — I had a mast made & fixed to day The Party Sent to the Ottoes not yet arrived. the wind Shifted around to the S E. the night's are Cool & a Breeze rises after generally; Sometimes before night which Blows off the Musquitors cools the atmospere.



[Clark, August 16, 1804]

16th August Thursday 1804 Fishing Camp 3 ms. N. E. of the Mahars. a verry cool morning the wind as usial from the N W.

Capt Lewis took 12 men & went to the Pond & Crek between Camp and the old Village and Cought upwards of Boo fine fish, 79 Pike, 8 Salmon, 1 Rock,flat Back, 127 Buffalow & red horse 4 Bass & 490 Catt. with many Small Silver fish I had a Mast made &fixed to the Boat to day, the Party Sent to the Ottoes not yet joined us — the wind Shifted arround to the S. E. everry evening a Breeze rises which blows off the Musquitors & Cools the atmispeire.



[Clark, August 17, 1804]

17th August 1804. a fine morning Wind from the S. E. I will here annex the Latds & Distances of the Different notable placies from the River Dubois or Mouth up.

The Longitudes are not yet Calculated, We must be at this time about 99° 45' 00" West of Greenwich — I Collected a grass much resembling wheet with a grain like Rye, much fuller of grain, one like Rye & one like Barley Grass Small, a Grass like Timothey except the Seed which is on branches from the main Stalk-

Late this evening one of the party Sent after the deserters returned & joined us, he left the party 3 miles back, they cought both Deserters, one of them La liberty, got away from them, the Great Chief & 2nd Chief of the ottoes accompaned the Party with a view to bring about a Peice between themselves & the Mahar a great missfortune that the Mahars have not returned from the hunt — Sent & fiered the Prarie near Camp to bring in the Mahars & Souex if any are near. a Cool evening, 2 Beever Cought



[Clark, August 17, 1804]

17th August Friday 1804. a fine Morning the wind from the S. E. I collected a grass much resembling wheat in its grouth the grain like Rye, also Some resembling Rye & Barly. a kind of Timothey, the Seed of which branches from the main Stalk & is more like flax Seed than that of a Timothey

at 6 oClock this evening Labieche one of the Party Sent to the Ottoes joined, and informed that the Party was behind with one of the Deserters M B. Reed and the 3 principal Chiefs of the Nations — La Liberty they cought but he decived them and got away — the object of those Chiefs comeing forward is to make a peace with the Mahars thro us-. as the Mahars are not at home this great object cannot be accomplished at this time Set the Praries on fire to bring the Mahars & Soues if any were near, this being the usial Signal.

a Cool evining two Beaver Cought to day.



[Clark, August 18, 1804]

18th August 1804 a fine morning, despatched Jo. Fields for the Party from the Ottoes, whom did not Come up last night Wind from the S. E. (Panies returned from their hunt, the 12th of August) in the after Part of the Day the Party arrived, we had a Short talk after which we gave them Provisions to eate & proceeded to the trial of Reed, he confessed, & we Sentenced him only to run the Ganelet four times thro the Detachment & party, and not to be considered in the future as one of the Permonant Party, after the Punihment of about 500 Lashes, at night we had Some talk with the Chiefs about the Cause of War between them and the Mahars. posponed the further consultation untill tomorrow. had a Dance which lasted untile 11 oClock, the Close of Cap Lewis Birthday. a fine evening wind S. E

Sent to the Towns, i e Reiubin Fields Will. Brattin G. Drewyer & W Labieche.



[Clark, August 18, 1804]

18th August Satday 1804 a fine morning. Wind from the S. E. in the after part of the Day the Party with the Indians arrivd. we meet them under a Shade near the Boat and after a Short talk we gave them Provisions to eat & proceeded to the trail of Reed, he Confessed that he "Deserted & Stold a public Rifle Shot-pouch Powder & Bals" and requested we would be as favourable with him as we Could consistantly with our Oathes-which we were and only Sentenced him to run the Gantlet four times through the Party & that each man with 9 Swichies Should punish him and for him not to be considered in future as one of the Party

The three principal Chiefs petitioned for Pardin for this man After we explained the injurey Such men could doe them by false representation, & explang. the Customs of our Countrey they were all Satisfied with the propriety of the Sentence & was witness to the punishment. after which we had Some talk with the Chiefs about the orrigan of the war between them & the Mahars &c. &c. — it commenced in this way i'e' in two of the Missouries Tribe resideing with the Ottoes went to the Mahars to Steel horses, they Killed them both which was a cause of revenge on the part of the Missouris & Ottoes, they also brought war on themselves Nearly in the Same way with the Panea Loups and they are greatly in fear of a just revenge from the Panies for takeing their Corn from the Pania Towns in their absence hunting this Summer.

the evening was Closed with an extra Gill of Whiskey & a Dance untill 11 oClock.







[Clark, August 19, 1804]

19th of August Sunday 1804 a fine morning wind from the S. E I prepd. a present from the Chiefs & Warriers, the main Chief Brack fast with us naked; & beged for a Sun glass. — at 10 oClock we assembled the Cheifs & Warriers under an Orning and delivered a Speech, explanitary of the One Sent to this Nation from the Council Bluff, &c. &c.

Children When we Sent the 4 men to your towns, we expected to See & Speake with the Mahas by the time you would arrive and to lay the foundation of a peace between you and them

The Speech of Petieit Villeu Little Thief, If you think right and Can waite untill all our Warriers Come from the Buffalows hunt, we Can then tell you who is our men of Consequnce — My fathers always lived with the father of the B together & we always live with the Big hose-all the men here are the Suns of Chief and will be glad to get Something from the hands of their fathers. — My father always directed me to be friendly with the white people, I have always done So and went often to the french, give my party pieces of Paper & we will be glad — The names

a Meddel to Car ka pa ha or Crow's head

a Comsi or Cfte. Sar na no ne or Iron Eyes a Ottoe approves & says he is Brave Nee Swor un ja Big ax a Ottoe approves Star gra hun ja Big blue Eyes a Ottoe Delivers up his comm Ne ca sa wa-Black Cat a Missouris approves the Council & he wants paper for his men at home, he after wards came & petitioned for his Paper War-sar sha co-Brave Man aproves

The Speach of the Big Horse I went to the hunt Buffalow I heard your word and I returned, I and all my men with me will attend to your wordsyou want to make peace with all, I want to make peace also, the young men when they want to go to war where is the goods you give me to Keep them at home, if you give me Some Whisky to give a Drop to my men at home.

I came here naked and must return home naked. if I have Something to give the young men I can prevent their going to war. You want to make peace with all, It is good we want Something to give my men at home. I am a pore man, and cant quiet without means, a Spoon ful of your milk will quiet all.

2nd Speech of the Little Thief I want Mr. Faufon & Mr. La bieche to make a piece with the Panies Loups. I want William to go & make a piece with the Loups, he can Speake english & will doe will to go. — refused that William LaBiech shall accompany Faufon

Those people were not well Satisfied with the Presents given them, they were much Surprised at the air gun and Several curiosities which were Shown them none more than the magnet, those people became extreemly troublesom to us begging Whisky & little articles. Sergt. Floyd was taken violently bad with the Beliose Cholick and is dangerously ill we attempt in Vain to releive him, I am much concerned for his Situation- we could get nothing to Stay on his Stomach a moment nature appear exosting fast in him every man is attentive to him york prlly



[Clark, August 19, 1804]

19th August Sunday 1804 a find morning wind from the S. E. prepared a Small Present for the Cheifs and warriers present. the main Cheif Brackfast with us, & beged for a Sun glass, those People are all naked, Covered only with Breech Clouts Blankits or Buffalow Roabes, the flesh Side Painted of Differant Colours & figures. At 10 oClock we assembled the Chiefs & warriers 9 in number under an orning, and we explained the Speech Sent to the nation from the Council Bluffs by Mr. Faufon. The 3 Chiefs and all the men or warriers made Short Speeches approveing the advice & Council their great father had Sent them, and Concluded by giveing themselves Some Credit for their acts.

We then brought out the presents and exchanged the Big horses Meadel & gave him one equal to the one Sent to the Little Thief & gave all Some Small articls & 8 Carrots of Tobacco, we gave one Small Meadel to one of the Cheifs & a Sertificate to the others of their good intentions.

Names
The Little Theif Grd. Cheif I have mentioned before
The Big horse
Crows Head (or) Kar Ka paha — Missory
Black Cat (or) Ne ma Sa wa — do
Iron Eyes (or) Sar na no no — Ottoe
Big ax (or) Nee Swar Un ja — do
Big Blue Eyes — Star gea Hun ja — do
Brave Man (or) War Sar Sha co

One of those Indians after reciving his Certificate delivd. it again to me the Big blue eyes the Chief petitioned for the Ctft. again, we would not give the Certft. but rebuked them verry roughly for haveing in object goods and not peace with their neighbours — this language they did not like at first, but at length all petitioned for us to give back the Certificate to the Big blu eyes he came forward and made a plausible excuse, I then gave the Certificate the Great Cheif to bestow it to the most Worthey, they gave it to him, we then gave them a,Dram & broke up the Council, the Chiefs requested we would not leave them this evening. we deturmed to Set out early in the morning we Showed them many Curiosities and the air gun which they were much asstonished at. those people beged much for wishey — Serjeant Floyd is taken verry bad all at one with a Beliose Chorlick we attempt to relieve him without Success as yet, he gets wordse and we are muc allarmed at his Situation, all attention to him.



[Clark, August 20, 1804]

20th August Monday after gieving faufon Some goods the Indians a Canister of whiskey, we Set out under a jentle Breeze from the S. E Shields went with the horses — I am Dull & heavy been up the greater Part of last night with Serjt. Floyd, who is as bad as he can be to live the motion of his bowels having changed &c. &c. is the Cause of his violent attack &c. &c.

we Came to make a warm bath for Sergt. Floyd hopeing it would brace him a little, before we could get him in to this bath he expired, with a great deel of composure, haveing Said to me before his death that he was going away and wished me to write a letter — we Buried him to the top of a high round hill over looking the river & Countrey for a great distance Situated just below a Small river without a name to which we name & call Floyds river, the Bluffs Sergts. Floyds Bluff-we buried him with all the honors of War, and fixed a Ceeder post at his head with his name title & Day of the month and year Capt Lewis read the funeral Service over him after paying everry respect to the Body of this desceased man (who had at All times given us proofs of his impatiality Sincurity to ourselves and good will to Serve his Countrey) we returned to the Boat & proceeded to the Mouth of the little river 30 yd. wide & Camped a butifull evening



[Clark, August 20, 1804]

20th August Monday 1804 Sergeant Floyd much weaker and no better. Made Mr. Fauforn the interpter a fiew presents, and the Indians a Canister of whisky we Set out under a gentle breeze from the S. E. and proceeded on verry well- Serjeant Floyd as bad as he can be no pulse & nothing will Stay a moment on his Stomach or bowels

Passed two Islands on the S. S. and at first Bluff on the S S. Serj. Floyd Died with a great deel of Composure, before his death he Said to me, "I am going away. I want you to write me a letter" — We buried him on the top of the bluff 1/2 Miles below a Small river to which we Gave his name, he was buried with the Honors of War much lamented; a Seeder post with the (1) Name Sergt. C. Floyd died here 20th of August 1804 was fixed at the head of his grave — This Man at all times gave us proofs of his firmness and Deturmined resolution to doe Service to his Countrey and honor to himself after paying all the honor to our Decesed brother we Camped in the mouth of floyds river about 30 yards wide, a butifull evening.



[Clark, August 21, 1804]

21st August Tuesday we Set out verry early this morning under a Gentle Breeze from the S. E Course S. 82° E 3 mes to the upper pt. of a Bluff on the S. S. passed Willow Creek and Some rock below the mouth of the Seouex river on the Starboard Side those Clifts are about 170 feet high, this river heads with the St. peters and is navagable 75 Leagues (by the act. of Mr. Durien) to a fall of near 200 for, 2 large & Som Small Pitchs below the falls on the right a Creek corns in on which the red pipe Stone is percured, & in the praries about, a place of Peace with all nations.



[Clark, August 21, 1804]

21st August Tuesday 1804 We Set out verry early this morning and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. passed willow creek Small on the S. S. below a Bluff of about 170 feet high and one 1/2 mes. above Floyds river at 11/2 miles higher & above the Bluff passed the Soues River S. S. this River is about the Size of Grand river and as Mr. Durrien our Scones intptr. says "navagable to the falls 70 or 80 Leagues and above these falls" Still further, those falls are 200 feet or there abouts & has two princapal pitches, and heads with the St. peters passing the head of the Demoien, on the right below the falls a Creek Coms in which passes thro Clifts of red rock which the Indians make pipes of, and when the different nations Meet at those queries all is piece, passed a place in a Prarie on the L. S. where the Mahars had a Village formerly. the Countrey above the Platt R has a great Similarity. Campd. on the L. Side. Clouds appear to rise in the west & threten wind. I found a verry excellent froot resembling the read Current, the Scrub on which it grows resembles Privey & about the Common hight of a wild plumb-

The two men Sent with the horses has not joined us as yet



[Clark, August 22, 1804]

22nd of August Wendesday 1804 Set out early wind from the South. G Shannon joined the Boat last night. Course this morning is S 47° W. 11/4 on the S. point West 11/4 me. to the Commencement of a Bluff on the L. S. the High land near the river for Some distance below. This Bluff contain Pyrites alum, Copperass & a Kind Markesites also a clear Soft Substance which will mold and become pliant like wax) Capt lewis was near being Poisened by the Smell in pounding this Substance I belv to be arsenic or Cabalt. I observe great Quantity of Cops. ans and almin pure & Straters of white & brown earth of 6 Inch thick. a Creek Corns in above the Bluffs on which there is great quantities of those minerals, This Creek I call Roloje a at those Allom banks Shields joined in with two Deer

Camped on the S. S. a Great Deel of Elk Sign fresh Capt. Lewis took a Dost of Salts this evening to carry off the effects of (arsenec) or cobalt which he was trying to find out the real quallity (2) passed a Clift of Rock much impregnated with alum, Containing also a great quantity of Cabalt

ordered a Vote of the men for a Sergeant of the three highest numbers a choice to be made Gass Bratton & Gibson — Gass is worth remark, that my Ink after Standing in the pot 3 or four days Soaks up & becons thick



[Clark, August 22, 1804]

22nd August Friday 1804 Set out early wind from the South at three miles we landed at a Bluff where the two men Sent with the horses were waiting with two Deer, by examonation of this (1) Bluff Contained alum, Copperas, Cobalt, Pyrites; a alum rock Soft & Sand Stone. Capt. Lewis in proveing the quality of those minerals was near poisoning himself by the fumes & tast of the Cabalt which had the appearance of Soft Isonglass — Copperas & alum is verry pure, Above this Bluff a Small Creek Coms in from the L. S. passing under the Clifts for Several miles, this Creek I Call Roloje a name I learned last night in my Sleep. (2) Eight) Seven miles above is a Clift of Allom Stone of a Dark Brown Colr. Containing also in crusted in the Crevices & Shelves of the rock great qts. of Cabalt, Semented Shels & a red earth. from this the (3) river bends to the East and is within 3 or 4 miles of the River Soues at the place where that river Coms from the high land into the Low Prarie & passes under the foot of those Hills to its mouth.

Capt Lewis took a Dost of Salts to work off the effects of the Arsenic, we Camped on the S. S. Sailed the greater part of this day with a hard wind from the S. E. great deel of Elk Sign, and great appearance of wind from the N. W.

ordered a vote for a Serjeant to chuse one of three which may be the highest number the highest numbers are P. Gass had 19 Votes, Bratten & Gibson



[Clark, August 23, 1804]

23rd August Thursday 1804 Set out this morning verry early, the two men R. Fields & Shannon did not Come up last night, I went out and Killed a fine Buck, J. Fields Killed a Buffaloes, 2 Elk Swam by the boat whilst I was out and was not Killed, many guns fired at it R. Fields Came up with the horses & brought two Deer, Collins Killed a Small doe, Several Prarie wolves Seen Course West 4 Mls. to the mouth of a Small run between two Bluffs of yellow Clay North 31/4 miles to the upper Pt. of Some timber in the bend to S. S. near where R. fields Killed the Buffalow passed the pt. of High Land on S. S at 1/4 of a mile, Capt. Lewis went out with 8 men & brought the buffalow to the river at this bend, C. Lewis Killed a Goose, wind blew hard of the flying Sands which rasies like a Cloud of Smoke from the Bars when the wind Blows, the Sand being fine and containing a breat perpotion of earth and when it lights it Sticks to every thing it touches at this time the grass is white S 48° 3 miles to a point of willows on the S. S. haveing passed the Sand Island L. S Camped on the L S above the Island Saw an elk Standing on a Sand bar. Shields Shot it thro the neck 101/4



[Clark, August 23, 1804]

23rd August Thursday 1804 Set out this morning verry early the two men with the horses did not Come up last night I walked on Shore & Killed a fat Buck — J. Fields Sent out to hunt Came to the Boat and informed that he had Killed a Buffalow in the plain a head Cap Lewis took 12 men and had the buffalow brought to the boat in the next bend to the S S. 2 Elk Swam the river, and was fired at from the boat R. Fields came up with the Horses and brought two Deer one Deer Killed from the Boat. Several Prarie Wolves Seen to day Saw Elk Standing on the Sand bar

The Wind blew hard West and raised the Sands off the bar in Such Clouds that we Could Scercely See this Sand being fine and verry light Stuck to every thing it touched, and in the Plain for a half a mile the distance I was out every Spire of Grass was covered with the Sand or Dust We Camped on the L. S. above a Sand Island one Beaver Cought



[Clark, August 24, 1804]

24th August Friday 1804. Some rain last night & this morning, we Set out at the usial time and proceeded on the Same Course of last night Continued S. 48° W. 21/4 mes. to the Commencement of a Blue Clay Bliff on LS. about 180 or 190 feet high West under rugged Bluffs 13/4 ms. passing Several Small Dreens, falling into the river those Bluffs has been lately on fire and is yet verry Hott, Great appearance of Coal, & imence quantities of Cabalt in Side of that part oft the Bluff which Sliped in, on the Sides of the hill great quanities of a kind of Current or froot resembling the Current in appearance much richer and finer flavd. grows on a Scrub resembling a Damsen and is now fine and makes a Delightful) Tart above this Bluff I took my Servent and a french boy I have and walked on Shore I killed a Deer which york Packed on his back In the evening I Killed two Buck Elk and wounded two others which I could not pursue by the Blood as my ball was So Small to bleed them well, my boys each Shot an elk — it was late and I Crossed a Point Struck the river above and halted the boat and 12 men went out brought in the meat all the after part of the day it rained we are all wet. Capt Lewis and my Self Concluded to visit a High Hill Situated in an emence Plain three Leagues N. 20° W. from the mouth of White Stone river, this hill appear to be of a Conic form and by all the different Nations in this quater is Supposed to be a place of Deavels ors that they are in human form with remarkable large heads and about 18 inches high; that they are very watchfull and ar armed with Sharp arrows with which they can kill at a great distance; they are said to kill all persons who are so hardy as to attemp to approach the hill; they state that tradition informs them that many indians have suffered by these little people and among others that three Maha men fell a sacrefice to their murceyless fury not meany years since — so much do the Mahas Souix Ottoes and other neibhbouring nations believe this fable that no consideration is sufficient to induce them to approach this hill.



[Clark, August 24, 1804]

24th August Friday 1804 Some rain last night, a Continuation this morning; we Set out at the usial time and proceeded on the Course of last night to the (1) Commencement of a blue Clay Bluff of 180 or 190 feet high on the L. S. Those Bluffs appear to have been laterly on fire, and at this time is too hot for a man to bear his hand in the earth at any debth, gret appearance of Coal. An emence quantity of Cabalt or a Cristolised Substance which answers its discription is on the face of the Bluff- Great quantities of a kind of berry resembling a Current except double the Sise and Grows on a bush like a Privey, and the Size of a Damsen deliciously flavoured & makes delitefull Tarts, this froot is now ripe, I took my Servent and a french boy and Walked on Shore Killed Two Buck Elks and a faun, and intersepted the Boat and had all the meat butchered and in by Sun Set at which time it began to rain and rained hard, Cap Lewis & my Self walk out & got Verry wet, a Cloudey rainey night, — In my absence the Boat Passed a Small (2) River Called by the Indians White Stone River. this river is about 30 yards wide and runs thro a Plain & Prarie in its whole Course In a northerley direction from the mouth of this Creek in an imence Plain a high Hill is Situated, and appears of a Conic form and by the different nations of Indians in this quarter is Suppose to be the residence of Deavels. that they are in human form with remarkable large heads and about 18 Inches high, that they are Very watchfull, and are arm'd with Sharp arrows with which they Can Kill at a great distance; they are Said to Kill all persons who are So hardy as to attempt to approach the hill; they State that tradition informs them that many Indians have Suffered by those little people and among others three Mahar men fell a Sacrefise to their murceyless fury not many years Since — So much do the Maha, Souis, Ottoes and other neighbouring nations believe this fable that no Consideration is Suffecient to induce them to apporach the hill



[Lewis, August 24, 1804]

Friday, August 24th This day the Chronometer stoped again just after being wound up; I know not the cause, but fear it procedes from some defect which it is not in my power to remedy.



[Clark, August 24, 1804]

(1) About the center of this Sand Island the river of white Stone (as Called by Mr. Evins Kenvill R.) falls in on the Stard. Side it appear to be about 25 or 30 yards Wide; at the mouth of this river 10 Indians had latterly cross Supposed be be Soues, the part of a band which are at war with the Mahars, This Soues nation are divided into bands Som 100 to 500 men in a band at peace with eath other, ther Interest & prejudices different, for instance one band the most envetterate enimy of the mahars, all the other Bands in the greatest harmony with that nation and even go with thim to War, those Soues, follow the Buffalow, & Kill them on foot, they pack their Dogs, which carry ther Bedn.



[Clark, August 25, 1804]

Augt. 25th Satturday 1804 This morning Capt Lewis & my Self G D. Sjt. Ouderway Shields J. Fields colter Bratten Cane Labeeche corp Wovington Frasure & York Set out to Visit this mountain of evel Spirits, we Set out from the mouth of the White Stone Creek, at 8 oClock, at 4 miles Cross the Creek in an open plain, at 7 ms. the dog gave out & we Sent him back to the Creek at 12 oClock we rose the hill Some time before we got to the hill we obsevd. great numbers of Birds hovering about the top of this Mound when I got on the top those Birds flw off. I discovered that they wer Cetechig a kind of flying ant which were in great numbers abought the top of this hill, those insects lit on our hats & necks, Several of them bit me verry Shart on the neck, near the top of this nole I observed three holes which I Supposed to be Prarie Wolves or Braroes, which are numerous in those Plains. this hill is about 70 foot high in an emince Prarie or leavel plain from the top I could not observe any woods except in the Missourie Points and a few Scattering trees on the three Rivers in view. i e the Soues River below, the River Jacque above & the one we have crossed from the top of this Mound we observed Several large gangus of Buffalow & Elk feeding upwards of 800 in number Capt Lewis being much fatigued and verry thursty obliged us to go to the neares water which we Could See, which was the W Stone Creek at right angles from the Course we came out, and we got water in three miles in the Creek above whre the beaver had darned it up after a Delay of about one hour & a half we Set out for our boat, Cross the Creek three times wast deep, passing down an ellgent bottom of about a mile in width bordered by a ridge of about 50 feet from the top of which it was leavel to the river, we proceeded on by a Circular Derection to the place we Crossed this Creek going out where we delayed for the men to rest themselves about 40 minits in a small grove here we got Great quantities of the best largest grapes I ever tasted, Some Blue Currents still on the bushes, and two kind of Plumbs, one the Common wild Plumb the other a large Yellow Plumb growing on a Small bush, this blumb is about double the Size of the Common and Deliscously flavoured — Those plains are leavel without much water and no timber all the timber on the Stone River would not thickly timber 100 acres of land — we returned to the boat at Sunset, my Servent nearly exosted with heat thurst and fatigue, he being fat and un accustomed to walk as fast as I went was the Cause — we Set fire to the Praries in two Places to let the Sons know we were on the river and as a Signal for them to Come to the river above, our Party in the Boat & one Perogue undr. the Comd of Sergt. Pryor answered us by firing a prarie near them. we proceeded on to the place we Camped last night, and as it began to rain and verry dark, we Concluded to Stay all night, our boys prepared us a Supper of jurked meet and two Prarie Larks (which are about the Size of a Pigeon and Peculier to this country) and on a Buffalow roabe we Slept verry well in the morning we proceeded on and joined the boat at 6 miles, they had camped & were Jurking an Elk & 5 Deer which R. Fields & Shannon had brough in. from the Mound to the Hill S. S. mo. of R. Soues S 70° E. to the opsd. Hills S. 45° E. and to the woods near River au Jacque is West



[Clark, August 25, 1804]

Augt. 25th Satturday wind S E The Boat under Serjt Pryor after drying some goods which got wet in the french Perogue & jurking the meet killed yesterday Set out at 12 oClock and proceeded on Six miles and Camped on the L. S. passed a Bluff of blue earth at 3 miles and a large Sand Island in a bend to the S. S. at 5 miles, R Fields brought in 5 Deer, G Shannon an Elk this eveng. rain at 3 oClock Murcky. 86 abo 0,



[Clark, August 25, 1804]

25th August Satturday 1804 a Cloudy morning Capt Lewis & my Self Concluded to go and See the Mound which was viewed with Such turrow by all the different Nation in this quarter, we Selected Shields J. Fields, W Bratten, Sergt. Ordway, J Colter, Can, and Corp Worbington & Frasure, also G. Drewyer and droped down to the mouth of White Stone River where we left the Perogue with two men and at 200 yards we assended a riseing ground of about Sixty feet, from the top of this High land the Countrey is leavel & open as far as Can be Seen, except Some few rises at a Great Distance, and the Mound which the Indians Call Mountain of little people or Spirits this mound appears of a Conic form & is N. 20° W. from the mouth of the Creek, we left the river at 8 oClock, at 4 miles we Crossed the Creek 23 yards wide in an extensive Valley and continued on at two miles further our Dog was So Heeted & fatigued we was obliged Send him back to the Creek, at 12 oClock we arrived at the hill Capt Lewis much fatigued from heat the day it being verry hot & he being in a debilitated State from the Precautions he was obliged to take to provent the affects of the Cobalt, & Mini. Substance which had like to have poisoned him two days ago, his want of water, and Several of the men complaining of Great thirst, deturmined us to make for the first water which was the Creek in a bend N. E. from the mound about 3 miles — aftr a Delay of about 1 hour & a half to recrut our party we Set out on our return down the Creek thro the bottom of about 1 mile in width, Crossed the Creek 3 times to the place we first Struck it, where we geathered Some delisious froot Such as Grapes Plumbs, & Blue Currents after a Delay of an hour we Set out on our back trail & arrived at the Perogue at Sun Set we proceedd on to the place we Campd. last night and Stayed all night.

This Mound is Situated on an elivated plain in a leavel and extensive prarie, bearing N. 20° W. from the mouth of White Stone Creek Nine Miles, the base of the Mound is a regular parallelagram the long Side of which is about 300 yards in length the Shorter 60 or 70 yards — from the longer Side of the Base it rises from the North & South with a Steep assent to the hight of 65 or 70 feet, leaveing a leavel Plain on the top of 12 feet in width & 90 in length. the North & South part of this mound is joins by two regular rises, each in Oval forms of half its hight forming three regular rises from the Plain the assent of each elivated part is as Suden as the principal mound at the narrower Sides of its Bass

The reagular form of this hill would in Some measure justify a belief that it owed its Orrigin to the hand of man; but as the earth and loos pebbles and other Substances of which it was Composed, bare an exact resemblance to the Steep Ground which border on the Creek in its neighbourhood we Concluded it was most probably the production of nature-.

The only remarkable Charactoristic of this hill admiting it to be a naturial production is that it is insulated or Seperated a considerable distance from any other, which is verry unusial in the naturul order or disposition of the hills.

The Surrounding Plains is open void of Timber and leavel to a great extent; hence the wind from whatever quarter it may blow, drives with unusial force over the naked Plains and against this hill; the insects of various kinds are thus involuntaryly driven to the mound by the force of the wind, or fly to its Leward Side for Shelter; the Small Birds whoes food they are, Consequently resort in great numbers to this place in Surch of them; Perticularly the Small brown Martin of which we saw a vast number hovering on the Leward Side of the hill, when we approached it in the act of Catching those insects; they were So gentle that they did not quit the place untill we had arrivd. within a fiew feet of them-

One evidence which the Inds Give for believeing this place to be the residence of Some unusial Spirits is that they frequently discover a large assemblage of Birds about this mound — is in my opinion a Suffient proof to produce in the Savage mind a Confident belief of all the properties which they ascribe it.

from the top of this Mound we beheld a most butifull landscape; Numerous herds of buffalow were Seen feeding in various directions, the Plain to North N. W & N E extends without interuption as far as Can be Seen From the Mound to the mouth of Stone River is S. 20° E 9 miles.

to the woods near the mouth of River Jacque is West

to the High land near the mouth of Souis River is S. 70 E.

to the high land opposit Side or near the Maha Town is S. 45 E.

Some high lands to be Seen from the mound at a Great distance to the N. E Some Nearer to the N W. no woods except on the Missouris Points

if all the timber which is on the Stone Creek was on 100 acres it would not be thickly timbered, the Soil of those Plains are delightfull Great numbers of Birds are Seen in those Plains, Such as black bird, Ren or Prarie burd a kind of larke about the Sise of a Partridge with a Short tail &c. &.

25th Augt the Boat under the Comd. of Sergt. Pryor proceeded on in our absence (after jurking the Elk I Killed yesterday) Six Miles and Camped on the Larboard Side R Fields brought in five Deer. George Shannon Killed an Elk Buck Some rain this evening.

we Set the Praries on fire as a Signal for the Soues to Come to the river.



[Lewis, August 25, 1804]

August the 25th on our return from the mound of sperits saw the first bats that we had observed since we began to ascend the Missouri

also saw on our return on the Creek that passes this mound about 2 M. distant S. a bird of heron kind as large as the Cormorant short tale long leggs of a colour on the back and wings deep copper brown with a shade of red. we could not kill it therefore I can not describe it more particularly.



[Clark, August 26, 1804]

26th August Sunday 1804 arrived at the boat at 9 oClock A.M. Set out at 10 oClock after Jurking the meet & Cutting the Elk Skins for a Toe Roap and proceeded, leaveing G. Drewyer & Shannon to hunt the horses, the river verry full of Sand bars and Wide Course S. 66° W. 2 mes. to a Sand bar Makeing out from the S. S. N. 82° W. 7 mes. to a pt. of willows S S passd. a Island & large Sand bars on both sides river wide and a Clift of White earth on the L. S of 2 ms. in length to a point of Willows on the S. S opposit Arch Creek above the mouth of this Creek a Chief of the Maha nataton displeased with the Conduct of Black bird the main Chief came to this place and built a Town which was called by his name Petite Arch (or Little Bow) this Town was at the foot of a Hill in a handsom Plain fronting the river and Contained about 100 huts & 200 men, the remains of this tribe Since the Death of Petite arch has joined the remaining part of the nation This Creek is Small — we apt. Pat Gass Sergeant Vice Floyd Dicesed, Geathered great quantites of Grapes & three Kinds of Plumbs, one yellow round, & one ovel, & the Common wild Plumb. Misquetors bad to night — I have apt. you



[Clark, August 26, 1804]

26th August Sunday 1804 (Joined the Boat at 9 oClock A M) after Jurking the meat Killed yesterday and prepareing the Elk Skins for a Toe Roape we Set out Leaveing Drewyer & Shannon to hunt the horses which was lost with directions to follow us Keeping on the high lands.

proceeded on passed a Clift of White & Blue or Dark earths of 2 miles in extent on the L. S. and Camped on a Sand bar opposed the old village Called Pitite Arc a Small Creek falls into the river 15 yds wide below the Village on the Same Side L. S this village was built by a Indian Chief of the Maha nation by the name of Pitite arc (or little Bow) displeasd. with the Great Chief of that nation (Black Bird) Seperated with 200 men and built a village at this place. after his death the two villages joined, apt. Pat Gass a Sergt. Vice Floyd Deceased

Great qts. of Grape, Plumbs of three Kinds 2 yellow and large of one of which is long and a 3rd kind round & red all well flavored. perticularly the yellow Sort.



[Lewis, August 26, 1804]

Orders August 26th 1804. The commanding officers have thought it proper to appoint Patric Gass, a Sergeant in the corps of volunteers for North Western Discovery, he is therefore to be obeyed and respected accordingly.

Sergt. Gass is directed to take charge of the late Sergt. Floyd's mess, and immediately to enter on the discharge of such other duties, as by their previous orders been prescribed for the government of the Sergeants of this corps.

The Commanding officers have every reason to hope from the previous faithfull services of Sergt. Gass, that this expression of their approbation will be still further confirmed, by his vigilent attention in future to his duties as a Sergeant. the Commanding officers are still further confirmed in the high opinion they had previously formed of the capacity, deligence and integrety of Sergt. Gass, from the wish expresssed by a large majority of his comrades for his appointment as Sergeant.

Meriwether Lewis Capt. 1st U.S. Regt Infty. Wm Clark Cpt &.



[Clark, August 27, 1804]

27th August Monday, this morning the Morning Star was observed to be very large, G Drewyer Came up and informed that he Could neither find Shannon or the horses, he had walked all night — we Sent Shields & J. Fields back to look for Shannon & the horses and to Come up with us on the river above at the grand Callemet or River KaCure & we Set out under a Gentle Breeze from the S. E. proceeded on passed a Bluff at 7 mes. Several mile in extent of white Clay Marl or Chalk, under this bank we discovered Large Stone resembling lime incrusted with a Substanc like Glass which I take to be Cabolt, also ore, three mes above this Bluff we Set the Prarie on fire, to let the Soues Know, we wished to see them at two oClock an Indian Swam to the Perogue, we landed & two other Came they were boys, they informed us that the Souex were Camped near, on the R Jacke one Maha boy informed us his nation was gorn to make a peace with the Pania's we Send Sjt. Pryor & a frenchman with the Interptr. Mr. Durion to the Camp to See & invite their Great Chiefs to Come and Counsel with us at the Callemet Bluffs ____ Mile abov on L. S. — we proceed on 11/2 miles farther & Camped S S.



[Clark, August 27, 1804]

27th August Monday 1804 This morning the Star Calld. the morning Star much larger than Common G. Drewyer Came up and informed that he Could neither find Shannon nor horses, we Sent Shields & J Fields, back to hunt Shannon & the horses, with derections to Keep on the Hills to the Grand Calumet above on River Ka cure.

We Set Sail under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. at 7 miles passed a white Clay marl or Chalk Bluff under this Bluff is extensive I discovered large Stone much like lime incrusted with a Clear Substance which I believe to be Cabalt, also ore is imbeded in the Dark earth, resembling Slate much Softer — above this Bluff we had the Prarie Set on fire to let the Souix See that we were on the river, & as a Signal for them to Come to it.

at 2 oClock passed the mouth of River Jacque, or Yeankton one Indian at the mouth of this river Swam to the Perogue, we landed and two others came to us, those Inds. informed that a large Camp of Soues, were on R. Jacque near the mouth. we Sent Sergt. Pryor & a Frenchman with Mr. Durioin the Souls interpeter to the Camp with derections to invite the Principal Chiefs to councel with us at a Bluff above Called the Calumet — two of those Indians accompanied them and the third continued in the Boat Showing an inclination to Continue, this boy is a Mahar, and inform that his nation, were gorn to the Parnias to make a peace with that nation.

We proceeded on about one and a half miles and in Camped on a bar makeing out from the S. S. the wind blew hard from the South. a Cool & Pleasent evening, The river has fallen verry Slowly and is now low.



[Lewis, August 27, 1804]

Monday August 27th On the Stard. shore, opposite to the lower point, or commencement of the white Calk Bluff-



[Clark, August 28, 1804]

28th August Tuesday, 1804 The wind blew hard last night one Indian Stayed with us all night, Set out under a Stiff Breeze from S and proceedd on passe a Willow Island at two miles Several Sand bars the river here is wide & Shallow full of Sand bars — The High land appear to be getting nearer to each other passed a Bluff containing Some white earth on the L. S. below this Bluff for Some mile the Plain rises gradually to the hight of the Bluff which is 70 or 80 foot, here the Indian boy left us for his Camp — Capt Lewis & my Self much indisposed- I think from the Homney we Substitute in place of bread, (or Plumbs) we proceeded on about 3 Miles higher and Camped below the Calumet Bluff in a Plain on the L. S. to waite the return of Sergt Pryor & Mr. Durioun, who we Sent to the Soues Camp from the mouth of R. Jacque, before we landed the French rund a Snag thro their Perogue, and like to have Sunk, we had her on loaded, from an examonation found that this Perogue was unfit for Service, & Deturmined to Send her back by the Party intended to Send back and take their Perogue, accordingly Changed the loads, Some of the loading was wet wind blows hard from the South. J Shields & J. Fields joined they did not overtake Shannon with the horses who is a head of us.



[Clark, August 28, 1804]

28th August Tuesday 1804. Set out under a Stiff Breeze from the South and proceeded on passd. a willow Island at 2 miles Several Sand bars, the river wide & Shallow at 4 Miles passed a Short White Bluff of about 70 or 80 feet high, below this Bluff the Prarie rises gradually from the water back to the Hight of the Bluff which is on the Larboard Side here the Indian who was in the boat returned to the Sisouex Camp on the R Jacque, Capt. Lewis & my Self much indisposed owing to Some Cause for which we cannot account one of the Perogues run a Snag thro her and was near Sinking in the opinions of the Crew — we came too below the Calumet Bluff and formed a camp in a Butifull Plain near the foot of the high land which rises with a gradual assent near this Bluff I observe more timber in the valey & on the points than usial — The Perogue which was injurd I had unloaded and the Loading put into the other Perogue which we intended to Send back, the Perogue & changed the Crew after examoning her & finding that She was unfit for Service deturmined to Send her back by the party Some load which was in the Perogue much inju'd

The wind blew hard this after noon from the South — J. Shields & J. Fields who was Sent back to look for Shannon & the Horses joined us & informed that Shannon had the horses a head and that they Could not over take him This man not being a first rate Hunter, we deturmined to Send one man in pursute of him with Some Provisions.



[Lewis, August 28, 1804]

Orders August 28th 1804. The commanding officers direct that the two messes who form the crews of the perogues shall scelect each one man from their mess for the purpose of cooking and that these cooks as well as those previously appointed to the messes of the Barge crew, shall in future be exempted from mounting guard, or any detail for that duty; they are therefore no longer to be held on the royaster.

M. Lewis Capt. 1st US. Regt. Infty. Win Clark Cpt. &.



[Clark, August 29, 1804]

29th August Wednesday 1804 — rained last night and Some this morning verry cloudy Set Some men to work to make a Toe rope of Elk Skin, and my Self to write, Sent one man to pursue Shannon a head with Some provisions, I am much engaged writeing a Speech at 4 oClock Sergt. Pryor & Mr. Durion the Soues interpeter with about 70 Soues arrived on the opposit Side of the river we Sent over for them, who came over Mr. D. & his Son who was tradeing with the Indians Came over Mr. Durion informed that three Chiefs were of the Party, we Sent over Serjt. Pryor with young Mr. Durion, Six Kettles for the Indians to Cook the meat they Killed on the way from their Camp (2 Elk & 6 Deer) a bout a bucket of Corn & 2 twists of Tobacco to Smoke intending to Speak to them tomorrow — G. Drewyer Killed a Deer-. Sergt. Pryor informs that when he approached the Indian Camp they Came to meet them Supposeing Cap Lewis or my Self to be of the party intending to take us in a roabe to their Camp-he approached the Camp which was handsum made of Buffalow Skins Painted different Colour, their Camps formed of a Conic form Containing about 12 or 15 persons each and 40 in number, on the River Jacque of 100 yds wide & Deep Containing but little wood, They had a fat dog Cooked as a feest; for them, and a Snug aptmt for them to lodge on their march they passed thro plains Covd. with game &. &. &.



[Clark, August 29, 1804]

29th August Wednesday 1804 Some rain last night & this morning, Sent on Colter with Provisions in pursute of Shannon, had a Toe roap made of Elk Skin, I am much engaged reriteing — at 4 oClock P M. Sergt. Pryor & Mr. Dorion with 5 Chiefs and about 70 men &c. arrived on the opposite Side we Sent over a Perogue & Mr. Dorrion & his Son who was tradeing with the Indians Came over with Serjt Pryer, and informed us that the Chiefs were there we Sent Serjt. Pryor & yound Mr. Dorion with Som Tobacco, Corn & a few Kitties for them to Cook in, with directions to inform the Chiefs that we would Speek to them tomorrow. Those Indians brought with them for their own use 2 Elk & 6 Deer which the young men Killed on the way from their Camp 12 miles distant.

Serjt. Pryor informs me that when Came near the Indian Camp they were met by men with a Buffalow roabe to Carry them, Mr. Dorion informed "they were not the Owners of the Boats & did not wish to be Carried"- the Sceouex Camps are handson of a Conic form Covered with Buffalow Roabs Painted different Colours and all Compact & hand Somly arranged, covered all round an orpen part in the Center for the fire, with Buffalow roabs each Lodg has a place for Cooking detached, the lodges contain 10 to 15 persons — a Fat Dog was presented as a mark of their Great respect for the party of which they partook hartily and thought it good & well flavored

The River Jacque is Deep & is navagable for Perogues a long distance up at the mouth it is Shallow & narrow but above it is 80 or 90 yards wide passing thro rich Praries with but little timber this river passes the Souex River and heads with the St Peters and a branch of Red river which which falls into Lake Winepik to the North



[Clark, August 30, 1804]

30th August Thursday 1804 A Foggeie morning I am much engagd. after Brackfast we sent Mr. Doroun in a Perogue to the other Side i'e L S. for the Chiefs and warriers of the Soues, he returned at 10 oClock with the Chiefs, at 12 oClock I finished and we delivered a Speech to the Indians expressive of the wishes of our government and explaining of what would be good for themselves, after delivering the Speech we made one grand Chief 1 2d Cheif and three third Chiefs and deliverd. to each a few articles and a Small present to the whole the grand Chief a Parole, Some wampom & a flag in addition to his present, they with Drew and we retired to dinner, Mr. Durions Sun much displeased that he could not dine with Cap Lewis and my Self — the number of Soues present is about 70 men — Dressed in Buffalow roabes a fiew fusees, Bows and arrows, and verry much deckerated with porcupine quills, a Society of which only four remains is present, this Society has made a vow never to giv back let what will happen, out of 22 only 4 remains, those are Stout likely men who Stay by them Selves, fond of mirth and assume a degree of Superiority-, the air gun astonished them verry much after night a circle was forrm around 3 fires and those Indians danced untill late, the Chiefs looked on with great dignity much pleased with what they had, we retired late and went to bead. wind hard from the South.



[Clark, August 30, 1804]

30th of August Thursday 1804 a verry thick fog this morning after Prepareing Some presents for the Chiefs which we intended make by giving Meadals, and finishing a Speech what we intend'd to give them, we Sent Mr. Dorion in a Perogue for the Chiefs & warreirs to a Council under an Oak tree near wher we had a flag flying on a high flag Staff at 12 OClock we met and Cap L. Delivered the Speach & thin made one great Chiff by giving him a meadal & Some Cloathes one 2d. Chief & three third Chiefs in the Same way, They recvd. those thing with the goods and tobacco with pleasure To the Grand Chief we gave a Flag and the parole & wampom with a hat & Chiefs Coat, we Smoked out of the pipe of peace, & the Chiefs retired to a Bourey made of bushes by their young men to Divide their presents and Smoke eate and Council Capt Lewis & my Self retired to dinner and Consult about other measures — Mr. Daurion Jr. much displeased that we did not invite him to dine with us (which he was Sorry for after wards) — The Souix is a Stout bold looking people, (the young men hand Som) & well made, the greater part of them make use of Bows & arrows, Some fiew fusees I observe among them, not with Standing they live by the Bow & arrow, they do not Shoot So well as the Northern Indians the Warriers are Verry much deckerated with Paint Porcupin quils & feathers, large leagins & mockersons, all with buffalow roabs of Different Colours. the Squars wore Peticoats & and a white Buffalow roabes with the black hair turned back over their necks & Sholders

I will here remark a Society which I had never before this day heard was in any nation of Indians — four of which is at this time present and all who remain of this Band — Those who become members of this Society must be brave active young men who take a Vow never to give back let the danger be what it may; in War Parties they always go foward without Screening themselves behind trees or any thing else to this Vow they Strictly adheer dureing their Lives — an instanc which happened not long Since, on a party in Crossing the R Missourie on the ice, a whole was in the ice imediately in their Course which might easily have been avoided by going around, the foremost man went on and was lost the others wer draged around by the party — in a battle with the Crow Indians who inhabit the Coul Noir or black mountain out of 22 of this society 18 was Killed, the remaining four was draged off by their Party Those men are likely fellows the Sit together Camp & Dance together- This Society is in imitation of the Societies of the de Curbo or Crow Indians from whome they imitate-



[Clark, August 31, 1804]

31st of August Friday rose early a fair Day — a curioes Society among this nation worthey of remark, ie, formed of their active deturmined young men, with a vow never to give back, let the danger or deficuelty be what it may, in war parties they always go forward, without Screening themselves behind trees or anything else, to this vow they Strictly adheer dureing their Lives, an Instance of it, is last winter on a march in Crossing the Missourei a hole was in the ice immediately in their Course which might easily be avoided by going around, the fore most man went on and was drowned, the others were caught by their party and draged aroundin a battle with the Crow de Curbo Indians out of 22 of this Society 18 was killed, the remaining four was draged off by their friends, and are now here — they assocate together Camp together and are merry fellows, This Custom the Souex learned of the de Carbours inhabiting the Gout Noie or Black mountain all the Chiefs Delivered a Speech agreeing to what we Said &. &. & beged which I answered from my notes. We made or gav a certificate to two Brave men the attendants of the Great Chief gave them Some tobacco and prepared a Commission for Mr. Darion to make a peace with all the nations in the neighbourhood, Mahas, Porncases, Panic, Loups, Ottoes and Missouries — & to take to the President Some of the Gt Chiefs of each nations who would accompany him allso to do certain other things, and wrot Instructions — gave him a flag and Some Cloaths — the Chiefs Sent all their young men home, and they Stayed for Mr. Dorion — in the evening late we gave the Comsn. & Instruction to Mr. Durion & he recved them with pleasa, & promised to do all which was necessary. I took a Vocabulary of the Seouex language, and a fiew answers to Some queries I put to Mr. Pitte Dorion respecting the War No. Situation Trad &c. &. of that people which is divided into 20 tribes possessing Sepperate interest they are numerous between 2 & 3000 men, divided into 20 tribes who view their interests as defferent Some bands at War with Nations which other bands are at peace — This nation call themselves-Dar co tar. The french call them Souex Their language is not perculiar to themselves as has been Stated, a great many words is the Same with the Mahas, Ponckais, Osarge, Kanzies &c. Clearly proves to me those people had the Same Oregean — this nations inhabit the red river of Hudson bay St. Peters Missippi, Demoin R. Jacque & on the Missourie they are at War with 20 nations, and at piece with 8 only — they recved their trade from the British except a few on the Missourie they furnish Beaver Martain Loues orter, Pekon Bear and Deer and have forty Traders at least among them. The names of the Different bands of this nation are-

1st Che the ree or Bois ruley (the present band) Inhabit the Souex Jacque & Demoin Rivers

2nd Ho in de bor to or poles. They live on the head of the Suouex River

3rd Me ma car jo (or make fence on the river.) the Country near the Big bend of the Missouri.

4th Son on to ton (People of the Prarie) they rove North of the Missourie in the Praries above.

5th Wau pa Coo do (Beeds) they live near the Prarie de Chaine on the Missippi

6th Te tar ton (or Village of Prarie) on the waters of the Mississippi above Prate de Chain (Dog Prarie)

7th Ne was tar ton (Big Water Town) on the Mississippi above the mouth of the St. Peters River.

8th Wau pa to (Leaf Nation). 10 Leagues up St. Peters

9th Cass car ba (White man) 35 Lgs. up St Peters

10 Mi ac cu op si ba (Cut Bank) reside on the head of St. Peters river

11 Son on — on St. Peters in the Praries

12th Se si toons — 40 Leagues up St Peters.

The names of the other tribes I could not get In

31st August 1804 Speeches

at 8 oClock the Chiefs and warriers met us in Council all with their pipes with the Stems presented towards us, after a Silence of abt. ____ The great Chief Dressed himself in his fine Cloathes and two warriers in the uniform and armer of their Nation Stood on his left with a War Club & Speer each, & Dressed in feathurs.

The Shake hand 1st Chief Spoke

My Father. I am glad to here the word of my G. F. and all my warriers and men about me are also glad.

My Father. — now I see my two fathers the Children, of my great father, & what you have Said I believe and all my people do believ also

My Father — We are verry glad you would take pitty on them this Day, we are pore and have no powder and ball.

My Father. — We are verry Sorry our women are naked and all our children, no petiecoats or cloathes

My Father — You do not want me to Stop the boats going up if we See,

I wish a man out of your boat to bring about a peace, between all the Indians, & he can do So.

My Father — Listen to what I say I had an English medal when I went to See them, I went to the Spanoriards they give me a meadel and Some goods, I wish you would do the Same for my people.

My Father. — I have your word I am glad of it & as Soon as the Ice is don running I will go down & take with me, Some great men of the other bands of the Soues

My Father — I will be glad to See My Grand Father but our Women has got no Cloathes and we have no Powder & Ball, take pity on us this day.

My Father — I want to listen and observe wath you Say, we want our old friend (Mr. Durion) to Stay with us and bring the Indians with my Self down this Spring.

My Father — I opend my ears and all my yound men and we wish you to let Mr. Durion Stay, and a Perogue for to take us down in the Spring.

The speach of th White Crain Mar to ree 2d Chief

My Fathr's listen to my word, I am a young man and do not intend to talk much, but will Say a few words.

My Father — my father was a Chief, and you have made me a Chief I now think I am a chief agreeable to your word as I am a young man and inexperienced, cannot say much What the Great Chief has Said is as much as I could Say

Par nar ne Ar par be Struck by the Pana 3d Chief

My father's I cant Speek much I will Speek a litle to you

My fathers. — ther's the Chiefs you have made high, we will obey them, as also my young men, the Pipe I hold in my hand is the pipe of my father, I am pore as you See, take pity on me I believe what you have Said

My fathers — You think the great meadel you gave My great Chief pleases me and the small one you gave me gives me the heart to go with him to See my Great father. What the Great Chief has Said is all I could Say. I am young and Cant Speek.

A Warrier by name Tar ro mo nee Spoke

My father — I am verry glad you have made this man our great

Chief, the British & Spaniards have acknowledged him before but never Cloathed him. you have Cloathed him, he is going to see our Great father, We do not wish to spear him but he must go and see his great father

My Fathr's, my great Chief must go and See his Gd father, give him some of your milk to Speek to his young men,

My father. our people are naked, we wish a trader to Stop among us, I would be verry glad our two fathers would give us some powder and ball and some Milk with the flag.

Speech of Ar ca we char chi the half man 3d Chief

My fathr's I do not Speak verry well, I am a pore man and

My Fathr's. I was once a Chiefs boy now I am a man and a Chief of Some note

My Fat hr's — I am glad you have made my old Chief a fine and a great man, I have been a great warrier but now I here your words, I will berry my hatchet and be at peace with all & go with my Great Chief to see my great father.

My fath-s. When I was a young man I went to the Spaniards to see ther fassion, I like you talk and will pursue you advice, Since you have given me a meadal. I will tell you the talk of the Spaniards

My Father's. — I am glad my Grand father has sent you to the read people on this river, and that he has given us a flag large and handsom the Shade of which we can Sit under

My Fathr's. — We want one thing for our nation very much we have no trader, and often in want of goods

My Fathers — I am glad as well as all around me to here your word, and we open our ears, and I think our old Frend Mr. Durion can open the ears of the other bands of Soux. but I fear those nations above will not open their ears, and you cannot I fear open them

My Fathers. You tell us that you wish us to make peace with the Ottoes & M. You have given 5 Medles I wish you to give 5 Kigz with them

My Fathers. — My horses are pore running the Buffalow give us

Some powder and ball to hunt with, and leave old Mr. Durion with us to get us a trader

My Father. — The Spaniards did not keep the Medal of the Token of our Great Chief when they gave him one You have Dressed him and I like it I am pore & take pitey on me

My fathers — I am glad you have put heart in our great Chief he can now speak with confidence, I will support him in all your Councilsafter all the chief presented the pipe to us

The Half man rose & spoke as follows viz.

My father — What you have Said is well, but you have not given any thing to the attendants of the Great Chiefs after which

In the evening late we gave Mr. Dorion a bottle of whiskey and himself with the Chiefs Crossed the river and Camped on the opposit bank Soon after a violent Wind from the N W. accompanied with rain



[Clark, August 31, 1804]

31st of August We gave a Certificate to two Men of War, attendants on the Chief gave to all the Chiefs a Carrot of Tobacco — had a talk with Mr. Dorion, who agreed to Stay and Collect the Chiefs from as many Bands of Soux as he coud this fall & bring about a peace between the Sciuex & their neighbours &. &c. &c.

after Dinner we gave Mr. Peter Darion, a Comission to act with a flag & some Cloathes & Provisions & instructions to bring about a peace with the Scioux Mahars, Panies, Ponceries, Ottoes & Missouries — and to employ any trader to take Some of the Cheifs of each or as many of those nations as he Could Perticularly the Sceiouex — I took a Vocabulary of the Scioux Language — and the Answer to a fiew quaries Such as refured to ther Situation, Trade, number War, &c. &c. — This Nation is Divided into 20 Tribes, possessing Seperate interests- Collectively they are noumerous Say from 2 to 3000 men, their interests are so unconnected that Some bands are at war with Nations which other bands are on the most friendly terms. This Great Nation who the French has given the nickname of Sciouex, Call them selves Dar co tar their language is not peculiarly their own, they Speak a great number of words, which is the Same in every respect with the Maha, Poncaser, Osarge & Kanzies. which Clearly proves that those nation at Some Period not more that a century or two past the Same nation — Those Dar ca ter's or Scioux inhabit or rove over the Countrey on the Red river of Lake Winipeck, St. Peter's & the West of the Missippie above Prarie De chain heads of River Demoin, and the Missouri and its waters on the N. Side for a great extent. They are only at peace with 8 Nations, & agreeable to their Calculation at war with twenty odd. — Their trade Corns from the British, except this Band and one on Demoin who trade with the Traders of St Louis — The furnish Beaver Martain, Loues Pikon, Bear and Deer Skins-and have about 40 Traders among them. The Dar co tar or Sceouex rove & follow the Buffalow raise no corn or any thing else the woods & praries affording a Suffcency, the eat Meat, and Substitute the Ground potato which grow in the Plains for bread The names of the Different Tribes or Canoes of the Sceoux or Dar co tar Nation

1st Che cher ree Yank ton (or bois rulay) now present inhabit the Sciouex & Demoin rivers and the Jacques.

2nd Hoin de borto (Poles) they rove on the heads of Souix & Jacqus Rivers-

3rd Me ma car jo (make fence of the river) rove on the Countrey near the big bend of the Missouries

4th Sou on, Teton (People of the Prarie) the rove in the Plains N. of the Riv Missouries above this

5th Wau pa coo tar (Leaf beds) the live near the Prare de Chain near the Missippi

6th Te tar ton (or village of Prarie) rove on the waters of the Mississippi above Prarie de Chain

7th Ne was tar ton (big water Town) rove on the Missippi above the St. Peters River

8th Wau pa tow (Leaf nation) live 10 Leagues up St Peters river

9th Cas Car ba (white man) live 35 Leagus up St Peters river

10th Mi ca cu op si ba (Cut bank) rove on the head of St. Peters

11th Sou on (-) rove on St peters river in the Prareis

12th Sou si toons (-) live 40 Legus up the St peters river

The names of the other bands neither of the Souex's interpters could inform me. in the evening late we gave Mr. Dourion a bottle of whiskey, & he with the Cheifs & his Son Crossed the river and Camped on the Opposit bank — Soon after night a violent wind from the N W. with rain the rain Continud the greater part of the night The river a riseing a little.



[Clark, August 31, 1804]

August the 31st 1804 after the Indians got their Brackfast the Chiefs met and arranged themselves in a row with elligent pipes of peace all pointing to our Seets, we Came foward and took our Seets, the Great Cheif The Shake han rose and Spoke to Some length aproving what we had Said and promissing to pursue the advice.

Mar to ree 2d Cheif (White Crain) rose and made a Short Speech and refured to the great Chief

Par nar ne Ar par be 3rd Cheif rose and made a Short Speech

Ar ca we char the (the half man) 3d Chief rose & spoke at Some length. Much to the purpose.

The othe Cheif Said but little one of the warreirs Spoke after all was don & promissed to Support the Chiefs, the promisd to go and See their Great father in the Spring with Mr. Dorion, and to do all things we had advised them to do. and all Concluded by telling the distresses of ther nation by not haveing traders, & wished us to take pity on them, the wanted Powder Ball & a little milk

last night the Indians Danced untill late in their dances we gave them Som knives Tobaco & belts & tape & Binding with which they wer Satisfied



[Clark, September 1, 1804]

September 1st Satturday 1804 Mr. Durion left his Kettle which we gave him, which we Sent to him and Set out under a gentle Breeze from the South (raind half the last night,) proceded on — pass Calumet Bluff of a yellowish read & a brownish white Hard clay, this Bluff is about 170 or 180 foot high here the highlands aproach the river on each Side with a jentle assent, opsd. the Bluff a large Island Covered with timber is Situated Close to the L. S. we passed the Island opposit which the high land approach the river on both Side (river ros 3 Inchs last night) passed a large Island Covered with wood on the L. S. Some rain, cloudy all day — the river wide & Hils close on each Side, Came to before night to go & See a Beaver house which is 11/2 Miles to the L. S. of the riv Cap Lewis & my self with two men went to See this house which was represented as high & situated in a Small pond. we could not find the Pon. Drewyer Killed a Buck Elk, it is not necessary to mention fish as we catch them at any place on the river, Camped at the lower point of Bonhomme Island-



[Clark, September 1, 1804]

September 1st Satturday 1804 Mr. Dourion left his Kettle & Sent back for it &c. We Set out under a jentle Breeze from the S. (It rained half the last night) proceeded on pass the Bluffs Compsd. of a yellowish red, & brownish White Clay which is a hard as Chalk this Bluff is 170 or 180 feet high, here the High lands approach near the river on each Side, that on the S. S. not So high as that on the L. S. opposit the Bluffs is Situated a large Island Covered with timber close under the L. S. above the Isd the high land approach & form a Clift to the river on the S. S. this Clift is Called White Bear Clift one of those animals haveing been killed in a whole in it



[Clark, September 1, 1804]

1st of September Satturday 1804 Some hard wind and rain, Cloudy all day, the river wide & hills on each Side near the river, passd. a large (1) Island which appeared to be composed of Sand, Covered with Cotton wood close under the S. S. we landed at the Lower point of a large Island on the S. S. Called bon homme or Good man, here Capt Lewis & my Self went out a Short distance on the L. S. to See a Beave house, which was Said to be of Great hite & Situated in a Pond we could not find the house and returned after night Drewyer killed an Elk, & a Beaver. numbers of Cat fish cought, those fish is so plenty that we catch them at any time and place in the river



[Clark, September 2, 1804]

2nd of Sept. Sunday 1804 — Set out early & proceeded on passed the Island & Came too above below a yellow Bluff on the S S. the Wind being hard from the N W. verry Cold Some rain all day much Thunder & lightning G Drewyer R. Fields Howard & Newmon Killed four fat Elk on the Isld. we had them Jurked &the Skins Stretched to Cover the Perogues water riseing, I observe Bear grass & Rhue in the Sides of the hills at Sunset the wind luled and cleared up cool — Aired the meet all in high Spirits — Shannon & the man Sent after him has not yet joind us

2 Sepr. description of a antient fortification

(1) From the river on the top of the antient fortification at this the 12 foot high 75 feet Base first Corse is from the river is S 76° W 96 yards. S 84° W. 53 yds. at this angle a kind of ravilene covering a Saleport, bearing East widing N 69 W 300 yds. passed a gate way at 280 yds. the bank lower & forming a right angle of 30 yards — two wings or mounds running from a high nold to the West of the way one 30 yards back of the other Covering the gate (at this place the mound is 15 feet 8 Inches higher than the plain forming a Glassee outwards & 105 feet base N. 32 W. 56 yards N. 20 W. 73 yards this part of the work is about 12 feet high, leavel & about 16 feet wide on the top) at the experation of this course a low irregular work in a Direction to the river, out Side of which is several ovel mounds of about 16 feet high and at the iner part of the Gouge a Deep whole across the Gauge N.

32 W 96 yds. to the Commencment of a wall of about 8 feet high N.81° W. 533 yards to a Deep pond 73 yds in Deamuter, and 200 yards further to a Saleport, where there is evident marks of its being Covered, the Same Course Contined 1030 yards to the river bottom.

One half of the first part of the Fortification is washed into the river, a Second line, has run from the Northrn extremity parrelel with the river (as it appears to have run at that time) N. 56 W. this of different hith from 4 to to 10 feet — The high land is about 3 me. from this fortress, and rise to Small mountains Say from 3 to 400 feet the high land on the opposit or North Side of the Missourie is 110 feet forming a yellow Clay bluff to the water and is leavel back as fur as can be Seen. I am informed by the inteperter & french, that they have Seen, numbers of those fortifications in different parts of this Cty. pirtcularly on the Platt Kansies and the North of this place on the river Jacque.

two Small fortifications is on the Arc Creek on the upper side 1st 1/4 of a mile up & the 2d 1/4 higher, nearly Square each angle 100 yards



[Clark, September 2, 1804]

2nd September Sunday 1804 Set out early and proceeded on Passed the Island and Landed on the S. S above under a yellow Clay bluff of 110 feet high, the wind blew verry hard a head from the N. W. with Some rain and verry Cold, G. Drewnyer R. Fields Newman & howard Killed four fine Elk we had the meat all jurked and the Skins Dried to Cover the Perogue, on the Side of the Bluff I observed Bear Grass & Rhue, at Sun Set the wind luled and Cleared up Cold, the high land on the L. S. is verry high, & uneaven, that on the S. S from 80 to 120 foot & is leavel back but fiew Small Streems falling into the river.

I went out and made a Survey of the antient works which is Situated in a level plain about 3 miles from the hills which are high.

A Discription of the Fortification

(1) Commenceing on the river opsid the Good Mans Island, first Course from the river is

S. 76d W. 96 yards thence

S. 84 W. 53 yards (at this angle a kind of angle or horn work)

N. 69 W. 300 yards to a high part, passing the gateway Covered by two half Circler works one back of the other lower than the main work the gate forms a right angle projecting inward

N.32 W. 56 yards

N 20 W. 73 yards This part of the work appears to have either double, or a covered way. from this Some irregular works appear to have been on mounds between this and the river with a Deep round whole in the center of a gorge formed by another angle — — — (578)

This part of the work is from 10 to 15 feet 8 Inches — the mounds of various hights — the base of the work is from 75 to 105 feet, steep inward and forming a kind of Glassee out wards

the Same Cours continued i e

N. 32°W. 96 yards to the Commencement of a wall from 8 to 10 feet high this corse not on the wall but thro to the commencment of another detached

N. 81° W 1830 yards to the river & above where this bank Strikes the river is the remains of a Circular work

in this Course at 533 yards a Deep Pond of 73 yards Diameter perfectly round is in the Course of the bank which is about 8 feet high, from this Pond the bank it lowers gradually — a bank about the Same hight runs near the river, and must have joined the main work at a part which is now washed into the river, this is also perfectly Streight and widens from the main work, as the river above has washed in its banks for A great distance I cannot form an Idear How those two long works joined — where they Strike the river above, they are about 1100 yds apart, I am informed by our freench interpeters that a great number of those antint works are in Different parts of this Countrey, on the Platt River, Kansus, Jacque, Osarge Mine river &c.

Small one is on Island opposit the one I have Discribed, and two of our Party Saw two of those antient frtresses on the Pittiet Arc Creek on the upper Side near the mouth, each angle of which were 100 yards and about 8 feet high-



[Clark, September 3, 1804]

3rd September Monday 1804. Set out at Sun rise, verry Cold morning clear and but little wind from the N W. we proceeded on, the river wide, took an obsivation below Plumb Creek which mouths on the S S. this Creek is Small & corns in between 2 white banks, Great quantities of Plumbs of a most delisious flavour, I have collected the Seed of 3 Kinds which I intend to Send to my brother, also Som grapes of a Superior quallity large & well flavoured, the river is riseing a little, Several wild Goats Seen in the Plains they are wild & fleet Elk & Buffalow is verry plenty, Scercely any timber in Countrey except a little on the river in the Points. Saw Some Signs of the 2 men who are a head, Colter has not over taken Shannon Camped on the L. S. at the edge of a Plain-



[Clark, September 3, 1804]

3rd of September Monday 1804 a verry Cold morning wind from N. W. we Set out at Sun rise, & proceeded on to a Bluff below the mouth of Plumb 12 yds. Creek on the S. S. and took an obsevation of the Suns Altitude

This Creek is Small it "abounds with blumbs of a Delicious flavour" the River is wide and Crouded with Sand bars — it is riseing a little but little timber in this Countrey all that is, is on the river in the points. we Came too on the L. Sin the edge of a Plain an Camped for the night — we Saw Some Signs of the two men Shannon & Colter, Shannon appeared to be a head of Colter — The White banks appear to Continu on both sides of the river. Grapes plenty and finely flavered-



[Clark, September 4, 1804]

4th of September Tuesday 1804. a verry Cold wind from South E. by S. we Set out early proceeded on to the mouth of a Small Creek in the bend to the L. S. Called white line at 11/2 miles furthr passed the mouth of a R au platte or White paint Cr about 25 yd. on Same Side Called, I walked on the top of the hill forming a Cliff Covd. with red Ceeder an extensive view from this hill, at 3 Miles from the Creek the high land jut the river forming a Bluff of Bluish Clay Continu 11/2 miles Came to at the mouth of Qui courre (rapid) this river Comes roleing its Sands whuch (is corse) into the Missouris from the S W by W. this river is 152 yards across the water and not exeeding 4 feet Deep it does not rise high when it Does it Spreds over a large Surface, and is not navagable it has a Great many Small Islands & Sand bars I went up this river 3 miles to the Spot the Panis once had a large Village on the upper Side in a butifull extensive Plain riseing gradially from the river I fel into a Buffalow road joined the boat late at night at the Pania Island.



[Clark, September 4, 1804]

4th September Tuesday 1804 a verry Cold wind from the S. S. E, we Set out early and proceeded on the mouth of a Small Creek in a bend to the L. S. Called White lime, at 11/2 miles higher up passed a large Creek on the L. S. Called or white paint between those two Creeks (the latter of which is abt. 30 yds. wide) we passed under a Bluff of red Ceeder, at 4 mes. 1/2 passed the mouth of the River Que Courre (rapid R) on the L. S. and Came to a Short distance above, this River is 152 yards wide at the mouth & 4 feet Deep Throwing out Sands like the Platt (only Corser) forming bars in its mouth, I went up this river three miles to a butifull Plain on the upper Side where the Panias once had a Village this river widens above its mouth and is devided by Sand and Islands, the Current verry rapid, not navagable for even Canoos without Great dificulty owing to its Sands; the colour like that of the Plat is light the heads of this river is not known, it Corns into the Missourie from the S. W. by West, and I am told that is Genl. Course Some distance up is parrelel with the Missourie



[Clark, September 5, 1804]

5th September 1804 Wednesday, Set out early the wind blew hard from the South as it has for Some Days past, we Set up a jury mast & Sailed, I saw a large gangue of Turkeys, also Grous Seen Passed a large Island of about 3 miles long in the Middle of the river opposit the head of this Island the Poncarre River Coms into the Missourei on the L. S. — the S. S is a Clift under which great numbers of Springs run out of mineral water, Saw Several wild goats on the Clift & Deer with black tales,- Sent Shields & Gibson to the Poncas Towns, which is Situated on the Ponca river on the lower side about two miles from its mouth in an open butifull Plain, at this time this nation is out hunting the biffalow they raise no corn or Beens, Gibson killed a Buffalow in the Town, The two men which has been absent several Days is ahead, we came to on the upper pt. of a large Island at 3 oClock to make a mast Sent out Some hunters on the Island (which I call no preserve Island, at this place we used the last of our Preservs) They killed 3 bucks, & two Elk which welurked



[Clark, September 5, 1804]

September 5th Wednesday 1804 Set out early the winds blew hard from the South, Goats turkeys Seen to day, passed a large Island (1) opsd. this Island near the head the Poncasar River Coms into the Missourie from the West this river is about 30 yards wide. dispatched two men to the Poncaries Village Situated in a handsom Plain on the lower Side of this Creek about two miles from the Missourie (the Poncasars nation is Small and at this time out in the praries hunting the Buffalow), one of the men Sent to the Village Killed a Buffalow in the town, the other, a large Buck near it, Some Sign of the two men who is a head.

above the Island on the S. S We passed under a Bluff of Blue earth, under which Seveal Mineral Springs broke out of the water of which had a taste like Salts, we Came too on the upper point of a large Island (which I call No preserves Island) here we made a Ceeder Mast, our hunters brought in three bucks, and two elks this evening which we had jurked

One of the hunter Shields, informed that he Saw Several black tailed Deer, near the Poncaser Village



[Lewis, September 5, 1804]

Sept 5th saw some wild goats or antelopes on the hill above the Glauber Salts Springs they ran off we could not discover them sufficiently distinctly to discribe even their colour their track is as large as a deer reather broader & more blont at the point

This day one of our hunters brought us a Serpent beautifully variagated with small black spotts of a romboydal form on a light yellow white ground the black pedominates most on the back the whiteis yellow on the sides, and it is nearly white on the belly with a few party couloured scuta on which the black shews but imperfectly and the colouring matter seems to be underneath the Scuta — it is not poisonous it hisses remarkably loud; it has 221 Scuta on the belly and 51 on the tale, the eyes are of a dark black colour the tale terminates in a sharp point like the substance of a cock's spur — Length 4 Ft. 6 I.



[Clark, September 6, 1804]

6th Septr Thursday 1804, a Storm this morning from the N W. at day light which lasted a fiew minits, Set out after the Storm was over and proceeded on a hard wind ahead passed the island which is Seperated from the L. Side by a narrow Channel. the morning is verry Cold.

Camped on S. Side before night no timbering in reach ahead, R. Fields killed 2 Deer Saw Buffalow, & Goats this evening, the river riseing a little



[Clark, September 6, 1804]

Septr. 6th Thursday 1804 a Storm this morning from the N. W. which lasted a fiew minits, we Set out and proceeded on passed the head of the Isd. which is Seperated from the L. S by a narrow Channel, a hard wind from the N. W. a verry Cold day — we Camped on the S. S. at the upper point of Some timber, Some time before night, no timber, no timber being in reach.

I saw Several goats on the hills on the S. S. also Buffalow in great numbers



[Clark, September 7, 1804]

7th September Friday 1804. a verry Cold morning Set out at Day light

near the foot of this high Nole we discovered a Village of an annamale the french Call the Prarie Dog which burrow in the grown & with the rattle Snake and Killed one & Caught one Dog alive caught in a whole 2 frogs near the hole Killed a Dark Rattle Snake with a Prairie dog in him

The Village of those little dogs is under the ground a conisiderable distance we dig under 6 feet thro rich hard clay without getting to their Lodges Some of their wholes we put in 5 barrels of water without driveing them out, we caught one by the water forceing him out. ther mouth resemble the rabit, head longer, legs short, & toe nails

long ther tail like a ground Squirel which they Shake and make chattering noise ther eyes like a dog, their colour is Gray and Skin contains Soft fur



[Clark, September 7, 1804]

7th Septr. 1804 Septr. 7th Friday a verry Cold morning Set out at day light we landed after proceding 51/2 miles, near the foot of a round mounting which I saw yesterday resembling a dome.

Capt Lewis & my Self walked up, to the top which forms a Cone and is about 70 feet higher than the high lands around it, the Bass is about 300 foot in decending this Cupola, discovered a Village of Small animals that burrow in the grown (those animals are Called by the french Pitite Chien) Killed one & Cought one a live by poreing a great quantity of water in his hole we attempted to dig to the beds of one of thos animals, after diging 6 feet, found by running a pole down that we were not half way to his Lodges, we found 2 frogs in the hole, and killed a Dark rattle Snake near with a Ground rat in him, (those rats are numerous) the Village of those animals Covs. about 4 acrs of Ground on a Gradual decent of a hill and Contains great numbers of holes on the top of which those little animals Set erect make a Whistleing noise and whin allarmed Slip into their hole — we por'd into one of the holes 5 barrels of water without filling it, Those Animals are about the Size of a Small Squrel Shorter & thicker, the head much resembling a Squirel in every respect, except the ears which is Shorter, his tail like a ground Squirel which thy Shake & whistle when allarmd. the toe nails long, they have fine fur & the longer hair is gray, it is Said that a kind of Lizard also a Snake reside with those animals. Camped



[Lewis and Clark, September 8, 1804]

8th of September 1804 Satturday. Set out early and proceeded on under a Gentle breese from the S. E. at 3 mes passed the place where Trodow wintered one winter

I went out to day on the S. S with a view to find Some of the little dogs, and Coats, Traveled over a riged and mountanious Countrey without water & riseing to 5 or 600 hundred feet, Islands & Sands interveneing prevt. my getting to the boat untill after night, in my absent Capt. Lewis killed a Buffalow, I saw Greid many Buffalow & white wolves. (Sailed all day)



[Clark, September 8, 1804]

8th of September Satturday Set out early and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. E, at 3 mes. passed the house of Troodo where he wintered in 96. Called the Pania house, above is high hills on the S. S. on the S. S. much higher hills than usial appear to the North distant 8 miles recently burnt- pass 3 Small Islands at about 5 miles on this Course on the S. S. here Capt. Lewis Killed a Buffalow in the river, and this men one other Came to on the lower point of an Island in the midlle of the river Called Boat Island and incamped, jurked the meet Killed to day Consisting of 2 buffalow, one large Buck Elk one Small, 4 Deer 3 Turkeys & a Squirel, I joined the boat at this Camp, The Countrey on the S S. is pore & broken.



[Clark and Whitehouse, September 9, 1804]

9th Septembr Sunday, Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on passed the Island Several gangus of Buffalow on the Sides of the hils on the L. S. halted on L. Side took breakfast. Capt. Clark walked on Shore, we proceeded on

R. Fields came to the Boat had killed one Buffalow. passed red ceeder on the edge of the hills on bouth Sides of the river but most on the bluff on



[Clark, September 9, 1804]

9th September Sunday 1804 Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on passed the head of the Island on which we Camped, passed three Sand & willow Islands, the Sand bars So noumerous, it is not worth mentioning them, the river Shoal or Shallow wind S E Came too and Camped on a Sand bar on the L. S. Capt Lewis went out to Kill a buffalow. I walked on Shore all this evening with a view to Kill a Goat or Some Prarie Dogs in the evening after the boat landed, I Derected my Servent York with me to kill a Buffalow near the boat from a numbr. then Scattered in the plains, I saw at one view near the river at least 500 Buffalow, those animals have been in view all day feeding in the Plains on the L. S. every Copse of timber appear to have Elk or Deer. D. Killed 3 Deer, I Kiled a Buffalow Y. 2, R. Fields one.



[Lewis, September 9, 1804]

Sept. 9th Capt. Clark found on the Lard shore under a high bluff issuing from a blue earth a bittuminus matter resembling molasses in consistance, colour and taste-



[Clark, September 10, 1804]

10th September Monday a Cloudy morning Set out early under a Gentle Breeze from the S E. passed two Small Islands one on the L. S. & the other on the S. S. both in the first Course at 101/2 miles passed the lower pt. of Ceder Island Situated in a bend to the L. S. this Island is about 2 miles long Covered with red Ceder, the river is verry Shallow opsd. this Island — below the Island on the top of a ridge we found a back bone with the most of the entire laying Connected for 45 feet those bones are petrified, Some teeth & ribs also Connected. at 3 mes. above ceder I passed a large Island on the S. S. to this Island Several Elk Swam above this Island on the Midle is Situated 2 Islands small one above the other, those Islands are Called mud Islands and camped on the upper Island of them 3 Buffalow 1 Elk &c. Killed to day, river falling a large Salt Spring of remarkable Salt water much frequented by Buffalow, Some Smaller Springs on the Side of the hill above less Salt, the water excesiv Salt, and is 11/2 miles from the river on the S. W. or L. S. opposit Ceder Island-



[Clark, September 10, 1804]

10th September Monday 1804. a Cloudy dark morning Set out early, a Gentle breeze from the S. E, passed two Small Islands on the L. S. and one on the S. S. all in the first Course at 101/2 miles passed the lower point of an (2) Island Covered with red Ceeder Situated in a bend on the L. S. this Island is about 2 Moles in length (1) below this on a hill on the L. S. we found the back bone of a fish, 45 feet long tapering to the tale, &c. those joints were Seperated and all petrefied, opposit this Island 11/2 miles from the river on the L. S. is a large Salt Spring of remarkable Salt water. one other high up the hill 1/2 me. not So Salt.

we proceeded on under a Stiff Breeze. three miles above Ceder Island passed a large Island on the S. S, no water on that Side (3) Several elk Swam to this Island passed a Small Island near the Center of the river, of a mile in length, and Camped on one aboav Seperated from the other by a narrow Chanel, Those Islands are Called Mud Islands — the hunters killed 3 fuffalow & one Elk to day. The river is falling a little, Great number of Buffalow & Elk on the hill Sides feeding deer Scerce

we came too at the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. at Dark in a heavy Shower of rain, it Continued to rain the greater part of the night, with a hard wind from the N W Cold



[Clark, September 11, 1804]

Septr. 11th Tuesday 1804 Set out early a Cloudy morning the river verry wide from one hill to the other, with many Sand bars passed the Isd. on which we lay at a mile passed three Isds. one on the L. S. (1/4 of a mile from it on the L. S. a village of little Dogs. I Killed four, this village is 800 yards wide & 970 yds. long on a jentle Slope of a hill in a plain, those animals are noumerous) the other two Islands are on the S. S. the river is verry Shallow & wide, the boat got a ground Several times — The man G Shannon, who left us with the horses above the Mahar Village, and beleving us to be ahead pushed on as long as he Could, joined us he Shot away what fiew Bullets he had with him, and in a plentiful) Countrey like to have Starvd. he was 12 days without provision, Subsisting on Grapes at the Same the Buffalow, would Come within 30 yards of his Camp, one of his horses gave out & he left him before his last belluts were Consumed — I saw 3 large Spoted foxes today a black tailed Deer, & Killed a Buck elk & 2 Deer, one othr Elk 2 Deer & a Porkipine Killed to day at 12 oClock it became Cloudy and rained all the after noon, & night.



[Clark, September 11, 1804]

Sept. 11th Tuesday 1804 a cloudy morning, Set out verry early, the river wide & Shallow the bottom narrow, & the river Crouded with Sand bars, passed the Island on which we lay at one mile-, pased three Islands one on the L. S. and 2 on the S. S. opposit the Island on the L. S. I Saw a village of Barking Squriel 970 yds. long, and 800 yds. wide Situated on a gentle Slope of a hill, those anamals are noumerous, I killed 4 with a view to have their Skins Stufed.

here the man who left us with the horses 22 days ago and has been a head ever Since joined, us nearly Starved to Death, he had been 12 days without any thing to eate but Grapes & one Rabit, which he Killed by shooting a piece of hard Stick in place of a ball-. This man Supposeing the boat to be a head pushed on as long as he Could, when he became weak and fiable deturmined to lay by and waite for a tradeing boat, which is expected Keeping one horse for the last resorse, — thus a man had like to have Starved to death in a land of Plenty for the want of Bulletes or Something to kill his meat we Camped on the L. S. above the mouth of a run a hard rain all the after noon, & most of the night, with hard wind from the N W. I walked on Shore the fore part of this day over Some broken Country which Continus about 3 miles back & then is leavel & rich all Plains, I saw Several foxes & Killed a Elk & 2 Deer. & Squirels the men with me killed an Elk, 2 Deer & a Pelican

Some rain all day to day & Cold

I walked on Shore Saw Several foxes Several Villages of Prarie dogs, and a number of Grouse



[Clark, September 12, 1804]

Septr. 12th Wednesday 1804 a Dark Cloudy Day the wind hard from the N. W. we passed (1) a Island the middle of the river at the head of which we found great dificuelty in passing between the Sand bars the water Swift and Shallow, it took 3/4 of the day to make one mile, we Camped on the L. S. opsd. a Village of Barking Prarie Squriels

I walked out in the morning and Saw Several Villages of those little animals, also a great number of Grous & 3 foxes, and observed Slate & Coal mixed, Some verry high hills on each Side of the river. rains a little all day.



[Clark, September 13, 1804]

13th Septr. Thursday 1804 a Dark Drizzley Day, G D Cought 4 Beaver last night the winds from the N W. Cold Set out early and proceeded on verry well passed a number of Sand bars, Capt Lewis killed a Porcupin on a Cotton treee fieeding on the leaves & bowers of the Said tree, the water is verry Shallow being Crouded with Sand bars Camped on the S. Side under a Bluff. the Bluffs on the S. S. not So much impregnated with mineral as on the L. S. muskeetors verry troublesom-.



[Lewis, September 13, 1804]

September 13th Killed a bluewinged teal and a Porcupine; found it in a Cottonwood tree near the river on the Lard. Shore — the leaves of the Cottonwood were much distroyed — as were those of the Cottonwood trees in it's neighbourhood. I therefore supposed that it fed on the folage of trees at this season, the flesh of this anamal is a pleasant and whoalsome food — the quills had not yet obtained their usual length — it has four long toes, before on each foot, and the same number behind with the addition of one short one on each hind foot on the inner side. the toes of the feet are armed with long black nails particularly the fore feet- they weigh from 15 to 20 lbs — they resemble the slowth very much in the form of their hands, or fore feet. their teeth and eyes are like the bever



[Clark, September 14, 1804]

Septr 14th Friday 1804 Course Dists & rifur. Set out early proceeded on passed Several Sand bars water wide & Shallow N. 68° W. 23/4 mes. to a pt. of high Land on the L. S. passed a round Island on the S S. — Caught 3 beaver last night, Some drizzeley rain Cloudy & Disagreeable and Som hard Showers, I walked on Shore with a view to find an old Volcano Said to be in this neghbourhood by Mr. McKey I was Some distance out Could not See any Signs of a Volcanoe, I killed a Goat, which is peculier to this Countrey about the hite of a Grown Deer Shorter, its horns Coms out immediately abov its eyes broad 1 Short prong the other arched & Soft the color is a light gray with black behind its ears, white round its neck, no beard, his Sides & belly white, and around its taile which is Small & white and Down its hams, actively made his brains on the back of its head, his noisterals large, his eyes like a Sheep only 2 hoofs on each foot no antelrs (more like the antelope or gazella of Africa than any other Specis of Goat). Shields Killed a Hare weighing 61/2 lb. verry pore, the head narrow and its ears 3 Inches wide and 6 long, from the fore to the end of the hind foot; is 2 feet 11 Inch. hite 1 foot 13/4 its tail long & thick white, clearly the mountain Hare of Europe, a rainy evening all wett The Soil of those Plains washes down into the flats, with the Smallest rain & disolves & mixes with the water we See back from the river high hills in a leavel plain, evidently the remains of mountains, what mud washed into the river within those few days has made it verry mudy, passed two Small Creeks on the L. S. & Camped below a 3rd on the L. S. rained all evening



[Clark, September 14, 1804]

14th Septr. Friday 1804. Set out early proceeded on passed Several Sand bars the river wide and Shallow 3 beaver Caught last night, Drizeley rain in the forepart of this day, cloudy and disagreeable, I walked on Shore with a view to find an old Vulcanio, Said to be in this neighbourhood by Mr. J. McKey of St. Charles. I walked on Shore the whole day without Seeing any appearance of the Villcanoe, in my walk I Killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the hight. of the Grown Deer, its body Shorter, the Horns which is not very hard and forks 2/3 up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, and is imediately above its Eyes the Colour is a light gray with black behind its ears down its neck, and its Jaw white round its neck, its Sides and its rump round its tail which is Short & white verry actively made, has only a pair of hoofs to each foot. his brains on the back of his head, his Norstral large, his eyes like a Sheep — he is more like the Antilope or Gazella of Africa than any other Species of Goat. Shields Killed a Hare like the mountain hare of Europe, waighing 61/4 pounds (altho pore) his head narrow, its ears large i, e, 6 Inches long & 3 Inchs wide one half of each white, the other & out part a lead grey from the toe of the hind foot to toe of the for foot is 2 feet 11 Inches, the hith is 1 foot 1 Inche & 3/4, his tail long thick & white.

The rain Continued the Greater part of the day in My ramble I observed, that all those parts of the hills which was Clear of Grass easily disolved and washed into the river and bottoms, and those hils under which the river run, Sliped into it and disolves and mixes with the water of the river, the bottoms of the river was covered with the water and mud frome the hills about three Inches deep — those bottoms under the hils which is Covered with Grass also a great quantity of mud.

Passed 2 Small Creeks on the L. S and Camped below the third, (the place that Shannon the man who went a head lived on grapes) Some heavy Showers of rain all wet, had the Goat & rabit Stufed rained all night



[Lewis, September 14, 1804]

September 14th 1804 this day Capt. Clark killed a male wild goat so called — it's weight 65 lbs.

Feet Inches
length from point of nose to point of tail 4 9
hight to the top of the wethers 3 -
do. behind 3 -
girth of the brest 3 1
girth of the neck close to the shoulders 2 2
do. near the head 1 7

Eye deep sea green, large percing and reather prominent, & at or near the root of the horn within one 1/4 inches



[Lewis, September 14, 1804]

Sept. 14th 1804. Shields killed a hare of the prarie, weight six pounds and 1/4

F.I.
Length from point of hind to extremity fore feet 211
hight when standing erect 11 3/4
length from nose to tale 21
girth of body 12 3/4
length of tale
length of the year 5 1/2
width of do. do. 3 1/8
from the extremity of the hip to the toe of the hind foot 1 3 1/2

the eye is large and prominent the sight is circular, deep sea green, and occupyes one third of the width of the eye the remaining two thirds is a ring of a bright yellowish silver colour. the years ar placed at the upper part of the head and very near to each other, the years are very flexable, the anamall moves them with great ease and quickness and can contrat and foald them on his back or delate them at pleasure — the front outer foald of the year is a redis brown, the inner foalds or those which ly together when the years are thrown back and wich occupy two thirds of the width of the year is of a clear white colour except one inch at the tip of the year which is black, the hinder foald is of a light grey — the head back sholders and outer part of the thighs are of a ledcoloured grey the sides as they approache the belly grow lighter becomeing gradually more white the belly and brest are white with a shad of lead colour — the furr is long and fine — the tale is white round and blounty pointed the furr on it is long and extreemly fine and soft when it runs it carry's it's tale strait behind the direction of the body — the body is much smaller and more length than the rabbit in proportion to it's height — the teeth are like those of the hair or rabbit as is it's upper lip split — it's food is grass or herbs — it resorts the open plains, is extreemly fleet and never burrows or takes shelter in the ground when pursued, I measured the leaps of one which I suprised in the plains on the 17th Inst. and found them 21 feet the ground was a little decending they apear to run with more ease and to bound with greater agility than any anamall I ever saw. this anamal is usually single seldom associating in any considerable numbers.



[Clark, September 15, 1804]

September the 15th Satturday 1804 Set out early passed the Mouth of a creek on the L S. where Shannon lived on grapes waiting for Mr. Clintens boat Supposeing we had went on, Capt Lewis and my Self halted at the mouth of White River & wend up a Short Crossed &, this river is about 400 yards, the water Confined within 150 yards, the Current regularly Swift, much resembling the Missourie, Sand bars makeing out from the points, Some Islands we Sent up two men to go up this river one Day and Meet us to morrow we proceeded on passed a Small Island Covered with Ceder timber, & great number of rabits, no game except rabits, and Camped on the S. S. opposit a large Creek, on which there is more wood than usial on Creeks in this quaterr this creek raised 14 feet last rain I Killed a Buck elk & a Deer.



[Clark, September 15, 1804]

15th September Satturday 1804 Set out early passed the mo of the Creek, and the mouth of White river; (1) Capt Lewis and my Self went up this river a Short distance and Crossed, found that this differed verry much from the Plat or que Courre, threw out but little Sand, about 300 yard wide, the water confind within 150 yards, the current regular & Swift much resemblig the Missourie, with Sand bars from the points a Sand Island in the mouth, in the point is a butifull Situation for a Town 3 Gradual assents, and a much Greater quantity of timber about the mouth of this river than usial, we concluded to Send Some distance up this river detached Sjt. Gass & R. Fields. we proceeded on passed a Small (2) Island Covered with Ceeder on I Saw great numbers of Rabits & Grapes, this Island is Small & Seperated from a large Sand Isd. at its upper point by a narrow Channel, & is Situated nearest the L. Side. Camped on the S. S. opposit the mouth of a large Creek on which there is more timber than is usial on Creeks of this Size, this Creek raised 14 feet the last rains. I killed a Buck Elk & Deer, this evening is verry Cold, Great many wolves of Different Sorts howling about us. the wind is hard from the N W this evening



[Lewis, September 16, 1804]

Sunday September 16th 1804. This morning set out at an early hour, and come too at 1/2 after 7 A.M. on the Lard. Shore 11/4 miles above the mouth of a small creek which we named Corvus, in consequence of having kiled a beatiful bird of that genus near it we concluded to ly by at this place the ballance of this day and the next, in order to dry our baggage which was wet by the heavy showers of rain which had fallen within the last three days, and also to lighten the boat by transfering a part of her lading to the red perogue, which we now determined to take on with us to our winter residence wherever that might be; while some of the men were imployed in this necessary labour others were dressing of skins washing and mending their cloaths &c. Capt. Clark and myself kiled each a buck immediately on landing near our encampment; the deer were very gentle and in great numbers on this bottom which had more timber on it than any part of the river we had seen for many days past, consisting of Cottonwood Elm, some indifferent ash and a considerable quanty of a small species of white oak which is loaded with acorns of an excellent flavor very little of the bitter roughness of the nuts of most species of oak, the leaf of this oak is small pale green and deeply indented, it seldom rises higher than thirty feet is much branched, the bark is rough and thick and of a light colour; the cup which contains the acorn is fringed on it's edges and imbraces the nut about one half; the acorns were now falling, and we concluded that the number of deer which we saw here had been induced thither by the acorns of which they are remarkably fond. almost every species of wild game is fond of the acorn, the Buffaloe Elk, deer, bear, turkies, ducks, pigegians and even the wolves feed on them; we sent three hunters out who soon added eight deer and two Buffaloe to our strock of provisions; the Buffaloe were so pour that we took only the tongues skins and marrow bones; the skins were particularly acceptable as we were in want of a covering for the large perogue to secure the baggage; the clouds during this day and night prevented my making any observations. Sergt. Gass and Reubin Fields whom we had sent out yesterday to explore the White river returnd at four oclock this day and reported that they had foil meanders of that stream about 12 miles r's general course West, the present or principal channel iro yards wide; the coulour of the water and rapidity and manner of runing resembled the Missouri presisely; the country broken on the border of the river about a mile, when the level planes commence and extend as far as the eye can reach on either side; as usual no timber appeared except such as from the steep declivities of hills, or their moist situations, were sheltered from the effects of the fire. these extensive planes had been lately birnt and the grass had sprung up and was about three inches high. vast herds of Buffaloe deer Elk and Antilopes were seen feeding in every direction as far as the eye of the observer could reach.



[Clark, September 16, 1804]

September 16th Sunday, we proceeded on 11/4 Miles and Camped on the L. Side in a butifull Plain Surounded with timber in which we Saw Severall Der, we delayed here for the purpose of Drying the articles which were wet & the cloathes to Load the Perogue which we had intended to send back, finding the water too Shoal Deturmind to take on the Perogue also to make Some observations for Longitude &c. the two men G. & R. F. joined us and informed "that the river as far as they were up had much the Appearance of the river about the mouth, but little timber and that chiefly elm", the up land between this river & the White river is fine, Great numbers of Goat, Deer of three kinds, Buffalow, & wolves, & Barking Squrels, The fallow Deer, Cloudy, all day Cleaning out the boat examining & Drying the goods, & loading the Perogue, I killed 2 Deer Capt Lewis one & a Buffalow, one Buffalow & five other Deer Killed. I observed Pine Burs & Burch Sticks in the Drift wood up white river which Coms in on the L. S. imedeately in the point is a butifull Situation for a town 3 Gentle rises, & more timber about the mouth of this river than usial



[Clark, September 16, 1804]

16th of September Sunday 1804 We Set out verry early & proceed'd on 11/4 miles between Sand bars and Came too on the L. S. (1) — deturmined to dry our wet thig and liten the boat which we found could not proceed with the present load for this purpose we Concluded to detain the Perogue we had intended to Send back & load her out of the boat & detain the Soldiers untill Spring & Send them from our winter quarters. We put out those articles which was wet, Clean'd the boat & perogus, examined all the Locker Bails &. &c. &.

This Camp is Situated in a butifull Plain Serounded with Timber to the extent of 3/4 of a mile in which there is great quantities of fine Plumbs The two men detachd up the White river joined us here & informed that the river as far as they were up had much the appearance of the Missourie Som Islands & Sands little Timber Elm, (much Signs of Beaver, Great many buffalow) & Continud its width, they Saw & well as my Self Pine burs & Sticks of Birch in the Drift wood up this river, They Saw also Number of Goats Such as I Killed, also wolves near the Buffalow falling Deer, & the Barking Squrels Villages Capt. Lewis went to hunt & See the Countrey near the Kamp he killed a Buffalow & a Deer

Cloudy all day I partly load the empty Perogue out of the Boat. I killed 2 Deer & the party 4 Deer & a Buffalow the we kill for the Skins to Cover the Perogus, the meet too pore to eat. Capt Lewis went on an Island above our Camp, this Island is abt. one mile long, with a Great purpotion ceder timber near the middle of it

I gave out a flannel Shirt to each man, & powder to those who had expended thers



[Lewis, September 17, 1804]

Monday September 17th 1804. Having for many days past confined myself to the boat, I determined to devote this day to amuse myself on shore with my gun and view the interior of the country lying between the river and the Corvus Creek- accordingly before sunrise I set out with six of my best hunters, two of whom I dispatched to the lower side of Corvus creek, two with orders to hunt the bottoms and woodland on the river, while I retained two others to acompany me in the intermediate country. one quarter of a mile in rear of our camp which was situated in a fine open grove of cotton wood passed a grove of plumb trees loaded with fruit and now ripe. observed but little difference between this fruit and that of a similar kind common to the Atlantic States. the trees are smaller and more thickly set. this forrest of plumb trees garnish a plain about 20 feet more lelivated than that on which we were encamped; this plain extends back about a mile to the foot of the hills one mile distant and to which it is gradually ascending this plane extends with the same bredth from the creek below to the distance of near three miles above parrallel with the river, and is intirely occupyed by the burrows of the barking squril hertefore discribed; this anamal appears here in infinite numbers, and the shortness and virdue of grass gave the plain the appearance throughout it's whole extent of beatifull bowlinggreen in fine order. it's aspect is S. E. a great number of wolves of the small kind, balks and some pole-cats were to be seen. I presume that those anamals feed on this squirril. — found the country in every direction for about three miles intersected with deep reveries and steep irregular hills of 100 to 200 feet high; at the tops of these hills the country breakes of as usual into a fine leavel plain extending as far as the eye can reach. from this plane I had an extensive view of the river below, and the irregular hills which border the opposite sides of the river and creek. the surrounding country had been birnt about a month before and young grass had now sprung up to hight of 4 Inches presenting the live green of the spring. to the West a high range of hills, strech across the country from N. to S and appeared distant about 20 miles; they are not very extensive as I could plainly observe their rise and termination no rock appeared on them and the sides were covered with virdue similar to that of the plains this senery already rich pleasing and beatiful, was still farther hightened by immence herds of Buffaloe deer Elk and Antelopes which we saw in every direction feeding on the hills and plains. I do not think I exagerate when I estimate the number of Buffaloe which could be compreed at one view to amount to 3000. my object was if possible to kill a female Antelope having already procured a male; I pursued my rout on this plain to the west flanked by my two hunters untill eight in the morning when I made the signal for them to come to me which they did shortly after. we rested our selves about half an hour, and regailed ourselves on half a bisquit each and some jirk of Elk which we had taken the precaution to put in our pouches in the morning before we set out, and drank of the water of a small pool which had collected on this plain from the rains which had fallen some days before. We had now after various windings in pursuit of several herds of antelopes which we had seen on our way made the distance of about eight miles from our camp. we found the Antelope extreemly shye and watchfull insomuch that we had been unable to get a shot at them; when at rest they generally seelect the most elivated point in the neighbourhood, and as they are watchfull and extreemly quick of sight and their sense of smelling very accute it is almost impossible to approach them within gunshot; in short they will frequently discover and flee from you at the distance of three miles. I had this day an opportunity of witnessing the agility and superior fleetness of this anamal which was to me really astonishing. I had pursued and twice surprised a small herd of seven, in the first instance they did not discover me distinctly and therefore did not run at full speed, tho they took care before they rested to gain an elivated point where it was impossible to approach them under cover except in one direction and that happened to be in the direction from which the wind blew towards them; bad as the chance to approach them was, I made the best of my way towards them, frequently peeping over the ridge with which I took care to conceal myself from their view the male, of which there was but one, frequently incircled the summit of the hill on which the females stood in a group, as if to look out for the approach of danger. I got within about 200 paces of them when they smelt me and fled; I gained the top of the eminece on which they stood, as soon as possible from whence I had an extensive view of the country the antilopes which had disappeared in a steep revesne now appeared at the distance of about three miles on the side of a ridge which passed obliquely across me and extended about four miles. so soon had these antelopes gained the distance at which they had again appeared to my view I doubted at ferst that they were the same that I had just surprised, but my doubts soon vanished when I beheld the rapidity of their flight along the ridge before me it appeared reather the rappid flight of birds than the motion of quadrupeds. I think I can safely venture the asscertion that the speed of this anamal is equal if not superior to that of the finest blooded courser. — this morning I saws



[Clark, September 17, 1804]

17th of Septr. Monday 1804 above White river Dried all those articles which had got wet by the last rain, a fine day Capt Lewis went hunting with a vew to seethe Countrey &its productions, he was out all Day Killed a Buffalow & a remarkable bird of the Spicies of Corvus, long tail of a Greenish Purple, Varigated a Beck like a Crow white round its neck comeing to a point on its back, its belley white feet like a Hawk abt. the size of a large Pigeon Capt Lewis returned at Dark. I took the Meridian & equal altitudes to day made the Lattitude.

Colter Killed a Goat, & a Curious kind of Deer, a Darker grey than Common the hair longer & finer, the ears verry large & long a Small resepitical under its eye its tail round and white to near the end which is black & like a Cow in every other respect like a Deer, except it runs like a goat. large.

The hunters brought in 8 fallow Deer & 5 Common Deer to day, Great numbers of Buffalow in the Praries, also a light Coloured woolf Covered with hair & corse fur, also a Small wolf with a large bushey tail — Some Goats of a Different Kind Seen to day, — Great many Plumbs, rabits, Porcupines & barking Squrels, Capt Lewis Killed a rattle Snake in a village of the Squirel's and Saw a Hair to day. Wind from the S. W. we finished Drying our Provisions Some of which was wet and Spoiled,



[Clark, September 17, 1804]

17th of September Monday 1804 Dried all our wet articles this fine Day, Capt Lewis went out with a View to see the Countrey and its productions, he was out all day he killed a Buffalow and a remarkable Bird of the Corvus Species long tail the upper part of the feathers & also the wing is of a purplish variated Green, the black, a part of the wing feather are white edjed with black, white belley, white from the root of the wings to Center of the back is white, the head nake breast & other parts are black the Becke like a Crow. abt. the Size of a large Pigion. a butifull thing (See Suplement in No. 3)

I took equal altitudes and a meridian altitude. Capt. Lewis returned at Dark, Colter Killed a Goat like the one I killed and a curious kind of deer of a Dark gray Colr. more so than common, hair long & fine, the ears large & long, a Small reseptical under the eyes; like an Elk, the Taile about the length of Common Deer, round (like a Cow) a tuft of black hair about the end, this Speces of Deer jumps like a goat or Sheep

8 fallow Deer 5 Common & 3 buffalow killed to day, Capt. Lewis Saw a hare & Killed a Rattle Snake in a village of B. squerels The wind from S. W. Dryed our provisions, Some of which was much Damaged.



[Lewis, September 17, 1804]

Sept. 17th one of the hunters killed a bird of the Corvus genus and order of the pica & about the size of a jack-daw with a remarkable long tale. beautifully variagated. it note is not disagreeable though loud it is twait twait twait, twait; twait, twait twait, twait.

F
I
from tip to tip of wing 1 10
Do. beak to extremity of tale 1 8 1/2
of which the tale occupys 1 1
from extremity of middle toe to hip 5 1/2

it's head, beak, and neck are large for a bird of it's size; the beak is black, and of a convex and cultrated figure, the chops nearly equal, and it's base large and beset with hairs — the eyes are black encircled with a narrow ring of yellowish black it's head, neck, brest & back within one inch of the tale are of a fine glossey black, as are also the short fathers of the under part of the wing, the thies and those about the root of the tale. the belly is of a beatifull white which passes above and arround the but of the wing, where the feathers being long reach to a small white spot on the rump one inch in width — the wings have nineteen feathers, of which the ten first have the longer side of their plumage white in the midde of the feather and occupying unequal lengths of the same from one to three inches, and forming when the wing is spead a kind of triangle the upper and lower part of these party coloured feathers on the under side of the wing being of dark colour but not jut or shining black. the under side of the remaining feathers of the wing are darker. the upper side of the wing, as well as the short side of the plumage of the party coloured feathers is of a dark blackis or bluish green sonetimes presenting as light orange yellow or bluish tint as it happens to be presented to different exposures of ligt — the plumage of the tale consits of 12 feathers of equal lengths by pairs, those in the center are the longest, and the others on each side deminishing about an inch each pair — the underside of the feathers is a pale black, the upper side is a dark bluefish green which like the outer part of the wings is changable as it reflects different portions of light. towards the the extremely of these feathers they become of an orrange green, then shaded pass to a redish indigo blue, and again at the extremity assume the predominant colour of changeable green — the tints of these feathers are very similar and equally as beatiful and rich as the tints of blue and green of the peacock — it is a most beatifull bird. — the legs and toes are black and imbricated. it has four long toes, three in front and one in rear, each terminated with a black sharp tallon from 3/8ths to 1/2 an inch in length. — these birds are seldom found in parties of more than three or four and most usually at this season single as the balks and other birds of prey usually are — it's usual food is flesh — this bird dose not spread it's tail when it flys and the motion of it's wings when flying is much like that of a Jay-bird-

The White turkey of the black hills from information of a french lad who wintered with the Chien Indians About the size of the common wild turkey the plumage perfectly white — this bird is booted as low as the toes-



[Clark, September 18, 1804]

Septr. 18 I Killed a prarie wolf to day about the Sise of a Gray fox with a bushey tail the head and ears like a Fox wolf, and barks like a Small Dog — The annimale which we have taken for the Fox is this wolf, we have seen no Foxes.

18 Septr. Tuesday Set out early wind from the N W. Modrt. our boat being much litened goes much better than usial



[Clark, September 18, 1804]

September 18th Tuesday 1804 Wind from the N W. we Set out early the boat much lightened, the wind a head proceed on verry Slowly (1) Passed an I a Island about the middle of the river at 1 Mile this Island is about a mile long, and has a great perpotion of red Cedir on it, a Small Creek comes in on the S. S. opposit the head of the Island, proceeded on passed many Sand bars and Camped on the L. S. before night the wind being verry hard & a head all Day. the hunters Killed 10 Deer to day and a Prarie wolf, had it all jurked & Skins Stretchd after Camping I walked on Shore Saw Goats, Elk, Buffalow, Black tail Deer, & the Common Deer, I Killed a Prarie Wollf, about the Size of a gray fox bushey tail head & ear like a wolf, Some fur Burrows in the ground and barks like a Small Dog.

what has been taken heretofore for the Fox was those wolves, and no Foxes has been Seen; The large wolves are verry numourous, they are of a light Colr. large & has long hair with Corrs fur.

Some Goats of a Different Kind Wer Seen yesterday Great many Porcupin rabits & Barking Squirils in this quarter. Plumbs & grapes.



[Lewis, September 18, 1804]

Sept. 18th this day saw the first brant on their return from the north-



[Clark, September 19, 1804]

(1) & (2) passed a large Island Situated nearest the S. S. 1/2 a mile from the Lower pt. of this Island, the 1st of the 3 rivers mouths which is about 35 yards wide, running from the N E. one mile above the 2nd Comes in this is Small not more that 15 yards wide a Short Distance above a 3d comes in scattering its waters thro a bottom. I walked on Shore to See this great Pass of the Sioux and Calumet ground, found it a handsom Situation, and Saw the remains of their Campt on the 2d river, for many years passed — (3) passed a Creek on the L. S. 15 yds wide we (4) passed a Creek 20 yds wide (5) passed a Creek 20 yd. wide on the L. S. I call Night C. as I did not get to it untill late at night, above the mouth of this Creek we camped, the wind being favourable, for the boat I Killed a fat Buffalow Cow, and a fat Buck elk, york my Servent Killed a Buck, the Huntes Killed 4 Deer, & the boat Crew killed 2 Buffalow Swiming the river, handsom Countrey of Plains, I saw many trovs of Buffalow & a Gangue of 30 or 40 Elk and othr Scattering elk &c. a find evening I hurt my hands & feet last night



[Clark, September 19, 1804]

19th of September Wednesday 1804 Set out early, a Cool morning verry Clear the wind from the S. E a Bluff on the L. S. — here Commences a Butifull Countrey on both Sides of the Missourie, (2) passed a large Island Called Prospect Island op posit this Isd. the 3 rivers Coms in, passing thro a butifull Plain, here I walked on Shore & Killed a fat Cow & Sent her to the boat and proceeded on to the first of the 3 rivers, this river is about 35 yards wide Contains a good deel of water, I walked up this river 2 miles & Cross, the bottom is high and rich Some timber, I crossed & returned to the mouth, & proceeded up one mile to the 2d river which is Small 12 yards wide, and on it but little timber, on this Creek the Seaux has frequently Camped, as appears by the Signs — the lands betwen those two Creeks in a purpindicular bluff of about 80 feet with a butifull Plain & gentle assent back — a Short distance above the 2nd a 3rd Creek Comes into the river in 3 places Scattering its waters over the large timbered bottom, this Creek is near the Size of the middle Creek Containing a greater quantity of water, those rivers is the place that all nations who meet are at peace with each other, Called the Seaux pass of the 3 rivers.

The boat proceeded on passd. the Island (3) passed a Creek 15 yds wide on the L. Side (4) passed a Creek on the L. S. 20 yards wide which I Call Elm Creek passing thro a high Plain (5) passed a Creek on the L. S. 18 yds. wide above which the boat Came too, I joined them late at night, and Call this Creek Night Creek the winds favourable all Day, I killed a fat buck Elk late and could only get his Skin and a Small part of his flesh to Camp. My Servent Killed a Buck, the Crew in the boat Killed 2 buffalow in the river — The Hunters on Shore Killed 4 Deer with black tails one of which was a Buck with two men Prongs on each Side forked equally, which I never before Seen. I saw Several large gangs of Buffaloes 2 large Herds of Elk & goats &c. (6) pass a Small Island on the S. S. opposit to this Island on the L. S. a Creek of about 10 yards wide Coms in passing thro a plain in which great quantities of the Prickley Pear grows. I call this Creek Prickley Pear Creek, This Isld. is Called the lower Island it is Situated at the Commencement of what is Called & Known by the Grand de Tortu or Big Bend of the Missourie.



[Clark, September 20, 1804]

September the 20th Thursday 1804 Detchd. 3 men across the Big bend (Called the Grand deTour) with the horse, to stay and hunt & jurk provisions untill we get around (1) passed a Island on the S. S. the river Crouded with Sand bars,

20th of September 1804 Thursday (Continued) (1) at the N W. extremity of this bend passed an Small Island on the L. S. opposit the upper Point of this Solitary Island Came too to _____ at the mouth of a Small run on the S. S. & Newmon & Tomson picked up Some Salt mixed with the Sand in the run, Such as the ottoes Indians Collect on the Sands of the Corn de Cerf R. & make use of, Camped on a Sand bar on the S. S. above the Island — I went out to examine the portage which I found quit Short 2000 yards only, the Prarie below & Sides of the hills containing great quantites of the Prickly Piar which nearly ruind my feet, I saw a hare, & I beleve he run into a hole, he run on a hill & disapeared, I Saw on this hill several holes. I Saw Several Goats Elk Ders &c. & Buffalow in every Detection feeding. R. Fields Killed a Deer & 2 Goats one a female, which differs from the male as to Size being Something Smaller, Small Straight horns without any black about the neck Camped late



[Clark, September 20, 1804]

20th of September, Thursday 1804 a fair morning wind from the S E detached 2 men to the 1st. Creek abov the big bend with the horse to hunt and wait our arrival proceeded on passed the lower Island opposit which the Sand bars are verry thick & the water Shoal. I walked on Shore with a view of examining this bend Crossed at the narost part which is a high irregular hills of about 180 or 190 feet, this place the gorge of the Bend is 1 mile & a quarter (from river to river or) across, from this high land which is only in the Gouge, the bend is a Butifull Plain thro which I walked, Saw numbrs of Buffalow & Goats, I saw a Hare & believe he run into a hole in the Side of a hill, he run up this hill which is Small & has Several holes on the Side & I could not See him after, I joined the boat in the evening — passed a Small Island on the L. S. in the N. W. extremity of the bind Called Solitary Island, and Camped late on a Sand bar near the S. S. — R. Fields killed 1 Deer & 2 Goats one of them a feemale — She Differs from the mail as to Size being Smaller, with Small Horns, Stright with a Small prong without any black about the neck None of those Goats has any Beard, they are all Keenly made, and is butifull



[Lewis, September 20, 1804]

Septr. 20th on the lard. shore at the commencement of the big bend observed a clift of black porus rock which resembled Lava tho on a closer examination I believe it to be calcarious and an imperfect species of the French burr — preserved a specemine, it is a brownish white, or black or yellowish brown-



[Clark, September 21, 1804]

21st of September 1804 Friday 1804, last night or reather this morng at a half past one oClock the Sand bar on which we Camped began to give way, which allarmed the Serjt on guard & the noise waked me, I got up and by the light of the moon observed that the Sand was giving away both above & beloy and would Swallow our Perogues in a few minits, ordered all hands on board and pushed off we had not got to the opposit Shore before pt. of our Camp fel into the river. we proceeded on to the Gorge of the bend & brackfast, the Distance of this bend around is 30 miles, and 11/4 miles thro, the high lands extinds to the gauge and is about 200 feet the plain in the bend as also the two opposit Sides abov and below is delightfull plains with graduel assents from the river in which there is at this time Great number of Buffalow Elk & Goats feedg The Course from the gauge on the L. S. is S. 70 W. 41/2 Miles to the pt. of Ceder Timber on the L. S. pass Sands. worthy of remark the Cat fish not So plenty abov white river & much Smaller than usial, Great nunbers of Brant & plover, also goat and black tail Deer.



[Clark, September 21, 1804]

21st of September Friday 1804 at half past one oClock this morning the Sand bar on which we Camped began to under mind and give way which allarmed the Sergeant on Guard, the motion of the boat awakened me; I get up & by the light of the moon observed that the land had given away both above and below our Camp & was falling in fast. I ordered all hands on as quick as possible & pushed off, we had pushed off but a few minets before the bank under which the Boat & perogus lay give way, which would Certainly have Sunk both Perogues, by the time we made the opsd. Shore our Camp fell in, we made a 2d Camp for the remainder of the night & at Daylight proceeded on to the Gouge of this Great bend and Brackfast, we Sent a man to measure step off the Distance across the gouge, he made it 2000 yds. The distance arround is 30 mes. The hills extend thro the gouge and is about 200 foot above the water — in the bend as also the opposite Sides both abov and below the bend is a butifull inclined Plain in which there is great numbers of Buffalow, Elk & Goats in view feeding & Scipping on those Plains Grouse, Larks & the Prarie bird is Common in those Plains. we proceeded on passed a (1) willow Island below the mouth of a Small river called Tylors R about 35 yds. wide which corns in on the L. S. 6 miles above the Gorge of the bend, at the mouth of this river the two hunters a head left a Deer & its Skin also the Skin of a white wolfwe observe an emence number of Plover of Different kind Collecting and takeing their flight Southerly, also Brants which appear to move in the same Direction. The Cat fish is Small and not So plenty as below (2) The Shore on each Side is lined with hard rough Gulley Stones of different Sides, which has roled from the hills & out of Small brooks, Ceder is comon here, This day is worm, the wind which is not hard blows from the S. E, we Camped at the lower point of the Mock Island on the S. S. this now Connected with the main land, it has the appearance of once being an Island detached from the main land Covered with tall Cotton wood — we Saw Some Camps and tracks of the Seaux which appears to be old three or four weeks ago — one frenchman I fear has got an abscess on his they, he complains verry much we are makeing every exertion to releiv him The Praries in this quarter Contains Great qts. of Prickley Pear.



[Clark, September 22, 1804]

22nd September Satturday 1804 a thick fog this morning untill 7 oClock which detained us, Saw Some old tracks of the Indians on the S. S. proceeded on — one French man with a abscess on his thigh which pains him verry much for 10 or 12 Days a butifull Plain on both Sides low high land under which there is a number of lage Stone, we See great numbers of Buffalow feeding



[Clark, September 22, 1804]

A continuation of notes taken assending the Missourie in 1804-by W. Clark Satturday the 22nd of September 1804- A Thick fog this morning detained us untill 7 oClock, The plains on both Sides of the River is butifull and assends gradually from the river; noumerous herds of Buffalow to be Seen in every derections, (1) Took the altitude of the Sun & found the Lattitude to be 44° 11' 33" N- (2) passed a Small Island on the L. S. and one on the S. S. imediately above, & about 3 m. long, on the L. S. opposit this Island a Creek of about 15 yds wide mouthes, Called the Creek of the 3 Sisters (3) passed Cedar Island 11/2 M. long & 1 M. wide Situated a little above the last and nearest the S. S.near the upper part of this Island on its S. Side a Tradeing fort is Situated built of Cedar-by a Mr. Louiselle of St Louis, for the purpose of Tradeing with the Teton Bands of Soues (or "Sieux") about this Fort I saw numbers of Indians Temporary Lodges, & horse Stables, all of them round and to a point at top, I observed also numbers of Cotton Trees fallen for the purpose of feeding their horses on the Bark of the limbs of those trees which is Said to be excellent food for the horses — we came too on the S. S. below a Small Island called Goat island, passed a no. of large round Stones, Som distance in the river as also in the Sides of the hills, — I walked on the Shore this evening and Killed a verry large Deer — our hunters Killed 2 Deer & a Beaver, they Complain of the Mineral quallities of the high land distroying their mockersons-.



[Clark, September 22, 1804]

22nd of September Satturday 1804 a thick fog this morning detained us untill 7 oClock passed a butifull inclined Prarie on both Sides in which we See great numbers of Buffalow feeding — (1) took the Meridean altitude of the Suns upper Leimb. 92° 50' 00" the SexSecnt the Latd. produced from this Obsivation is 44° 11' 33" 3/10 North (2) passed a Small Island on the L. S. imediately above passed a Island Situated nearest the L. S. abt. 3 miles long, behind this Isd. on the L. S. a Creek Comes in about 15 yards wide, this Creek and Islands are Called the 3 Sisters a butifull Plain on both Sides of the river (3) passed a Island Situated nearest the S. S. imedeately above the last Called Ceder Island this Island is about 11/2 miles long & nearly as wide Covered with Ceder, on the South Side of this Island Mr. Louiselle a trader from St. Louis built a fort of Ceder & a good house to trate with the Seaux & wintered last winter; about this fort I observed a number of Indian Camps in a Conicel form, — they fed their horses on Cotton limbs as appears. here our hunters joined us havening killed 2 Deer & a Beaver, they Complain much of the Mineral Substances in the barren hills over which they passed distroying their mockersons.

(4) we proceeded on and Camped late on the S. Side below a Small Island in the bend S. S. Called Goat Island. The large Stones which lay on the Sides of the banks in Several places lay Some distance in the river, under the water and is dangerous &.

I walked out this evening and killed a fine Deer, the musquiters is verry troublesom in the bottoms



[Clark, September 23, 1804]

23rd Septr. Sunday 1804 (days and nights equal) Set out early under a gentle Breeze from the S E N. 46°W 33/4 Miles to the mo. of a Creek on the S. S. passd. a pt. on the L. S. (1) a Small Island opsd. in the bend to the S. S. This Island is Called goat Island, (1) this Creek is 10 yards wide. passed bad Sand bars — S. 46°W 23/4 mes. a wood at a Spring in the bend to the L. S. Saw the Prarie a fire behind us near the head of Ceder Island L. S. N. 80° W. 41/2 to the lower pt of Elk Island pass 2 Willow Islands & Sand I saw this morning 12 of those Black & white birds of the corvus Species.

Capt Lewis went out to hund on the Island a great number of Buffalow in Sight I must Seal up all those Scrips & draw from my Journal at Some other time Win Clark Cpt.



[Clark, September 23, 1804]

Sunday the 23rd September 1804 Set out under a Gentle breeze from the S. E — (1) passed Goat Island Situated in a bend to the S. S — above passed a Small Creek 12 yards wide on the S. S. — we observed a great Smoke to the SW. which is an Indian Signal of their haveing discovered us, I walked on Shore and observed great numbers of Buffalows. (2) passed 2 Small Willow Islands with large Sand bars makeing from their upper points (3) passed Elk Island Situated near the L. S. about 21/2 mes. long & 3/4 wide, Covered with Cotton wood, a red berry Called by the French "grise de buff," Grapes &c. the river is wide Streight & contains a great numr of Sand bars, (4) passed a Small Creek on the S. S. 16 yds wide I call Reubens Cr. — R. Fields was the first who found it — Came too & Camped on the S. S. in a Wood. Soon after we landed three Soues boys Swam across to us, those boys informed us that a Band of Sieux called the Tetons of 80 Lodges wer Camped near the mouth of the next River, and 60 Lodges more a Short distance above them, they had that day Set the praries on fire to let those Camps Know of our approach — we gave those boys two twists of Tobacco to carry to their Chiefs & Warriors to Smoke, with derections to tell them that we wished to Speak to them tomorrow, at the mouth of the next river — Capt Lewis walked on Shore, R F. Killed a She Goat or "Cabbra."



[Clark, September 23, 1804]

23rd of September Sunday 1804 Set out under a gentle breeze from the S. E, (1) passed a Small Island Situated in a bend to the L. S. Called Goat Island, a Short distance above the upper point a Creek of 12 yards wide corns in on the S. S. we observed a great Smoke to the S W. — I walked on Shore & observed Buffalow in great Herds at a Distance (2) passed two Small willow Islands with large Sand bars makeing out from them, passed (3) Elk Island about 21/2 miles long & 3/4 mile wide Situated near the L. S. covered with Cotton wood the read Current Called by the French Gres de Butiff & grapes &c. &c. the river is nearly Streight for a great distance wide and Shoal. (4) passed a Creek on the S. S. 16 yards wide we Call Reubens Creek, as R Fields found it Camped on the S. S. below the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. three Souex boys Came to us Swam the river and informd that the Band of Soauex called the Teton of 80 Lodges were Camped at the next Creek above, & 60 Lodges more a Short distance above, we gave those boys two Carrots of Tobacco to Carry to their Chiefs, with derections to tell them that we would Speek to them tomorrow Capt Lewis walked on Shore this evening, R. F Killed a Doe Goat,-



[Clark, September 24, 1804]

Monday the 24th of September 1804 a fair morning Set out early, wind from the East, passed the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. Called Creek in high water. passed a large (1) Island on the L. S. about 21/2 Miles long on which Colter had Camped & Killed 4 Elk. the wind from the S. E. — we prepared Some Clothes a few medal for the Chiefs of the Teton band of Sioux we expected to meet at the next River — much Stone on the S. S. of the River, we Saw one hare to day — our Perogues Called at the Island for the Elk, Soon after we passed the Island Colter ran up the bank & reported that the Sioux had taken his horse, we Soon after Saw five indians on the bank; who expressed a wish to come on board, we informed them we were friends, and wished to Continue So, we were not abraid any Indians — Some of their young Men had Stolen a horse Sent by their Great Father to their great Chief, and we Should not Speak to them any more untill the horse was returned to us again — passed a Island about 11/2 m. long on which we Saw maney elk & Buffalow, we Came too off the Mouth of a Small river, The Teton of the burnt woods is Camped 2 Miles up this river, this river we Call Teton is 70 Yds wide and corns in on the S W Side-I went on Shore and Smoked with a Chief, Called Buffalow Medison, who Came to See us here. The Chief Said he Knew nothing of the horse &c &. I informed them we would call the grand Chiefs in Council tomorrow, all continued on board all night



[Clark, September 24, 1804]

24th September Monday 1804 Set out early a fair day the wind from the E, pass the mouth of Creek on the L. S. called on high water; passed (i ) a large Island on the L. S. about 2 miles & 1/2 long on which Colter had Camped & Killed 4 Elk, the wind fair from the S. E. we prepared Some Clothes and a fiew meadels for the Chiefs of the Teton's hand of Seaux which we expect to See to day at the next river, observe a Great Deel of Stone on the Sides of the hills on the S. S. we Saw one Hare to day, prepared all things for action in Case of necessity, our Perogus went to the Island for the meet, Soon after the man on Shore run up the bank and reported that the Indians had Stolen the horse we Soon after met 5 Inds. and ankered out Some distance & Spoke to them informed them we were friends, & wished to Continue So but were not afraid of any Indians, Some of their young men had taken the horse Sent by their Great father for ther Chief and we would not Speek to them untill the horse was returned to us again.

passed (2) a Island on the S. S. on which we Saw Several Elk, about 11/2 miles long Called Good humered Islds. Came to about 11/2 miles above off the mouth of a Small river about 70 yards wide Called by Mr. Evins the Little Mississou River, The Tribes of the Scouix Called the Teton, is Camped about 2 miles up on the N W Side and we Shall Call the River after that nation, Teton This river is 70 yards wide at the mouth of water, and has a considerable Current we anchored off the mouth the french Perogue Come up early in the morning, the other did not get up untill in the evening Soon after we had Came too. I went & Smoked with the Chief who Came to See us here all well, we prepare to Speek with the Indians tomorrow at which time we are informed the Indians will be here, The French man who had for Some time been Sick, began to blead which allarmed him — 2/3 of our party Camped on board The remainder with the Guard on Shore.



[Clark, September 25, 1804]

25th of September 1804 off Teton River a fair Morning the wind from the S. E. raised a Flagg Staff and formed an orning & Shade on a Sand bar in the Mouth of Teton R to Council under, the greater portion of the party to Continue on boardabout 11 oClock the 1st & 2d Chief arrived, we gave them to eat; they gave us Some meat, (we discover our interpeter do not Speak the language well) at 12 oClock the Councill Commenced & after Smokeing agreeable to the usial custom C. L. Delivered a written Speech to them, I Some explinations &c. all party Paraded, gave a Medal to the grand Chief in Indian Un-ton gar-Sar bar, or Black Buffalow — 2d Torto-hongar, Partezon (Bad fellow) the 3d Tar-ton-gar-wa-ker, Buffalow medison — we invited those Chiefs & a Soldier on board our boat, and Showed them many Curiossites, which they were much Surprised, we gave they 1/2 a wine glass of whiskey which they appeared to be exceedingly fond of they took up an empty bottle, Smelted it, and made maney Simple jestures and Soon began to be troublesom the 2d Chief effecting Drunkness as a Cloak for his vilenous intintious (as I found after wards,) realed or fell about the boat, I went in a perogue with those Chief who left the boast with great reluctians, my object was to reconsile them and leave them on Shore, as Soon as I landed 3 of their young ment Seased the Cable of the Perogue, one Soldiar Huged the mast and the 2d Chief was exceedingly insolent both in words and justures to me declareing I Should no go off, Saying he had not recived presents Suffient from us- I attempted to passify but it had a contrary effect for his insults became So personal and his intentions evident to do me injurey, I Drew my Sword at this motion Capt Louis ordered all in the boat under arms, the fiew men that was with me haveing previously taken up their guns with a full deturmination to defend me if possible — The grand Chief then took hold of the Cable & Sent all the young men off, the Soldier got out of the perogue and the 2nd Chief walked off to the Party at about 20 yards back, all of which had their bows Strung & guns Cocked- I then Spoke in verry positive terms to them all, principaly addressing myself to the 1st Chief, who let the roape go and walked to the Indian, party about, 100 I again offered my hand to the 1st Chief who refused it — (all this time the Indians were pointing their arrows blank-) I proceeded to the perogue and pushed off and had not proceeded far before the 1st & 3r Chief & 2 principal men walked into the water and requested to go on board, I took them in and we proceeded on abot a Mile, and anchored near a Small Island, I call this Island Bad humered Island



[Clark, September 25, 1804]

25th Septr a fair morning the wind from the S. E. all well, raised a Flag Staff & made a orning or Shade on a Sand bar in the mouth of Teton River for the purpose of Speeking with the Indians under, the Boat Crew on board at 70 yards Distance from the bar The 5 Indians which we met last night Continued, about 11 oClock the 1 s & 2d Chief Came we gave them Some of our Provsions to eat, they gave us great quantites of meet Some of which was Spoiled we feel much at a loss for the want of an interpeter the one we have can Speek but little.

Met in council at 12 oClock and after Smokeing, agreeable to the usial Custom, Cap Lewis proceeded to Deliver a Speech which we oblige to Curtail for want of a good interpeter all our Party paraded. gave a medal to the Grand Chief Calld. in Indian Un ton gar Sar bar in French Beefe nure Black Buffalow Said to be a good man, 2 Chief Torto hon gar- or the Partisan-or Partizan-bad the 3rd is the Beffe De Medison his name is Tar ton gar wa ker

1. Contesabe man War zing go

2. do Second Bear = Ma to co que pan

Envited those Cheifs on board to Show them our boat and Such Curiossities as was Strange to them, we gave them 1/4 a glass of whiskey which they appeared to be verry fond of, Sucked the bottle after it was out & Soon began to be troublesom, one the 2d Cheif assumeing Drunkness, as a Cloake for his rascally intentions I went with those Cheifs (which left the boat with great reluctiance) to Shore with a view of reconseleing those men to us, as Soon as I landed the Perogue three of their young men Seased the Cable of the Perogue, the Chiefs Soldr. Huged the mast, and the 2d Chief was verry insolent both in words & justures declareing I Should not go on, Stateing he had not recved presents Suffient from us, his justures were of Such a personal nature I felt my Self Compeled to Draw my Sword, at this motion Capt. Lewis ordered all under arms in the boat, those with me also Showed a Disposition to Defend themselves and me, the grand Chief then took hold of the roop & ordered the young warrers away, I felt my Self warm & Spoke in verry positive terms Most of the warriers appeared to have ther Bows Strung and took out their arrows from they quves. as I was not permited to return, I Sent all the men except 2 Inpt. to the boat, the perogu Soon returned with about 12 of our detumind men ready for any event this movement caused a no. of the Indians to withdraw at a distance, — Their treatment tome was verry rough & I think justified rough ness on my part, they all left my Perogue and Councild. with themselves the result I could not lern and nearly all went off after remaining in this Situation Some time I offered my hand to the 1 & 2 Chief who refusd to recve it. I turned off & went with my men on board the perogue, I had not progd. more the 10 paces before the 1st Cheif 3rd & 2 Brave men waded in after me. I took them in & went on board we proceeded on about 1 mile & anchored out off a willow Island placed a guard on Shore to protect the Cooks & a guard in the boat, fastened the Perogues to the boat, I call this Island bad humered Island as we were in a bad humer.



[Clark, September 26, 1804]

26th of Septr Set out early and proceeded on — the river lined with indians, came too & anchored by the particular request of the Chiefs to let their Womin & Boys See the Boat, and Suffer them to Show us some friendship — great members of men womin & Children on the bank viewing us — Those people are Spritely Small legs ille looking Set men perticularly, they grease & Black themselves when they dress, make use of Hawks feathers about thier heads, cover with a Roab each a polecat Skin to hold their Smokeables, fond of Dress, Badly armed. ther women appear verry well, fine Teeth, High Cheek Dress in Skin Peticoats, & a Roabe with the flesh Side out and harey ends turned back over their Sholdes, and look well — they doe all the Laborious work, and I may say are perfect Slaves to thier husbands who frequently have Several wives- Capt Lewis & 5 men went on Shore with the Chiefs, who appeared to wish to become friendly they requested us to remain one night & see them dance &c. — in the evening I walked on Shore, and Saw Several Mahar Womin & Boys in a lodge & was told they were Prisones laterly taken in a battle in which they killed a number & took 48 prisoners — I advised the Chiefs to make peace with that nation and give up the Prisoners, if they intended to follow the words of their great father they promised that they would do So — I was in Several Lodges neetly formed, those lodges are about 15 to 20 feet Diametr Stretched on Poles like a Sugar Loaf, made of Buffalow Skins Dressed about 5 oClock I was approached by 10 well Dressed young men with a neet Buffalow Roab which they Set down before me & requested me to get in they Carried me to ther Council Tents forming 3/4 Circle & Set me down betwn 2 Chefs where about 70 men were Seated in a circle, in front of the Chief 6 feet Square was cleared & the pipe of peace raised on forks & Sticks, under which was Swans down Scattered, the Flags of Spane & the one we gave them yesterday was Displayed a large fire was made on which a Dog was Cooked, & in the center about 400 wt of Buffalow meat which they gave us, — Soon after, I took my Seat the young men went to the boat & brought Capt Lewis in the Same way & placed him by me Soon after an old man rose & Spoke approveing what we had done. requesting us to take pitty on them &C. answered — They form their Camp in a circle

The great Chief then rose in great State and Spoke to the Same purpos and with Solemnity took up the pipe of peace and pointed it to the heavens, the 4 quartrs and the earth, he made Some divistation, & presented the Sten to us to Smoke, after Smokeing & a Short Harrang to his people we were requested to take the meat, and the Flesh of the Dog gavin us to eat — We Smoked untill Dark, at which time all was cleared away & a large fire made in the Center, Several men with Tamborens highly Decorated with Der & Cabra Hoofs to make them rattle, assembled and began to Sing & Beat — The women Came forward highly decerated with the Scalps & Trofies of war of their fathes Husbands & relations, and Danced the war Dance, which they done with great chearfulness untill 12 oClock, when we informed the Chief we intended return on bord, (they offered us women, which we did not except) 4 Chiefs accompanied us to the boat and Staid all night — Those people have a Description of Men which they Call Soldiars, those men attend to the police of the Band, Correct all vices &. I Saw one to day whip 2 Squars who appeared to have fallen out, when the Soldier approached all appeared give way and flee at night they Keep 4 or 5 men at different distances walking around their Camp Singing the acursenes of the night all in Spirits this evening wind hard from the S E

I saw 25 Squars & Boys taken 13 days ago in a battle with the Mahars, in which they destroyed 40 Lodges, Killed 75 men & boys, & took 48 prisones which they promised us Should be delivered to Mr. Durion now with the Yankton _____, we gave our Mahar interpeter a few alls & &. to give those retched Prisonis, I saw Homney of ground Potatos a Spoon of the Big Horn animals which will hold 2 quarts.



[Clark, September 26, 1804]

26th Septr. 1804 bad hd Isd. 26th of September Wednesday 1804 Set out early proceeded on and Came to by the wish of the Chiefs for to let their Squars & boys See the Boat and Suffer them to treat us well great number of men women & Children on the banks viewing us, these people Shew great anxiety, they appear Spritely, generally ill looking & not well made thier legs & arms Small Generally — they Grese & Black themselves with coal when they dress, make use of a hawks feather about their heads the men a robe & each a polecats Skins, for to hold ther Bais roly for Smokeing fond of Dress & Show badly armed with fuseis &. The Squaws are Chearfull fine lookg womin not handson, High Cheeks Dressed in Skins a Peticoat and roab which foldes back over thir Sholder, with long wool. doe all ther laborious work & I may Say perfect Slaves to the men, as all Squars of nations much at war, or where the womin are more noumerous than the men — after Comeing too Capt. Lewis & 5 men went on Shore with the Chiefs, who appeared desposed to make up & be friendly, after Captain Lewis had been on Shore about 3 hours I became uneasy for fear of Some Deception & sent a Serjeant to See him and know his treatment which he reported was friendly, & thy were prepareing for a Dance this evening

The made frequent Selecitiation for us to remain one night only and let them Show their good disposition towards us, we deturmined to remain, after the return of Capt. Lewis, I went on Shore I saw Several Maha Prisoners and Spoke to the Chiefs it was necessary to give those prisoners up & become good friends with the Mahars if they wished to follow the advice of their Great father I was in Several Lodges neetly formed as before mentioned as to the Bauruly Tribe — I was met by about 10 well Dressd. yound men who took me up in a roabe Highly a decrated and Set me Down by the Side of their Chief on a Dressed robe in a large Council House this house formed a 3/4 Cercle of Skins well Dressed and Sown together under this Shelter about 70 men Set forming a Circle in front of the Chiefs a plac of 6 feet Diameter was Clear and the pipe of peace raised on Sticks under which there was Swans down Scattered, on each Side of the Circle two Pipes, The flags of Spain 2 & the Flag we gave them in front of the Grand Chief a large fire was near in which provisions were Cooking, in the Center about 400 wt. of excellent Buffalo Beif as a present for us

Soon after they set me Down, the men went for Capt Lewis brough him in the same way and placed him also by the Chief in a fiew minits an old man rose & Spoke approveing what we had done & informing us of their Situation requesting us to take pity on them &c which was answered The Great Chief then rose with great State to the Same purpote as far as we Could learn & then with Great Solemnity took up the pipe of peace whin the principal Chiefs Spoke with the pipe of Peace he took in one hand Some of the most Delicate parts of the Dog which was prepared for the feist & made a Sacrifise to the flag — & after pointing it to the heavins the 4 quarter of the Globe & the earth,, lit it and prosist presented the Stem to us to Smoke, after a Smoke had taken place, & a Short Harange to his people, we were requested to take the meal put before us the dog which they had been cooking, & Pemitigon & ground potatoe in Several platters. Pemn is buffo meat dried or baked pounded & mixed with grease raw Dog Sioux think great dishused on festivals. eat little of dog pemn & pote good we Smoked for an hour Dark & all was Cleared away a large fire made in the Center, about 10 misitions playing on tamberins. long sticks with Deer & Goats Hoofs tied So as to make a gingling noise and many others of a Similer kind, those men began to Sing, & Beet on the Tamboren, the women Came foward highly Deckerated in theire way, with the Scalps and Trofies of war of ther father Husbands Brothers or near Connection & proceeded to Dance the war Dance which they done with Great Chearfullness untill 12 oClock when we informed the Cheifs that they were fatigued &c. they then retired & we Accompd. by 4 Chiefs returned to our boat, they Stayed with us all night. Those people have Some brave men which they make use of as Soldiers those men attend to the police of the Village Correct all errors I saw one of them to day whip 2 Squars who appeared to have fallen out, when he approachd all about appeared to flee with great turrow at night thy keep two 3 4 or 5 men at deffinit Distances walking around Camp Singing the accurrunces of the night all the men on board 100 paces from Shore wind from the S. E. moderate one man verry sick on board with a Dangerass abscess on his Hip. all in Spirits this eveninge

In this Tribe I saw 25 Squars and boys taken 13 days ago in a battle with the mahars in this battle they Destroyd 40 lodges, killed 75 men, & Som boys & children, & took 48 Prisones Womin & boys which they promis both Capt. Lewis and my Self Shall be Delivered up to Mr. Durion at the Tribe, those are a retched and Dejected looking people the Squars appear low & Corse but this is an unfavourabl time to judge of them we gave our Mahar inteptr. Some fiew articles to give those Squats in his name Such as alls needle &. &c.

I Saw & eat Pemitigon the Dog, Groud potatoe made into a Kind of homney, which I thought but little inferior — I also Saw a Spoon made of a horn of an animile of the Sheep kind the spoon will hold 2 quarts.



[Clark, September 27, 1804]

27th of Septr. 1804 — The Bank as usial lined with Sioux, gave the 2 principal Chiefs a blanket & a peck of Corn each, Capt Lewis accompanied the Chiefs to their Lodges, they informed us that a great part of their nation had not arrived, & would arrive to night and requested us to Delay one Day longer, that they might See us

I rote a letter to Mr. Durion, & prepared Some Commissions & a meadel & Sent to Captain Lewis — at 2 oClock Capt Lewis retuned with 4 chiefs & a Brave man named War-cha pa — after a delay of half an hour I went with them on Shore, they left the boat with reluctiance (we Suspect they are treacherous and are at all times guarded & on our guard) They again offered me a young woman and wish me to take her & not Dispise them, I wavered the Subject, at Dark the Dance began as usial and performed as last night. womin with ther Husbands & relations cloths arms Scalps on poles &c. &c. Capt Lewis joined me & we continued until about 11 oClock and 2 Chief accompaned us to the boat I with 2 Cheifs was in a Perogue going on board, by bad Stearing the parogu Struk the Cable with Such force as to brake it near the anchor (Cap Lewis) and 3 or 4 men on Shore, I had all hands up and was Compelled to Land — the Chief got allarmed & allarmed the Indians the 1s Chief & about 200 men Came down in great hast armd and for action, and found it was false, about 20 of them Camped on Shore all night — this allarm Cap Lewis & well as my Self viewed as the Signal of their intentions, one half on guard, our misfortune of loseing our anchor obliged us to lay under a falling in bank much exposed to the Accomplishment of the hostile intentions of those Tetons (who we had every reason to believe from ther Conduct intended to make an attempt to Stop our progress & if possible rob us-) Peter Crusat who Spoke Mahar came in the night and informed me that the mahar Prisoners told him that the Tetons intended to Stop us — We Shew'd but little Sign of a knowledge of there intentions.



[Clark, September 27, 1804]

27th of Septr. Thursday 1804 I rose early aftr a bad nights Sleep found the Chief all up, and the bank as usial lined with Spectators we gave the 2 great Cheifs a Blanket a peace, or rethr they took off agreeable to their Custom the one they lay on and each one Peck of Corn after Brackfast Capt. Lewis & the Chiefs went on Shore, as a verry large part of their nation was Comeing in, the Disposition of whome I did not know one of us being Suffcent on Shore, I wrote a letter to Mr. P. Durion & prepared a meadel & Some Comsns. & Sent to Cap Lewis at 2 oClock Capt. Lewis returned with 4 Chiefs & a Brave man named War cha pa or on his Guard. when the friends of those people die they run arrows through their flesh above and below their elbous as a testimony of their Greaf after Staying about half an hour, I went with them on Shore, Those men left the boat with reluctience, I went first to the 2d Chiefs Lodge, where a Croud Came around after Speeking on various Subjects I went to a princpal mans lodge from there to the grand Chiefs lodge, after a fiew minits he invited me to a Lodge within the Circle in which I Stayed with all their principal men untill the Dance began, which was Similer to the one of last night performed by their womn which poles on which Scalps of their enemies were hung, Some with the Guns Spears & war empliments their husbands in their hands

Capt. Lewis came on Shore and we Continued untill we were Sleepy & returned to our boat, the 2nd Chief & one principal man accompanid us, those two Indians accompanied me on board in the Small Perogue, Capt. Lewis with a guard Still on Shore, the man who Steered not being much acustomed to Steer, passed the bow of the boat & peroge Came broad Side against the Cable & broke it which obliged me to order in a loud voice all hands all hands up & at their ores, my preempty order to the men and the bustle of their getting to their ores allarmd the Cheifs, togethr with the appearance of the men on Shore, as the boat turnd. The Cheif hollowered & allarmed the Camp or Town informing them that the Mahars was about attacting us. in about 10 minits the bank was lined with men armed the 1st Cheif at their head, about 200 men appeared and after about 1/2 hour returned all but about 60 men who Continued on the bank all night, the Cheifs Contd. all night with us — This allarm I as well as Captn. Lewis Considered as the Signal of their intentions (which was to Stop our proceeding on our journey and if Possible rob us) we were on our Guard all night, the misfortune of the loss of our Anchor obliged us to Lay under a falling bank much exposd. to the accomplishment of their hostile intentions P. C — our Bowman who Cd. Speek Mahar informed us in the night that the Maha Prisoners informed him we were to be Stoped — we Shew as little Sighns of a Knowledge of their intentions as possible all prepared on board for any thing which might hapen, we kept a Strong guard all night in the boat no Sleep



[Clark, September 28, 1804]

28th of Septr 1804 Friday I made maney attempts in defferent ways to find our anchor without Sukcess, the Sand had Covered her up, we Deturmined to proceed on to Day — and after Brackfast we with great Dificuelty got the Chiefs out of the boat, and when we were about Setting out the Class Called the Soldiars took possession of the Cable- the 1st Cheif was Still on board and intended to go a Short distance up with us, was informed that the men Set on the Cable, he went out and told Capt Lewis who was at the Bow, they wanted tobacco The 2d Chief Demanded a flag & Tobacco which we refused to give, Stateing proper reasons to them for it, after much rangleing, we gave a Carrot of Tobacco to the 1st Cheif and he to the men &lurked the Cable from them & proceeded on under a Breeze from the S E. we took in the 3rd Cheif who was Sitting on a Sand bar 2 miles above — he told us the Rope was held by order of the 2d Chief who was a Double Spoken man — Soon after we Saw a man rideing full Speed up the bank, we brought him on board, & he proved to be the Sun of the 3d Cheif, by him we Sent a talk to the nation, explanitory of our hoisting the red flag under the white, if they were for Peace Stay at home and doe as we had Derected them and if they were for war or deturmined to attempt to Stop us, we were ready to defend our Selves (as I had before Said) — we Substituted large Stones in place of an Anchor, we came to at a Small Sand bar in the middle of the river and Stayed all night-I am verry unwell I think for the want of Sleep



[Clark, September 28, 1804]

28th of September 1804 Friday Made many attemps in different ways to find our Anchor but could not, the Sand had Covered it, from the misfortune of last night our boat was laying at Shore in a verry unfavourable Situation, after finding that the anchor Could not be found we deturmined to proceed on, with great difficuelty got the Chiefs out of our boat, and when we was about Setting out the Class Called the Soldiers took possession of the Cable the 1 s Chief which was Still on board & intended to go a Short distance up with us, I told him the men of his nation Set on the Cable, he went out & told Capt Lewis who was at the bow the men who Set on the Roap was Soldiers and wanted Tobacco Capt. L. Said would not agree to be forced into any thing, the 2d Chief Demanded a flag & Tobacco which we refusd. to Give Stateing proper reasons to them for it after much difucelty-which had nearly reduced us to hostility I threw a Carot of Tobacco to 1 s Chief Spoke So as to touch his pride took the port fire from the gunner the Chief gives the Tobaco to his Soldiers & he jurked the rope from them and handed it to the bows man we then Set out under a Breeze from the S. E. about 2 miles up we observed the 3rd Chief on Shore beckining to us we took him on board he informed us the roap was held by the order of the 2d Chief who was a Double Spoken man, Soon after we Saw a man Comeing full Speed, thro the plains left his horse & proceeded across a Sand bar near the Shore we took him on board & observed that he was the Son of the Chief we had on board we Sent by him a talk to the nation Stateent the Cause of our hoisting the red flag undr. the white, if they were for peace Stay at home & do as we had Derected them, if the were for war ore were Deturmined to Stop us we were ready to defend our Selves, we halted one houre & 1/2 on the S. S. & made a Substitute of Stones for a ancher, refreshed our men and proceeded on about 2 miles higher up & came too a verry Small Sand bar in the middle of the river & Stayed all night, I am Verry unwelle for want of Sleep Deturmined to Sleep to night if possible, the men Cooked & we rested well.



[Clark, September 29, 1804]

Capt. W. Clarks Notes Continued as first taken- 29th of September Satturday 1804 — Set out early Some bad Sand bars, at 9 oClock we observed the 2d Chief with 2 men and Squars on Shore, they wished to go up with us as far as the other part of their band, which would meet us on the river above not far Distant we refused to let one more Come on board Stateing Suffient reasons, observd they would walk on Shore to the place we intended to Camp, offered us women we objected and told them we Should not Speake to another teton except the one on board with us, who might go on Shore when ever he pleased, those Indians proceeded on untill later in the evening when the Chief requested that the Perogue might put him across the river which we agreed to — Saw numbers of Elk on the Sand bars today, passed an old Ricara Village at the mouth of a Creek without timber we Stayed all night on the Side of a sand bar 1/2 a Mile from the Shore.



[Clark, September 29, 1804]

29th of Septr. Satturday 1804 Set out early Some bad Sand bars, proceeded on at 9 oClock we observed the 2d Chief & 2 principal men one man & a Squar on Shore, they wished to go up with us as far as the other part of their band, which they Said was on the river a head not far Distant we refused Stateing verry Sufhcint reasons and was plain with them on the Subject, they were not pleased observed that they would walk on Shore to the place we intended to Camp to night, we observed it was not our wish that they Should for if they did we Could not take them or any other Tetons on board except the one we had now with us who might go on Shore when ever he pleased- they proceeded on, the Chief on board askd. for a twist of Tobacco for those men we gave him 1/2 a twist, and Sent one by them for that part of their band which we did not See, & Continued on Saw great numbers of Elk at the mouth of a Small Creek Called No timber (-as no timber appeared to be on it.) above the mouth of this Creek the Parties had a Village 5 years ago, — The 2d Chief Came on the Sand bar & requested we would put him across the river, I Sent a Perogue & Crossed him & one man to the S. S. and proceeded on & Came too on a Sand bar on about 1/2 mile from the main Shore & put on it 2 Sentinals Continud all night at anchor (we Substitute large Stones for anchors in place of the one we lost) all in high Spirits &c



[Clark, September 30, 1804]

30th of September Sunday 1804 had not proceeded far before we discovered an Indian running after us, he requstd to go with us to the Ricaras, we refused to take him, I discovered at a great Distanc a great number of men women & Children decending a hill towards the river above which the Chief with us told us was the other Band, Some rain & hard wind at about 10 oClock we anchored opposit the Camps of this band and told them we took them by the hand, and Sent to each Chief a Carrot of Tobacco & Some to the principal men and farther Said that after Staying with the band below 2 days to See them we had been badly treated and Should not land again, as we had not time to Delay — refured then to Mr. Durion for a full account of us, and an explination of what had been Said, they appeard ansioes for us to eat with them and observed they were friendly we apoligised & proceeded on under a Double reafed Sale — the Chief on board threw out to those that ran up Small pieces of Tobacco & told them to go back and open thier ears, We Saw great number of white guls — refresh the party with whiskey, in the evening we Saw 2 Indians at a Distance, The boat turned by accident & was nearly filling and rocked verry much, allarmed the Indian Chief on board who ran and hid himself, we landed & the Indian express a wish to return, we gave him a Blanket Knife & Some tobacco and advised him to keep his men away, we camped on a Sand bar. verry Cold & windy-



[Clark, September 30, 1804]

30th of Septr. Sunday 1804. Set out this morning early had not proceeded on far before we discovered an Indn. running after us, he came up with us at 7 oClock & requested to come on bord and go up to the recorees we refused to take any of that band on board if he chose to proceed on Shore it was verry well Soon after I discovered on the hills at a great distance great numbers of Indians which appeared to be makeing to the river above us, we proceeded on under a Double reafed Sail, & Some rain at 9 oClock observed a large band of Indians the Same which I had before Seen on the hills incamping on the bank the L. S. we Came too on a Sand bar Brackfast & proceeded on & cast the ancher opposit their Lodgs. at about 100 yards distand, and informed the Indians which we found to be a part of the Band we had before Seen, that took them by the hand and Sent to each Chief a Carrot of tobacco, as we had been treated badly by Some of the band below, after Staying 2 days for them, we Could not delay any time, & refured them to Mr. Duron for a full account of us and to here our talk Sent by him to the Tetons, those were verry Selecitious for us to land and eate with them, that they were friendly &c. &. we appoligised & proceeded on, Sent the peroge to Shore above with the Tobacco & Delivd. it to a Soldr. of the Chief with us Several of them ran up the river, the Chf. on board threw then out a Small twist of Tobacco & told them to go back & open ther ears. they recved the Tobacco & returned to their lodges — we Saw great numbers of white guls this day is cloudy & rainey — refresh the men with a glass of whisky after Brackfast.

we Saw about 6 miles above 2 Indians who came to the bank and looked at us a about 1/2 an hour & went over the hills to the S W. we proceeded on under a verry Stiff Breeze from the S., the Stern of the boat got fast on a log and the boat turned & was verry near filling before we got her righted, the waves being verry high, The Chief on board was So fritined at the motion of the boat which in its rocking caused Several loose articles to fall on the Deck from the lockers, he ran off and hid himself, we landed he got his gun and informed us he wished to return, that all things were Cleare for us to go on we would not See any more Tetons &c. we repeated to him what had been Said before and advised him to keep his men away, gave him a blanket a Knife & Some Tobacco, Smokd a pipe & he Set out. we also Set Sale and Came to at a Sand bar, & Camped, a verrey Cold evening, all on our guard



[Clark, October 1, 1804]

1st of October Monday 1804 The wind blew hard from the S. E. all last night, Set out early passed a large Island in the middle of the river opposit this Island the Ricaras lived in 2 Villages on the S W. Side, about 2 Miles above the upper point of the Island the Chyenne River Coms in on the L. S. and is about 400 yards wide dischargeing but little water for a R. of its Size, the Current jentle, and navagable, to the Black mountains we haule the Boat over a Sand bar, River wide & Shoal, pass'd a Creek at 5 mils we Call Sentinal Creek, a Small one above, but little timber about this river, the hills not So high as usial, the upper Creek I call lookout Creek, Camped on a Sand bar, opposit a Tradeing house, where a Mr. Valles & 2 men had Some fiew goods to trade with the Sioux, a boy came to us, This Mr. Vallie informed us he wintered last winter 300 Legus up the Chyemne River under the Black mountains, he Sais the River is rapid and bad to navagate, it forks 100 Leagus up the N. fork enters the Black mountain 40 Leagues above the forks the Countrey like that on the Missouri less timber more Cedar, the Coat Nur or Black m. is high and Some parts retain Snow all Summer, Covered with timber principally pine, Great number of goats and a kind of anamal with verry large horns about the Size of a Small Elk, White Bear no bever on the chien great numbers in the mountains, The Chyenne Nation has about 300 Lodges hunt the Buffalow, Steel horses from the Spanish Settlements, which they doe in 1 month — the Chanal of this River is Corse gravel, Those mountains is inhabited also by the white booted Turkeys worthy of remark that the Grouse or Prarie hen is Booted, the Toes of their feet So constructed as to walk on the Snow, and the Tail Short with 2 long Stiff feathers in the middle.

Sand bars are So noumerous, that it is impossible to discribe them, & think it unnecessary to mention them.



[Clark, October 1, 1804]

1st of October Monday 1804 The wind blew hard all last night from the S. E. verry Cold Set out early the wind Still hard passed a large Island in the middle of the river (1) opsd. the lower point of this Island the Ricrerees formerly lived in a large Town on the L. S. above the head of the Island about 2 miles we passed the (2) River) L. S. this river Comes in from the S W. and is about 400 yards wide, the Current appears gentle, throwing out but little Sands, and appears to throw out but little water the heads of this River is Indians live Some distance up this river, the presise distance I cant learn, above the mouth of this river the Sand bars are thick and the water Shoal the river Still verry wide and falling a little we are obliged to haul the boat over a Sand bar, after makeing Several attempts to pass. the wind So hard we Came too & Stayed 3 hours after it Slackened a little we proceeded on round a bend, the wind in the after part of the Day a head — (2) passed a Creek on the L. S. which we Call the Sentinal, this part of the river has but little timber, the hills not so high. the Sand bars now noumerous, & river more than one mile wide including the Sand bars. (2) pass a Small Creek above the latter which we Call lookout C-. Continued on with the wind imediately a head, and Came too on a large Sand bar in the middle of the river, we Saw a man opposit to our Camp on the L. S. which we discovd. to be a Frenchman, a little of the willows we observed a house, we Call to them to come over, a boy Came in a Canoo & informed that 2 french men were at the house with good to trade with the Seauex which he expected down from the rickerries everry day, Severl large parties of Seauex Set out from the rics for this place to trade with those men — This Mr. Jon Vallie informs us that he wintered last winter 300 Leagues up the Chien River under the Black mountains, he informs that this river is verry rapid and dificiult even for Canoos to assend and when riseing the Swels is verry high, one hundred Leagues up it forks one fork Comes from the S. the other at 40 Leagues above the forks enters the black Mountain. The Countrey from the Missourie to the black mountain is much like the Countrey on the Missourie, less timber & a greatr perpotion of Ceder. The black Mountains he Says is verry high, and Some parts of it has Snow on it in the Summer great quantities of Pine Grow on the mountains, a great noise is heard frequently on those mountains-, on the mountains great numbers of goat, and a kind of Anamale with large Circuler horns, This animale is nearly the Size of an Argalia Small Elk. White bear is also plenty — The Chien Inds. inhabit this river principally, and Steel horses from the Spanish Settlements This excurtion they make in one month the bottoms & Sides of R Chien is Corse gravel. This frenchman gives an account of a white booted turkey an inhabitant of the Cout Noie-



[Clark, October 1, 1804]

1st of October Monday 1804 at the Mouth of River Chien or Dog R We proceeded now from the mouth of this river 11 miles and Camped on a Sand bar in the river opposit to a Tradeing house verry windy & Cold- 11 miles above the Chien R



[Clark, October 1, 1804]

The red Berry is Called by the Rees Nar-nis-

The Ricares

Names of the nations who come to the Ricares to trafick and bring Horses & robes

1.Kun-na-nar-wesh Gens de vash Blue beeds
2.Noo-tar-wau Hill Climbers
3.Au ner-hoo the people who pen Buffalow to Catch them
4.To-che-wah-Coo Fox Indians
5.To-pah-cass White hair's
6.Cat-tar kah Paducar
7.Kie-wah Tideing Indians
8.Too war Sar Skin pricks
9.Shar ha (Chien) the village on the other Side
10.We hee Shaw (Chien) The villages on this Side

Those nation all live on the praries from S W. by S. to West of the Ricaries, all Speek different languages and are numerous all follow the Buffalow and winter in the mountains. The Mandans Call a red berry common to the upper part of the Missouri As-say the engages call the Same berry grease de Buff — grows in great abundance a makes a Delightfull Tart



[Clark, October 2, 1804]

2nd of October Tuesday 1804, Mr. Vallie Came on board, Lat. 44° 19' 36 N. we observed Some Indians on a hill on the S. S. one Came to the river & fired off his gun and asked us to come he wish us to go to his Camp near at hand we refused, passed a large Island on the S. S., here we expected the Tetons would attempt to Stop us, and prepared for action, &c. opposit this Island on the L. S. a Small Creek comes in, we call this Caution Island, Camped on a Sand bar 1/2 mile from the main Shore the wind hard from the N W. Cold, the current of the river less rapid, & retains less Sediment than below.



[Clark, October 2, 1804]

2nd of Octr. 2nd of October Tuesday 1804 a Violent wind all night from the S. E. Slackened a little and we proceeded on. Mr. Jon Vallee Came on board and proceeded on 2 miles with us, a verry Cold morning Some black clouds flying took a meridian altitude & made the Lattitude 44° 19' 36" North this was taken at the upper part of the gouge of the Lookout bend, the Sentinal heard a Shot over the hills to the L. S. dureing the time we were Dineing on a large Sand bar. the after part of this day is pleasent, at 2 oClock opposit a wood on the L. S. we observed some Indians on a hill on the S. S. one Came down to the river opposit to us and fired off his gun, & beckind. to us to Come too, we payed no attention to him he followed on Some distance, we Spoke a few words to him, he wished us to go a Shore and to his Camp which was over the hill and Consisted of 20 Lodges, we excused our Selves advised him to go and here our talk of Mr. Durion he enquired for traders we informed him one was in the next bend below & parted, he returned — & we proceeded on (1) passed a large Island, the S. S. here we expected the Tetons would attempt to Stop us and under that Hear we prepared our Selves for action which we expected every moment. opsd. this Island on the L. S. a Small Creek Comes in, This Island we call Isd. of Caution we took in Some wood on a favourable Situation where we Could defend our men on Shore & (2) Camped on a Sand bar 1/2 a mile from the main Shore. the wind changed to the N. W. & rose verry high and Cold which Continud. The Current of the Missourie is less rapid & contains much less Sediment of the Same Colour.



[Clark, October 2, 1804]

2nd of October Tuesday 1804 Proceeded on as mentioned in journal No. 2 twelve miles Camped above a large Island on a Sand bar, verry windy and Cold the after part of this day, the mid day verry worm, The Lattitude as taken to day is 44° 19' 36" — observe great Caution this day expecting the Seaux intentions Some what hostile towards our progression, The river not So rapid as below the Chien, its width nearly the Same 12 miles



[Clark, October 3, 1804]

3rd of October Wednesday 1804 The N W. wind blew verry hard all night with Some rain, we Set out early, at 12 examoned our Stores & goods, Several bags Cut by the mice and Corn Scattered, Some of our Cloth also cut by them also papers &c. &c. at 1 oClock an Indian Came to the Bank S. S, with a turkey on his back 4 other soon joined him Some rain, Saw Brant & white guts flying Southerly



[Clark, October 3, 1804]

3rd of October Wednesday 1804 wind blew hard all night from the N W. Some rain and verry Cold. we Set out at 7 oClock & proceeded on



[Clark, October 3, 1804]

3rd of October Wednesday 1804 The N. W. wind blew verry hard all night with Some rain a Cold morning, we Set out at 7 oClock and proceeded on at 12 oClock landed on a Bare L. S. examined the Perogus & factle of the boat to see if the mice had done any damage, Several bags Cut by them Corn Scattered &. Some of our Clothes also Spoiled by them, and papers &c. &. at 1 oClock an Indian Came to the bank S. S. with a turkey on his back, four others Soon joined him, we attempted Several Chanels and Could not find water to assend, landed on a Sand bar & Concluded to Stay all night, & Send out and hunt a Chanell, Some rain this after noon — Saw Brant & white gulls flying Southerly in large flocks-



[Clark, October 4, 1804]

4th of October Thursday — the Wind blew all night from the N W. Some rain we were obliged to drop down 3 miles to get a Channel Sufficient Deep to pass Several Indians on the bank, Call'd to us frequently to Land, one gave 3 yels & Sciped a Ball before us, we payed no attention to them, while at Brackfast one Swam across to us, beged for Powder, we gave him a Small piece of Tobacco & put him over on a Sand bar, passed a large Island in the middle of the river Good hope I. Passed a small Creek L. S. passed a creek L S Camped on a Sand bar at the upper point of an Island on which is the remains of an old ricara Village fortified Called La hoo It was circular, this Village appears to have been deserted about 5 or 6 years, 17 houses yet remain, the Island Contains but little timber, the evening verry Cold and wood Scerce, make use of Drift wood



[Clark, October 4, 1804]

4th of October Thursday 1804 the wind blew all night from the NW. Some rain, we were obliged to Drop down 3 miles to get the Chanel Suft. deep to pass up, Several Indians on the Shore viewing of us Called to us to land one of them gave 3 yels & Sciped a ball before us, we payed no attention to him, proceeded on and Came too on the L. S. to brackft one of those Indians Swam across to us beged for Powder, we gave him a piece of Tobacco & Set him over on a Sand bar, and Set out, the wind hard a head (1) passed a Island in the middle of the river about 3 miles in length, we call Goodhope Island, (2) at 4 miles passed a (2) Creek on the L. S. about 12 yards wide Capt. Lewis and 3 men walked on Shore & crossed over to an (3) Island Situated on the S. S. of the Current & near the Center of the river this Isld. is about 11/2 miles long & nearly 1/2 as wide, in the Center of this Island was an old Village of the rickeries Called La ho catt it was Circular and walled Containing 17 lodges and it appears to have been deserted about five years, the Island Contains but little timber. we Camped on the Sand bar makeing from this Island, the day verry Cool.



[Clark, October 5, 1804]

5th of October Friday 1804 Frost this morning, Set out early passed a Small Creek on the L. S. saw 3 Tetons on the S. S. they beged Some Tobacco, we proceed on passed a Creek on the S. S. I Saw a white brant in a gangue on the Sand bar Saw a large herd of Cabra or antelopes Swiming the River, we Killed four of them passed a Small Island on the L. S. a large Creek on the L. S. at the head of the Island White Brant Creek, I walked on the Island which is covered with wild rye, I Killed a Buck & a Small wolf this evening, Clear pleasant evening, Camped on a mud bar S. S. refreshd the men with whiskey.



[Clark, October 5, 1804]

5th of October Friday 1804 Frost this morning, we Set out early and proceeded on (1) passed a Small Creek on the L. S. at 7 oClock heard Some yels proceeded on Saw 3 Indians of the Teton band, they called to us to Come on Shore, beged Some Tobacco, we answd. them as usial and proceeded on, passed (2) a Creek on the S. S. at 3 mes. abov the mouth we Saw one white Brant in a gang of about 30, the others all as dark as usial, a Discription of this kind of Gees or Brant Shall be given here after Saw a Gang of Goats Swiming across the river out of which we killed four they were not fatt. in the evening passed a Small (3) Island Situated Close to the L. Side, at the head of this Isd. a large Creek coms in on the L. S. Saw white or Brants, we Call this Creek white Brant Creek — I walked on the Isd. found it Covered with wild rye, I Shot a Buck, Saw a large gang of Goat on the hills opposit, one Buck killed, also a Prarie wolf this evening, the high Land not So high as below, river about the Same width, the Sand bars as noumerous, the earth Black and many of the Bluffs have the appearance of being on fire, we Came too and Camped on a mud bar makeing from the L. S. The evening is Calm and pleasant, refreshed the men with a glass of whiskey-



[Clark, October 6, 1804]

6th of October Satturday 1804 Cold Wind from the N. Saw many large round Stones near the middle of the River passed an old Ricara village of 80 Lodges Picketed in those lodges in nearly an octagon form, 20 to 60 feet Diameter Specious Covered with earth and as Close as they Can Stand, a number of Skin Canoes in the huts, we found Squashes of 3 different Kinds growing in the Village Shields Killed an Elk Close by- The Magpy is common here, we Camped off the mouth of Otter Creek on the S. S. this Creek is 22 yds. wide & heads near the R. Jacque, — contains much water.



[Clark, October 6, 1804]

6th October Satturday 1804 a cool morning wind from the North Set out early passed a willow Island (1) Situated near the S. Shore at the upper point of Som timber on the S. S. many large round Stones near the middle of the river, those Stones appear to have been washed from the hills (2) passed a village of about 80 neet Lodges covered with earth and picketed around, those loges are Spicious of an Octagon form as close together as they can possibly be placed and appear to have been inhabited last Spring, from the Canoes of Skins Mats buckets & found in the lodges, we are of appinion they were the recrereis we found Squashes of 3 Different Kinds growing in the Village, one of our men killed an Elk Close by this Village, I saw 2 wolves in persute of another which appeared to be wounded and nearly tired, we proceeded on found the river Shole we made Severl. attempts to find the main Channel between the Sand bars, and was obliged at length to Drag the boat over to Save a league which we must return to get into the deepest Channel, we have been obgd to hunt a Chanl. for Some time past the river being devided in many places in a great number of Chanels, Saw Gees, Swan, Brants, & Ducks of Different kinds on the Sand bars to day, Capt Lewis walked on Shore Saw great numbers of Prarie hens, I observe but fiew Gulls or Pleaver in this part of the river, The Corvos or Magpye is verry Common in this quarter

We Camped on a large Sand bar off the mouth of Otter Creek on the S. S. this Creek is about 22 yards wide at the mouth and contains a greater perpotion of water than Common for Creeks of its Sise



[Clark, October 7, 1804]

7th of October Sunday 1804 frost last night, passed a River 90 yds. wide the Ricaras Call Sur-war-kar-ne all the water of this river runs in a chanel of 20 yards, the Current appears jentle, I walked up this River a mile, Saw the tracks of white bear, verry large, also a old Ricara village partly burnt, fortified about 60 Lodges built in the Same form of those passed yesterday, many Canoes & Baskets about the huts — about 10 oClock we Saw 2 Indians on the S. S. they asked for Something to eat & told us they were Tetons of the band we left below on ther way to the Ricaras we gave them meat & wind hard from the South, passed a large open Island covered with grass and wild rye, I walked on the Isd & 4 men they Killed a Braroe & a Black tale Doe with a black breast, the largest Deer I ever saw, the great numbers of Grous on it, we call it Grous Island, Camped opposit the Island near the S. Side.



[Clark, October 7, 1804]

7th of October Sunday 1804 a Cloudy morning, Some little rain frost last night, we Set out early proceeded on 2 miles to the mouth of a (1) river on the L. S. and brackfast this river whin full is 90 yards wide the water is at this time Confined within 20 yards, the Current appears jentle, this river throws out but little Sand at the mouth of this river we Saw the Tracks of White bear which was verry large, I walked up this river a mile- below the (2) mouth of this river, is the remains of a Rickorrie Village or Wintering Camp fortified in a circular form of a bout 60 Lodges, built in the Same form of those passed yesterday This Camp appears to have been inhabited last winter, many of their willow & Straw mats, Baskets & Buffalow Skin Canoes remain intire within the Camp, the Ricares Call this river Sur-war-kar-na or Park from this river we proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. W. at 10 oClock we Saw 2 Indians, on the S. S. they asked for Something to eate, & informed us they were part of the Beiffs De Medisons Lodge on their way to the Rickerreis, passed (3) a willow Island in a bind to the S. S. (4) at 5 miles passd. a willow Island on the S. S. — wind hard from the South in the evening I walked on an (5) Island nearly the middle of the river Called Grous Island, one of the men killed a Shee Brarrow, another man killed a Black tail Deer, the largest Doe I ever Saw (Black under her breast) this Island is nearly 11/4 ms. Squar no timbr high and Covered with grass wild rye and Contains Great numbers of Grouse, we proceeded on a Short distance above the Island and Camped on the S. S. a fine evening.



[Clark, October 8, 1804]

8th of October Monday 1804 a cool Morning wind from the N. W. passed the mouth of a Small Creek on the L. S. about 21/2 Miles above the Isd. Passed the Mouth of a River on the L. S. called by the Ricaries We-tar-hoo. this river is 120 yards wide, the water Confined within 20 yards, throws out mud with little Sand, great quanties of red Berries, resembling Currents near the mouth of this river Latd. 45° 39' 5 N. this river heads in the 1s Black Mountain, 2 Miles higher up passed a Small River on the L. S. Called Maropa 25 yards wide Chocked up with mud — our hunters discovered a Ricara village on an Island a fiew miles above we passed the 1s Ricara Village about the center of the Island, in presence of Great numbers of Spectators and Camped above the Island on the L. S. at the foot of Some high land. (Mr. Gravotine a French man joined us as an interpeter) The Island on which is Ricara Village is Situated, is about 3 miles long Seperated from the Main L. Side by a Narrow Deep Channel, those Indians Cultivate on the Island Corn Beens Simmins, Tobacco &c &c. after Landing Capt. Lewis with Mr. Gravelin and 3 men went to the Village, I formd a Camp on Shore with the Perogue crew & guard, with the Boat at Anchor, Capt Lewis returned late, a french man and a Spaniard accompanied him



[Clark, October 8, 1804]

8th of October Monday 1804 a Cool morning Set out early the wind from the N. W. proceeded on passed the mouth of a Small Creek on the L. S. about 21/2 miles above Grouse Island, (3) passed a willow Island which Divides the Current equilly. (2) passed the mouth of a River called by the ricares We tar hoo on the L. S. this river is 120 yards wide, the water of which at this time is Confined within 20 yards, dischargeing but a Small quantity, throwing out mud with Small propotion of Sand, great quantities of the red Berries, ressembling Currents, are on the river in every bend — 77° 33' 0" Lattitude from the Obsevation of to day at the mouth of this river is 45° 39' 5"-North — proceeded on passed a (3) Small river of 25 yards wide Called (4) or Beaver Dam R this river is intirely Chocked up with mud, with a Streem of 1 Inch Diamiter passing through, discharging no Sand, at 1 (5) mile passed the lower pint of an Island close on the L. S. 2 of our men discovered the reckerrei village, about the Center of the Island on the L. Side on the main Shore. this Island is about 3 miles long, Seperated from the L. S. by a Channel of about 60 yards wide verry Deep, The Isld. is covered with fields, where those people raise their Corn Tobacco Beens &c. &c. Great numbers of those People came on the Island to See us pass, we passed above the head of the Island & Capt. Lewis with 2 interpeters & 2 men went to the Village I formed a Camp of the french & the guard on Shore, with one Sentinal on board of the boat at anchor, a pleasent evening all things arranged both for Peace or War, This Village (6) is Situated about the Center of a large Island near the L. Side & near the foot of Some high bald uneaven hills, Several french men Came up with Capt Lewis in a Perogue, one of which is a Mr. Gravellin a man well versed in the language of this nation and gave us Some information relitive to the Countrey naton &c



[Clark, October 8, 1804]

Orders October the 8th 1804 Robert Frazer being regularly inlisted and haveing become on of the Corps of Vollenteers for North Western Discovery, he is therefore to be viewed & respected accordingly; and will be anexed to Sergeant Gass's mess.

Win Clark Cpt &. Meriwether Lewis River Marapa Capt. 1st U.S. Regt. Infty



[Clark, October 9, 1804]

9th of October Tuesday 1804 a windey night Some rain, and the wind Continued So high & cold We could not Speck in Council with the Indians, we gave them Some Tobacco and informed them we would Speek tomorrow, all the grand Chiefs visited us to day also Mr Taboe, a trader from St. Louis — Many Canoes of a Single Buffalow Skin made in the form of a Bowl Carrying generally 3 and Sometimes 5 & 6 men, those Canoes, ride the highest Waves — the Indians much asstonished at my Black Servent and Call him the big medison, this nation never Saw a black man before, the wind verry high, I saw at Several times to day 3 Squars in single Buffalow Skin Canoes loaded with meat Cross the River, at the time the waves were as high as I ever Saw them in the Missouri



[Clark, October 9, 1804]

9th of October 1804 Tuesday a windey rainey night, and Cold, So much So we Could not Speek with the Indians to day the three great Chiefs and many others Came to See us to day, we gave them Some tobacco and informed them we would Speek on tomorrow, the day Continued Cold & windey Some rain Sorry Canoos of Skins passed down from the 2 villages a Short distance above, and many Came to view us all day, much asstonished at my black Servent, who did not lose the oppertunity of his powers Strength &c. &. this nation never Saw a black man before.

Several hunters Came in with loads of meat, I observed Several Canoos made of a Single buffalow Skin with 2 & 3 Thre Squars Cross the river to day in Waves as high as I ever Saw them on this river, quite uncomposed I have a Slite Plurise this evening Verry Cold &c. &.

1st Chiefs name Ka kawissassa (lighting Crow.) 2d do do Pocasse (or Hay) 3d do do Piaa he to (or Eagles feather)



[Clark, October 10, 1804]

10th of October 1804 at 11 oClock the wind Shifted from S. E to N W. Mr. Taboe visited us — we hear that Some jealousy exists as to the Chiefs to be made — at 1 oclock the Cheifs all assembled under an orning near the Boat, and under the American Flag. we Delivered a Similar Speech to those delivered the Ottoes & Sioux, made three Chiefs, one for each Village and gave them Clothes & flags — 1 s Chief is name Ka-ha-wiss assa lighting ravin 2d Chief Po-casse (Hay) & the 3rd Piaheto or Eagles Feather — after the Council was over we Shot the Air gun, which astonished them, & they all left us, I observed 2 Sioux in the Council one of them I had Seen below, they Came to interceed with the Ricaras to Stop us as we were told — the Inds. much astonished at my black Servent, who made him Self more turrible in thier view than I wished him to Doe as I am told telling them that before I cought him he was wild & lived upon people, young children was verry good eating Showed them his Strength &c. &c. — Those Indians are not fond of Licquer of any Kind-



[Clark, October 10, 1804]

10th of October Wednesday 1804. a fine forming wind from the S. E at about 11 oClock the wind Shifted, to the N. W. we prepare all things ready to Speak to the Indians, Mr. Tabo & Mr. Gravolin Came to brackfast with us the Chiefs &. came from the lower Town, but none from the 2 upper Towns, which is the largest, we Continue to delay & waite for them at 12 oClock Dispatchd Gravelin to envite them to Come down, we have every reason to believe that a jellousy exists between the Villages for fear of our makeing the 1st Cheif from the lower Village, at one oClock the Cheifs all assembled & after Some little Cerrimony the Council Commenced, we informd them what we had told the others before i e Ottoes & Seaux. made 3 Cheif 1 for each Village. gave them presents.

after the Council was Over we Shot the air guns which astonished them much, they then Departed and we rested Secure all night, Those Indians wer much astonished at my Servent, They never Saw a black man before, all flocked around him & examind. him from top to toe, he Carried on the joke and made himself more turibal than we wished him to doe. (Thos Indians were not fond of Spirits Licquer. of any kind)



[Clark, October 11, 1804]

11th of October Thursday 1804 wind S. E. at 11 oClock met the 1s Chief in Council, he Thanked us for what we had given him & his people promised to attend to our advise, and Said the road was open for us and no one Dare Shut it &c. &. we took him and one Chief on board and Set out, on our way took in the 2d Chief at the mo of a Small Creek, and Came too off the 2d village which is 3 miles above the Island, we walked up with the 2 & 3 Chiefs to their villages which is Situated on each Side of a Small Creek, they gave us Something to eat in thier way, after Conversations on various Subjects & Beareing the civilities of those people who are both pore & dirtey we informed the Chiefs we would here what they had to Say tomorrow and returned on board about 10 oClock P M. Those people gave us to eat Corn & Beans, a large well flavoured Been which they rob the Mice of in the Plains and is verry nurishing-all tranquillity



[Clark, October 11, 1804]

11th October Thursday 1804 a fine morning the wind from the S. E. at 11 oClock we met the Grand Chief in Council & and he made a Short Speech thanking us for what we had Given him & his nation promisseing to attend to the Council we had given him & informed us the road was open & no one dare Shut it, & we might Departe at pleasure, at 1 oClock we Set out for the upper villages 3 miles distant, the Grand Chief & nephew on board, proceeded on at 1 mile took in the 2d Chief & Came too off the first Second village Seperated from the 3rd by a Creek after arrangeing all matters we walked up with the 2d Chief to his village, and Set talking on various Subjects untile late we also visited the upper or 3rd Village each of which gave us Something to eate in their way, and a fiew bushels of Corn Beens &. &c.

after being treated by everry civility by those people who are both pore & Durtey we returned to our boat at about 10 oClk. P M. informing them before we Departed that we would Speek to them tomorrow at there Seperate Villages. Those people gave us to eate bread made of Corn & Beens, also Corn & Beans boild. a large Been, which they rob the mice of the Prarie which is rich & verry nurrishing also



[Clark, October 11, 1804]

(Ricares)

October the 11th Thursday 1804 we met in Council to hear what the Grand Chief Ka kaw issassa had to Say in answer to the Speech of yesterday

The Grand Chief rose and spoke as follows i, e,

My Fathers-! My heart is glader than it ever was before to See my fathers. — a repetition.

If you want the road open no one Can provent it it will always be open for you.

Can you think any one Dare put their hands on your rope of your boat. No! not one dar

When you Get to the mandans we wish you to Speak good words with that Nation for us. we wish to be at peace with them.

It gives us pain that we do not Know how to work the Beaver, we will make Buffalow roabs the best we Can.

when you return if I am living you will See me again the same man The Indian in the prarie know me and listen to my words, when you come they will meet to See you.

We Shall look at the river with impatient for your return. Finished



[Clark, October 12, 1804]

12th of October Friday after Brackfast we joined the Chiefs & Indians on the bank who wer waiting for us, and proseeded to the 1st village and Lodge of the Pocasse, This man Spok at Some lengths, to the Same purpote of the 1 s Chief, & Declareing his intentions of visiting his great father, Some Doubts as to his Safty in Passing the Sioux, requested us to take a Chief of their nation and make a good peace with the Mandan for them, that they Knew that they were the Cause of the war by Killing the 2 Mandan Chiefs — this Chief & people gave us about 7 bushels of Corn, Some Tobacco of their own make, and Seed Legins & a Robe We proceeded to the 3rd Chiefs Village which is the largest, after the usial Seremoney of Eating Smokg. &. he Spoke to near the Same amount of the last Chief, & more pleasently, he gave us 10 bushels of Corn, Some Beens & Simmins, after he had Spoken, and I gave Some Sketches of the Power & Magnitude of Our Countrey, we returned to our Boat, I have the rhumetism on my neck the Chiefs accompanied us on board, we gave them Some Sugar Salt and a Sun Glass each, and after eating a little they returned on Shore leaveing one to accompany us to the Mandans, and we Set out viewed by men womin & children of each village proceeded on about 91/2 miles and Camped on the S S. Clear & Cold — The Ricaras Are about 500 men Mr. Taboe say 600 able to bear arms, and the remains of ten different tribes of Panias reduced by the Small Pox & wares with the Sioux, they are tall Stout men corsily featured, their womin Small & industerous raise great quantites of corn beans &c also Tobacco for the men to Smoke, they collect all the wood and doe the Drudgery common amongst Savages — Their language is So corrupted that many lodges of the Same village with dificuelty under Stand all that each other Say — They are Dirty, Kind, pore, & extravegent; possessing natural pride, no begers, rcive what is given them with pleasure, Thier houses are close together & Towns inclosed with Pickets, thier Lodges are 30 to 40 feet in Diamuter Covered with earth on Neet Poles Set end wise resting on 4 forks Supporting Beems Set in a Square form near the Center, and lower about 5 feet high other forks all around Supt. Strong Beems, from 8 to 10 of those, with a opening at top of about 5 to 6 feet Square, on the Poles which pass to the top, Small Willow & grass is put across to Support the earth — The Sioux exchange, Some merchndze of Small value which they get from Mr. Cameron of St. Peters for Corn &c and have great influence over this people treat them roughly and keep them in contineal dread — The Ricaras are at war with the Crow Indians and Mandans-&c. & — The Ricaras, have a custom Similar to the Sioux in maney instances, they think they cannot Show a Sufficient acknowledgement without to their guest handsom Squars and think they are despised if they are not recved

The Sioux followed us with women two days we put them off. the Ricarries we put off dureing the time we were near their village — 2 were Sent by a man to follow us, and overtook us this evening, we Still procisted in a refusial-The Dress of the Ricara men is Simpally a pr. of Mockersons & Legins, a flap, and a Buffalow Robe — Their Hair is long and lais loose their arms & ears are decerated with trinkets

The womin Dress Mockersons & Legins & Skirt of the Skin of the Cabre or Antelope, long fringed & roab to the fringes & with Sleaves, verry white, and Roabes — all were Dressed to be without hare in the Summer

Those people make large Beeds of Diferrent colours, out of glass or Beeds of Dift colours, verry ingeniously



[Clark, October 12, 1804]

12th October Friday 1804 I rose early after brackfast we joined the Indians who were waiting on the bank for us to come out and go and Council, we accordingly joined them and went to the house of the 2nd Chief Lassil where there was many Chief and warriers & about 7 bushels of Corn, a pr Leagins a twist of their Tobacco & Seeds of 2 Kind of Tobacco we Set Some time before the Councill Commenced this man Spoke at Some length declareing his dispotion to believe and prosue our Councils, his intention of going to Visit his great father acknowledged the Satisfaction in receiveing the presents &c. rais'g a Doubt as to the Safty on passing the nations below particularly the Souex. requested us to take a Chief of their nation and make a good pact with Mandins & nations above. after answering those parts of the 2d Chiefs Speech which required it, which appeared to give General Satisfaction we went to the Village of the 3rd Chief and as usial Some Serimony took place before he Could Speek to us on the Great Subject. This Chief Spoke verry much in the Stile on nearly the Same Subjects of the other Chief who Set by his Side, more Sincear & pleasently, he presented us with about 10 bushels of Corn Some beens & quashes all of which we acksepted with much pleasure, after we had ansd. his Speech & give them Some account of the Magnitude & power of our Countrey which pleased and astonished them verry much we returned to our boat, the Chiefs accompanied us on board, we gave them Some Sugar a little Salt, and a Sun Glass, & Set 2 on Shore & the third proceeded on with us to the Mandens by name, at 2 oClock we Set out the inhabitints of the two Villages Viewing us from the banks, we proceeded on about 91/2 miles and Camped on the S. S. at Some woods passed, the evening Clear & pleasent Cooler

The Nation of the Rickerries is about 600 men able to bear arms a Great perpotion of them have fusees they appear to be peacefull, their men tall and perpotiend, womin Small and industerous, raise great quantities of Corn Beens Simmins &c. also Tobacco for the men to Smoke they Collect all the wood and do the drugery as Common amongst Savages.

Thise nation is made up of 10 Different Tribes of the Pania, who had formerly been Seperate, but by Commotion and war with their neighbours have Come reduced and compelled to Come together for protection, The Curruption of the language of those different Tribes has So reduced the language that the Different Villages do not understade all the words of the others. — Those people are Durtey, Kind, pore, & extravigent pursessing national pride. not beggarley reive what is given with great pleasure, Live in worm houses large and built in an oxigon form forming a Cone at top which is left open for the Smoke to pass, those houses are generally 30 or 40 foot Diamiter. Covd. with earth on poles willows & grass to prevent the earths passing thro, Those people express an inclination to be at peace with all nations The Seaux who trade the goods which they get of the British Traders for their corn, and great influence over the Rickeres, poisen their minds and keep them in perpetial dread.

I Saw Some of the Chien or Dog Indians, also a man of a nation under the Court new-This nation is at war with the Crow Indians & have 3 Children prisoners.

a curious Cuistom with the Souix as well as the reckeres is to give handsom Squars to those whome they wish to Show Some acknowledgements to — The Seauix we got Clare of without taking their Squars, they followed us with Squars 13th two days. The Rickores we put off dureing the time we were at the Towns but 2 Handsom young Squars were Sent by a man to follow us, they Came up this evening and peresisted in their Civilities.

Dress of the men of this nation is Simply a pr. mockerson, Leagins, flap in front & a Buffalow roabe, with ther arms & ears Deckorated The women, wore Mockersons leagins fringed and a Shirt of Goat Skins, Some with Sleaves. this garment is longe & Genlry. White & fringed, tied at the waste with a roabe, in Summer without hair.



[Clark, October 12, 1804]

2nd Chief Ricaras

My Father, I am glad to See this is a fine Day to here the good Councils & talk good talk I am glad to See you & that your intentions are to open the road for all we See that our Grand father has Sent you to open the road we See it Our Grand father by Sending you means to take pity on us Our Grand father has Sent you with tobacco to make peace with all nations, we think

The first nation who has recomended the road to be clear and open. You Come here & have Directed all nations which you have met to open & clear the road. you come to See the water & roads to Clear them as Clear as possible

you just now Come to See us, & we wish you to tell our Grand ftar that we wish the road to be kept Clear & open. I expect the Chief in the next Town will tell you the Same to move on & open the road

I think when you Saw the nations below they wish you to open the road- (or something to that amount) when you passd. the Souex they told you the Same I expect. we See you here to day we are pore our women have no Strouds & Knives to Cut their meat take pitty on us when you return.

you Come here & Derect us to Stay at home & not go to war, we Shall do So, we hope you will when you get to the Mandins you will tell them the Same & Cleer the road, no one Dar to Stop you, you go when you please,

The you tell us to go Down, we will go and See our grand father & here & receve his Gifts, and think fully that our nation will be covered after our return, our people will look for us with the same impatience that our Grand father looks for your return, to Give him

If I am going to See my grand father, many bad nations on the road, I am not afraid to Die for the good of my people (all Cried around him.)

The Chief By me will go to the Mandans & hear what they will Say. (we agree'd.)

The verry moment we Set out to go down we will Send out my Brother to bring all the Nation in the open prarie to See me part on this Great mission to See my Great father.

our people hunting Shall be glad to here of your being here & they will all Come to See, as you Cannot Stay they must wate for your return to See you, we are pore take pity on our wants

The road is for you all to go on, who do you think will injure a white man when they come to exchange for our Roabes & Beaver

after you Set out many nations in the open plains may Come to make war against us, we wish you to Stop their guns & provent it if possible. Finished

3d Chief of Ricares

My fathers I will see the Indians below & See if they have the hart as they tell you

The nation below is the Mahas & Ottes & but one nation, (the Souix) has not a good heart.

I always look at the 1 t Chief & the 2d whin they go & will also follow ther example & go on also

You See those 2 men they are chiefs, when I go they will take Care, they beleve your words.

Mabie we will not tell the trooth, as to the Child perhaps they will not wish to go.

My Children the old women & men whin I return I can then give them, Some a Knife Some powder & others Ball &c. What is the matter if we was to go for nothing my great Chief wish to go, I wish to go also.

when I go to See my Grand father I wish to return quicke for fear of my people being uneasy.

my Children are Small & perhaps will be uneasy whin I may be Safe

I must go, I also wish to go, perhaps I may when I return make my people glad

I will Stay at home & not go to War even if my people are Struck

we will believ your word but I fear the Indians above will not believe your word.

I will think that 1/2 of the men who will return will Stay in this Village 1/2 below in the other villages

what did the Seaus tell you?(we informd them)



[Clark, October 13, 1804]

13th of October Satturday 1804 Newmon Confined for Mutinous expressions, proceeded on passed a Camp of Sioux on the S. S. those people did not Speak to us. passed a Creek on the S. S. 18 miles above the Ricaras I call Stone Idol Creek, this Creek heads in a Small lake at no great distance, near which there is a Stone to which the Indians asscribe great virtue &. &c. at 21 Miles passed a Creek 15 yds wide on the L. S I call Pocasse, we observed great quantites of grapes, a fine Breez from S E Camped on the L. S. Some rain thus evening, we formed a Court Martial of 7 of our party to Try Newmon, they Senteenced him 75 Lashes and banishment from the party — The river narrow current jentle & wood plenty on the Bottoms the up land is as usial Open divircified plains, generally rich & leavel.



[Clark, October 13, 1804]

13th of October Satturday 1804 one man J. Newmon Confined for mutinous expression Set out early proceeded on, passd. a Camp of Seauex on the S. S. those people only viewed us & did not Speak one word — The visiters of last evening all except one returned which is the Brother of the Chief we have on board passed (1) a Creek on the S. S. 13 yds. at 18 me. above the Town heading in Some Ponds a Short Diste. to the N. E we call Stone Idol C. (well to observe here that the Yankton or R Jacque heads at about 2 Days March of this place Easterly, the R de Seauex one Day further, the Chien a branch of R. Rouche Still beyend, and the River St. Peters 4 Days March from this place on the Same direction Informtn. of the Rickores). passed 2 large willow (2) & Sand Islands above the mouth of the last Creek — at 21 miles above the Village passed a (3) Creek about 15 yards wide on the L. S. we Call after 2d Chief Pocasse (or Hay) nearly opposit this creek a fiew miles from the river on the S. S. 2 Stones resembling humane persons & one resembling a Dog is Situated in the open Prarie, to those Stone the Rickores pay Great reverance make offerings whenever they pass (Infomtn. of the Chief & Intepeter) those people have a Curious Tredition of those Stones, one was a man in Love, one a Girl whose parents would not let marry, the Dog went to mourn with them all turned to Stone gradually, Commenceing at the feet. Those people fed on grapes untill they turned, & the woman has a bunch of grapes yet in her hand on the river near the place those are Said to be Situated, we obsd. a greater quantity of fine grapes than I ever Saw at one place.

The river about the Island on which the lower Rickores Village is Situated is narrow and Conts. a great propotion of Timber than below, the bottoms on both Sides is Covered with timber the up lands naked the Current jentle and Sand bars Confined to the points Generally

We proceeded on under a fine Breeze from the S.E. and Camped late at the upper part of Some wood on the Starboard Side, Cold & Some rain this evening. we Sent out hunters Killed one Deer.

We Tried the Prisoner Newmon last night by 9 of his Peers they did "Centence him 75 Lashes & Disbanded the party."



[Lewis and Clark, October 13, 1804]

Orders 13th of October 1804 A court Martial to Consist of nine members will set to day at 12 oClock for the trial of John Newman now under Confinement Capt. Clark will attend to the forms & rules of a president without giveing his opinion

Detail for the Court Martial
Sert. John Ordaway
Sergeant Pat. Gass
Jo. Shields
H. Hall
Jo. Collins
Wm. Werner
Wm. Bratten
Jo. Shannon
Silas Goodrich
Meriwether Lewis
Capt. 1st U S. Regt. Infty.
Win Clark Capt
or E. N W D

In conformity to the above order the Court martial convened this day for the trial of John Newman, charged with "having uttered repeated expressions of a highly criminal and mutinous nature; the same having a tendency not only to distroy every principle of military discipline, but also to alienate the affections of the individuals composing this Detachment to their officers, and disaffect them to the service for which they have been so sacredly and solemnly engaged." — The Prisonar plead not guilty to the charge exhibited against him. The court after having duly considered the evidence aduced, as well as the defense of the said prisonor, are unanimously of opinion that the prisonar John Newman is guilty of every part of the charge exhibited against him, and do sentence him agreeably to the rules and articles of war, to receive seventy five lashes on his bear back, and to be henceforth discarded from the perminent party engaged for North Western discovery; two thirds of the Court concurring in the sum and nature of the punishment awarded. the commanding officers approve and confirm the sentence of the court, and direct the punishment take place tomorrow between the hours of one and two P.M. — The commanding officers further direct that John Newman in future be attatched to the mess and crew of the red Perogue as a labouring hand on board the same, and that he be deprived of his arms and accoutrements, and not be permited the honor of mounting guard untill further orders; the commanding officers further direct that in lue of the guard duty from which Newman has been exempted by virtue of this order, that he shall be exposed to such drudgeries as they may think proper to direct from time to time with a view to the general relief of the detachment.



[Clark, October 14, 1804]

14th of October Sunday 1804 Some rain last night we Set out in the rain which continued all day passed a Creek on the L. S. Piaheto 15 yds Wide, halted on a Sand bar and had the punishmt inflicted on Newmon, which caused the indian Chieif to cry untill the thing was explained to him Camped opposit an antient fortification which is on the L. S, when I explained to the Chief the Cause of whipping N — he observed that examples were necessary & that he himself had made them by Death, but his nation never whiped even from their bearth.



[Clark, October 14, 1804]

14th of October Sunday 1804. Some rain last night all wet & Cold, we Set early the rain contind all Day at ____ miles we passed a (1) Creek in the L. S. 15 yards wide this Creek we Call after the 3rd Chief Piaheto (or Eagles feather) at 1 oClock we halted on a Sand bar & after Dinner executed the Sentence of the Court Martial So far as giveing the Corporal punishment, & proceeded on a fiew miles, the wind a head from N. E. Camped in a Cove of the bank on the S. S. imediately opposit our Camp on the L. Side I observe an antient fortification the walls of which appear to be 8 or 10 feet high, the evening wet and disagreeable, the river Something wider more timber on the banks

The punishment of this day allarmd. the Indian Chief verry much, he Cried aloud (or effected to Cry) I explained the Cause of the punishment and the necessity He thought examples were also necessary, & he himself had made them by Death, his nation never whiped even their Children, from their burth.



[Clark, October 15, 1804]

15th of October Rained all last night, passed a Ricara hunting camp on the S.S. & halted at another on the L.S, Several from the 1t Camp visited us and gave meat as also those of the Camp we halted at, we gave them fish hooks Some beeds &c. as we proceeded on we Saw a number of Indians on both Sides all day, Saw L. S some Curious Nnobs high and much the resemblance of a hiped rough house, we halted at a Camp of 10 Lodges of Ricaras on the S. S., we visited thier Lodges & were friendly recved by all — their women fond of our men — &c.



[Clark, October 15, 1804]

15th of October Monday 1804 rained all last night, we Set out early and proceeded on at 3 Miles passed an Ind. Camp on the S. S. we halted above and about 30 of the Indians came over in their Canoos of Skins, we eate with them, they give us meat, in return we gave fishhooks & Some beeds, about a mile higher we came too on the L. S. at a Camp of Ricres of about 8 Lodges, we also eate & they gave Some meat, we proceded on Saw numbers of Indians on both Sides passing a Creek, Saw many Curious hills, high and much the resemblance of a house with a hiped roof, at 12 oClock it Cleared away and the evening was pleasent, wind from the N. E. — at Sunset we arrived at a Camp of Ricares of 10 Lodges on the S. S. we Came too and Camped near them Capt Lewis & my Self went with the Chief who accompanis us, to the Huts of Several of the men all of whome Smoked & gave us Something to eate also Some meat to take away, those people were kind and appeared to be much plsd. at the attentioned paid them.

Those people are much pleased with my black Servent — Their womin verry fond of carressing our men. &.



[Clark, October 16, 1804]

16th of October Tuesday 1804 Some rain this morning 2 Squars verry anxious to accompany us we Set out with our Chief on Board by name Ar ke tar nar shar (or Chief of the Town) a little above our Camp on the L. S. passed an old Shyenne Village, which appears to have been Serounded with a wall of earth; this is the retreat & first Stand of this nation after being reduced by the Sioux and drove from their Countrey on the heads of red River of L Winipic where they Cultivated the landspassed a Creek I call So-harch or Girl Creek L. S. 2 miles higher passed Woman Crreek or Char-parts passed an Island Situated in a bend to the S. S. at the lower point of this Island a Creek comes in Called Kee-tooth

Sar-kar-nar — or the place of Beaver above the Island a Small River on the Same S. Side Called War-re-Con nee Elk shed their horns, this river is 35 yards wide & heads near the River au Jacque, Carp Island wind hard a head from the N W. Saw great numbers of goats or Antelope on Shore, Capt Lewis one man & the Ricara Chief walked on Shore, in the evening I discovered a number of Indians on each Side and goats in the river or Swiming & on Sand bars, when I came near Saw the boys in the water Swiming amongst the goats & Killing them with Sticks, and then hauling them to the Shore those on Shore Kept them in the water, I saw 58 Killed in this way and on the Shore, the hunter with Cap Lewis Shot 3 goats I came too and Camped above the Ricara Camp on the L. S. Several Indians visited us duereing the night Some with meat, Sang and were merry all night.



[Clark, October 16, 1804]

16th October Tuesday 1804 Some rain this morning, 2 young Squars verry anxious to accompany us, we Set out with our Chief on board by name Ar ke tar na Shar or Chief of the Town, a little above our Camp on the L. S. passed a Circular work, where the, Shar ha (or Chien, or Dog Indians) formerly lived, a Short distance abov passed a Creek which we Call Chien Creek, above is a willow Island Situated near (i ) the L. Side a large Sand bar above & on both Sides (2) passed a Creek above the Island on the L. S. call So-harch (or Girls) Creek, at 2 miles higher up (3) passed a Creek on L. S. call Char part (or womins) Creek passed (5) an Island Situated in a bend to the S. S. this Isd. is about 11/2 miles long, Covered with timber Such as Cotton wood, opsd. the lower point a creek coms in on the S. S. called by the Indians Kee tooth Sar kar nar (or place of Beavr) above the Island a Small river about 35 yards wide corns in Called War re con ne or (Elk Shed their horns). The Island is Called Carp Island by Ivens. wind hard from the N. W. Saw great numbers of Goats on the Shore S. S. proceeded on Capt. Lewis & the Indian Chief walked on Shore, Soon after I discovered Great numbers of Goats in the river, and Indians on the Shore on each Side, as I approached or got nearer I discovered boys in the water Killing the Goats with Sticks and halling them to Shore, Those on the banks Shot them with arrows and as they approachd. the Shore would turn them back of this Gangue of Goats I counted 58 of which they had killed & on the Shore, one of our hunters out with Cap Lewis killed three Goats, we passed the Camp on the S. S. and proceeded 1/2 mile and Camped on the L. S. many Indians came to the boat to See, Some Came across late at night, as they approach they hollowed and Sung, after Staying a Short time 2 went for Some meat, and returned in a Short time with fresh & Dried Buffalow, also goat, those Indians Strayed all night, They Sung and was verry merry the greater part of the night



[Lewis, October 16, 1804]

October 16th This day took a small bird alive of the order of the ____ or goat suckers. it appeared to be passing into the dormant state. on the morning of the 18th the murcury was at 30 above 0. the bird could scarcely move. — I run my penknife into it's body under the wing and completely distroyed it's lungs and heart — yet it lived upwards of two hours this fanominon I could not account for unless it proceeded from the want of circulation of the blood. — the recarees call this bird to'-na it's note is at-tah-to'-nah'; at-tah'to'-nah'; to-nah, a nocturnal bird, sings only in the night as does the whipperwill. — it's weights oz 17 Grains Troy



[Clark, October 17, 1804]

17th of October 1804 Wind S. W. I walked on Shore with the Ricara Chief and an Inteprieter, they told me maney extroadenary Stories, I Killed 3 Dear & a Elk, the Chief Killed a Deer and our hunters Killed 4 Deer, in my absenc the wind rose So high that the Boat lay too all Day; Latd 46° 23' 57" N, I caught a Small uncommon whiperwill we observe emence herds of Goats, or Antelopes flocking down from the N E Side & Swiming the River, the Chief tels me those animals winter in the Black Mountain, and in the fall return to those mounts from every quarter, and in the Spring disperse in the planes, those emence herds we See all of which is on the N E Side of the River is on their way to the mountain, and in the Spring they will be as noumeroes on their return (some ganges winter on the Missouri) — camped on the L. S.

note from the Ricares to the River Jacque near N. E. is about 40 mes. to the Chien a fork of R Rogue 20 passing the Souix River near the Chien this from information of Mr. Graveline who passed through this Countrey



[Clark, October 17, 1804]

17th October Wednesday 1804. Set out early a fine morning the wind from the N W. after brackfast I walked on Shore with the Indian Chief & Interpeters, Saw Buffalow Elk and Great numbers of Goats in large gangues (I am told by Mr. G. that those Animals winter in the Black mountains and this is about the Season they Cross from the East of the Missouris to go to that Mountain, they return in the Spring and pass the Missourie in Great numbers). This Chief tells me of a number of their Treditions about Turtles, Snakes, &. and the power of a perticiler rock or Cave on the next river which informs of everr thing none of those I think worth while mentioning — The wind So hard a head the boats Could not move aftr 10 oClock, Capt Louis Took the altitude of the Sun Laid. 46° 23' 57" I Killed 3 Deer and the hunters with me killed 3 also the Indian Shot one but Could not get it — I Scaffeled up the Deer & returned & met the boat after night on the L. S. about 6 miles above the place we Camped last night — one of the men Saw a number of Snakes, Capt Lewis Saw a large Beaver house S. S. I Cought a Whipprwill Small & not Common-. the leaves are falling fast-. the river wide and full of Sand bars,-. Great numbers of verry large Stone on the Sides of the hills & Some rock of a brownish Colour in the Ld. Bend below this-.

Great numbers of Goats are flocking down to the S. Side of the river on their way to the Black Mountains where they winter those animals return in the Spring in the Same way & Scatter in different directions.



[Clark, October 18, 1804]

18th of October 1804. at 6 miles passed the mouth of La Bullet or Cannon Ball River on the L. Side about 140 yards Wide, and heads near the Black Mountains above the mouth of this River, in and at the foot of the Bluff, and in the water is a number of round Stones, resembling Shells and Cannon balls of Different Sises, and of excellent grit for Grindstons — the Bluff continus for about a mile, The water of this River is confined within 40 yards — we met 2 french men in a Canoe, who informed us they wer trapping near the mandans and were robed of 4 Traps, & part of their Skins and Several other articles by Indians he took to be Mandans those men return with us, Saw emence numbers of Goats all Day S. S. our hunters Kill Sevral passed a large Creek Called Che wah or fish Creek on the S. S. 28 yds. wide, passed a Small Creek at 2 m on the L. S. Camped on the L. S. Saw a no of Buffalow, & in one gangue 248 Elk our hunters Killed 6 Deer & 4 Elk this evening, The Countrey is leavel and fine Some high Short hills, and ridges at a Distance, Bottoms fine and Partially timbered with Cotton wood principally Some ash & Elm.



[Clark, October 18, 1804]

18th of October Thursday 1804 Set out early proceeded on at 6 mes. passed the mouth of (1) la Boulet (or Cannon Ball River) about 140 yards wide on the L. S. this river heads in the Court not or Black mountains) (a fine Day) above the mouth of this river Great numbers of Stone perfectly round with fine Grit are in the Bluff and on the Shore, the river takes its name from those Stones which resemble Cannon Balls. — The water of this river is Confined within 40 yards. We met 2 french men in a perogue Desending from hunting, & complained of the Mandans robing them of 4 Traps ther fur & Seeveral othr articles Those men were in the imploy of our Ricaree interpeter Mr. Gravelin they turned & followered us.

Saw Great numbers of Goats on the S. S. Comeing to the river our hunters Killed 4 of them Some run back and others crossed & prosceed on their journey to the Court Noir, at (3) passed a Small River Called Che wah or fish river on the S. S. this river is about 28 yards wide and heads to the N. E, passed a Small creek on the L. S. 1 mile abov the last, and Camped on a Sand bar on the L. S. opposit to us we Saw a Gangue of Buffalow bulls which we did not think worth while to kill- our hunters Killd. 4 Goats 6 Deer 4 Elk & a pelican & informs that they Saw in one Gang 248 Elk, (I walked on Shore, in the evining with a view to See Some of those remarkable places mentioned by evens, none of which I could find,) The Countrey in this quarter is Generally leavel & fine Some high Short hills, and some ragid ranges of Hills at a Distans

The ricara Indians inform us that they find no black tail Deer as high up as this place, those we find are of the fallow Deer Kind

The Ricareis are not fond of Spiritous liquers, nor do they apper to be fond of receiveing any or thank full for it



[Clark, October 19, 1804]

19th of October Friday 1804. Set out early under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. more timber than Common in the bottoms passed a large Pond on the S. S. I walked out on the high land L. Side and observed great numbers of Buffalows, I counted in view at one time 52 gangues of Buffalow & 3 of Elk, besides Deer & goats &c. all the Streems falling from the hills or high lands So brackish that the water Can't be Drank without effecting the person making use of it as Globesalts-, I saw in my walk Several remarkable high Conocal hills, one 90 feet, one 60 and others Smaller-the Indian Chief Say that the Callemet Bird live in the hollows of those hills, which holes are made by the water passing from the top & &. I also Saw an old Village fortified Situated on the top of a high Point, which the Ricarra Chief tels me were Mandans, we Camped on the L. S. I Killed a Deer & Saw Swans &c. our hunters Killed 4 Elk and 6 Deer to Day



[Clark, October 19, 1804]

19th October Friday 1804 a fine morning wind from the S. E. we Set out early under a gentle Breeze and proceeded on verry well, more timber than Common on the banks on this part of the river — passed a large Pond on the S. S. — I walked out on the Hills & observed Great numbers of Buffalow feedeing on both Sides of the river I counted 52 Gangues of Buffalow & 3 of Elk at one view, all the runs which come from the high hills which is Generally about one or 2 miles from the water is brackish and near the Hills (the Salts are) and the Sides of the Hills & edges of the Streems, the mineral salts appear I saw Som remarkable round hills forming a Cone at top one about 90 foot one 60 & Several others Smaller, the Indian Chief Say that the Callemet bird live in the holes of those hills, the holes form by the water washing thro Some parts in its passage Down from the top — near one of those noles, on a point of a hill 90 feet above the lower plane I observed the remains of an old village, which had been fortified, the Indian Chief with us tels me, a party of Mandins lived there, Here first saw ruins of Mandan nation we proceeded on & Camped on the L. S. opposit the upper of those Conocal hills our hunters killed 4 Elk 6 Deer & a pelican, I saw Swans in a Pond & Killed a fat Deer in my walk, Saw above 10 wolves. This day is pleasent



[Clark, October 20, 1804]

20th of October 1804 wind from the S E, I walked out to view those remarkable places pointed out by Evens, and continud all day Saw an old Village of the Mandans below the Chess chi ter R. appear to have been fortified above the village on the Same L. S. is a coal bank where we Campd. passed a Small Creek on the S. S. and an Island on the L. S Covered with willows Small Cotton the Countrey thro which I passed this day is Delightfull, Timber in the bottoms, Saw great nos. of Buffalow Elk Goats & Deer as we were in want of them I Killed 3 Deer, our hunters 10 Deer and wounded a white Bear, I Saw Several fresh tracks of that animal double the Sise of the largest track I ever Saw, great numbers of wolves, those animals follow the buffalow and devour, those that die or are Killed, and those too fat or pore to Keep up with the gangue



[Clark, October 20, 1804]

20th of October Satterday 1804 Set out early this morning and proceeded on the wind from the S. E after brackfast I walked out on the L. Side to See those remarkable places pointed out by Evins, I saw an old remains of a villige on the Side of a hill which the Chief with us Too ne tels me that nation lived in a number villages on each Side of the river and the Troubleson Seauex caused them to move about 40 miles higher up where they remained a fiew years & moved to the place they now live, (2) passed a Small Creek on the S. S. (3) and one on the L. S. passed (4) a Island Covered with willows laying in the middle of the river no current on the L. S. Camped on the L. S. above a Bluff containing Coal (5) of an inferior quallity, this bank is imedeately above the old village of the Mandans- The Countrey is fine, the high hills at a Distanc with gradual assents, I Kild 3 Deer The Timber Confined to the bottoms as usial which is much larger than below. Great numbers of Buffalow Elk & Deer, Goats. our hunters killed 10 Deer & a Goat to day and wounded a white Bear I saw Several fresh track of those animals which is 3 times as large as a mans track-, The wind hard all Day from the N. E. & East, great numbers of buffalow Swiming the river

I observe near all large gangues of buffalow wolves and when the buffalow move those Anamals follow and feed on those that are killed by accident or those that are too pore or fat to Keep up with the gangue.



[Lewis, October 20, 1804]

20th October Peter Crusat this day shot at a white bear he wounded him, but being alarmed at the formidable appearance of the bear he left his tomahalk and gun; but shortly after returned and found that the bear had taken the oposite rout. — soon after he shot a buffaloe cow broke her thy, the cow pursued him he concealed himself in a small raviene.



[Clark, October 21, 1804]

21t of October Sunday 1804 a verry Cold night wind hard from the N. E. Some rain in the night which feesed as it fell, at Day began to Snow and Continued all the fore part of the day, at 1/4 of a mile passed the Mouth of Chess-che tar (or Heart) River L. S. 38 yards wide, this river heads near Turtle mountain with Knife River on this River is a Smothe Stone which the Indians have great fath in & Consult the Stone on all great occasions which they Say Marks or Simblems are left on the Stone of what is to take place &c. an old mandan Village above the mouth of this Little River, I saw a Single tree in the open Plains which the Mandans formerly paid great Devotion to run Cords thro their flesh & tie themselves to the tree to make them brave, passed an old Village on a Small run on the S S. one on the bank L. and Camped, I Killed a fat Buffalow this evening — Little gun all my hunting



[Clark, October 21, 1804]

21st October Sunday 1804 a verry Cold night wind hard from the N. E Some rain in the night which frosed up it fell at Day light it began to Snow and Continud all the fore part of the Day passed just above our Camp (1) a Small river on the L. S. Called by the Indians Chiss-Cho-tar this river is about 38 yards wide Containing a good Deel of water Some Distance up this River is Situated a Stone which the Indians have great fath in & Say they See painted on the Stone, "all the Calemites & good fortune to hapin the nation & partes who visit it" — a tree (an oak) which Stands alone near this place about 2 miles off in the open prarie which has with Stood the fire they pay Great respect to, make Holes and tie Strings thro the Skins of their necks and around this tree to make them brave (all this is the information of Too ne is a whipper will) the Chief of the Ricares who accompanied us to the Mandins, at 2 miles (2) passed the 2nd Villages of the Manden, which was in existance at the Same time with the 1st this village is at the foot of a hill on the S. S. on a butifull &extensive plain — at this time Covered with Buffalow — a Cloudy afternoon, I killed a fine Buffalow, we Camped on the L. S. verry Cold ground Covered with Snow. one orter KIM.



[Clark, October 22, 1804]

22nd of October 1804 last night at about 1 oClock I was violently attacked with Rhumetism in my neck, which was so violently I could not move, Cap L. applied a hot Stone raped in flannel which gave temperry ease, we passed a War party of Tetons on their way as we Supposed to the Mandans of 12 men on the L. S. we gave them nothing and refused to put them across the river, passed 2 old Villages at the mouth of a large Creek L. S and a Small Island at the head of which is a bad place, an old Village on the S. S. and the upper of the 6 Villages the Mandans occupied about 25 years ago this village was entirely cut off by the Sioux & one of the others nearly, the Small Pox distroyed great Numbers



[Clark, October 22, 1804]

22nd October Monday 1804 last night at 1 oClock I was violently and Suddinly attacked with the Rhumitism in the neck which was So violent I could not move Capt. applied a hot Stone raped in flannel, which gave me some temporry ease,-. we Set out early, the morning Cold at 7 oClock we Came too at a Camp of Teton Seaux on the L. S. those people 12 in number were naikd and had the appearanc of war, we have every reason to believ that they are going or have been to Steel horses from the Mandins, they tell two Stories, we gave them nothing after takeing brackfast proceeded on — my Neck is yet verry painfull at times Spasms.

Camped on the L Side, passed an Island Situated on the L. Side at the head of which & Mandans village S. S. we passd a bad place — The hunters killed a buffalow bull, they Say out of about 300 buffalow which they Saw, they did not See one Cow. Great Deel of Beaver Sign. Several Cought every night.



[Clark, October 23, 1804]

23rd of October 1804 Some Snow, passed 5 Lodges fortified the place the two french men were robed Those are the hunting Camps of the mandans, who has latterly left them. we camped on the L. S.



[Clark, October 23, 1804]

23rd of October Tuesday 1804 a cloudy morning Some Snow Set out early pass five Lodges which was Diserted, the fires yet burning we Suppose those were the Indians who robed the 2 french Trappers a fiew days ago those 2 men are now with us going up with a view to get their property from the Indians thro us. cold & Cloudy camped on The L. S. of the river



[Clark, October 24, 1804]

24th of October Cloudy Some little Snow (my Rhumetism Continue, not So bad as the 2 last days,) a butufull Countrey on both Sides, bottoms covered with wood, we See no game to day, passed an old village of a Band of Me ne tarres Called Mah har ha where they lived 40 year ago on the L. S. Came too on an Island Caused by the river cutting through a narrow point 7 years ago, on this Island we wer visited by the grand Chief of the mandans a 2d Chief and Some other, who wer Camped on the Island, those Chief met our Ricarra Chief with great Corduallity, & Smoked together Cap Lewis Visited the Camps 5 Lodges, and proceeded on & Camped near a 2d Camp of Mandans on the S. S. nearly opposit the old Ricara & Manden Village which the Ricarras abandaned in the year 1789



[Clark, October 24, 1804]

24th October Wednesday 1804 Set out early a Cloudy day Some little Snow in the morning I am Something better of the Rhumutim in my neck — a butifull Countrey on both Sides of the river. The bottoms Covd. with wood, we have Seen no game on the river to day a prof of the Indians hunting in the neighbourhod (1) passed a Island on the S. S. made by the river Cutting through a point, by which the river is Shortened Several miles — on this Isld. we Saw one of the Grand Chiefs of the Mandins, with five Lodges hunting, this Cheif met the Chief of the Ricares who accompanied us with great Cordiallity & Sermony Smoked the pipe & Capt. Lewis with the Interpeter went with the Chiefs to his Lodges at 1 mile distant, after his return we admited the Grand Chief & his brother for a few minits on our boat. proceeded on a Short distance and Camped on the S. S. below the old Village of the Mandins & ricares. — Soon after our landg. 4 Mandins Came from a Camp above, the Ricares Chief went with them to their Camp,

25th of October Thursday 1804. a Gentle Breeze from the S. E by E passed an (1) old Village on a high Plain where the Mandans onced lived & after they left the Village & moved higher the Ricaras took possession & live until 1799 when they abandoned it & flew from the just revenge of the Mandans, a verry extensive Bottom above the Village above the Center of which (2) the Mandans lived in the 2 villages on the L. 5., but little timber- Several parties of Indians on each Side of the River going up. in view in every directions — we are informed that the Sioux has latterly taken horses from the Big Bellies or Minitaries and on their way homerwards they fell in with the Assinniboins who killed them and took the horses & a frenchman Menard who resided with the Mandan for 20 years past was Killed a fiew days ago on his way from the Britishment astablishments on the Assineboin River, 150 miles N. of this place to the mandans by the assinniboin Indians — we were frequently Called to by parties of Indians & requested to land & talk, passed a verry bad place & Camped on a Point S S. opposit a high hill Several Indians visit us this evening the Sun of the late great Chief of the Mandans who had 2 of his fingers off and appeared to be pearced in maney places on inquiring the reason, was informed that it was a testimony to their grief for Deceased freinds, they frequently Cut off Sevral fingers & pierced themselves in Different parts, a Mark of Savage effection, wind hard from the S. W. verry Cold R Fields with a Rhumitisum in his Neck one man R. in his hips my Self much better, Those Indians appear to have Similar Customs with the Ricaras, their Dress the Same more mild in their language & justures &c. &c.



[Clark, October 25, 1804]

25th of October Thursday 1804 a Cold morning Set out early under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. by E proceeded on, passed (1) the 3rd old Village of the Mandans which has been Desd. for many years, This village was Situated on an eminance of about 40 foot above the water on the L. S. back for Several miles is a butifull plain (2) at a Short distance above this old village on a Continuation of the Same eminance was Situated the which have been avacuated only Six years, above this village a large and extensive bottom for Several miles in which the Squars raised ther Corn, but little timber near the villages, on the S. S. below is a point of excellent timber, and in the point Several miles above is fine timber, Several parties of Mandins rode to the river on the S. S. to view us indeed they are continuelly in Sight Satisying their Curiossities as to our apperance &c. we are told that the Seaux has latterly fallen in with & Stole the horses of the Big belley, on their way home they fell in with the Ossiniboin who killed them and took the horses — a frenchman has latterly been killed by the Indians on the Track to the tradeing establishment on the Ossinebine R. in the North of this place (or British fort) This frenchman has lived many years with the Mandins — we were frequently called on to land & talk to parties of the Mandins on the Shore, wind Shifted to the S. W at about 11 oClock and blew hard untill 3 OCk. clouded up river full of Sand bars & we are at a great loss to find the Channel of the river, frequently run on the Sand bars which Detain us much passed a verry bad riffle of rocks in the evining by takeing the L. S. of a Sand bar and Camped on a Sand point on the S. S. opposit a high hill on the L. S. Several Indians Come to See us this evening, amongst others the Sun of the late great Cheif of the Mandins, this man has his two little fingers off; on inqureing the Cause, was told it was Customary for this nation to Show their greaf by Some testimony of pain, and that it was not uncommon for them to take off 2 Smaller fingers of the hand and Some times more with ther marks of Savage effection The wind blew verry hard this evening from the S. W. verry Cold

R. Fields with the rhumitim in his neck, P. Crusat with the Same Complaint in his Legs — the party other wise is well, as to my Self I feel but Slight Simptoms of that disorder at this time,



[Clark, October 26, 1804]

26th of October 1804 wind from the S. E we Set the Ricara Chief on Shore with Some Mandans, many on each Side veiwing of us, we took in 2 Chiefs (Coal and Big Man) and halted a feiw minits at their Camps, on the L. S. fortified in their way, here we Saw a trader from the Ossinniboin River Called McCracken, this man arrived 9 day ago with goods to trade for horses & Roabs one other man with him — we Camped on the L. Side a Short distanc below the r st rnandan village on the L. S. many men women & Children flocked down to See us — Capt Lewis walked to the Village with the Chief and interpeters, my Rheumitism increasing prevented me from going also, and we had Deturmined that both would not leave the boat at the Same time untill we Knew the Desposition of the Nativs, Some Chieef visited me & I Smoked with them — they appeared delighted with the Steel Mill which we were obliged to use, also with my black Servent, Capt Lewis returned late



[Clark, October 26, 1804]

26th of October Friday 1804 Set out early wind from the S W proceeded on Saw numbers of the Mandins on Shore, we Set the Ricare Chief on Shore, and we proceeded on to the Camp of two of their Grand Chiefs where we delayed a fiew minits, with the Chiefs and proceeded on takeing two of their Chiefs on board & Some of the heavy articles of his house hole, Such as earthen pots & Corn, proceeded on, at this Camp Saw a McCracken Englishmon from the N. W Company this mana Came nine Days ago to trade for horses & Buffalo robes, — one other man Came with him. the Indians Continued on the banks all day — but little wood on this part of the river, many Sand bars and bad places, water much devided between them

for the 26th. Octr. we came too and Camped on the L. S. about 1/2 a mile below the ist. Manddin Town on the L. S. Soon after our arrival many men womin & Children flocked down to See us, Capt Lewis walked to the village with the principal Chiefs and our interpters, my rhumatic Complaint increasing I could not go — if I was well only one would have left the Boat & party untill we new the Disposition of the Inds. I Smoked with the Cheifs who Came after. Those people apd much pleased with the Corn mill which we were obliged to use, & was fixed in the boat.



[Clark, October 27, 1804]

27th of October Satturday 1804 we Set out early and Came too at the village on the L. S. where we delayed a few minits, I walked to a Chiefs Logg & Smoked with them, but Could not eat, which did displease them a little, here I met with a Mr. Jessomme, who lived in this nation 13 years, I got him to interpet & he proceedd on with us we proceeded on to a Centeral point opposit the Knife River, & formed a Camp on the S. S. above the 2d Mandan village & opsd. the Mah-har-ha village — and raised a flag Staff — Capt Lewis & the Intepeters walked down to the 2d Village of Mandans, & returned in about an hour, we Sent 3 Carrotes of tobacco to the other villages & enviting them to come down and Council with us tomorrow, — we endeaver to precure Some Knowledge of the principal Chiefs of the Different nations &. — well to give my ideas as to the impression thais man makes on me is a Cunin artfull an insoncear — he tels me he was once empld. by my brother in the Illinois & of his description I conceve as a Spye upon the British of Michillinicknac & St Joseph,s we think he may be made use full to us & do employ him as an interpeter — no. of Indians bring their wives &c. to the campes of our party on Shore &c.



[Clark, October 27, 1804]

27th of October Satturday 1804 we Set out arly Came too at this Village on the L. S. this village is Situated on an eminance of about 50 feet above the Water in a handson Plain it Containes houses in a kind of Picket work. the houses are round and Verry large Containing Several families, as also their horses which is tied on one Side of the enterance, a Discription of those houses will be given hereafter, I walked up & Smoked a pipe with the Cheifs of this Village they were anxious that I would Stay and eat with them, my indisposition provented my eating which displeased them, untill a full explination took place, I returned to the boat and Sent 2 Carrots of Tobacco for them to Smoke, and proceeded on, passed the 2d Village and Camped opsd. the Village of the Weter Soon or ah wah bar ways which is Situated on an eminance in a plain on the L. S. this Village is Small and Contains but fiew inhabitents. above this village & also above the Knife river on the Same Side of the Missouri the Big bellies Towns are Situated a further Discription will be given here after as also of the Town of Mandans on this Side of the river i e S. Side

a fine worm Day we met with a french man by the name of jassamme which we imploy as an interpeter This man has a wife & Children in the Village — Great numbers on both Sides flocked down to the bank to view us as wee passed.

Capt. Lewis with the Interpetr. walked down to the village below our Camp After delaying one hour he returned and informed me the Indians had returned to their village &c., &c., we Sent three Carrots of Tobacco by three young men, to the three Villages above inviting them to come Down & Council with us tomorrow. many Indians Came to view us Some Stayed all night in the Camp of our party — we procured Some information of Mr. Jessomme of the Chiefs of the Different Nations



[Clark, October 28, 1804]

28th of October 1804 the wind So hard from the S. W. We could not meet the Indians in Councils, those who visited us we Sent to the nearest village, Consulted the Black Cat M Chief about the Chiefs of the Different Villages, who gave his Oppinion to us.



[Clark, October 28, 1804]

Sunday 28th of October 1804 a windey Day, fair and Clear many of the Grosvantres (or Big Bellies) and Watersons Came to See us and hear the Council the wind being So violently hard from the S. W. provented our going into Councel, (indeed the Chiefs of the Manodans from the lower Village Could not Cross, we made up the presents and entertained Several of the Curious Cheifs whome, wished to See the Boat which was verry Curious to them viewing it as great medison, as they also viewed my black Servent The Black Cat Grand Chief of the Mandans, Capt Lewis & my Self with an Interpeter walked up the river about 11/2 miles our views were to examine the Situation & Timbers for a fort, we found the Situation good but the Timber Scerce, or at least Small timbr Such as would answer us-, we Cunsulted the Grand Chief in respect to the other Chiefs of the Defferent Villages he gave the names of 12 — George Drewyer Cought 2 Beaver above our Camp last night, we had Several presents from the Woman of Corn boild homney, Soft Corn &c. &c. I prosent ajar to the Chiefs wife who recved it with much pleasure our men verry Chearfull this evening — we Sent the Cheifs of the Gross Vantres to Smoke a pipe with the Grand Chef of the Mandins in his Village, & told them we would Speek tomorrow.



[Clark, October 29, 1804]

29th of October 1804 a fine morning after Brackfast we were Visited by the Old Chief of the Big Bellies or me ne tar res, this Man has Given his power to his Son who is now on a war party against the Snake Indians who inhabit the Rockey Mountains, the S W wind verry high — we met in Council under an orning and our Sales Stretched round to keep out as much wind as possible & Delivered a long Speach Similar to what had been Said to the nations below, the old Chief was restless before the Speech was half ended, observed his Camp was exposed & could wait no longer &c. at the Conclusion of the Speach we mentioned the Ricaras & requested them to make a peace & Smoke out of the Sacred Stem with their Chief which I intreduced and gave him the pipe of peace to hand around, they all Smoked with eagerness out of the pipe held by the Ricara Chief Ar-ke-tar-na-Shar we mentioned our hands that were to be discharged here, also the roberrey commited on th 2 french men below, & requested them to answere us tomorrow, gave the Chief Small preasents and a fiew presents for each village Shot the air gun which both Surprised and astonished the nativs, and Soon dispersed

our Ricara Chief Came told me he wished to return to his nation tomorrow I put him off & Said we would Send a talk by him after the Chiefs had Spoken to us — we gave a Steel mill to the mandans which was verry pleasing to them

The Chief who recved Medals to Day are as follows viz-in Council

The Grand village of Manetarres, The One Eye is the principal Chief and he is out on a hunting party. we Send by the Grape all the articles for this grand Chief and all the Village what goods was intended for that Village — The Prarie got on fire and went with Such Violenc & Speed as to Catch a man & woman & burn them to Death, Several escapd. among other a Small boy who was Saved by getting under a green Buffalow Skin, this boy was half white, & the Indians Say all white flesh is medisan, they Say the grass was not burnt where the boy Sat &c. &. this fire passed us at 8 oClock, and lookd truly tremendious.



[Clark, October 29, 1804]

29th October Monday 1804 a fair fine morning after Brackfast we were visited by the old Cheaf of the Big bellies or ____ this man was old and had transfered his power to his Sun, who was then out at war against the Snake Indians who inhabit the rockey mountains — at 10 oClock the S W. wind rose verry high, we Collected the Chiefs and Commened a Council ounder a Orning and our Sales Stretched around to Keep out as much wind as possible, we delivered a long Speech the Substance of which Similer to what we had Delivered to the nations below. the old Chief of the Grossanters was verry restless before the Speech was half ended observed that he Could not wait long that his Camp was exposed to the hostile Indians, &c. &. he was rebuked by one of the Chiefs for his uneasiness at Such a time as the present, we at the end of the Speech mentioned the Ricare who Accompanied us to make a firm peace, they all Smoked with him (I gave this Cheaf a Dollar of the American Coin as a Meadel with which he was much pleased) In Councel we prosented him with a Certificate of his Sincrrity and good Conduct &c. we also Spoke about the fur which was taken from 2 french men by a Mandan, and informd of our intentions of Sending back the french hands — after the Council we gave the presents with much Seremoney, and put the Meadels on the Cheifs we intended to make viz. one for each Town to whome we gave Coats hats & flags, one Grand Cheif to each nation to whome we gave meadels with the presidents likeness in Councel we requested them to give us an answer tomorrow or as Soon as possible to Some points which required their Deliberation- after the Council was over we Shot the Air gun which appeared to assonish the nativs much, the greater part them retired Soon after

The Ricare Cheaf Ar-ke-tar-na-shar Came to me this evening and tells me that he wishes to return to his Village & nation, I put him off Saying tomorrow we would have an answer, to our talk to the Satisfaction & Send by him a String of wompom informing what had passed here. a Iron or Steel Corn Mill which we gave to the Mandins, was verry Thankfully recived — (rte The Prarie was Set on fire (or Cought by accident) by a young man of the Mandins, the fire went with Such velocity that it burnt to death a man and woman, who Could not Get to any place of Safty, one man a woman & Child much burnt and Several narrowly escaped the flame — a boy half white was Saved un hurt in the midst of the flaim, Those ignerent people Say this boy was Saved by the great Spirit medisin because he was white — The Cause of his being Saved was a Green buffalow Skin was thrown over him by his mother who perhaps had more fore Sight for the pertection of her Son, and less for herself than those who escaped the flame, the Fire did not burn under the Skin leaving the grass round the boy This fire passed our Camp last about 8 oClock P.M. it went with great rapitidity and looked Tremendious

The following Chiefs were made in Councel to day

Mar-too-ton-ha or Lower Village of the Mandans 1st Cheif Sha-ha-ka or Big White 2 do Ka-goh-ha-mi or Little raven

Roop-tar-hee or Second Village of the Mandans 1st and Grand Cheif-Pass-cop-sa-he or black Cat 2nd Cheif Car-gar-no-mok-She raven man Cheaf

Mah-har-ha 3rd Village Chief Ta-tuck-co-pin-re-ha (white Buffalow robe unfolded)

Me-ne-tar-re Me-te har-tar 1st Cheif-Omp-se-ha-ra. Black Mockersons 2 do. Oh-harh or Little fox

we Sent the presents intended for the Grand Chief of the Mi-ne-tar-re or Big Belley, and the presents flag and wompoms by the Old Chief and those, and those intended for the Cheif of the Lower Village by a young Cheif

The following Cheifs were recommended in addition to those Viz.

1st Village Oh-hee-nar Big Man — a Chien Sho-ta-har ro-ra

2d Village Taw nish-e-o — Bel-lar sa ra Ar-rat-ta na-mock-She — Wolf Man Chief

3rd Village Min-nis-Sur-ra-ree (Neighing horse) Lo-tong-gar-ti har — old woman at a distance

4th Village Mar-noh-tah the big Steeler Man-se-rus-se — tale of Callumet bird

5th Village Ad hako ho pin nee Little Wolfs medisons Ar-rat-toe-no mook-gu (man wolf Chief) (at war) Cal-tar co ta — (Cherry grows on a bush) old Chief and father to the above mentd. Chief Maw-pah'-pir-re-cos-sa too — This chief is near this hunting and a verry Considerable man

To the 1st Chiefs we gave a medal with the Imp. of the President of the U S. To the 2d Chiefs a medal of weaveing & Domestic animals. To the 3rd Chiefs a medal with the impression of a man Sowing wheat.

4th Village 1 Ea pa no pa — Two taled Calumet bird young Chief 2 War he ras sa the red Shield young Chief of Big belley-big town



[Clark, October 30, 1804]

30th of October Tuesday 1804 many Indian Chief visit us today I went in th Perogou to the Island 7 miles above to look out a proper place for to winter, it being near the tim the ice begins to run at this place, and the Countrey after a few leagues high is Said to be barron of timber, I found no place Soutable, & we concluded to drop down to th next point below & build a fort to winter in the Party Danced which Delited the Indians.



[Clark, October 30, 1804]

30th October Tuesday 1804 Two Chiefs came to have Some talk one the princapal of the lower Village the other the one who thought himself the principal mane, & requested to hear Some of the Speech that was Delivered yesterday they were gratified, and we put the medal on the neck of the Big White to whome we had Sent Clothes yesterday & a flag, those men did not return from hunting in time to join the Counell, they were well pleased (2d of those is a Chien) I took 8 men in a Small perogue and went up the river as far as the 1st Island about 7 miles to See if a Situation Could be got on it for our Winter quarters, found the wood on the Isd. as also on the pt. above So Distant from the water that, I did not think that we Could get a good wintering ground there, and as all the white men here informed us that wood was Sceres, as well as game above, we Deturmined to drop down a fiew miles near wood and game on my return found maney Inds. at our Camp, gave the party a dram, they Danced as is verry Comn. in the evening which pleased the Savages much. Wind S. E



[Clark, October 30, 1804]

Mandans

Ka gar no mogh ge the 2d Chief of the 2d Village of Mandins Came the 30t of Octr. and Spoke to us as follows. Viz

Will you be So good as to go to the Village the Grand Chief will Speek & give Some Corn, if you will let Some men take bags it will be well. I am going with, the Chief of the ricares to Smoke a pipe with that nation — I concluded to go down

Mockerson Indians

The principal Chief of the Wau to Soon Came and Spoke a fiew words on Various Subjects not much to the purpose. we Smoked and after my Shooting the air gun he departed, Those nations know nothing of reagular Councils, and know not how to proceed in them, they are restless &c-



[Clark, October 31, 1804]

31st of October Wednesday 1804 The main Chief of the mandans Sent 2 Cheifs for to envite us to Come to his Lodge, and here what he has to Say I with 2 interpetes walked down, and with great Cerimony was Seated on a Robe by the Side of the Chief; he threw a Robe highly decoraterd over my Sholders, and after Smokeing a pipe with the old men in the Circle, the Chief Spoke he belived all we had told him, and that peace would be genl. which not only gave himself Satisfaction but all his people; they now Could hunt without fear & their women could work in the fields without looking every moment for the ememey, as to the Ricaras addressing himself to the Chief with me you know we do not wish war with your nation, you have brought it on your Selves, that man Pointing to the 2d Chief and those 2 young warriers will go with you & Smoke in the pipes of peace with the Ricaras — I will let you see my father addressing me that we wish to be at peace with all and do not make war upon any — he continud to Speak in this Stile (refer to notes) he delivered 2 of the Traps to me which was taken from the french men, gave me 2 bushels of Corn, I answered the Speech which appeared to give general Satisfactionand returned to the boat, In the evening the Chief Visited us Dressed in his new Suit, &delayed untill late the men Dancd untill 10 oClock which was common with them wrote to the N W Copanys agent on the Ossinniboin River by a Mr. McCruckin.



[Clark, October 31, 1804]

31st of October Wednesday 1804 a fine morning, the Chief of the Mandans Sent a 2d Chief to invite us to his Lodge to recive Some Corn & here what he had to Say I walked down and with great ceremoney was Seeted on a roab by the Side of the Chief, he threw a handsom Roabe over me and after smokeing the pipe with Several old men arround, the Chief Spoke Said he believed what we had told them, and that peace would be general, which not only gave him Satisfaction but all his people, they now Could hunt without fear, & ther womin Could work in the fields without looking everry moment for the Enemey, and put off their mockersons at night, as to the Reares we will Show you that we wish peace with all, and do not make war on any without Cause, that Chief pointing to the 2d and Some brave men will accompy. the Ricare Chief now with you to his village & nation, to Smoke with that people, when you Came up the Indians in the neighbouring Villages, as well as those out hunting when they heard of you had great expectations of reciving presents they those hunting imediately on hearing returned to the Village and all was Disapointed, and Some Dessatisfied, as to himself he was not much So but his Village was — he would go and See his great father &c. &c.

he had put before me 2 of the Steel traps which was robed from the french a Short tim ago. about 12 bushels of Corn which was brought and put before me by the womin of the Village after the Chief finished & Smoked in great cerrimony, I answered the Speech which Satisfied them verry much and returned to the boat. met the princapal Chief of the 3d Village and the Little Crow both of which I invited into the Cabin and Smoked & talked with for about one hour. Soon after those Chiefs left us the Grand Chief of the Mandans Came Dressed in the Clothes we had given with his 2 Small Suns, and requested to See the men Dance which they verry readily gratified him in, — the wind blew hard all the after part of the day from the N E and Continud all night to blow hard from that point, in the mornig it Shifed N W. Capt Lewis wrote to the N W Companys agent on the Orsineboine River abt. North of this place



[Clark, October 31, 1804]

black Cat or Pose-cop-sa-he 1st Chief of the Mandans & 2d Village

"I believe what you have told us in Council, & that peace will be general, which not only givs me pleasure, but Satisfaction to all the nation, they now Can hunt without fear, and our womin Can work in the fields without looking every moment for the enimey-" as to the Ricares we will Show you that we wish piace with all, and do not make war on any with out Cause, that Chief pointing to the 2d of the Village and Some young men will accompany the Ricrea Chief home to his Nation to Smoke with that people — When the Indians of the Different Villages heard of your Comeing up they all Came in from hunting to See, they expected Great presents. they were disapointed, and Some dissatisfied- as to my Self I am not much So, but my Village are — he believed the roade was open; and he would go and See his great father — he Delivered Up 2 Traps which had been taken from the french, & gave me a roabe & about 12 bushels of Corn — & smoked &c

I answered the Speech it explained, many parts which he Could not understand-of the Speech of yesterday.



[Lewis, October 31, 1804]

Wednesday October 31st 1804. The river being very low and the season so far advanced that it frequently shuts up with ice in this climate we determined to spend the Winter in this neighbourhood, accordingly Capt. Clark with a party of men reconnoitred the countrey for some miles above our encampment; he returned in the evening without having succeed in finding an eligible situation for our purpose.



[Clark, November 1, 1804]

1 November 1804 Visited by Several Chiefs of the lower Village who requested we would call on them &c. Spoke to the Same purpote with the Grand Chief. we Set out in the evening & I with the Party droped down to the place we intended to winter & Cap Lewis called at the Village 3 miles above &. &.



[Clark, November 1, 1804]

1st of November Thursday 1804 the wind hard from the N W. Mr. McCrackin a Trader Set out at 7 oClock to the fort on the Ossiniboin by him Send a letter, (incloseing a Copy of the British Ministers protection) to the principal agent of the Company — at about 10 OClock the Cheifs of the Lower Village Cam and after a Short time informed us they wished they would us to call at their village & take Some Corn, that they would make peace with the Ricares they never made war against them but after the rees Killed their Chiefs they killed them like the birds, and were tired and would Send a Chief and Some brave men to the Ricares to Smoke with that people in the evening we Set out and fell down to the lower Village where Capt. Lewis got out and continud at the Village untill after night I proceeded on & landed on the S. S. at the upper point of the 1st Timber on the Starboard Side after landing & Continuinge — all night droped down to a proper place to build Capt Lewis Came down after night, and informed me he intended to return the next morning by the perticular Request of the Chiefs.

We passed the Villages on our Decent in veiw of Great numbers of the inhabitents



[Clark, November 1, 1804]

The 1st of Novr. Mandins is Village the Main Chief Big White & 2 others i e the Big Man or Sha-ha-ca and ____ Came early to talk, and Spoke as follows, after Smoking, Viz.

Is it Certain that the ricares intend to make good with us our wish is to be at peace with all, we will Send a Chief with the pania Chief and Some young men to Smoke and make good peace-? are you going to Stay abov or below this Cold. — answer by C. L We are going down a few miles to look a place we can find no place abov proper.

The panias know's we do not begin the war, they allway begin, we Sent a Chief and a pipe to the Pania to Smoke and they killed them-, we have killed enough of them we kill them like the birds, we do not wish to kill more, we will, make a good peace

We were Sorry when we heard of your going up but now you are going down, we are glad, if we eat you Shall eat, if we Starve you must Starve also, our village is too far to bring the Corn to you, but we hope you will Call on us as you pass to the place you intend to Stop

C L answered the above-



[Lewis, November 1, 1804]

Thursday November 1st 1804 The wind blew so violently during the greater part of this day that we were unable to quit our encampment; in the evening it abated; — we droped down about seven miles and land on N. E. side of the river at a large point of Woodland.



[Clark, November 2, 1804]

2nd Novr. 1804 Friday — Capt Lewis returned to the Village & I fixed on a place for to build a fort and Set to work Cap Lewis returned in the eveng with 11 bushels of Corn, the Ricarre Chief Set out for his Village accompanied by Several mandans



[Clark, November 2, 1804]

2nd November Friday 1804 This morning at Day light I went down the river with 4 men to look for a proper place to winter proceeded down the river three miles & found a place well Supld. with wood, & returned, Capt. Lewis went to the village to here what they had to Say & I fell down, and formed a camp near where a Small Camp of Indian were huntig Cut down the Trees around our Camp, in the evening Capt. Lewis returned with a present of 11 bushels of Corn, our recaree Chief Set out acccompanied by one Chief and Several Brave men, he Called for Some Small article which we had given but as I could not understand him he Could not get. the wind from the S. E. a fine day — many Indians to day



[Lewis, November 2, 1804]

Friday November 2nd 1804" This morning early we fixed on the site for our fortification which we immediately set about.

This place we have named Fort Mandan in honour of our Neighbours.



[Clark, November 3, 1804]

3rd of November Satturday 1804 wind hard from the west Commence building our Cabins, Dispatched 6 hunters in a perogue Down the River to hunt, Discharged the french hands, Mr. Jessomme his Squar & child moved to camp, the little Crow loaded his Squar with meat for us also a Roabe, we gave the Squar an ax & &. Cought 2 bever near Camp



[Clark, November 3, 1804]

3rd of November Satterday 1804 a fine morning wind hard from the West we commence building our Cabins, Send Down in Perogue 6 men to hunt Engaged one man, Set the french who intend to return to build a perogue, many Indians pass to hunt, Mr. Jessomme with his Squar & Children. come Down to live, as Interpter, we recive a hors for our Sirvice, in the evening the Ka goh ha mi or little ravin Came & brought us on his Squar about 60 Wt. of Dried Buffalow meat a roabe, & Pot of Meal &. they Delayed all night- we gave his Squar an ax & a fiew Small articles & himself a piece of Tobacco, the Men were indulged with a Dram, this evening two Beaver Cought This morning — and one Trap Lost



[Clark, November 4, 1804]

4th of Novr. a french man by Name Chabonah, who Speaks the Big Belley language visit us, he wished to hire & informed us his 2 Squars were Snake Indians, we engau him to go on with us and take one of his wives to interpet the Snake language The Indians Horses & Dogs live in the Same Lodge with themselves



[Clark, November 4, 1804]

4th November Sunday 1804 Fort Mandan a fine morning we Continued to Cut Down trees and raise our houses, a Mr. Chaubonee, interpeter for the Gross Vintre nation Came to See us, and informed that he came Down with Several Indians from a Hunting expedition up the river, to here what we had told the Indians in Councl this man wished to hire as an interpeter, the wind rose this evining from the East & Clouded up — Great numbers of Indians pass hunting and Some on the return-



[Clark, November 5, 1804]

5th November Monday 1804 I rose verry early and commenced raising the 2 range of Huts the timber large and heavy all to Carry on Hand Sticks, Cotton wood & Elm Som ash Small, our Situation Sandy, great numbers of Indians pass to and from hunting a Camp of Mandans, A fiew miles below us Cought within two days 100 Goat, by Driveing them in a Strong pen, derected by a Bush fence widening from the pen &c. &. the Greater part of this day Cloudy, wind moderate from the N. W. I have the Rhumitism verry bad, Cap Lewis writeing all Day — we are told by our interpeter that 4 Ossiniboin Indians, have arrived at the Camps of the Gross Venters & 50 Lodges are Comeing



[Clark, November 6, 1804]

6th of Nov. Mr. Gravolin our Ricara Interpreter & 2 of our french hands & 2 boys Set out in a Canoe for the Ricaras Mr. ravellin is to accompany the Ricaras Chiefs to the City of Washington in the Spring, Great numbers of Geese pass to the South which is a certain approach of ice



[Clark, November 6, 1804]

6th November Tuesday 1804 Fort Mandan last night late we wer awoke by the Sergeant of the Guard to See a nothern light, which was light, not red, and appeared to Darken and Some times nearly obscered, and open, many times appeared in light Streeks, and at other times a great Space light & containing floating Collomns which appeared opposite each other & retreat leaveing the lighter Space at no time of the Same appearence

This morning I rose a Day light the Clouds to the North appeared black at 8 oClock the wind begun to blow hard from the N W. and Cold, and Continud all Day Mr. Jo Gravilin our ricare interpeter Paul premor, Lajuness & 2 french Boys, who Came with us, Set out in a Small perogue, on their return to the ricaree nation & the Illinois, Mr. Gravilin has instructions to take on the recarees in the Spring &c. — Continue to build the huts, out of Cotton Timber, &c. this being the only timber we have.



[Clark, November 7, 1804]

7th November Wednesday 1804 a termperate day we continued to building our hut, Cloudy and fogging all day



[Clark, November 8, 1804]

8th Novr. Thursday 1804 a Cloudy morning Jussome our interpreter went to the Village, on his return he informed us that three English men had arrived from the Hudsons Bay Company, and would be here tomorrow, we Contd. to build our huts, many Indians Come to See us and bring their horses to Grass near us



[Clark, November 9, 1804]

9th Novr. Friday 1804 a verry hard frost this morning we Continue to build our Cabens, under many disadvantages, Day Cloudy wind from the N W. Several Indians pass with flying news, we got a White weasel, (Taile excepted which was black at the end) of an Indian Capt Lewis walked to the hill abt. 3/4 of a mile — we are Situated in a point of the Missouri North Side in a Cotton wood Timber, this Timber is tall and heavy Containing an imence quantity of water Brickle & Soft food for Horses to winter (as is Said by the Indians) The Mandans Graze their horses in the day on Grass, and at night give them a Stick of Cotton wood to eate, Horses Dogs & people all pass the night in the Same Lodge or round House, Covd. with earth with a fire in the middle great number of wild gees pass to the South, flew verry high



[Clark, November 10, 1804]

10th November Satturday 1804 rose early continued to build our fort numbers of Indians Came to See us a Chief Half Partia & brought a Side of a Buffalow, in return We Gave Some fiew small things to himself & wife & Son, he Crossed the river in the Buffalow Skin Canoo & and, the Squar took the Boat and proceeded on to the Town 3 miles the Day raw and Cold wind from the N W, the Gees Continue to pass in gangues as also brant to the South, Some Ducks also pass



[Clark, November 11, 1804]

11th November Sunday 1804 Fort Mandan a Cold Day Continued at work at the Fort Two men Cut themselves with an ax, The large Ducks pass to the South an Indian gave me Several roles of parched meal two Squars of the Rock Mountain, purchased from the Indians by a frenchmen Came down The Mandans out hunting the Buffalow



[Clark, November 12, 1804]

12th November Monday 1804 a verry Cold night early this morning the Big White princapal Chief of the lower Village of the Mandans Came Down, he packd about 100 W. of fine meet on his Squar for us, we made Some Small presents to the Squar, & Child gave a Small ax which She was much pleased — 3 men Sick with the ____ Several, Wind Changeable verry cold evening, freesing all day Some ice on the edges of the river.

Swans passing to the South, the Hunters we Sent down the river to hunt has not returned

The interpeter Says that the Mandan nation as they old men Say Came out of a Small lake where they had Gardins, maney years ago they lived in Several Villages on the Missourie low down, the Smallpox destroyed the greater part of the nation and reduced them to one large Village and Some Small ones, all nations before this maladey was affrd. of them after they were reduced the Sioux and other Indians waged war, and killed a great maney, and they moved up the Missourie, those Indians Still continued to wage war, and they moved Still higher, untill they got in the Countrey of the Panias, whith this ntn. they lived in friendship maney years, inhabiting the Same neighbourhood untill that people waged war, They moved up near the watersoons & winataree where they now live in peace with those nations, the mandans Specke a language peculial to themselves

they can rase about 350 men, the Winatarees about 80 and the Big bellies about 600 or 650 men. the mandans and Seauex have the Same word for water-The Big bellies Winitarees & ravin Indians Speake nearly the Same language and the presumption is they were origionally the Same nation The Ravin Indians have 400 Lodges & about 1200 men, & follow the Buffalow, or hunt for their Subsistance in the plains & on the Court not & Rock Mountains, & are at war with the Sioux Snake Indians

The Big bellies & Watersoons are at war with the Snake Indians & Seauex, and were at war with the Ricares untill we made peace a fiew days passd. — The Mandans are at War with all who make war on them, at present with the Seauex only, and wish to be at peace with all nations, Seldom the agressors-



[Clark, November 13, 1804]

13th The Ice begin to run we move into our hut, visited by the Grand Chief of the Mandans, and Che chark Lagru a Chief of the Assinniboins & 7 men of that Nation, I Smoke with them and gave the Chief a Cord & a Carrot of Tobacco — this Nation rove in the Plains above this and trade with the British Companes on the Ossinniboin River, they are Divided into Several bands, the decendants of the Sioux & Speak nearly their langguage a bad disposed Set & Can raies about moo men in the 3 bands near this place, they trade with the nations of this neighbourhood for horses Corn & Snow all Day Capt. L. at the village.



[Clark, November 13, 1804]

13th Novr. Tuesday 1804 The Ice began to run in the river 1/2 past 10 oClock P. M we rose early & onloaded the boat before brackfast except, the Cabin, & Stored away in a Store house — at 10 oClock A M the Black Cat the Mandin Chief and Lagru Che Chark Chief & 7 men of note visited us at Fort Mandan, I gave him a twist of Tobacco to Smoke with his people & a Gold Cord with a view to Know him again, The nation Consists of about 600 men, hunt in the Plains & winter and trade on the Ossiniboin River, they are Decendants of the Siaux and Speake their language, they Come to the nations to this quarter to trade or (make preasthts) for horses the method of this Kind of Trafick by addoption Shall be explained hereafter &, Snow'd all day, the Ice ran thick and air Cold.



[Clark, November 14, 1804]

Fort Mandan 14th of November Wednesday 1804 a Cloudy morning, ice runing verry thick river rose 1/2 Inch last night Some Snow falling, only two Indians visit us to day Owing to a Dance at the Village last night in Concluding a Serimoney of adoption, and interchange of property, between the Ossiniboins, Christinoes and the nations of this neighbourhood — we Sent one man by land on hors back to know the reason of the Delay of our hunters, this evening 2 french men who were traping below Came up-with 20 beaver we are compelled to use our Pork which we doe Spearingly for fear of Some falur in precureing a Sufficiency from the Woods.

our Interpeter informs that 70 Lodges one of 3 bands of Assinniboins & Some Crestinoes, are at the Mandan Village. The Crrirstinoes are abt. 300 men Speak the Chipaway-Language, the live near Fort De peare



[Clark, November 15, 1804]

15th of November Thursday 1804 a Cloudy morning, the ice run much thicker than yesterday at 10 oClock G Drewyer & the frenchman we Dispatched yesterday came up from the Hunters, who is incamped about 30 miles below — after a about one hour we Dispatched a man with orders to the hunters to proceed on without Delay thro the floating ice, we Sent by the man Tin, to put on the parts of the Perogue exposed to the ice & a toe roape — The wind Changeable — all hands work at their huts untill 1 oClock at night Swans passing to the South — but fiew fowls water to be Seen — not one Indian Came to our fort to day



[Clark, November 16, 1804]

16th November Friday 1804 a verry white frost all the trees all Covered with ice, Cloudy, all the men move into the huts which is not finishd Several Indians Come to Camp to day, The Ossiniboins is at the Big bellie Camp, Some trouble like to take place between them from the loss of horses &c. as is Said by an old Indian who visited us with 4 buffalow robes & Corn to trade for a pistol which we did not let him have, men imployed untill late in dobing their huts, Some horses Sent down to Stay in the woods near the fort, to prevent the Ossniboins Steeling them



[Clark, November 17, 1804]

17 th November Satturday 1804 a fine morning, last night was Cold, the ice thicker than yesterday, Several Indians visit us, one Chief Stayed all day we are much engaged about our huts.



[Clark, November 18, 1804]

18th Novr. Sunday 1804 a Cold morning Some wind the Black Cat, Chief of the Mandans Came to See us, he made Great inquiries respecting our fashions. he also Stated the Situation of their nation, he mentioned that a Council had been held the day before and it was thought advisable to put up with the resent insults of the Ossiniboins & Christonoes untill they were Convinced that what had been told thim by us, Mr. Evins had deceived them & we might also, he promised to return & furnish them with guns & amunitiion, we advised them to remain at peace & that they might depend upon Getting Supplies through the Channel of the Missouri, but it requred time to put the trade in opperation. The Assiniboins &c have the trade of those nations in their power and treat them badly as the Soux does the Ricarees and they cannot resent for fear of loseing their trade &.



[Clark, November 19, 1804]

19th of November 1804 our hunters return with 32 Deerr, 12 Elk & a Buffalow Ice ran which detained the huntes much Cap lewis visit the Me ne tar rees, the 25th and returned the 27th of Nov. with 2 Chiefs &c. &c. and told me that 2 Clerks & 5 men of the N W Company & Several of the hudsons Bay Company had arrived with goods to trade with the Indians a Mr. La Roche & Mc Kinzey are the Celerks (Distant 150 Miles across)



[Clark, November 19, 1804]

19th Novr. Monday a Cold day the ice Continue to run our Perogue of Hunters arrive with 32 Deer, 12 Elk & a Buffalow, all of this meat we had hung up in a Smoke house, a timeley supply — Several Indians here all day — the wind bley hard from the N. W. by W. our men move into their huts, Several little Indian aneckdts. told me to day



[Clark, November 20, 1804]

20th November Tuesday 1804 Capt Lewis & my Self move into our huts, a verry hard wind from the W. all the after part of the day a temperate day Several Indians Came Down to Eat fresh meat, three Chiefs from the 2d Mandan Village Stay all Day, they are verry Curious in examining our works. Those Chiefs informs us that the Souix settled on the Missourie above Dog River, threten to attacked them this winter, and have treated 2 Ricares who Carried the pipe of peace to them Verry roughly. whiped & took their horses from them &c. &c. & is much displeased with Ricares for makeing a peace with the Mandans &. &. through us, &. we gave them a Sattisfactory answer. &c. &c.



[Clark, November 21, 1804]

21st Novr. Wednesday a fine Day dispatched a perogu and Collected Stone for our Chimnys, Some wind from the S. W. arrange our different articles — maney Indians visit us to day, G D hurd his hand verry bad- all the party in high Spirits — The river Clear of ice, & riseing a little



[Clark, November 22, 1804]

22nd of November Thursday 1804 a fine morning Dispatched a perogue and 5 Men under the Derection of Sergeant Pryor to the 2nd Village for 100 bushels of Corn in ears which Mr. Jessomme, let us have did not get more than 80 bushels — I was allarmed about 10 oClock by the Sentinal, who informed that an Indian was about to Kill his wife in the interpeters fire about 60 yards below the works, I went down and Spoke to the fellow about the rash act which he was like to commit and forbid any act of the kind near the fort- Some missunderstanding took place between this man & his wife about 8 days ago, and She came to this place, & Continued with the Squars of the interpeters, 2 days ago She returned to the Villg. in the evening of the Same day She came to the interpeters fire appearently much beat, & Stabed in 3 places — We Detected that no man of this party have any intercourse with this woman under the penelty of Punishment — he the Husband observed that one of our Serjeants Slept with his wife & if he wanted her he would give her to him, We derected the Serjeant Odway to give the man Some articles, at which time I told the Indian that I believed not one man of the party had touched his wife except the one he had given the use of her for a nite, in his own bed, no man of the party Should touch his Squar, or the wife of any Indian, nor did I believe they touch a woman if they knew her to be the wife of another man, and advised him to take his Squar home and live hapily together in future, — at this time the Grand Chief of the nation arrived, & lecturd him, and they both went off apparently dis

The grand Chief continued all day a warm Day fair afternoon — many Indian anickdotes one Chief & his familey Stay all night.



[Clark, November 23, 1804]

23rd, a fair warm Day, wind from the S. E. Send after Stone Several men with bad Colds, one man Sheilds with the Rhumitism the river on a Stand haveing rose 4 Inches in all



[Clark, November 24, 1804]

24th of November Satturday 1804 a warm Day Several men with bad Coalds we continue to Cover our Huts with hewed punchens, finishd. a Cord to draw our boat out on the bank, this is made 9 Straps of Elk Skin, — the wind from the S. E.



[Clark, November 25, 1804]

25th of Novr. Sunday 1804 a fine day warm & pleasent Capt. Lewis 2 Interpeters & 6 men Set out to See the Indians in the different Towns & Camps in this neighbour hood, we Continu to Cover & dob our huts, two Chiefs Came to See me to day one named Wau-ke-res-sa-ra, a Big belley and the first of that nation who has visited us Since we have been here, I gave him a Handkerchef Paint & a Saw band, and the other Some fiew articles, and paid a perticular attention which pleased them verry much, the interpeters being all with Capt. Lewis I could not talk to them. we Compleated our huts — Several men with bad Colds, river fall 11/2 inch



[Clark, November 26, 1804]

26th of Novr. 1804 Monday Fort Mandan a little before day light the wind shifted to the N. W. and blew hard and the air Keen & Cold all day, Cloudy and much the appearance of Snow; but little work done to day it being Cold &c.



[Clark, November 27, 1804]

27th of November Tuesday 1804 a cloudy morning after a verry Cold night, the River Crouded with floating ice wind from the N W. finished Dobing Capt. Lewis returned from the Villages with two Chiefs Mar-noh toh & Man-nes-sur ree & a Considerate man with the party who accompanied him, The Menitares, (or Big bellies) were allarmed at the tales told them by the Mandans Viz: that we intended to join the Seaux to Cut off them in the Course of the winter, many Circumstances Combind to give force to those reports i e the movements of the interpeters & their families to the Fort, the strength of our work &. &.

all those reports was contridicted by Capt Louis with a Conviction on the minds of the Indians of the falsity of those reports — the Indians in all the towns & Camps treated Capt Lewis & the party with Great respect except one of the principal Cheifs Mar par pa par ra pas a too or (Horned Weasel) who did not Chuse to be Seen by the Capt. & left word that he was not at home &.

Seven Traders arrived from the fort on the Ossinaboin from the N W Companey one of which Lafrances took upon himself to speak unfavourably of our intentions &. the princpal Mr. La Rock, (& Mr. McKensey) was informed of the Conduct of their interpeter & the Consiquinces if they did not put a Stop to unfavourable & ill founded assursions &c. &.

The two Chiefs much pleased with their treatments & the Cherefullness of the party, who Danced to amuse them &c. &c.

The river fall 2 Inches verry Cold and began to Snow at 8 oClock P M and Continued all night — Some miss understanding with Jussomm & his woman — at Day the Snow Seased



[Clark, November 28, 1804]

28th Novr. Wednesday 1804 a cold morning wind from the N. W river full of floating ice, began to Snow at 7 oClock a m and continued all day at 8 oClock the Poss-cop-so-he or Black Cat Grand Chief of the Mandans Came to See us, after Showing Those Chiefs many thing which was Curiossities to them, and Giveing a fiew presents of Curioes Handkerchiefs arm bans & paint with a twist of Tobaco they departed at 1 oClock much pleased, at parting we had Some little talk on the Subject of the British Trader Mr. Le rock Giveing Meadils & Flags, and told those Chiefs to impress it on the minds of their nations that those Simbells were not to be recved by any from them, without they wished incur the displieasure of their Great American Father — a verry disagreeable day — no work done to day river fall 1 Inch to day



[Clark, November 29, 1804]

29th November Thursday 1804 A verry Cold windey day wind from the N. W by W. Some Snow last night the Detpt of the Snow is various in the wood about 13 inches, The river Closed at the Village above and fell last night two feet Mr. La Rock and one of his men Came to visit us we informed him what we had herd of his intentions of makeing Chiefs &c. and forbid him to give meadels or flags to the Indians, he Denied haveing any Such intention, we agreeed that one of our interpeters Should Speak for him on Conditions he did not Say any thing more than what tended to trade alone — he gave fair promises &.



[Clark, November 30, 1804]

30h of Nov. an Indian Chief Came and informed us that five Men of the Mandans Nation was on a hunting party to the S W, distance about Eight Leagues, they were Surprised one man Killed two wounded and nine horses taken, Severale others men wer on hunting partes & were to have returned Several days ago & had not yet returned, & that they expected to be attacked by an army of Sioux I took 23 men and went to the Village deturmined to Collect the warriers of the Different Villages and meet the Sioux — The village not expecting Such Strong aid in So Short a time was a little alarmed of the formable appearance of my party The principal Chiefs met me at 200 yards Distance from the Town, and envited me to his Lodge. I told the Nation the Cause of Comeing &. was to assist in Chastiseing the enimies of my Dutifull Children — I requested great Chief to repeat the Cercunstance of the Sioux attack as it realy happined which he did — I told them to Send runners to the other villages & assemble the warriers & we Would go and Chastize the Sioux for Spilling the Blood of my Dutifull Children — after a Conversation of a few minits amongst themselves, a Chief Said that they now Saw that what we had told them was the trooth and we were ready to protect them and Kill those who did not listen to our Councils (and after a long Speech) he concluded Said "the Sious who Spilt our Blood is gorn home — The Snow is deep and it is Cold, our horses Cannot Travel thro the plains in pursute — If you will go and conduct us in the Spring after the Snow is gorn, we will assemble all the warriers & Brave men in all the villages and go with you." I answered the Speach at Some length, explained to them their Situation declareing our intentions of Defending them at any time dureing the time we Should Stay in ther nieghbourhood, explained the Situation of the Ricaras & told them not to get angrey with them untill they were Certain of their haveing violated the treaty &c. &. I crossed the River on the Ice and returned to the fort



[Clark, November 30, 1804]

30th in the morning early a Indian Came to the river opposit & requsted to be brought over, that he had Some thing to Say from his nation we Sent for him, and after he had Smoked — he Said he thought the river was frosted across here & expected to Cross on the ice

7 or 8 Mandans out hunting in a S. W, Derection from this place about 8 Leagues, after they had made their hunt and on their return was attackted by a large Party of Seaux, one of the party a young Chief was Killed 2 wounded & 9 horses taken, the men who made their escape Say the one half of the party who attacked them was Panias-

The two Panias who Came here a fiew days ago was imediately Sent home, for fear of their being put to death by the party Defeated

Two of the attacting party was Known to be Panies. The man who was killed mentioned that after he was wounded, that he had been at war & been wounded, "this day I shall die like a man before my Enimies,! tell my father that I died bravely, and do not greive for me-"

4 of the Big bellies who were Camped near thos is missing, and Searching for him in their Camps above — no one Dare to go to the ground where the battle was for fear of the Sioux being noumerous-.



[Clark, November 30, 1804]

30th of November Friday 1804 This morning at 8 oClock an Indian Calld from the other Side and informed that he had Something of Consequence to Communicate. we Sent a perogue for him & he informed us as follows. Viz: "five men of the Mandan Nation out hunting in a S. W. derection about Eight Leagues was Suprised by a large party of Sceoux & Panies, one man was Killed and two wounded with arrows & 9 Horses taken, 4 of the We ter Soon nation was missing, & they expected to be attacked by the Souix &c. &." we thought it well to Show a Disposition to ade and assist them against their enimies, perticularly those who Came in oppersition to our Councils, and I Deturmined to go to the town with Some men, and if the Sceoux were comeing to attact the nation to Collect the worriers from each Village and meet them, thos Ideas were also those of Capt Lewis, I crossed the river in about an hour after the arrival of the Indian express with 23 men including the interpeters and flankd the Town & came up on the back part The Indians not expecting to receive Such Strong aide in So Short a time was much Supprised, and a littled allarmed at the formadable appearance of my party — The principal Chiefs met me Some Distance from the town (Say 200 yards) and invited me in to town, I ord my pty into dft. lodges & I explained to the nation the cause of my comeing in this formadable manner to their Town, was to asst and Chastise the enimies of our Dutifull Children, — I requested the Grand Cheif to repeat the Circumstancies as they hapined which he did as was mentioned by the Express in the morning — I then informed them that if they would assemble their warrers and those of the different Towns I would to meet the Army of Souix & Chastise thim for takeing the blood of our dutifull Children &c. after a conversation of a fiew minits anongst themselves, one Chief the Big Man Cien Said they now Saw that what we hade told them was the trooth, whin we expected the enimies of their Nation was Comeing to attact them, or had spilt their blood were ready to protect them, and Kill those who would not listen to our Good talk — his people had listened to what we had told them and Cearlessly went out to hunt in Small parties believing themselves to be Safe from the other Nations — and have been killed by the Panies & Seauex. "I knew Said he that the Panies were Tiers, and told the old Chief who Came with you (to Confirm a piece with us) that his people were hers and bad men and that we killed them like the Buffalow, when we pleased, we had made peace Several times and you Nation have always Commened the war, we do not want to Kill you, and will not Suffer you to Kill us or Steal our horses, we will make peace with you as our two fathers have derected, and they Shall See that we will not be the Ogressors, but we fear the Ricares will not be at peace-long — My father those are the words I Spoke to the Ricare in Your presents — you See they have not opened their ears to your good "Councils but have Spuilt our blood. two Ricarees whome we Sent home this day for fear of our peoples Killing them in their greaf-informed us when they Came here Several days ago, that two Towns of the Ricares were makeing their Mockersons, and that we had best take care of Our horses & a number of Sieuex were in their Towns, and they believed not well disposed towards us — four of the Wetersoons are now absent they were to have been back in 16 days they have been out 24 we fear they have fallen. my father the Snow is deep and it is cold our horses Cannot travel thro the the plains, — those people who have Spilt our blood have gorn back? if you will go with us in the Spring after the Snow goes off we will raise the Warriers of all the Towns & nations around about us, and go with you."

I told this nation that we Should be always willing and ready to defend them from the insults of any nation who would dare to Come to doe them injurey dureing the time we would remain in their neighbourhood, and requstd. that they would inform us of any party who may at any time be discovered by their Patroles or Scouts.

I was Sorry that the Snow in the Plains had fallen So Deep Sence the Murder of the young Chief by the Scioux as prevented, their horses from traveling I wished to meet those Scioux & all others who will not open their ears, but make war on our dutifull Children, and let you See that the Wariers of your great father will Chastize the enimies of his dutifull Children the Mandans, wetersoons & Winitarees, who have opend. their ears to his advice — you Say that the Panies or Ricares were with the Sciaux, Some bad men may have been with the Sciaux you know there is bad men in all nations, do not get mad with the racarees untill we know if those bad men are Counternoncd. by their nation, and we are Convsd. those people do not intend to follow our Councils — you know that the Sceaux have great influence over the ricarees and perhaps have led Some of them astray — you know that the Ricarees, are Dependant on the Sceaux for their guns, powder, & Ball, and it was policy in them to keep on as good terms as possible with the Siaux untill they had Some other means of getting those articles &c. &. you know your Selves that you are Compelled to put up with little insults from the Christinoes & Ossinaboins (or Stone Inds.) because if you go to war with those people, they will provent the traders in the north from bringing you Guns Powder & Ball and by that means distress you verry much, but whin you will have Certain Suppliers from your Great American father of all those articls you will not Suffer any nation to insult you &c. after about two hours conversation on various Subjects all of which tended towards their Situation &c. I informed them I Should return to the fort, the Chief Said they all thanked me verry much for the fatherly protection which I Showed towards them, that the Village had been Crying all the night and day for the death of the brave young man, who fell but now they would wipe away their tears, and rejoice in their fathers protection-and Cry no more

I then Paraded & Crossed the river on the ice and Came down on the N. Side the Snow So deep, it was verry fatigueing arrved at the fort after night, gave a little Taffee, a Cold night the river rise to its former hite — The Chief frequently thanked me for Comeing to protect them — and the whole Village appeared thankfull for that measure



[Clark, December 1, 1804]

1s Decr. a young Chief arrived

7 Chiens Came to the Village with a pipe & the 3 Ricares who Came here a fiew days ago & Sent off yesterday have returned and Say that the Sieaux & ricares are Camped together



[Clark, December 1, 1804]

1st of December Satturday 1804 wind from the N W. all hands ingaged in pitting pickets &. at 10 oClock the half brother of the man who was killed Came and informd. us that after my departure last night Six Chiens So Called by the french Shar ha Indians had arrived with a pipe and Said that The mandans apprehended danger from the Shar has as they were at peace with the Seaux; and wished to Kill them and the Ricarees (or Parties) but the Cheifs informed the nation "it was our wish that they Should not be hurt, and forbid being Killed &c." we gave a little Tobacco &c. & this man Departed well Satisfied with our councils and advice to him in the evening a Mr. G Henderson in the imploy of the hudsons bay Company Sent to trade with the Gros ventre-or big bellies So Called by the french traders



[Clark, December 2, 1804]

2d of Decr. 1804 Visited by Several Mandan Chiefs and 4 Chyannes Inds. who Came with a pipe to the Mandans, Sent a Speech to ther Nation a flag & Some tobacco, also written a Speech to the Ricaras & Sioux, informe them what they might depend on if they would not open their ears, & &.



[Clark, December 2, 1804]

2nd of December Sunday 1804 The latter part of last night was verry warm and Continued to thaw untill ____ oClock when the wind Shifted to the North at 11 oClock the Chiefs of the Lower village of the Mandans with maney of theire young men and 4 of the Shar-ha's who had come to Smoke with the pipe of Peace with the Mandans, we explained to them our intentions our views and advised them to be at peace, Gave them a flag for theire nation, Some Tobacco with a Speech to Deliver to their nation on theire return, also Sent by them a letter to Mrs. Tabbo & Gravoline, at the Ricares Village, to interseid in proventing Hostilities, and if they Could not effect those measures to Send & informe us of what was going on, Stateing to the Indians the part we intend to take if the Rickores & Seauex did not follow our Derections and be at peace with the nations which we had addopted — We made Some fiew Small presents to those Shar ha's and also Some to the Mandans & at 3 oClock they all Departed well pleased, haveing Seen many Curisossties, which we Showed them-. river rise one inch



[Clark, December 3, 1804]

3rd December Monday 1804. a fine morning the after part of the day Cold & windey the wind from the N W. The Father of the Mandan who was killed Came and made us a present of Some Dried Simnens & a little pemicon, we made him Some Small preasents for which he was much pleased



[Clark, December 4, 1804]

4th of December Tuesday 1804 a Cloudy raw Day wind from the N. W. the Black Cat and two young Chiefs Visit us and as usial Stay all Day the river rise one inch finish the main bastion, our interpetr. we discover to be assumeing and discontent'd



[Clark, December 5, 1804]

5th December Wednesday 1804 a Cold raw morning wind from the S. E. Some Snow, two of the N W. Companey Came to See us, to let us Know they intended to Set out for the establishment on the osinniboin River in two Days-& their party would Consist of 5 men, Several Indians also visited us one brought Pumpkins or Simmins as a preasent a little Snow fell in the evening at which time the wind Shifted round to N. E.



[Clark, December 6, 1804]

Fort Mandan 6th of December Thursday 1804 The wind blew violently hard from the N, N W. with Some Snow the air Keen and Cold. The Thermometer at 8 oClock A, M, Stood at 10 dgs. above o — at 9 oClock a man & his Squar Came down with Some meat for the inturpeter his dress was a par mockersons of Buffalow Skin Pr. Legins of Goat Skin & a Buffalow robe, 14 ring of Brass on his fingers, this metel the Mandans ar verry fond off — Cold after noon river rise 11/2 Inch to day



[Clark, December 7, 1804]

at Fort mandan 7th of December 1804, we were informed by a Chief that great numbers of Buffalow were on the hills near us Cap Lewis with a party went out & Killed 11three in view of our fort, The weather so excesive Cold & wolves plenty, we only saved 5 of them, I with a party turned on the 8th out and found the Buffalow at 7 ms. distant Killed 8 & a Deer, I returned with 2 Cows leaving men with remaining meat — Several men badly frost bit — The Themormeter Stood this morning at 44 d. below Breizing.

Capt Lewis went out 9th & Stayed all night out Killed 9 buffalowmaney of the Buffalow Killed were So meager that they not fit for use Collected by the ade of Some horses the best of the meat in fact all we could Save from wolves & I went on a hunting party the 14 & 15 of Decr. — much Snow verry cold 52° below freesinge. N W. & H Bay Clerks Visit us the 16th also Mr Hainey, Cold Tem. 74° below freesing

I visit the Mandans on the 1s of January Capt Lewis the 2nd



[Clark, December 7, 1804]

7th of December Friday 1804 a verry Cold day wind from the N W. the Big White Grand Chief of the 1s Village, Came and informed us that a large Drove of Buffalow was near and his people was wating for us to join them in a Chase Capt. Lewis took 15 men & went out joined the Indians, who were at the time he got up, Killing the Buffalows on Horseback with arrows which they done with great dexterity, his party killed 14 Buffalow, five of which we got to the fort by the assistance of a horse in addition to what the men Packed on their backs — one Cow was killed on the ice after drawing her out of a vacancey in the ice in which She had fallen, and Butchered her at the fort — those we did not get in was taken by the indians under a Custon which is established amongst them i e. any person Seeing a buffalow lying without an arrow Sticking in him, or Some purticular mark takes possesion, many times (as I am told) a hunter who Kills maney Buffalow in a chase only Gets a part of one, all meat which is left out all night falls to the Wolves which are in great numbers, always in the Buffalows — the river Closed opposit the fort last night 11/2 inches thick The Thermometer Stood this morning at 1 d. below o- three men frost bit badly to day



[Clark, December 8, 1804]

8th December Satturday 1804 a verry Cold morning, the Thermometer Stood at 12 d. below 0 which is 42 d. below the freesing point, wind from the N W I with 15 men turned out Indians joined us on horseback, shot with arrows rode along side of buffaloel and killed 8 buffalow & one Deer, one Cow and Calf was brought in, two Cows which I killed at 7 miles Dst. I left 2 men to Skin & Keep off the wolves, and brought in one Cow & a calf, in the evening on my return to the fort Saw great numbers of Buffalow Comeing into the Bottoms on both Sides of the river This day being Cold Several men returned a little frost bit; one of men with his feet badly frost bit my Servents feet also frosted & his P-s a little, I feel a little fatigued haveing run after the Buffalow all day in Snow many Places 10 inches Deep, Generally 6 or 8, two men hurt their hips verry much in Slipping down — The Indians kill great numbers of Buffalow to day — 2 reflectings Suns to day



[Clark, December 9, 1804]

9th December Sunday 1804 The Thermometer Stood this morning at 7° above 0, wind from the E. Capt Lewis took 18 men & 4 horses and went out Send in the meet killed yesterday and kill more, the Sun Shown to day Clear, both interpeters went to the Villages to day at 12 oClock two Chiefs Came loaded with meat one with a dog & Slay also loaded with meat, Capt. Lewis Sent in 4 Hors's loaded with meat, he continued at the hunting Camp near which they killed 9 buffalow.



[Clark, December 10, 1804]

10th Monday Decr. 1804 Fort Mandan a verry Cold Day The Thermometer to day at 10 & 11 Degrees below 0., Capt. Lewis returned, to day at 12 oClock leaveing 6 men at the Camp to prepare the meat for to pack 4 Horse loads Came in, Capt Lewis had a Cold Disagreeable night last in the Snow on a Cold point with one Small Blankett the Buffaloe Crossed the river below in emence herds without brakeing in. only 2 buffalow killed to day one of which was too pore to Skin, The men which was frost bit is gitting better. the rise 11/2 inch wind North



[Clark, December 11, 1804]

11th December Tuesday 1804 a verry Cold morning Wind from the north The Thermomettr at (4 oClock A M at 21°) Sunrise at 21° See list. below 0 which is 53° below the freesing point and getting colder, the Sun Shows and reflects two imigies, the ice floating in the atmespear being So thick that the appearance is like a fog Despurceing

Sent out three horses for meat & with Derections for all the hunters to return to the fort as Soon as possible at 1 oClock the horses returned loaded at night all the hunters returned, Several a little frosted, The Black Cat Chief of the Mandans paid us a Visit to day continue Cold all day river at a Stand



[Clark, December 12, 1804]

12th December Wednesday 1804 a Clear Cold morning wind from the north the Thormometer at Sun rise Stood at 38° below 0, moderated untill 6 oClock at which time it began to get Colder. I line my Gloves and have a cap made of the Skin of the Louservia (Lynx) (or wild Cat of the North) the fur near 3 inches long a Indian Of the Shoe nation Came with the half of a Cabra ko ka or Antilope which he killed near the Fort, Great numbers of those animnals are near our fort but the weather is So Cold that we do not think it prudent to turn out to hunt in Such Cold weather, or at least untill our Consts. are prepared to under go this Climate. I measure the river from bank to bank on the ice and make it 500 yards



[Clark, December 13, 1804]

13th December Thursday 1804 The last night was verry Clear & the frost which fell Covered the ice old Snow & thos parts which was naked 1/6 of an inch, The Thermotr. Stands this morning at 20° below 0, a fine day. find it imposible to make an Observation with an artifical Horsison Joseph Fields kill a Cow and Calf to day one mile from the fort river falls



[Clark, December 14, 1804]

14th December Friday 1804 a fine morning. wind from the S. E. the murckerey Stood at '0' this morning I went with a party of men down the river 18 miles to hunt Buffalow, Saw two Bulls too pore to kill, the Cows and large gangues haveing left the River, we only killed two Deer & Camped all night with Some expectation of Seeing the Buffalow in the morning, a verry Cold night, Snowed.



[Clark, December 15, 1804]

15th of December 1804 Satturday a Cold Clear morning, Saw no buffalow, I concluded to return to the Fort & hunt on each Side of the river on our return which we did without Success — the Snow fell 11/2 inches deep last night. wind North- on my return to the fort found Several Chiefs there



[Clark, December 16, 1804]

Fort Mandan 16th December, Sunday 1804 a clear Cold morning, the Thermtr. at Sun rise Stood at 22° below 0, a verry Singaler appearance of the Moon last night, as She appeared thro The frosty atmispear — Mr. Henny, from the Establishment on River Ossinnniboin, with a letter from, Mr Charles Chaboillez one of the Cos arrived in 6 Days, Mr. C in his letters expressed a great anxiety to Serve us in any thing in his power-

a root Discribed by Mr. Henry for the Cure of a Mad Dog

Mr. Le rock a Clerk, of the N W Company and Mr. George Bunch a Clerk of the Hudsons bay Compy accompanied Mr. Henny from the Village



[Clark, December 17, 1804]

17th December Monday 1804 a verry Cold morning the Thrmt. Stood a 43° below 0. We found Mr. Henny a verry intelligent man from whome we obtained Some Scetches of the Countrey between the Mississippi & Missouri, and Some Sketches from him, which he had obtained from the Indins. to the West of this place also the names and charecktors of the Sceoux &c about 8 oClock P M. the thermometer fell to 74° below the freesing pointe — the Indian Chiefs Sent word that Buffalow was in our neighbourhood, and if we would join them, in the morning they would go and kill them-



[Clark, December 18, 1804]

18th December Tuesday 1804 The Themometer the Same as last night Mr. Haney & La Rocke left us for the Grossventre Camp, Sent out 7 men to hunt for the Buffalow They found the weather too cold & returned, Several Indians Came, who had Set out with a veiw to Kill buffalow, The river rise a little I imploy my Self makeing a Small map of Connection &. Sent Jessomme to the Main Chief of the mandans to know the Cause of his detaining or takeing a horse of Chabonoe our big belly interpeter, which we found was thro the rascallity of one Lafrance a trader from the N W. Company, who told this Cheif that Chabonah owd. him a horse to go and take him he done So agreeable to an indian Custom — he gave up the horse



[Clark, December 19, 1804]

19th December Wednesday 1804 The wind from S. W. the weather moderated a little, I engage my self in Connecting the Countrey from information. river rise a little



[Clark, December 20, 1804]

20th December Thursday 1804 The wind from the N W a moderate day, the Thermometr 37° above 0, which givs an oppertunity of putting up our pickets next the river, nothing remarkable took place to Day river fall a little



[Clark, December 21, 1804]

21st December Friday 1804 a fine Day worm and wind from the N W by W, the Indian whome I stoped from Commiting murder on his wife, thro jellousy of one of our interpeters, Came & brought his two wives and Showed great anxiety to make up with the man with whome his joulassey Sprung — a womin brought a Child with an abcess on the lower part of the back, and offered as much corn as She Could carry for Some medison, Capt Lewis administered &c.



[Clark, December 22, 1804]

22nd December Satturday 1804 a number of Squars womn & men Dressed in Squars Clothes Came with Corn to Sell to the men for little things, we precured two horns of the animale the french Call the rock mountain Sheep those horns are not of the largest kind — The mandans Indians Call this Sheep Ar-Sar-ta it is about the Size of a large Deer, or Small Elk, its Horns Come out and wind around the head like the horn of a Ram and the teckere not unlike it much larger and thicker perticelarly that part with which they but or outer part which is ____ inchs thick, the length of those horns, which we have is



[Clark, December 23, 1804]

23rd December Sunday 1804 a fine Day great numbers of indians of all discriptions Came to the fort many of them bringing Corn to trade, the little Crow, loadd. his wife & Sun with corn for us, Cap. Lewis gave him a few presents as also his wife, She made a Kettle of boild Simnins, beens, Corn & Choke Cherris with the Stones which was paletable

This Dish is Considered, as a treat among those people, The Chiefs of the Mandans are fond of Stayin & Sleeping in the fort



[Clark, December 24, 1804]

24 December Monday 1804 Several Chiefs and members of men womin and Children at the fort to day, Some for trade, the most as lookers on, we gave a fellet of Sheep Skin (which we brought for Spunging) to 3 Chiefs one to each of 2 inches wide, which they lay great value (priseing those felets equal to a fine horse), a fine Day we finished the pickingen around our works



[Clark, December 25, 1804]

25th December Christmass Tuesday I was awakened before Day by a discharge of 3 platoons from the Party and the french, the men merrily Disposed, I give them all a little Taffia and permited 3 Cannon fired, at raising Our flag, Some men went out to hunt & the Others to Danceing and Continued untill 9 oClock P, M, when the frolick ended &c.



[Clark, December 26, 1804]

26th Decr. Wednesday 1804 a temperate day no Indians to day or yesterday. A man from the N W Company Came Down from the Gross Vintres to Get one of our interpeters to assist them in trade This man informed that the Party of Gross Ventres who persued the Ossinboins that Stold their horses, has all returned in their usial way by Small parties, the last of the party bringing 8 horses which they Stole from a Camp of Asniboins which they found on Mouse river-



[Clark, December 27, 1804]

27th December 1804 Thursday a little fine Snow weather something Colder than yesterday Several Indians here to Day, much Surprised at the Bellos & method of makeing Sundery articles of Iron wind hard from the N W.



[Clark, December 28, 1804]

28th of December Friday 1804 blew verry hard last night, the frost fell like a Shower of Snow, nothing remarkable to day, the Snow Drifting from one bottom to another and from the leavel plains into the hollows &c



[Clark, December 29, 1804]

29th December Satturday 1804 The frost fell last night nearly a 1/4 of an inch Deep and Continud to fall untill the Sun was of Some bite, the Murcurey Stood this morning at 9 d below 0 which is not considered Cold, as the Changes take place gradually without long intermitions

a number of Indians here



[Clark, December 30, 1804]

30th December Sunday 1804 Cold the Termtr. at 20 d below 0 a number of Indians here to day they are much Supprised at the Bellows one Deer Killed



[Clark, December 31, 1804]

Fort Mandan 31st of December Monday 1804 a fine Day Some wind last night which mixed the Snow and Sand in the bend of the river, which has the appearance of hillocks of Sand on the ice, which is also Covered with Sand & Snow, the feost which falls in the night continues on the earth & old Snow &c. &c. — a Number of indians here every Day our blckSmitth mending their axes hoes &c. &c. for which the Squars bring Corn for payment



[Clark, January 1, 1805]

Fort Mandan on the N E bank of the Missouries 1600 miles up January the 1st 1805 Tuesday The Day was ushered in by the Discharge of two Cannon, we Suffered 16 men with their musick to visit the 1st Village for the purpose of Danceing, by as they Said the perticular request of the Chiefs of that village, about 11 oClock I with an inturpeter & two men walked up to the Village (my views were to alay Some little miss understanding which had taken place thro jelloucy and mortificatiion as to our treatment towards them) I found them much pleased at the Danceing of our men, I ordered my black Servent to Dance which amused the Croud verry much, and Some what astonished them, that So large a man Should be active &c. &.

I went into the lodges of all the men of note except two, whome I heard had made Some expressions not favourable towards us, in Compareing us with the trabers from the north — Those Cheifs observed what they Sayed was in just & lafture. — just as I was about to return the 2d Chief and the Black man, also a Chief returnd from a mission on which they had been Sent to meet a large party 150 of Gross Ventres who were on their way down from their Camps 10 Miles above to revenge on the Shoe tribe an injurey which they had received by a Shoe man Steeling a Gross Venters Girl, those Chiefs gave the pipe turned the party back, after Delivering up the girl, which the Shoe Chief had taken and given to them for that purpose. I returned in the evening, at night the party except 6 returned, with 3 robes, an 13 Strings of Corn which the indians had given them, The Day was worm, Themtr. 34° abov 0, Some fiew Drops of rain about Sunset, at Dark it began to Snow, and Snowed the greater part of the night, (the temptr for Snow is about o) The Black Cat with his family visited us to day and brought a little meet



[Clark, January 2, 1805]

2nd of January Wednesdey 1805 a Snowey morning a party of men go to Dance at the 2nd Village to Dance, Capt Lewis & the interptr visit the 2d Village, and return in the evening, Some Snow to Day verry Cold in the evining



[Clark, January 3, 1805]

3rd of January Thursday 1805 Soome Snow to day; 8 men go to hunt the buffalow, killed a hare & wolf Several Indians visit us to day & a Gross Ventre came after his wife, who had been much abused, & come here for Protection.



[Clark, January 4, 1805]

Fort Mandan 4th of January Friday 1805 a worm Snowey morning, the Themtr. at 28° abov 0, Cloudy, Sent out 3 men to hunt down the river, Several Indians Came today the little Crow, who has proved friendly Came we gave him a handkerchf & 2 files, in the evening the weather became cold and windey, wind from the N W. I am verry unwell the after part of the Daye



[Clark, January 5, 1805]

5th of January Satturday 1805 a cold day Some Snow, Several Indians visit us with thier axes to get them mended, I imploy my Self drawing a Connection of the Countrey from what information I have recved — a Buffalow Dance (or Medison) for 3 nights passed in the 1st Village, a curious Custom the old men arrange themselves in a circle & after Smoke a pipe, which is handed them by a young man, Dress up for the purpose, the young men who have their wives back of the circle go to one of the old men with a whining tone and request the old man to take his wife (who presents necked except a robe) and — the Girl then takes the Old man (who verry often can Scercely walk) and leades him to a Convenient place for the business, after which they return to the lodge, if the Old man (or a white man) returns to the lodge without gratifying the man & his wife, he offers her again and again; it is often the Case that after the 2d time without Kissing the Husband throws a nice robe over the old man & and begs him not to dispise him, & his wife (we Sent a man to this Medisan last night, they gave him 4 Girls) all this is to cause the buffalow to Come near So that They may kill thim 2



[Clark, January 6, 1805]

6th of January Sunday 1805 a Cold day but fiew indians to day I am ingaged as yesterday



[Clark, January 7, 1805]

7th of January Monday 1805 Fort Mandan a verry Cold clear Day, the Themtr Stood at 22 d below 0 wind N W., the river fell 1 inch Several indians returned from hunting, one of them the Big White Chef of the Lower Mandan Village, Dined With us, and gave me a Scetch of the Countrey as far as the high mountains, & on the South Side of the River Rejone, he Says that the river rejone recves 6 Small rivers on the S. Side, & that the Countrey is verry hilley and the greater part Covered with timber, Great numbers of beaver &c. — the 3 men returned from hunting, they kill'd 4 Deer & 2 wolves, Saw Buffalow a long ways off, I continue to Draw a connected plote from the information of Traders, Indians & my own observation & idea — from the best information, the Great falls is about 800 miles nearly west,-



[Clark, January 8, 1805]

8th of January Tuesday 1805 a Cold Day but fiew indians at the fort to day wind from the N, W, one man at the Village



[Clark, January 9, 1805]

9th of January Wednesday 1805 A Cold Day Themometer at 21° below 0, Great numbers of indians go to Kill Cows, the little Crow Brackft. with us, Several Indians Call at the Fort nearly frosed, one man reported that he had Sent his Son a Small boy to the fort about 3 oClock, & was much distressed at not finding him here, the after part of this day verry Cold, and wind Keen



[Clark, January 10, 1805]

10th Of January 1805 This morning a boy of 13 years of age Came to the fort with his feet frozed, haveing Stayed out all night without fire, with no other Covering than a Small Robe goat skin leagens & a pr. Buffalow Skin mockersons — The Murcery Stood at 72° below the freesing point — Several others Stayed out all night not in the least hurt, This boy lost his Toes only-



[Clark, January 10, 1805]

10th of January Thursday 1805 last night was excessively Cold the murkery this morning Stood at 40° below 0 which is 72° below the freesing point, we had one man out last night, who returned about 8 oClock this morning The Indians of the lower Villages turned out to hunt for a man & a boy who had not returnd from the hunt of yesterday, and borrowd a Slay to bring them in expecting to find them frosed to death about 10 oclock the boy about 13 years of age Came to the fort with his feet frosed and had layen out last night without fire with only a Buffalow Robe to Cover him, the Dress which he wore was a pr of Cabra Legins, which is verry thin and mockersons — we had his feet put in Cold water and they are Comeing too- Soon after the arrival of the Boy, a man Came in who had also Stayed out without fire, and verry thinly Clothed, this man was not the least injured Customs & the habits of those people has ancered to bare more Cold than I thought it possible for man to indure

Send out 3 men to hunt Elk below about 7 miles



[Clark, January 11, 1805]

11th January Friday 1805 verry Cold, Send out 3 men to join 3 now below & hunt,

Pose-cop se ha or Black Cat came to See us and Stay all night

Sho sa har ro ra or Coal also Stayd all night, the inturpeter oldst wife Sick, Some of our men go to See a war medison made at the village on the opposit Side of the river, this is a



[Clark, January 12, 1805]

Fort Manden 12th of January Satturday 1805 a verry Cold Day three of our hunters J. & R Fields withe 2 Elk on a Slay Sent one more hunter out.



[Clark, January 13, 1805]

13th of January Sunday (1805) a Cold Clear Day (great number of Indians move Down the River to hunt) those people Kill a number of Buffalow near their Villages and Save a great perpotion of the meat, their Custom of makeing this article of life General leaves them more than half of their time without meat Their Corn & Beans &c they Keep for the Summer, and as a reserve in Case of an attack from the Soues, which they are always in dread, and Sildom go far to hunt except in large parties, about 1/2 the Mandan nation passed this to day to hunt on the river below, they will Stay out Some Days, Mr. Chabonee (our inturpeter) and one man that accompanied him to Some loges of the Minatarees near the Turtle Hill returned, both frosed in their faces.

Chaboneu informs that the Clerk of the Hudsons Bay Co. with the Me ne tar res has been Speaking Some fiew expressns. unfavourable towards us, and that it is Said the N W Co. intends building a fort at the Mene tar re's — he Saw the Grand Chief of the Big bellies who Spoke Slightly of the Americans, Saying if we would give our great flag to him he would Come to See us.



[Clark, January 14, 1805]

14th of January 1805 Monday This morning early a number of indians men womin children Dogs &c & passed down on the ice to joine those that passed yesterday, we Sent Sergt Pryor and five men with those indians to hunt one of our hunters Sent out Several days arived & informs that one Man (Whitehouse) is frost bit and Can't walk home-



[Clark, January 15, 1805]

Fort Mandan 15th January Tuesday 1805 between 12 & 3 oClock this morning we had a total eclips of the moon, a part of the observations necessary for our purpose in this eclips we got which is at 12h 57m 54s Total Darkness of the moon @ 1 44 00 End of total Darkness of This moon @ 2 39 10 End of the eclips-

This morning not So Cold as yesterday wind from the S. E. wind choped around to the N W. Still temperate four Considerate men of the Minetarre Came to See us we Smoked in the pipe, maney mands. present also, we Showed to those men who had been impressed with an unfavourable oppinion of us.



[Clark, January 16, 1805]

16th January Wednesday 1805 about thirty Mandans Came to the fort to day, 6 Chiefs. Those Me ne to rees told them they were liars, had told them if they came to the fort the whites men would kill them, they had been with them all night, Smoked in the pipe and have been treated well and the whites had danced for them, observing the Mandans were bad and ought to hide themselves- one of the 1st War Chiefs of the big belles nation Came to See us to day with one man and his Squar to wate on him we Shot the Air gun, and gave two Shots with the Cannon which pleased them verry much, the little Crow 2d Chf of the lower village came & brought us Corn &. 4 men of ours who had been hunting returned one frost'd

This war Chief gave us a Chart in his way of the Missourie, he informed us of his intentions of going to war in the Spring against the Snake Indians we advised him to look back at the number of nations who had been distroyed by war, and reflect upon what he was about to do, observing if he wished the hapiness of his nation, he would be at peace with all, by that by being at peace and haveing plenty of goods amongst them & a free intercourse with those defenceless nations, they would get on easy terms a great Number of horses, and that nation would increas, if he went to war against those Defenceless people, he would displease his great father, and he would not receive that pertection & Care from him as other nations who listened to his word — This Chief who is a young man 26 yr. old replied that if his going to war against the Snake indians would be displeasing to us he would not go, he had horses enough.

we observed that what we had Said was the words of his Great father, and what we had Spoken to all the nations which we Saw on our passage up, they all promis to open their ears and we do not know as yet if any of them has Shut them (we are doubtfull of the Souxs) if they do not attend to what we have told them their great father will open their ears — This Cheif Said that he would advise all his nation to Stay at home untill we Saw the Snake Indians & Knew if they would be friendly, he himself would attend to what we had told him



[Clark, January 17, 1805]

17th January Thursday 1805 a verry windey morning hard from the North Thermometer at 0, Several Indians here to day



[Clark, January 18, 1805]

18th January Friday 1805 a fine worm morning, Mr. La Rock & McKinzey Came down to See us with them Several of the Grosse Venrees.



[Clark, January 19, 1805]

19th January Satturday 1805. a find Day Messrs. Larock & McKinzey returned home, Sent three horses down to our hunting Camp for the meet they had killed, Jussoms Squar, left him and went to the Village



[Clark, January 20, 1805]

20th a Cold fair day Several Indians at the fort to day a miss understanding took place between the two inturpeters on account of their Squars, one of the Squars of Shabownes Squars being Sick, I ordered my Servent to, give her Some froot Stewed and tee at dift Tims which was the Cause of the misundstd



[Clark, January 21, 1805]

Fort Mandan 21st Monday January 1805 a number of Indians hereto day a fine day nothing remarkable one ban verry bad with the pox



[Clark, January 22, 1805]

22nd January 1805 Tuesday a find warm Day attempted to Cut the Boat & the perogues out of the Ice, found water at about 8 inches under the 1st Ice, the next thickness about 3 feet



[Clark, January 23, 1805]

23rd January 1805 Wednesday a Cold Day Snow fell 4 Inches deep, the occurrences of this day is as is common



[Clark, January 24, 1805]

24th January Thursday 1805 a fine day, our inturpeters appear to understand each others better than a fiew days past Sent out Several hunters, they returned without killing any thing, Cut Coal wood



[Clark, January 25, 1805]

25th of January 1805 Friday we are informed of the arrival of a Band of Asniboins at the Villages with the Grand Cheif of those Tribes call the (Fee de petite veau) to trade, one of our interpeter & one man Set out to the Big Belley Camp opposit the Island men employ'd in Cutting the Boat out of the ice, and Collecting Coal wood.



[Clark, January 26, 1805]

26th of January Satturday 1805 a verry fine warm Day Several Indians Dine with us and are much Pleased — one man taken violently Bad with the Plurisee, Bleed & apply those remedeis Common to that disorder.



[Lewis, January 26, 1805]

Saturday January 26th 1805 Observed Meridian Altitude of sun's U. L. with sextant and artificl. Horzn. of water 48° 50 Latitude deduced from this observatn. N. 47 21 47



[Clark, January 27, 1805]

27th of January Sunday 1804 a fine day, attempt to Cut our Boat and Canoos out of the Ice, a deficuelt Task I fear as we find waters between the Ice, I Bleed the man with the Plurisy to day & Swet him, Capt Lewis took of the Toes of one foot of the Boy who got frost bit Some time ago, Shabonoe our interpeter returned, & informed that the Assiniboins had returned to their Camps, & brough 3 horses of Mr. Laroches to Stay here for fear of their being Stolen by the Assiniboins who are great rogues — Cut off the boy toes



[Clark, January 28, 1805]

28th January Monday 1805 attempt to cut through the ice &c get our Boat and Canoo out without Suckcess, Several Indians here wishing to get war hatchets made this shape the man Sick yesterday is getting well Mr. Jessome our interpeter was taken verry unwell this evening warm day



[Clark, January 29, 1805]

29th January Tuesday 1805 Gave Jassome a Dost of Salts we Send & Collect Stones and put them on a large log heap to heet them with a View of warming water in the Boat and by that means, Sepperate her from the Ices, our attempt appears to be defeated by the Stones all breaking & flying to peaces in the fire, a fine warm Day, we are now burning a large Coal pit, to mend the indians hatchets, & make them war axes, the only means by which we precure Corn from them



[Clark, January 30, 1805]

30th January Wednesday 1805 a fine morning, Clouded up at 9 oClock, Mr. La Rocke paid us a Visit, & we gave him an answer respecting the request he made when last here of accompanying us on our journey &c.



[Clark, January 31, 1805]

31st January Thursday, 1805 Snowed last night, wind high from the N W. Sawed off the boys toes Sent 5 men down the river to hunt with 2 horses, our interpeter Something better, George Drewyer taken with the Ploursey last evening Bled & gave him Some Sage tea, this morning he is much better — Cold disagreeable



[Clark, February 1, 1805]

1st of February Friday 1805 a cold windey Day our hunters returnd. haveing killed only one Deer, a war Chief of the Me ne tar ras Came with Some Corn requested to have a War hatchet made, & requested to be allowed to go to war against the Souis & Ricarres who had Killed a mandan Some time past — we refused, and gave reassons, which he verry readily assented to, and promised to open his ears to all we Said this man is young and named (Seeing Snake Mar-book, She-ah-O-ke-ah) this mans woman Set out & he prosued her, in the evening



[Clark, February 2, 1805]

2nd of February Satturday 1805 a find Day one Deer Killed our interpeter Still unwell, one of the wives of the Big belley interptr taken Sick — Mr. Larocke leave us to day (this man is a Clerk to the N W Company, & verry anxious to accompany us)



[Lewis, February 3, 1805]

3rd of February Sunday 1805. a fine day; the blacksmith again commences his opperations. we were visited by but few of the natives today. the situation of our boat and perogues is now allarming, they are firmly inclosed in the Ice and almost covered with snow. The ice which incloses them lyes in several stratas of unequal thicknesses which are seperated by streams of water. this peculiarly unfortunate because so soon as we cut through the first strata of ice the water rushes up and rises as high as the upper surface of the ice and thus creates such a debth of water as renders it impracticable to cut away the lower strata which appears firmly attatched to, and confining the bottom of the vessels. the instruments we have hitherto used has been the ax only, with which, we have made several attempts that proved unsuccessful) from the cause above mentioned. we then determined to attempt freeing them from the ice by means of boiling water which we purposed heating in the vessels by means of hot stones, but this expedient proved also fruitless, as every species of stone which we could procure in the neighbourhood partook so much of the calcarious genus that they burst into small particles on being exposed to the heat of the fire. we now determined as the dernier resort to prepare a parse) of Iron spikes and attatch them to the end of small poles of convenient length and endeavour by means of them to free the vessels from the ice. we have already prepared a large rope of Elk-skin and a windless by means of which we have no doubt of being able to draw the boat on the bank provided we can free from the ice.



[Clark, February 3, 1805]

3rd of February 1805 our provisions of meat being nearly exorsted I concluded to Decend the River on the Ice & hunt, I Set out with about 16 men 3 horses & 2 Slays Descended nearly 60 miles Killed & loaded the horses back, & made 2 pens which we filed with meat, & returned on the 13th we Killed 40 Deer, 3 Bulls 19 Elk, maney So meager that they were unfit for use



[Lewis, February 4, 1805]

4th February, Monday 1805. This morning fair tho could the thermometer stood at 18° below Naught, wind from N. W. Capt Clark set out with a hunting party consisting of sixteen of our command and two frenchmen who together with two others, have established a small hut and resided this winter within the vicinity of Fort Mandane under our protection. visited by many of the natives today. our stock of meat which we had procured in the Months of November & December is now nearly exhausted; a supply of this articles is at this moment peculiarly interesting as well for our immediate consumption, as that we may have time before the approach of the warm season to prepare the meat for our voyage in the spring of the year. Capt. Clark therefore deturmined to continue his rout down the river even as far as the River bullet unless he should find a plenty of game nearer — The men transported their baggage on a couple of small wooden Slays drawn by themselves, and took with them 3 pack horses which we had agreed should be returned with a load of meat to fort mandane as soon as they could procure it. no buffaloe have made their appearance in our neighbourhood for some weeks; and I am informed that our Indian neighbours-suffer extreemly at this moment for the article of flesh. Shields killed two deer this evening, both very lean — one a large buck, he had shed his horns.



[Lewis, February 5, 1805]

5th February Tuesday 1805. Pleasent morning wind from N. W. fair; visited by many of the natives who brought a considerable quanty of corn in payment for the work which the blacksmith had done for them — they are pecuarly attatched to a battle ax formed in a very inconvenient manner in my opinion. it is fabricated of iron only, the blade is extreemly thin, from 7 to nine inches in length and from 43/4, to 6 Inches on it's edge, from whence the sides proceed nearly in a straight line to the eye where it's width is generally not more than an inch. The eye is round & about one inch in diameter. the handle seldom more than fourteen inches in length, the whole weighing about one pound — the great length of the blade of this ax, added to the small size of the handle renders a stroke uncertain and easily avoided, while the shortness of the handel must render a blow much less forceable if even well directed, and still more inconvenient as they uniformly use this instrument in action on horseback. The oalder fassion is still more inconvenient, it is somewhat in the form of the blade of an Espantoon but is attatchd to a helve of the dementions before discribed the blade is sometimes by way of ornament purforated with two three or more small circular holes — the following is the general figure it is from 12 to 15 inces in length



[Lewis, February 6, 1805]

6th February Wednesday 1805. Fair morning Wind from N. W. had a sley prepared against the return of the horses which Capt Clark had promised to send back as soon as he should be able to procure a load of meat. visited by many of the natives among others the Big white, the Coal, big-man, hairy horn and the black man, I smoked with them, after which they retired, a deportment not common, for they usually pester us with their good company the ballance of the day after once being introduced to our apartment. Shields killed three antelopes this evening. the blacksmiths take a considerable quantity of corn today in payment for their labour. the blacksmith's have proved a happy resoce to us in our present situation as I believe it would have been difficult to have devised any other method to have procured corn from the natives. the Indians are extravegantly fond of sheet iron of which they form arrow-points and manufacter into instruments for scraping and dressing their buffaloe robes — I permited the blacksmith to dispose of a part of a sheet-iron callaboos which had been nearly birnt out on our passage up the river, and for each piece about four inches square he obtained from seven to eight gallons of corn from the natives who appeared extreemly pleased with the exchange-



[Lewis, February 7, 1805]

7th February Thursday 1805. This morning was fair Thermometer at 18° above naught much warmer than it has been for some days; wind S. E. continue to be visited by the natives. The Sergt. of the guard reported that the Indian women (wives to our interpreters) were in the habit of unbaring the fort gate at any time of night and admitting their Indian visitors, I therefore directed a lock to be put to the gate and ordered that no Indian but those attatched to the garrison should be permitted to remain all night within the fort or admitted during the period which the gate had been previously ordered to be kept shut which was from sunset untill sunrise.



[Lewis, February 8, 1805]

8th February Friday 1805. This morning was fair wind S. E. the weather still warm and pleasent- visited by the black-Cat the principal chief of the Roop-tar-he, or upper mandane vilage. this man possesses more integrety, firmness, inteligence and perspicuety of mind than any indian I have met with in this quarter, and I think with a little management he may be made a usefull agent in furthering the views of our government. The black Cat presented me with a bow and apologized for not having completed the shield he had promised alledging that the weather had been too could to permit his making it, I gave him som small shot 6 fishing-hooks and 2 yards of ribbon his squaw also presented me with 2 pair of mockersons for which in return I gave a small lookingglass and a couples of nedles. the chief dined with me and left me in the evening. he informed me that his people suffered very much for the article of meat, and that he had not himself tasted any for several days.



[Lewis, February 9, 1805]

9th February Saturday 1805. The morning fair and pleasent, wind from S. E. — visted by Mr. McKinzey one the N. W. Company's clerks. this evening a man by the name of Howard whom I had given permission to go the Mandane vilage returned after the gate was shut and rether than call to the guard to have it opened scaled the works an indian who was looking on shortly after followed his example. I convinced the Indian of the impropryety of his conduct, and explained to him the riske he had run of being severely treated, the fellow appeared much allarmed, I gave him a small piece of tobacco and sent him away Howard I had comitted to the care of the guard with a determineation to have him tryed by a Courtmartial for this offence. this man is an old soldier which still hightens this offnce-



[Lewis, February 10, 1805]

10th February Sunday 1805. This Morning was Cloudy after a slight snow which fell in the course of the night the wind blue very hard from N. W. altho the thermometer stood at 18° Above naught the violence of the wind caused a degree of could that was much more unpleasent than that of yesterday when thermometer stood at 10° only above the same point. Mr. McKinzey left me this morning. Charbono returned with one of the Frenchmen and informed that he had left the three Horses and two men with the meat which Capt. Clark had sent at some distance below on the river — he told me that the horses were heavy loaded and that not being shod it was impossible for horses to travel on the ice. I determined to send down some men with two small slays for the meat and accordingly I gave orders that they should set out early the next morning. two men were also sent to conduct the horses by way of the plain.



[Lewis, February 11, 1805]

11th February Monday 1805. The party that were ordered last evening set out early this morning. the weather was fair and could wind N. W. about five oclock this evening one of the wives of Charbono was delivered of a fine boy. it is worthy of remark that this was the first child which this woman had boarn and as is common in such cases her labour was tedious and the pain violent; Mr. Jessome informed me that he had freequently adminstered a small portion of the rattle of the rattle-snake, which he assured me had never failed to produce the desired effect, that of hastening the birth of the child; having the rattle of a snake by me I gave it to him and he administered two rings of it to the woman broken in small pieces with the fingers and added to a small quantity of water. Whether this medicine was truly the cause or not I shall not undertake to determine, but I was informed that she had not taken it more than ten minutes before she brought forth perhaps this remedy may be worthy of future experiments, but I must confess that I want faith as to it's efficacy.



[Lewis, February 12, 1805]

12th February Tuesday 1805. The morning was fair tho could, thermometer at 14° below naught wind S. E. ordered the Blacksmith to shoe the horses and some others to prepare some gears in order to send them down with three slays to join the hunting party and transport the meat which they may have pocured to this place — the the men whom I had sent for the meat left by Charbono did not return untill 4 OClock this evening. Drewyer arrived with the horses about the same time, the horses appeared much fatieged I directed some meal brands given them moisened with a little water but to my astonishment found that they would not eat it but prefered the bark of the cotton wood which forms the principall article of food usually given them by their Indian masters in the winter season; for this purpose they cause the trees to be felled by their women and the horses feed on the boughs and bark of their tender branches. the Indians in our neighbourhood are freequently pilfered of their horses by the Recares, Souixs and Assinniboins and therefore make it an invariable rule to put their horses in their lodges at night. in this situation the only food of the horse consists of a few sticks of the cottonwood from the size of a man's finger to that of his arm. The Indians are invariably severe riders, and frequently have occasion for many days together through the whole course of the day to employ their horses in pursuing the Buffaloe or transporting meat to their vilages during which time they are seldom suffered to tast food; at night the Horse returned to his stall where his food is what seems to me a scanty allowance of wood. under these circumstances it would seem that their horses could not long exist or at least could not retain their flesh and strength, but the contrary is the fact, this valuable anamall under all those disadvantages is seldom seen meager or unfit for service. — A little after dark this evening Capt. Clark arrived with the hunting party — since they set out they have killed forty Deer, three buffaloe bulls, & sixteen Elk, most of them were so meager that they were unfit for uce, particularly the Buffaloes and male Elk — the wolves also which are here extreemly numerous heped themselves to a considerable proportion of the hunt — if an anamal is killed and lyes only one night exposed to the wolves it is almost invariably devoured by them.



[Lewis, February 13, 1805]

13th February Wednesday 1805. The morning cloudy thermometer 2° below naught wind from S. E. visited by the Black-Cat gave him a battle ax with which he appeared much gratifyed.



[Clark, February 13, 1805]

I returned last night from a hunting party much fatigued, haveing walked 30 miles on the ice and through of wood land Points in which the Snow was nearly Knee Deep

The 1st day I left the fort proceeded on the ice to new Mandan Island, 22 miles & Camped Killed nothing, & nothing to eat,

The 2d day the morning verry Cold & Windey, I broke thro the ice and got my feet and legs wet, Sent out 4 hunters thro a point to Kill a Deer & Cook it by the time the party Should get up, those hunters killed a Deer & 2 Buffalow Bulls the Buffalow too Meagur to eate, we eate the Deer & proceeded on to an old Indian Lodge, Sent out the hunters & they brought in three lean Deer, which we made use of for food, — walking on uneaven ice has blistered the bottom of my feat, and walking is painfull to me

3rd day Cold morning the after party of the Day worm, Camped on a Sand point near the mouth of a Creek on the S W. Side we Call hunting Creek, I turned out with the hunters, I Killed 2 Deer the hunters killed an Elk, Buffalow Bull & 5 Deer. all Meager

4th Day hunted the two bottoms near the Camp Killed 9 Elk, 18 Deer, brought to camp all the meat fit to eate & had the bones taken out. every man ingaged either in hunting or Collecting & packing the meat to Camp

5th Day Dispatched one of the party our Interpeter & 2 french men with the 3 horses loaded with the best of the meat to the fort 44 miles Distant, the remaining meat I had packed on the 2 Slays & drawn down to the next point about 3 miles below, at this place I had all the meat Collected which was killed yesterday & had escaped the wolves, Raven & Magpie, (which are verry noumerous about this Place) and put into a close pen made of logs to secure it from the wolves & birds & proceeded on to a large bottom nearly opposit the Chisscheter (heart) River, in this bottom we found but little game, Great No. of wolves, on the hills Saw Several parsels of Buffalow. — Camped. I killed a Buck

6th Day The Buffalow Seen last night provd to be Bulls. lean & unfit for to make uce of as food, the Distance from Camp being nearly 60 miles, and the packing of meat that distance attended with much difficuity deturmined me to return and hunt the points above, we Set out on our return and halted at an old Indian lodge 40 miles below Fort Mandan Killed 3 Elk & 2 Deer-.

7th Day a cold Day wind blew hard from the N. W. J Fields got one of his ears frosed deturmined to lay by and hunt today Killed an Elk & 6 deer,* this meat I had Boned & put onto a Close pen made of logs — *all that was fit for use

8th day air keen halted at the old Camp we Stayed in on the 2d night after we left the Fort, expecting to meat the horses at this Place, killed 3 Deer, Several men being nearly out of Mockersons & the horses not returning deturmind me to return to the Fort on tomorrow

9th day. Set out early, Saw great numbers of Grouse feeding on the young willows, on the Sand bars one mans I sent in persute of a gangue of Elk killed three near the old Ricara Village and joined at the fort, Sent him back to Secure the meat one man with him — The ice on the parts of the River which was verry rough, as I went down, was Smothe on my return, this is owing to the rise and fall of the water, which takes place every day or two, and Caused by partial thaws, and obstructions in the passage of the water thro the Ice, which frequently attaches itself to the bottom. — the water when riseing forses its way thro the cracks & air holes above the old ice, & in one night becoms a Smothe Surface of ice 4 to 6 Inchs thick, — the river falls & the ice Sink in places with the water and attaches itself to the bottom, and when it again rises to its former hite, frequently leavs a valley of Several feet to Supply with water to bring it on a leavel Surfice.

The water of the Missouri at this time is Clear with little Tinges.

I saw Several old Villages near the Chisscheta River on enquirey found they were Mandan Villages destroyed by the Sous & Small Pox, they noumerous and lived in 6 Villages near that place.



[Clark, February 14, 1805]

14th Sent 4 men with the Horses Shod & 2 Slays down for the meat I had left, 22 miles below those men were rushed on by 106 Sioux who robed them of 2 of their horses — & they returned



[Clark, February 14, 1805]

14th of February Thursday 1805 The Snow fell 3 inches Deep last night, a fine morning, Dispatched George Drewyer & 3 men with two Slays drawn by 3 horses for the meat left below-



[Clark, February 15, 1805]

15th Capt. Lewis with a party of men & 4 Indians went in pursute of the Sioux, the Indians returned the next Day & informed me that the Sioux had Burnt all my meat & Born home (they Saw me but was afraid to attact me) Capt Lewis returned the 21st with 2400 l. of meat, haveing Killed 36 Deer & 14 Elk, the Sioux burnt one of my meet houses; they did not find the other



[Clark, February 15, 1805]

15th of February Friday 1805 at 10 oClock P M. last night the men that dispatched yesterday for the meat, returned and informed us that as they were on their march down at the distance of about 24 miles below the Fort about 105 Indians which they took to be Souis rushed on them and Cut their horses from the Slays, two of which they carried off in great hast, the 3rd horse was given up to the party by the intersetion of an Indian who assumd Some authority on the accasion, probably more thro fear of himself or Some of the Indians being killed by our men who were not disposed to be Robed of all they had tamely, they also forced 2 of the mens knives & a tamahawk, the man obliged them to return the tamahawk the knives they ran off with G Drewyer Frasure, S Gutterage, & Newmon with a broken Gun

we dispatched two men to inform the mandans, and if any of them chose to pursue those robers, to come down in the morning, and join Capt Lewis who intended to Set out with a party of men verry early, by 12 oClock the Chief of the 2ed Village Big white Came down, and Soon after one other Chief and Several men — The Chief observed that all the young men of the 2 Villages were out hunting, and but verry fiew guns were left,Capt. Lewis Set out at Sunrise with 24 men, to meet those Soues &c. Several Indians accompanied him Some with Bows & arrows Some withe Spears & Battle axes, a 2 with fusees — the morning fine the Thermometer Stood at 16° below 0, Nought, visited by 2 of the Big Bellies this evening, — one Chief of the Mandans returned from Capt Lewises Party nearly blind — this Complaint is as I am infomd. Common at this Season of the year and caused by the reflection of the Sun on the ice & Snow, it is cured by jentilley Swetting the part affected by throweng Snow on a hot Stone

verry Cold part of the night — one man Killed a verry large Red Fox to day



[Clark, February 16, 1805]

16th of February Satturday 1805 a fine morning, visited by but fiew Indians to day, at Dusk two of the Indians who wint down with Capt. Lewis returned, Soon after two others and one man (Howard) with his feet frosted, and informed that the Inds. who Commited the roberry of the 2 horses was So far a head that they could not be overtaken, they left a number of pars of Mockersons which, the Mandans knew to be Souix mockersons, — This war party Camped verry near the last camp I made when on my hunting party, where they left Some Corn, as a deception, with a view to induc a belief that they were Ricarras.

Capt Lewis & party proceeded on down the meat I left at my last Camp was taken.



[Clark, February 17, 1805]

17th of February Sunday 1805 this morning worm & a little Cloudy, the Coal & his Son visited me to day with about 30 w. of Drid Buffalow meat, & Some Tallow Mr. McKinsey one of the N W. Compys. Clerks visited me (one of the hoses the Sous robed a fiew Days past belonged to this man) The after part of the day fair,



[Clark, February 18, 1805]

18th of February Monday 1805 a cloudy morning Some Snow, Several Indians here today Mr. McKinsey leave me, the after part of the day fine I am much engaged makeing a discriptive List of the Rivers from Information our Store of Meat is out to day



[Clark, February 19, 1805]

19th of February Tuesday 1805 a fine Day visited by Several of the Mandans to day, our Smiths are much engaged mending and makeing Axes for the Indians for which we get Corn



[Clark, February 20, 1805]

Fort Mandan 20th February Wednesday 1805 a Butifull Day, visited by the Little raven verry early this morning I am informed of the Death of an old man whome I Saw in the Mandan Village. this man, informed me that he "was 120 winters old, he requested his grand Children to Dress him after Death & Set him on a Stone on a hill with his face towards his old Village or Down the river, that he might go Streight to his brother at their old village under ground"I observed Several Mandan verry old Chiefly men



[Clark, February 21, 1805]

21st February Thursday 1805 a Delightfull Day put out our Clothes to Sun — Visited by the big white & Big man they informed me that Several men of their nation was gorn to Consult their Medison Stone about 3 day march to the South West to know What was to be the result of the insuing year — They have great confidence in this Stone and Say that it informs them of every thing which is to happen, & visit it every Spring & Sometimes in the Summer "They haveing arrived at the Stone give it Smoke and proceed to the wood at Some distance to Sleep the next morning return to the Stone, and find marks white & raised on the Stone representing the piece or war which they are to meet with, and other changes, which they are to meet" This Stone has a leavel Surface of about 20 feet in Surcumfrance, thick and pores, and no doubt has Some mineral qualtites effected by the Sun.

The Big Bellies have a Stone to which they ascribe nearly the Same Virtues

Capt Lewis returned with 2 Slays loaded with meat, after finding that he could not overtake the Souis war party, (who had in their way distroyd all the meat at one Deposit which I had made & Burnt the Lodges) deturmined to proceed on to the lower Deposit, which he found had not been observed by Soux he hunted two day Killed 36 Deer & 14 Elk, Several of them So meager, that they were unfit for use, the meet which he killed and that in the lower Deposit amounting to about 3000 wt was brought up on two Slays, one Drawn by 16 men had about 2400 wt on it

[Clark, February 22, 1805]

Fort Mandan 22nd of February Friday 1805. a Cloudy morning, at about 12 oClock it began to rain and Continud for a fiew minits, and turned to Snow, and Continud Snowing for about one hour, and Cleared away fair The two hunters left below arrived, They killed two Elk, and hung them up out of the reach of the wolves — The Coal a Ricara who is a considerable Chief of the Mandans visited us to day, and maney others of the three nations in our neighbourhood.



[Clark, February 23, 1805]

23rd of February 1805 Satturday All hands employed in Cutting the Perogus Loose from the ice, which was nearly even with their top; we found great difficuelty in effecting this work owing to the Different devisions of Ice & water after Cutting as much as we Could with axes, we had all the Iron we Could get & Some axes put on long poles and picked throught the ice, under the first water, which was not more the 6 or 8 inches deep — we disengaged one Perogue, and nearly disingaged the 2nd in Course of this day which has been warm & pleasent vised by a no of Indians, jessomme & familey went to the Shoes Indians Villag to day

The father of the Boy whose feet were frose near this place, and nearly Cured by us took him home in a Slay-



[Clark, February 24, 1805]

24th February Sunday 1805 The Day fine, we Commenced very early to day the Cutting loose the boat which was more difficuelt than the perogus with great exertions and with the assistance of Great prises we lousened her and turned the Second perogue upon the ice, ready to Draw out, in Lousening the boat from the ice Some of the Corking drew out which Caused her to Leake for a few minits untill we Discovered the Leake & Stoped it — Jessomme our interpeter & familey returned from the Villages Several Indians visit us today



[Clark, February 25, 1805]

25th of February Monday 1805 we fixed a Windlass and Drew up the two Perogues on the upper bank and attempted the Boat, but the Roap which we bade made of Elk Skins proved too weak & broke Several times night Comeing on obliged us to leave her in a Situation but little advanced- we were Visited by the Black mockerson Chief of the little Village of Big Bellies, the Cheef of the Shoe Inds and a number of others those Chiefs gave us Some meat which they packed on their wives, and one requested a ax to be made for hies Sun, Mr. Bunch, one of the under traders for the hudsons Bay Companey — one of the Big Bellies asked leave for himself & his two wives to Stay all night, which was granted, also two Boys Stayed all night, one the Sun of the Black Cat.

The Day has been exceedingly pleasent



[Clark, February 26, 1805]

26th of Feby 1805 Drew up the Boat & perogus, after Cutting them out of the ice with great Dificuelty-& trouble



[Clark, February 26, 1805]

26th February Tuesday 1805 a fine Day Commencd verry early in makeing preparations for drawing up the Boat on the bank, at Sunset by repeated exertions the whole day we accomplished this troublesom task, just as we were fixed for having the Boat the ice gave away near us for about 100 yds in length — a number of Indians here to day to See the Boat rise on the Bank



[Clark, February 27, 1805]

27th of February Wednesday 1805 a fine day, prepareing the Tools to make perogues all day — a feiw Indians visit us to day, one the largest Indian I ever Saw, & as large a man as ever I Saw, I commence a Map of the Countrey on the Missouries & its waters &c. &c.



[Clark, February 28, 1805]

28th of February 1805 Thursday Mr. Gravilin 2 frenchmen and 2 Ricaras arrived from the Ricaras with letters from Mr. Tahoe &c. informing us of the Deturmination of the Ricaras to follow our councils — and the threts & intintions of the Sioux in Killing us whenever they again met us — and that a party of Several bands were formeing to attacke the Mandans &c. &c.

we informed the Mandans & others of this information & also the wish the Ricars had to live near them & fite the Sioux &c. &c. &c.

despatched 16 Men 5 Miles abov to build 6 Canoes for the voyage, being Deturmend to Send back the Barge



[Clark, February 28, 1805]

28th of February Thursday 1805 a fine morning, two men of the N W Compy arrve with letters and Sacka comah also a Root and top of a plant presented by Mr. Haney, for the Cure of mad Dogs Snakes &c, and to be found & used as follows vz: "this root is found on high lands and asent of hills, the way of useing it is to Scarify the part when bitten to chu or pound an inch or more if the root is Small, and applying it to the bitten part renewing it twice a Day. the bitten person is not to chaw nor Swallow any of the Root for it might have contrary effect."

Sent out 16 men to make four Perogus those men returned in the evening and informed that they found trees they thought would answer.

Mr. Gravelin two frenchmen & two Inds. arrive from the Ricara Nation with Letters from Mr. Anty Tabeaux, informing us of the peaceable dispositions of that nation towards the Mandans & Me ne to res & their avowed intentions of pursueing our Councils & advice, they express a wish to visit the Mandans, & Know if it will be agreeable to them to admit the Ricaras to Settle near them and join them against their common Enimey the Souis we mentioned this to the mandans, who observed they had always wished to be at peace and good neighbours with the Ricaras, and it is also the Sentiments of all the Big Bellies, & Shoe Nations

Mr. Gravilin informs that the Sisetoons and the 3 upper bands of the Tetons, with the Yanktons of the North intend to come to war in a Short time against the nations in this quarter, & will Kill everry white man they See — Mr. T. also informes that Mr. Cameron of St peters has put arms into the hands of the Souls to revenge the death of 3 of his men Killed by the Chipaways latterly — and that the Band of tetons which we Saw is desposed to doe as we have advised them — thro the influenc of their Chief the Black Buffalow

Mr. Gravilin further informs that the Party which Robed us of the 2 horses laterly were all Sieoux 100 in number, they Called at the Ricaras on their return, the Ricares being displeased at their Conduct would not give them any thing to eate, that being the greatest insult they could peaceably offer them, and upbraded them.



[Clark, March 1, 1805]

March 1st Friday 1805 a fine Day I am ingaged in Copying a map, men building perogus, makeing Ropes, Burning Coal, Hanging up meat & makeing battle axes for Corn



[Clark, March 2, 1805]

2nd of March 1805 Satturday a fine Day the river brake up in places all engaged about Something Mr. La Rocque a Clerk of the N W Company visit us, he has latterly returned from the Establishments on the Assinniboin River with Merchindize to tarade with Indians — Mr. L informs us the N, W. & X Y Companies have joined, & the head of the N W. Co. is Dead Mr. McTavish of Monteral,- visted by the Coal & Several Indians



[Clark, March 3, 1805]

3rd of March Sunday 1805 a fine Day wind from the W, a large flock of Ducks pass up the Rivervisited by the black Cat, Chief of the Mandans 2d Cheif and a Big Belley, they Stayed but a Short time we informed those Chiefs of the news recved from the Ricaras, all hands employd



[Clark, March 4, 1805]

Fort Mandan 4th March Monday 1805 a Cloudy morning wind from the N W the after part of the day Clear, visited by the Black Cat & Big White, who brought a Small present of meat, an Engage of the N W Co. Came for a horse, and requested in the name of the woman of the princapal of his Department Some Silk of three Colours, which we furnished-. The Assinniboins who visited the Mandans a fiew Days ago returned and attempted to take horses of the Minetarres & were fired on by them



[Clark, March 5, 1805]

5th March Tuesday 1805 A fine Day Themometer at 40° abo 0. Several Indians visit us to day one frenchman cross to join a Indian the two pass through by Land to the Ricaras with a Letter to Mr. Tabbow



[Clark, March 6, 1805]

6th of March Wednesday 1805 a Cloudy morning & Smokey all Day from the burning of the plains, which was Set on fire by the Minetarries for an early crop of Grass as an endusement for the Buffalow to feed on — the horses which was Stolen Some time ago by the Assinniboins from the minetarries were returned yesterday — visited by Oh-harh or the Little fox 2d Chief of the lower Village of the Me ne tar ries — one man Shannon Cut his foot with the ads in working at a perogue, George & Graviline go to the Village, the river rise a little to day-



[Clark, March 7, 1805]

7th of March Thursday 1805 a little Cloudy and windey N E. the Coal visited us with a Sick child, to whome I gave Some of rushes Pills — Shabounar returned this evening from the Gross Vintres & informed that all the nation had returned from the hunting — he our menetarre interpeter had received a present from Mr. Chaboilleiz of the N. W. Company of the following articles 3 Brace of Cloath 1 Brace of Scarlet a par Corduroy Overalls 1 Vests 1 Brace Blu Cloth 1 Brace red or Scarlet with 3 bars, 200 balls & Powder, 2 bracs Tobacco, 3 Knives.



[Clark, March 8, 1805]

8th of March Friday 1805 a fair morning Cold and windey, wind from the East, visited by the Greesey head & a Riarca to day, those men gave Some account of the Indians near the rockey mountains

a young Indian same nation & Differnt Village Stole the Doughter of the Black man, he went to his Village took his horse & returned & took away his doughter



[Clark, March 9, 1805]

on the 9th of March we were Visited by the Grand Chief of the Minetarres, to whome we gave a medal & Some Cloths & a flag. Sent a French Man & a Indian with a letter to Mr. Tabboe informing them the Ricarras of the desire the Mandans had to See them &. &.



[Clark, March 9, 1805]

9th of March Satturday 1805 a Cloudy Cold and windey morning wind from the North — walked up to See the Party that is makeing Perogues, about 5 miles above this, the wind hard and Cold on my way up I met The Main Chief of the Manitarres with four Indians on Thier way to See us, I requested him to proceed on to the fort where he would find Capt. Lewis I should be there my Self in corse of a fiew hours, Sent the interpeter back with him and proceeded on my Self to the Canoes found them nearly finished, the timber verry bad, after visiting all the perogues where I found a number of Indans I wind to the upper mandan Village & Smoked a pipe the greatest mark of friendship and attention with the Chief and returned on my return found the Manitarree Chief about Setting out on his return to his village, having recieved of Captain M. Lewis a medel Gorget armbans, a Flag Shirt, Scarlet &c. &c. &c. for which he was much pleased Those Things were given in place of Sundery articles Sent to him which he Sais he did not receive 2 guns were fired for this Great man



[Clark, March 10, 1805]

10th of March Sunday 1805. a Cold winday Day. we are visited by the Black mockersons, Chief of the 2d Manetarre Village and the Chief of the Shoeman Village or Mah ha ha V. those Chiefs Stayed all day and the latter all night and gave us many Strang accounts of his nation &c this Little tribe or band of Menitaraies Call themselves Ah-nah-haway or people whose village is on the hill. nation formerleyed lived about 30 miles below this but beeing oppressed by the Asinniboins & Sous were Compelled to move 5 miles the Minitaries, where, the Assinniboins Killed the most of. them those remaining built a village verry near to the Minitarries at the mouth of Knife R where they now live and Can raise about 50 men, they are intermixed with the Mandans & Minatariers — the Manclans formerly lived in 6 large villages at and above the mouth of Chischeter or Heart River five Villages on the West Side & two on the East one of those Villages on the East Side of the Missouri & the larges was intirely Cut off by the Sioux & the greater part of the others and the Small Pox reduced the others.



[Clark, March 11, 1805]

Fort Mandan 11th of March Monday 1805 A Cloudy Cold windey day, Some Snow in the latter part of the day, we deturmin to have two other Perogues made for us to transport our Provisions &c.

We have every reason to believe that our Menetarre interpeter, (whome we intended to take with his wife, as an interpeter through his wife to the Snake Indians of which nation She is) has been Corupted by the ____ Companeys &c. Some explenation has taken place which Clearly proves to us the fact, we give him to night to reflect and deturmin whether or not he intends to go with us under the regulations Stated.



[Clark, March 12, 1805]

12th a fine day Some Snow last night our Interpeter Shabonah, detumins on not proceeding with us as an interpeter under the terms mentioned yesterday he will not agree to work let our Situation be what it may not Stand a guard, and if miffed with any man he wishes to return when he pleases, also have the disposial of as much provisions as he Chuses to Carrye.

in admissable and we Suffer him to be off the engagement which was only virbal wind N W



[Clark, March 13, 1805]

13th of March Wednesday 1805 a fine day visited by Mr. Mckinsey one of the Clerks of the N W Companey, the river riseing a little — maney Inds. here to day all anxiety for war axes the Smiths have not an hour of Idle time to Spear wind S W



[Clark, March 14, 1805]

14th March Thursday 1805. a fine day Set all hands to Shelling Corn &c. Mr. McKinsey leave us to day maney Indians as usial. wind west river Still riseing



[Clark, March 15, 1805]

15th of March Friday 1805 a fine day I put out all the goods & Parch meal Clothing &c to Sun, a number of Indians here to day They make maney remarks respecting our goods &c. Set Some men about Hulling Corn &c.



[Lewis, March 16, 1805]

March 16th, 1804. Mr. Gurrow a Frenchman who has lived many years with the Ricares & Mandans shewed us the process used by those Indians to make beads. the discovery of this art these nations are said to have derived from the Snake Indians who have been taken prisoners by the Ricaras. the art is kept a secret by the Indians among themselves and is yet known to but few of them.

the Prosess is as follows, — Take glass of as many different colours as you think proper, then pound it as fine as possible puting each colour in a seperate vessel. wash the pounded glass in several waters throwing off the water at each washing. continue this opperation as long as the pounded glass stains or colours the water which is poured off and the residium is then prepared for uce. You then provide an earthen pot of convenient size say of three gallons which will stand the fire; a platter also of the same materials sufficiently small to be admitted in the mouth of the pot or jar. the pot has a nitch in it's edge through which to watch the beads when in blast. You then provide some well seasoned clay with a propertion of sand sufficient to prevent it's becoming very hard when exposed to the heat. this clay must be tempered with water untill it is about the consistency of common doe. of this clay you then prepare, a sufficient number of little sticks of the size you wish the hole through the bead, which you do by roling the clay on the palm of the hand with your finger. this done put those sticks of clay on the platter and espose them to a red heat for a few minutes when you take them off and suffer them to cool. the pot is also heated to cles it perfectly of any filth it may contain. small balls of clay are also mad of about an ounce weight which serve each as a pedestal for a bead. these while soft ar distributed over the face of the platter at such distance from each other as to prevent the beads from touching. some little wooden paddles are now provided from three to four inches in length sharpened or brought to a point at the extremity of the handle. with this paddle you place in the palm of the hand as much of the wet pounded glass as is necessary to make the bead of the size you wish it. it is then arranged with the paddle in an oblong form, laying one of those little stick of clay crosswise over it; the pounded glass by means of the paddle is then roped in cilindrical form arround the stick of clay and gently roled by motion of the hand backwards an forwards until you get it as regular and smooth as you conveniently can. if you wish to introduce any other colour you now purforate the surface of the bead with the pointed end of your little paddle and fill up the cavity with other pounded glass of the colour you wish forming the whole as regular as you can. a hole is now made in the center of the little pedestals of clay with the handle of your shovel sufficiently large to admit the end of the stick of clay arround which the bead is formed. the beads are then arranged perpindicularly on their pedestals and little distance above them supported by the little sticks of clay to which they are attatched in the manner before mentioned. Thus arranged the platter is deposited on burning coals or hot embers and the pot reversed with the apparture in it's edge turned towards coverd the whole. dry wood pretty much doated; is then plased arron the pot in sush manner as compleatly to cover it is then set on fire and the opperator must shortly after begin to watch his beads through the apparture of the pot lest they should be distroyed by being over heated. he suffers the beads to acquire a deep red heat from which when it passes in a small degree to a pailer or whitish red, or he discovers that the beads begin to become pointed at their upper extremities he removes the fire from about the pot and suffers the whole to cool gradually. the pot is then removed and the beads taken out. the clay which fills the hollow of the beads is picked out with an awl or nedle, the bead is then fit for uce. The Indians are extreemly fond of the large beads formed by this process. they use them as pendants to their years, or hair and sometimes wear them about their necks.



[Clark, March 16, 1805]

16th of March Satturday 1805 a Cloudy day wind from the S. E one Indian much displeased with whitehouse for Strikeing his hand when eating with a Spoon for behaveing badly. Mr. Garrow Shew'd us the way the ricaras made their large Beeds



[Clark, March 17, 1805]

17th of March Sunday a windey Day attempted to air our goods &. Mr. Chabonah Sent a french man of our party that he was Sorry for the foolissh part he had acted and if we pleased he would accompany us agreeabley to the terms we had perposed and doe every thing we wished him to doe &c. &c. he had requested me Some thro our French inturpeter two days ago to excuse his Simplicity and take him into the cirvise, after he had taken his things across the River we called him in and Spoke to him on the Subject, he agreed to our terms and we agreed that he might go on with us &c &c. but fiew Indians here to day; the river riseing a little and Severall places open.



[Clark, March 18, 1805]

18th of March 1805 a cold cloudy Day wind from the N. I pack up all the merchindize into 8 packs equally devided So as to have Something of every thing in each Canoe & perogue I am informed of a Party of Christanoes & assinniboins being killed by the Sioux, 50 in Number near the Estableishments on the assinniboin R. a fiew days ago (the effect of Mr. Cammeron, revenge on the Chipaway for Killing 3 of his men) Mr. Tousent Chabono, Enlisted as an Interpreter this evening, I am not well to day.



[Clark, March 19, 1805]

19th of March 1805 Cold windey Day Cloudy Some little Snow last night Visited to Day by the big white & Little Crow, also a man & his wife with a Sick Child, I administer for the child I am told that two parties are gorn to war from the Big bellies and one other party going to war Shortly.



[Clark, March 20, 1805]

I visited the Mandans on the 20th & have the canoes taken to the River, ready to Decend to the fort when the River Clears,



[Clark, March 20, 1805]

Fort Mandan 20th March Wednesday 1805. I with all the men which could be Speared from the Fort went to Canoes, there I found a number of Indians the men carried 4 to the River about 11/2 miles thro the Bottom, I visited the Chief of the Mandans in the Course of the Day and Smoked a pipe with himself and Several old men. cloudy wind hard from N.



[Clark, March 21, 1805]

I return on the 21st and on my return I passed on the points of the high hills S. S. where I saw an emence quantity of Pumice Stone, and evident marks of the hills being on fire I collected some Pumice Stone, burnt Stone & hard earth and put them into a furnace, the hard earth melted and glazed the other two a part of which i, e, the Hard Clay became a Pumice-Stone, I also collected a Plant the root of which is a Cure for the Bite of a mad dog & Snake which I shall Send — Mr. Haney (I think it grows in the Blue R Barrens) the Indians make large Beeds of Different Colours-



[Clark, March 21, 1805]

21st March Thursday 1805 a Cloudy Day Some snow, the men Carried the remaining the 2 remained Canoes to the River, all except 3 left to take care & complete the Canoes, returned to the fort with their baggage, on my return to day to the Fort I came on the points of the high hills, Saw an emence quantity of Pumice Stone on the Sides & foot of the hills and emence beds of Pumice Stone near the Tops of the hills with evident marks of the Hill haveing once been on fire, I collected Some the differnt i e Stone Pumice Stone & a hard earth and put them into a furnace the hard earth melted and glazed the others two and the hard Clay became a pumice Stone Glazed. I collected Some plants &c.



[Clark, March 22, 1805]

22nd of March 1805 Visited by the 2nd Chief of the Grand Village of the Minetarrees to whome we gave a medal & Some Clothes acknowledging him as a 2d Chief, he Delayed all night, & Saw the men Dance, which is common amusement with the men he returned the 23rd with Mr. La Rocque & McKinsey two of the N W. Companys Clerks — Some few Drops of rain this evening for the first time this Winter visited by many Indians to day



[Clark, March 22, 1805]

March 22, 1805 23rd of March Friday 1805 a Cloudy Day visited by Mrs. Lack McKinsey & the 2d Chief of the Bigbellies, the white wolf and many other Menataries, we gave a Medal Some Clothes and wampoms to the 2 Chief and Delivered a Speach, which they all appeared well pleased with in The evening the men Danced Mr. Jessomme displeased



[Clark, March 24, 1805]

24th of March Satturday 1805 after Brackfast Mr. La Rocke and Mr. McKinsey and the Chiefs & men of the Minetarras leave us — Soon after we were visited by a Brother of the Burnia who gave us a Vocabulary of his Language — the Coal & many other Mandans also visit us to Day. a find Day in the fore part in the evening a little rain & the first this winter



[Clark, March 25, 1805]

25th of March Sunday 1805 a Cloudy morning wind from the N E the after part of the Day fair, Several Indians visit us today, prepareing to Set out on our journey Saw Swans & wild Gees flying N E this evening



[Clark, March 25, 1805]

March 25, 1805 26h The ice broke up in Several places in the evenig broke away and was nearly takeing off our new Canoes river rise a little



[Clark, March 26, 1805]

26th of March Monday 1805 a find Day wind S. W. but fiew Inds visit us to day the Ice haveing broken up in Several places, The ice began to brake away this evening and was near distroying our Canoes as they wer decnding to the fort, river rose only 9 Inches to day prepareing to Depart



[Clark, March 27, 1805]

27th of March Tuesday 1805 The river choked up with ice opposit to us and broke away in the evening raised only 1/2 Inch all employed prepareing to Set out



[Clark, March 28, 1805]

28th had all the Canoes, the Perogus corked pitchd & lined cover the Cotton Wood, which is win Shaken (the Mandans feed their horses on the cotton wood Sticks in places of corn).



[Clark, March 28, 1805]

28th of March Friday 1805 a windey Blustering Day wind S W ice running the river Blocked up in view for the Space of 4 hours and gave way leaveing great quantity of ice on the Shallow Sand bars. had all the canoes corked pitched & tirred in and on the cracks and windshake which is universially in the Cotton wood



[Clark, March 28, 1805]

March 28, 1805 25th the ice Stoped running owing to Some obstickle above all prepareing to Set out but few Indians visit us to day they are watching to catch the floating Buffalow which brake through the ice in Crossing, those people are fond of those animals tainted and Catch great numbers every Spring



[Clark, March 29, 1805]

29th of March Satturday 1805 The ice has Stoped running owing to Som obstickle above, repare the Boat & Perogues, and prepareing to Set out but few Indians visit us to day they are now attending on the river bank to Catch the floating Buffalow



[Clark, March 30, 1805]

30th of March. The Ice is passing in great quantites, river ran a little, The Plains are on fire on both Sides of the river it is common for the indians to Set those Plains on fire near their village for the advantage of early Grass for the hors & as an inducement to the Buffalow to visit them



[Clark, March 30, 1805]

30th of March Sunday 1805 The obstickle broke away above & the ice came dow in great quantites the river rose 13 inches the last 24 hours I observed extrodanary dexterity of the Indians in jumping from one Cake of ice to another, for the purpose of Catching the buffalow as they float down maney of the Cakes of ice which they pass over are not two feet Square. The Plains are on fire in view of the fort on both Sides of the River, it is Said to be common for the Indians to burn the Plains near their villages every Spring for the benifit of ther horse, and to induce the Buffalow to come near to them.



[Clark, March 31, 1805]

31 h of March Monday 1805 Cloudy Several gangus of Ducks and Gees pass up not much ice floating. All the party in high Spirits, but fiew nights pass without a Dance they are helth. except the-vn. — which is common with the Indians and have been communicated to many of our party at this place — those favores bieng easy acquired. all Tranquille



[Clark, March 31, 1805]

31t of March Monday 1805 Cloudy Day Seven Gangs of Gees and Ducks pass up the river — but a Small portion of ice floating down to day — but fiew Inds visit us to day all the party in high Spirits they pass but fiew nights without amuseing themselves danceing possessing perfect harmony and good understanding towards each other Generally healthy except venerials complains which is verry Commion amongst the natives and the men Catch it from them



[Clark, April 1, 1805]

April 1st 1805 we have Thunder lightning hail and rain to day the first rain of note Sinc the 15 of October last, I had the Boat Perogus & Canos put in the water, and expect to Set off the boat with despatches in her will go 6 Americans 3 frenchmen, and perhaps Several ricarra Chief imediately after we Shall assend in 2 perogus & 6 canoes, accompanied by 5 french who intends to assend a Short distance to trap the beavr which is in great abundance highr up our party will consist of one Interpter & Hunter, one French man as an interpreter with his two wives (this man Speaks Minetary to his wives who are L hiatars or Snake Indians of the nations through which we Shall pass, and to act as interpretress thro him) — 26 americans & french my servant and an Mandan Indian and provisions for 4 months



[Clark, April 1, 1805]

Fort Mandan April the 1st Tuesday 1805 The fore part of to day haile rain with Thunder & lightning, the rain continued by intimitions all day, it is worthey of remark that this is the 1st rain which has fallen Since we have been here or Since the 15 of October last, except a fiew drops at two or three defferent times

had the Boat Perogus & Canoes all put into the water.



[Clark, April 2, 1805]

April the 2nd a Cold rain day we are writeing and prepareing dispatches all day — I conclude to Send my journal to the President of the United States in its original State for his own perusial, untill I call for it or Some friend if I should not return, an this journal is from the 13th of May 1804 untill the 3rd of April 1805. wrote untill verry late at night but little time to devote to my friends, the river is falling fast.



[Clark, April 2, 1805]

April the 2nd Friday 1805 a cloudy day rained all the last night we are preparing to Set out all thing nearly ready. The 2d Chief of the 2d Mandan Village took a miff at our not attending to him perticelarely after being here about ten day and moved back to his village

The mandans Killed twenty one elk yesterday 15 miles below this, they were So meager that they Scercely fit for use



[Clark, April 3, 1805]

3rd of April we Shall pack up to day and Set out tomorrow.

[Clark, April 3, 1805]

April the 3rd Thursday 1805 a white frost this morning, Some ice on the edge of the water, a fine day Pack up and prepare to load

Mrs. La Roche & McKinsey Clerk to the N W. Compy. visit us. Mr. McKinzey wishes to get pay for his horse lost in our Service this winter and one of which was robed this winter by the Tetons, we Shall pay this man for his horse. we are all day ingaged packing up Sundery articles to be Sent to the President of the U. S.

bow an quiver of arrows-with some Ricara's tobacco seed

No. 11 a Martin Skin, Containing the tail of a Mule Deer, a weasel and three Squirels from the Rockey mountains.

No. 12. The bones & Skeleton of a Small burrowing wolf of the Praries the Skin being lost by accident.

No. 99 The Skeliton of the white and Grey hare.

Box No. 2, contains 4 Buffalow Robes, and a ear of Mandan Corn.

The large Trunk Contains a male & female Brarow and female's Skeliton.

a Carrote of Ricaras Tobacco

a red fox Skin Containing a Magpie.

No. 14 Minitarras Buffalow robe Containing Some articles of Indian dress.

No. 15 a Mandan robe containing two burrowing Squirels, a white weasel and the Skin of a Loucirvea.

also

13 red fox Skins.
1 white Hare Skin &.
4 horns of the mountain ram
1 Robe representing a battle between the Sioux & Ricaras, Minetarras and Mandans.

In Box No. 3.

nos. 1 & 2 The Skins of the Male & female Antelope with their Skelitons. & the Skin of a yellow Bear which I obtained from the Scions

No. 4. Box Specimens of plants numbered from 1 to 67.

Specimens of Plants numbered frome 1 to 60.

1 Earthen pot Such as the Mandans Manufacture and use for culinary purposes.

Box No 4 Continued

1 Tin box, containing insects mice &c. a Specimine of the fur of the antelope.

a Specimon of a plant, and a parcel of its roots highly prized by the natives as

an efficatious remidy in Cases of the bite of the rattle Snake or Mad Dog.

In a large Trunk

Skins of a Male and female Braro, or burrowing Dog of the Prarie, with the Skeliton of the female.

1 Skin of the red fox Containing a Magpie.

2 Cased Skins of the white hare.

1 Minitarra Buffalow robe Containing Some articles of Indian Dress

1 Mandan Buffalow robe Containing a dressed Lousirva Skin, and 2 Cased Skins of the Burrowing Squirel of the Praries.

13 red fox Skins

4 Horns of the Mountain Ram or big horn.

1 Buffalow robe painted by a mandan man representing a battle fought 8 years Since by the Sioux & Ricaras against the mandans, menitarras & Ah wah bar ways (Mandans &c. on horseback)

Cage No. 6.

Contains a liveing burrowing Squirel of the praries

Cage No. 7.

Contains 4 liveing magpies

Cage No. 9.

Containing a liveing hen of the Prarie

a large par of Elks horns containing by the frontal bone-

[Clark, April 4, 1805]

April the 4th 1805 Wednesday a blustering windey Day the Clerks of the N W. Co. leave us we are arrangeing all things to Set out &c.



[Clark, April 5, 1805]

April the 5th 1805 Thursday we have our 2 perogues & Six Canoes loaded with our Stores & provisions, principally provisions. the wind verry high from the N W. a number of Mandans visit us to day



[Clark, April 6, 1805]

April the 6th Friday Saturday 1805 a fine day visited by a number of mandans, we are informed of the arrival of the whole of the ricarra nation on the other Side of the river near their old village. we Sent an interpreter to See with orders to return imediately and let us know if their Chiefs ment to go down to See their great father.



[Lewis, April 7, 1805]

Fort Mandan April 7th 1805. Having on this day at 4 P.M. completed every arrangement necessary for our departure, we dismissed the barge and crew with orders to return without loss of time to S. Louis, a small canoe with two French hunters accompanyed the barge; these men had assended the missouri with us the last year as engages. The barge crew consisted of six soldiers and two ____ Frenchmen; two Frenchmen and a Ricara Indian also take their passage in her as far as the Ricara Vilages, at which place we expect Mr. Tiebeau to embark with his peltry who in that case will make an addition of two, perhaps four men to the crew of the barge. We gave Richard Warfington, a discharged Corpl., the charge of the Barge and crew, and confided to his care likewise our dispatches to the government, letters to our private friends, and a number of articles to the President of the United States. One of the Frenchmen by the Name of Gravline an honest discrete man and an excellent boat-man is imployed to conduct the barge as a pilot; we have therefore every hope that the barge and with her our dispatches will arrive safe at St. Louis. Mr. Gravlin who speaks the Ricara language extreemly well, has been imployed to conduct a few of the Recara Chiefs to the seat of government who have promised us to decend in the barge to St. Liwis with that view.

At same moment that the Barge departed from Fort Mandan, Capt. Clark embaked with our party and proceeded up the river. as I had used no exercise for several weeks, I determined to walk on shore as far as our encampment of this evening; accordingly I continued my walk on the N. side of the River about six miles, to the upper Village of the Mandans, and called on the Black Cat or Pose cop'se ha, the great chief of the Mandans; he was not at home; I rested myself a minutes, and finding that the party had not arrived I returned about 2 miles and joined them at their encampment on the N. side of the river opposite the lower Mandan village. Our party now consisted of the following Individuals. Sergts. John Ordway, Nathaniel Prior, & Patric Gass; Privates, William Bratton, John Colter, Reubin, and Joseph Fields, John Shields, George Gibson, George Shannon, John Potts, John Collins, Joseph Whitehouse, Richard Windsor, Alexander Willard, Hugh Hall, Silas Goodrich, Robert Frazier, Peter Crouzatt, John Baptiest la Page, Francis Labiech, Hue McNeal, William Werner, Thomas P. Howard, Peter Wiser, and John B. Thompson.

Interpreters, George Drewyer and Tauasant Charbono also a Black man by the name of York, servant to Capt. Clark, an Indian Woman wife to Charbono with a young child, and a Mandan man who had promised us to accompany us as far as the Snake Indians with a view to bring about a good understanding and friendly intercourse between that nation and his own, the Minetares and Ahwahharways.

Our vessels consisted of six small canoes, and two large perogues. This little fleet altho not quite so rispectable as those of Columbus or Capt. Cook were still viewed by us with as much pleasure as those deservedly famed adventurers ever beheld theirs; and I dare say with quite as much anxiety for their safety and preservation. we were now about to penetrate a country at least two thousand miles in width, on which the foot of civillized man had never trodden; the good or evil it had in store for us was for experiment yet to determine, and these little vessells contained every article by which we were to expect to subsist or defend ourselves. however as this the state of mind in which we are, generally gives the colouring to events, when the immagination is suffered to wander into futurity, the picture which now presented itself to me was a most pleasing one. entertaing as I do, the most confident hope of succeading in a voyage which had formed a darling project of mine for the last ten years, I could but esteem this moment of my departure as among the most happy of my life. The party are in excellent health and sperits, zealously attatched to the enterprise, and anxious to proceed; not a whisper of murmur or discontent to be heard among them, but all act in unison, and with the most perfect harmony. I took an early supper this evening and went to bed. Capt. Clark myself the two Interpretters and the woman and child sleep in a tent of dressed skins. this tent is in the Indian stile, formed of a number of dressed Buffaloe skins sewed together with sinues. it is cut in such manner that when foalded double it forms the quarter of a circle, and is left open at one side where it may be attatched or loosened at pleasure by strings which are sewed to its sides to the purpose. to erect this tent, a parsel of ten or twelve poles are provided, fore or five of which are attatched together at one end, they are then elivated and their lower extremities are spread in a circular manner to a width proportionate to the demention of the lodge, in the same position orther poles are leant against those, and the leather is then thrown over them forming a conic figure.



[Clark, April 7, 1805]

7th of April Satturday 1805" a windey day, The Interpreter we Sent to the Villages returned with Chief of the Ricara's & 3 men of that nation this Chief informed us that he was Sent by his nation to Know the despositions of the nations in this neighbourhood in respect to the recara's Settleing near them, that he had not yet made those arrangements, he request that we would Speek to the Assinniboins, & Crow Inds. in their favour, that they wished to follow our directions and be at peace with all, he viewed all nations in this quarter well disposed except the Sioux. The wish of those recaras appears to be a junction with the Mandans & Minetarras in a Defensive war with the Sioux who rob them of every Spece of property in Such a manner that they Cannot live near them any longer. I told this Chief we were glad to See him, and we viewed his nation as the Dutifull Children of a Great father who would extend his protection to all those who would open their ears to his good advice, we had already Spoken to the Assinniboins, and Should Speeke to the Crow Indians if we Should See them &c. as to the Sioux their Great father would not let them have any more good Guns &c. would take Care to prosu Such measurs as would provent those Sioux from Murding and taking the property from his dutyfull red Children &c. — we gave him a certificate of his good Conduct & a Small Medal, a Carrot of Tobacco and a String of Wompom — he requested that one of his men who was lame might decend in the boat to their nation and returned to the Mandans well Satisfied

The name of this Chief of War is Kah-kah, we to-Raven brave.

This Cheif delivered us a letter from Mr. Taboe. informing us of the wish of the Grand Chiefs of the Ricarras to visit their Great father and requesting the privolage of put'g on board the boat 3000 w of Skins &c. & adding 4 hands and himself to the party. this preposeal we Shall agree to, as that addition will make the party in the boat 15 Strong and more able to defend themselves from the Seoux &c.



[Clark, April 7, 1805]

Fort Mandan April 7th 1805" Sunday, at 4 oClock P M, the Boat, in which was 6 Soldiers 2 frenchmen & an Indian, all under the command of a corporal who had the charge of dispatches, &c.and a Canoe with 2 french men, Set out down the river for St. Louis. at the same time we Sout out on our voyage up the river in 2 perogues and 6 canoes, and proceded on to the 1st villg. of Mandans & Camped on the S. S. — our party consisting of Sergt. Nathaniel Pryor Sgt. John Ordway Sgt. Pat. Gass, William Bratten, John Colter Joseph & Reubin Fields, John Shields George Gibson George Shannon, John Potts, John Collins, Jos. Whitehouse, Richard Windser, Alexander Willard, Hugh Hall, Silas Gutrich, Robert Frazure, Peter Crouzat, John Baptiest la page, Francis Labich, Hugh McNeal, William Werner, Thomas P. Howard, Peter Wiser, J. B. Thompson and my Servent york, George Drewyer who acts as a hunter & interpreter, Shabonah and his Indian Squar to act as an Interpreter & interpretress for the snake Indians-one Mandan & Shabonahs infant. Sah-kah-gar we a



[Lewis, April 8, 1805]

April 8th Set out early this morning, the wind blew hard against us from the N. W. we therefore traveled very slowly. I walked on shore, and visited the black Cat, took leave of him after smoking a pipe as is their custom, and then proceeded on slowly by land about four miles where I wated the arrival of the party, at 12 Oclock they came up and informed me that one of the small canoes was behind in distress. Capt Clark returned foud she had filled with water and all her loading wet. we lost half a bag of hisquit, and about thirty pounds of powder by this accedent; the powder we regard as a serious loss, but we spread it to dry immediately and hope we shall still be enabled to restore the greater part of it. this was the only powder we had which was not perfectly secure from geting wet. we took dinner at this place, and then proceed on to oure encampment, which was on the S. side opposite to a high bluff. the Mandan man came up after we had encamped and brought with him a woman who was extreemly solicitous to accompany one of the men of our party, this however we positively refused to permit.

From the upper point on an island (being the point to which Capt. Clark took his last course when he assended the river in surch of a place for winter quarters 1st November last) to a point of wood land Stard side, passing a high bluff on the Lard. N 40° W. 31/2







[Clark, April 8, 1805]

8th of April Monday 1805 Set out verry early wind hard a head from the N. W. proceeded on passed all the villages the inhabitents of which flocked down in great numbers to view us, I took my leave of the great Chief of the Mandans who gave me a par of excellent mockersons, one Canoe filed with water every thing in her got wet. 2/3 of a barrel of powder lost by this accedent.

Camped on the S. S. opsd. a high bluff an Indian joined us, also an Indian woman with a view to accompany us, the woman was Sent back the man being acquainted with the Countrey we allowed him to accompanie ns



[Lewis, April 9, 1805]

Tuesday April 9th Set out as early as it was possible to see this morning and proceed about five miles where we halted and took beakfas — the Indian man who had promised us to accompany us as far as the Snake Indians, now informed us of his intention to relinquish the journey, and accordingly returned to his village. we saw a great number of brant passing up the river, some of them were white, except the large feathers in the first and second joint of the wing which are black. there is no other difference between them and the common gray brant but that of their colour — their note and habits are the same, and they are freequently seen to associate together. I have not yet positively determined whether they are the same, or a different species. — Capt Clark walked on shore to-day and informed me on his return, that passing through the prarie he had seen an anamal that precisely resembled the burrowing squrril, accept in point of size, it being only about one third as large as the squirrel, and that it also burrows. I have observed in many parts of the plains and praries the work of an anamal of which I could never obtain a view. their work resembles that of the salamander common to the sand hills of the States of South Carolina and Georgia; and like that anamal also it never appears above the ground. the little hillocks which are thrown up by these anamals have much the appearance of ten or twelve pounds of loose earth poared out of a vessel on the surface of the plain. in the state they leave them you can discover no whole through which they throw out this earth; but by removing the loose earth gently you may discover that the soil has been broken in a circle manner for about an inch and a half in diameter, where it appears looser than the adjacent surface, and is certainly the place through which the earth has been thrown out, tho the operation is performed without leaving any visible aperture. — the Bluffs of the river which we passed today were upwards of a hundred feet high, formed of a mixture of yellow clay and sand — many horizontal stratas of carbonated wood, having every appearance of pitcoal at a distance; were seen in the the face of these bluffs. these stratas are of unequal thicknesses from I to 5 feet, and appear at different elivations above the water some of them as much as eighty feet. the hills of the river are very broken and many of them have the apearance of having been on fire at some former period. considerable quantities of pumice stone and lava appear in many parts of these hills where they are broken and washed down by the rain and melting snow. when we halted for dinner the squaw busied herself in serching for the wild artichokes which the mice collect and deposit in large hoards. this operation she performed by penetrating the earth with a sharp stick about some small collections of drift wood. her labour soon proved successful, and she procurrd a good quantity of these roots. the flavor of this root resembles that of the Jerusalem Artichoke, and the stalk of the weed which produces it is also similar, tho both the root and stalk are much smaller than the Jarusalem Artichoke. the root is white and of an ovate form, from one to three inches in length and usually about the size of a man's finger. one stalk produces from two to four, and somitimes six of these roots.

at the distance of 6 miles passed a large wintering or hunting camp of the Minetares on the Stard. side. these lodges about thirty in number are built of earth and timber in their usual stile. 21/4 miles higher we passed the entrance of Miry Creek, which discharges itself on the Stard. side. this creek is but small, takes it's rise in some small lakes near the Mouse river and passes in it's course to the Missouri, through beatifull, level, and fertile plains, intirely destitute of timber. — Three miles above the mouth of this creek we passed a hunting camp of Minetares who had prepared a park and were wating the return of the Antelope; which usually pass the Missouri at this season of the year from the Black hills on the South side, to the open plains on the north side of the river; in like manner the Antelope repasses the Missouri from N. to South in the latter end of Autumn, and winter in the black hills, where there is considerable bodies of woodland. we proceed on 111/2 miles further and encamped on the N. side in a most beatifull high extensive open bottom



[Clark, April 9, 1805]

9th of April Tuesday 1805. Set out this morning verry early under a gentle breeze from the S. E. at Brackfast the Indian deturmined to return to his nation. I saw a Musquetor to day great numbers of Brant flying up the river, the Maple, & Elm has buded & Cotton and arrow wood beginning to bud. I saw in the prarie an animal resembling the Prarie dog or Barking Squirel & burrow in the Same way, this animal was about 1/3 as large as the barking Squirel. But fiew resident birds or water fowls which I have Seen as yet at 6 miles passed an old hunting camp of Menitarrees on the S. S. 21/2 miles higher passed the mouth of Miry Creek on the S. S. passed a hunting Camp of Minetarees on the S. S. waiting the return of the Antilope, Saw Great numbers of Gees feedin in the Praries on the young grass, I saw flowers in the praries to day, juniper grows on the Sides of the hills, & runs on the ground all the hills have more or Less indefferent Coal in Stratias at different bites from the waters edge to 80 feet. those Stratias from 1 inch to 5 feet thick. we Campd. on the S. S. above some rocks makeing out in the river in a butifull ellivated plain.



[Lewis, April 10, 1805]

Wednesday April 10th 1805. Set out at an early hour this morning at the distance of three miles passed some Minetares who had assembled themselves on the Lard shore to take a view of our little fleet. Capt Clark walked on shore today, for several hours, when he returned he informed me that he had seen a gang of Antelopes in the plains but was unable to get a shoot at them he also saw some geese and swan. the geese are now feeding in considerable numbers on the young grass which has sprung up in the bottom prariesthe Musquetoes were very troublesome to us today. The country on both sides of the missouri from the tops of the river hills, is one continued level fertile plain as far as the eye can reach, in which there is not even a solitary tree or shrub to be seen except such as from their moist situations or the steep declivities of hills are sheltered from the ravages of the fire. at the distance of 12 miles from our encampment of last night we arrived at the lower point of a bluff on the Lard side; about 11/2 miles down this bluff from this point, the bluff is now on fire and throws out considerable quantities of smoke which has a strong sulphurious smell. the appearance of the coal in the blufs continues as yesterday. at 1 P.M. we overtook three french hunters who had set out a few days before us with a view of traping beaver; they had taken 12 since they left Fort Mandan. these people avail themselves of the protection which our numbers will enable us to give them against the Assinniboins who sometimes hunt on the Missouri and intend ascending with us as far as the mouth of the Yellow stone river and continue there hunt up that river. this is the first essay of a beaver hunter of any discription on this river. the beaver these people have already taken is by far the best I have ever seen. the river bottoms we have passed to-day are wider and possess more timber than usualthe courant of the Missouri is but moderate, at least not greater than that of the Ohio in high tide; it's banks are falling in but little; the navigation is therefore comparitively with it's lower portion easy and safe. — we encamped this evening on a willow point, Stard. side just above a remarkable bend in the river to the S. W. which we called the little bason.



[Clark, April 10, 1805]

10th of April Wednesday 1805 Set out verry early. the morning cool and no wind proceeded on passed a camp of Inds. on the L. S. this day proved to be verry worm, the Misquetors troublesom. I Saw Several Antilope on the S. S. also gees & Swan, we over took 3 french men Trappers The countrey to day as usial except that the points of Timber is larger than below, the Coal Continue to day, one man Saw a hill on fire at no great distance from the river, we camped on the S. S. just above a remarkable bend in the river to the S W, which we call the little bacon.



[Lewis, April 11, 1805]

Thursday April 11th Set out at an early hour; I proceeded with the party and Capt Clark with George Drewyer walked on shore in order to procure some fresh meat if possible. we proceeded on abot five miles, and halted for breakfast, when Capt Clark and Drewyer joined us; the latter had killed, and brought with him a deer which was at this moment excepable as we had had no fresh meat for several days. the country from fort Mandan to this place is so constantly hunted by the Minetaries that there is but little game we halted at two P.M. and made a comfortable dinner on a venison stake and beavers tales with the bisquit which got wet on the 8th inst. by the accidant of the canoe filling with water before mentioned. the powder which got wet by the same accedent, and which we had spread to dry on the baggage of the large perogue, was now examined and put up; it appears to be almost restored, and our loss is therefore not so great as we had at first apprehended. — the country much the same as yesterday. on the sides of the hills and even the banks of the rivers and sandbars, there is a white substance that appears in considerable quantities on the surface of the earth, which tastes like a mixture of common salt and glauber salts. many of the springs which flow from the base of the river hills are so strongly impregnated with this substance that the water is extreemly unpleasant to the taste and has a purgative effect. — saw some large white cranes pass up the river- these are the largest bird of that genus common to the country through which the Missouri and Mississippi pass. they are perfectly white except the large feathers of the two first joints of the wing which are black. we encamped this evening on the Stard. shore just above the point of woodland which formed to extremity of the last course of this day. there is a high bluff opposite to us, under which we saw some Indians, but the river is here so wide that we could not speake to them; suppose them to be a hunting party of Minetares. — we killed two gees today.



[Clark, April 11, 1805]

11th of April Thursday 1805 Set out verry early I walked on Shore, Saw fresh bear tracks, one deer & 2 beaver killed this morning in the after part of the day killed two gees; Saw great numbers of Gees Brant & Mallard Some White Cranes Swan & guls, the plains begin to have a green appearance, the hills on either side are from 5 to 7 miles asunder and in maney places have been burnt, appearing at a distance of a redish brown choler, containing Pumic Stone & lava, Some of which rolin down to the base of those hills — In maney of those hills forming bluffs to the river we procieve Several Stratums of bituminious Substance which resembles Coal; thong Some of the pieces appear to be excellent Coal it resists the fire for Some time, and consumes without emiting much flaim.

The plains are high and rich Some of them are Sandy Containing Small pebble, and on Some of the hill Sides large Stones are to be Seen — In the evening late we observed a party of Me ne tar ras on the L. S. with horses and dogs loaded going down, those are a part of the Menetarras who camped a little above this with the Ossinniboins at the mouth of the little Missouri all the latter part of the winter we Camped on the S. S. below a falling in bank. the river raise a little.



[Lewis, April 12, 1805]

Friday April the 12th 1805. Set out at an early hour. our peroge and the Canoes passed over to the Lard side in order to avoid a bank which was rappidly falling in on the Stard. the red perogue contrary to my expectation or wish passed under this bank by means of her toe line where I expected to have seen her carried under every instant. I did not discover that she was about to make this attempt untill it was too late for the men to reembark, and retreating is more dangerous than proceeding in such cases; they therefore continued their passage up this bank, and much to my satisfaction arrived safe above it. this cost me some moments of uneasiness, her cargo was of much importance to us in our present advanced situation — We proceeded on six miles and came too on the lower side of the entrance of the little Missouri on the Lard shore in a fine plain where we determined to spend the day for the purpose of celestial observation. we sent out 10 hunters to procure some fresh meat. at this place made the following observations.

The night proved so cloudy that I could make no further observations. George Drewyer shot a Beaver this morning, which we found swiming in the river a small distance below the entrance of the little Missouri. the beaver being seen in the day, is a proof that they have been but little hunted, as they always keep themselves closly concealed during the day where they are so. — found a great quantity of small onions in the plain where we encamped; had some of them collected and cooked, found them agreeable. the bulb grows single, is of an oval form, white, and about the size of a small bullet; the leaf resembles that of the shive, and the hunters returned this eying with one deer only. the country about the mouth of this river had been recently hunted by the Minetares, and the little game which they had not killed and frightened away, was so extreemly shy that the hunters could not get in shoot of them.

The little Missouri disembogues on the S. side of the Missouri 1693 miles from the confluence of the latter with the Mississippi. it is 134 yards wide at it's mouth, and sets in with a bould current but it's greatest debth is not more than 21/2 feet. it's navigation is extreemly difficult, owing to it's rapidity, shoals and sand bars. it may however be navigated with small canoes a considerable distance. this river passes through the Northern extremity of the black hills where it is very narrow and rapid and it's banks high an perpendicular. it takes it's rise in a broken country West of the Black hills with the waters of the yellow stone river, and a considerable distance S. W. of the point at which it passes the black hills. the country through which it passes is generally broken and the highlands possess but little timber. there is some timber in it's bottom lands, which consists of Cottonwood red Elm, with a small proportion of small Ash and box alder. the under brush is willow, red wood, (sometimes called red or swamp willow-) the red burry, and Choke cherry the country is extreamly broken about the mouth of this river, and as far up on both sides, as we could observe it from the tops of some elivated hills, which stand betwen these two rivers, about 3 miles from their junction. the soil appears fertile and deep, it consists generally of a dark rich loam intermixed with a small proportion of fine sand. this river in it's course passed near the N. W. side of the turtle mountain, which is said to be no more than 4 or 5 leagues distant from it's entrance in a straight direction, a little to the S. of West. — this mountain and the knife river have therefore been laid down too far S. W. the colour of the water, the bed of the river, and it's appearance in every respect, resembles the Missouri; I am therefore induced to believe that the texture of the soil of the country in which it takes it's rise, and that through which it passes, is similar to the country through which the Missouri passes after leaving the woody country, or such as we are now in. — on the side of a hill not distant from our camp I found some of the dwarf cedar of which I preserved a specimen (See No. 2). this plant spreads it's limbs alonge the surface of the earth, where they are sometimes covered, and always put forth a number of roots on the under side, while on the upper there are a great number of small shoots which with their leaves seldom rise higher than 6 or eight inches. they grow so close as perfectly to conceal the eath. it is an evergreen; the leaf is much more delicate than the common Cedar, and it's taste and smell the same. I have often thought that this plant would make very handsome edgings to the borders and walks of a garden; it is quite as handsom as box, and would be much more easily propegated. — the appearance of the glauber salts and Carbonated wood still continue.



[Clark, April 12, 1805]

12th April Friday 1805 a fine morning Set out verry early, the murcery Stood 56° above 0. proceeded on to the mouth of the Little Missouri river and formed a Camp in a butifull elivated plain on the lower Side for the purpose of takeing Some observations to fix the Latitude & Longitude of this river. this river falls in on the L. Side and is 134 yards wide and 2 feet 6 Inches deep at the mouth, it takes its rise in the N W extremity of the black mountains, and through a broken countrey in its whole course washing the N W base of the Turtle Mountain which is Situated about 6 Leagues S W of its mouth, one of our men Baptiest who came down this river in a canoe informs me that it is not navagable, he was 45 days descending.

One of our men Shot a beaver Swimming below the mouth of this river. I walked out on the lower Side of this river and found the countrey hilley the Soil composed of black mole & a Small perportion of Sand containing great quantity of Small peable Some limestone, black flint, & Sand Stone I killed a Hare Changeing its Colour Some parts retaining its long white fur & other parts assumeing the Short grey, I Saw the Magpie in pars, flocks of Grouse, the old field lark & Crows, & observed the leaf of the wild Chery half grown, many flowers are to be seen in the plains, remains of Minetarra & Ossinneboin hunting Camps are to be Seen on each Side of the two Missouris

The wind blew verry hard from the S. all the after part of the day, at 3 oClock P M. it became violent & flowey accompanied with thunder and a little rain. We examined our canoes &c found Several mice which had already commenced cutting our bags of corn & parched meal, the water of the little Missouri is of the Same texture Colour & quallity of that of the Big Missouri the after part of the day so Cloudy that we lost the evening observation.



[Lewis, April 13, 1805]

Saturday April 13th Being disappointed in my observations of yesterday for Longitude, I was unwilling to remain at the entrance of the river another day for that purpose, and therefore determined to set out early this morning; which we did accordingly; the wind was in our favour after 9 A.M. and continued favourable untill three 3 P.M. we therefore hoisted both the sails in the White Perogue, consisting of a small squar sail, and spritsail, which carried her at a pretty good gate, untill about 2 in the afternoon when a suddon squall of wind struck us and turned the perogue so much on the side as to allarm Sharbono who was steering at the time, in this state of alarm he threw the perogue with her side to the wind, when the spritsail gibing was as near overseting the perogue as it was possible to have missed. the wind however abating for an instant I ordered Drewyer to the helm and the sails to be taken in, which was instant executed and the perogue being steered before the wind was agin placed in a state of security. this accedent was very near costing us dearly. beleiving this vessell to be the most steady and safe, we had embarked on board of it our instruments, Papers, medicine and the most valuable part of the merchandize which we had still in reserve as presents for the Indians. we had also embarked on board ourselves, with three men who could not swim and the squaw with the young child, all of whom, had the perogue overset, would most probably have perished, as the waves were high, and the perogue upwards of 200 yards from the nearest shore; however we fortunately escaped and pursued our journey under the square sail, which shortly after the accident I directed to be again hoisted. our party caught three beaver last evening; and the French hunters 7. as there was much appearance of beaver just above the entrance of the little Missouri these hunters concluded to remain some days; we therefore left them without the expectation of seeing them again. — just above the entrance of the Little Missouri the great Missouri is upwards of a mile in width, tho immediately at the entrance of the former it is not more than 200 yards wide and so shallow that the canoes passed it with seting poles. at the distance of nine miles passed the mouth of a creek on the Stard. side which we called onion creek from the quantity of wild onions which grow in the plains on it's borders. Capt. Clark who was on shore informed me that this creek was 16 yards wide a mile & a half above it's entrance, discharges more water than creeks of it's size usually do in this open country, and that there was not a stick of timber of any discription to be seen on it's borders, or the level plain country through which it passes. at the distance of 10 miles further we passed the mouth of a large creek; discharging itself in the center of a deep bend. of this creek and the neighbouring country, Capt Clark who was on shore gave me the following discription "This creek I took to be a small river from it's size, and the quantity of water which it discharged. I ascended it 11/2 miles, and found it the discharge of a pond or small lake, which had the appearance of having formerly been the bed of the Missouri. several small streems discharge themselves into this lake. the country on both sides consists of beautifull level and elivated plains; asscending as they recede from the Missouri; there were a great number of Swan and gees in this lake and near it's borders I saw the remains of 43 temperary Indian lodges, which I presume were those of the Assinniboins who are now in the neighbourhood of the British establishments on the Assinniboin river. This lake and it's discharge we call Boos Egg from the circumstance of Capt Clark shooting a goose while on her nest in the top of a lofty cotton wood tree, from which we afterwards took one egg. the wild gees frequently build their nests in this manner, at least we have already found several in trees, nor have we as yet seen any on the ground, or sand bars where I had supposed from previous information that they most commonly deposited their eggs. saw some Bufhaloe and Elk at a distance today but killed none of them. we found a number of carcases of the Buffaloe lying along shore, which had been drowned by falling through the ice in winter and lodged on shore by the high water when the river broke up about the first of this month. we saw also many tracks of the white bear of enormous size, along the river shore and about the carcases of the Buffaloe, on which I presume they feed. we have not as yet seen one of these anamals, tho their tracks are so abundant and recent. the men as well as ourselves are anxious to meet with some of these bear. the Indians give a very formidable account of the strengh and ferocity of this anamal, which they never dare to attack but in parties of six eight or ten persons; and are even then frequently defeated with the loss of one or more of their party. the savages attack this anamal with their bows and arrows and the indifferent guns with which the traders furnish them, with these they shoot with such uncertainty and at so short a distance, that they frequently mis their aim & fall a sacrefice to the bear. two Minetaries were killed during the last winter in an attack on a white bear. this anamall is said more frequently to attack a man on meeting with him, than to flee from him. When the Indians are about to go in quest of the white bear, previous to their departure, they paint themselves and perform all those superstitious rights commonly observed when they are about to make war uppon a neighbouring nation. Oserved more bald eagles on this part of the Missouri than we have previously seen saw the small hawk, frequently called the sparrow hawk, which is common to most parts of the U States. great quantities of gees are seen feeding in the praries. saw a large flock of white brant or gees with black wings pass up the river; there were a number of gray brant with them; from their flight I presume they proceed much further still to the N. W. — we have never been enabled yet to shoot one of these birds, and cannot therefore determine whether the gray brant found with the white are their brude of the last year or whether they are the same with the grey brant common to the Mississippi and lower part of the Missouri. — we killed 2 Antelopes today which we found swiming from the S. to the N. side of the river; they were very poor. — We encamped this evening on the Stard. shore in a beautiful) plain, elivated about 30 feet above the river.



[Clark, April 13, 1805]

13th of April Satturday 1805 Set out this morning at 6 oClock, the Missouri above the mouth of Little Missouri widens to nearly a mile containing a number of Sand bars this width &c. of the River Continues Generally as high as the Rochejhone River.

Cought 3 beaver this morning, at 9 miles passd. the mouth of a Creek on the S. S. on the banks of which there is an imence quantity of wild onions or garlick, I was up this Creek 1/2 a m. and could not See one Stick of timber of any kind on its borders, this creek is 16 yds wide 1/2 a mile up it and discharges more water than is common for Creeks of its Size. at about 10 miles higher we pass a Creek about 30 yards wide in a deep bend to the N W. This creek I took to be a Small river from its Size & the quantity of water which it discharged, I ascended it 11/2 mes and found it the discharge of a pond or Small Lake which has appearance of haveing been once the bead of the river, Some Small Streams discharge themselves into this Lake. the Countery on both Side is butifull elevated plains assending in Some parts to a great distance near the aforesaid Lake (which we call Goose egg L from a Circumstance of my Shooting a goose on her neast on Some Sticks in the top of a high Cotton wood tree in which there was one egg) We Saw 8 buffalow at a distance, We also Saw Several herds of Elk at a distance which were verry wild, I Saw near the Lake the remains of 43 lodges, which has latterly been abandond I Suppose them to have been Ossinniboins and now near the british establishments on the Ossinniboin River tradeing. we camped on the S. S. in a butifull Plain. I observe more bald Eagles on this part of the Missouri than usial also a Small Hawk Killed 2 Antelopes in the river to day emence numbers of Geese to be seen pared &c. a Gange of brant pass one half of the gange white with black wings or the large feathers of the 1 s & 2d joint the remds. of the comn. color. a voice much like that of a goos & finer &c.



[Lewis, April 14, 1805]

Sunday April 14th 1805. One of the hunters saw an Otter last evening and shot at it, but missed it. a dog came to us this morning, which we supposed to have been lost by the Indians who were recently encamped near the lake that we passed yesterday. the mineral appearances of salts, coal and sulpher, together with birnt hills & pumicestone still continue. — while we remained at the entrance of the little Missouri, we saw several pieces of pumice stone floating down that stream, a considerable quanty of which had lodged against a point of drift wood a little above it's entrance. Capt. Clark walked on shore this morning, and on his return informed me that he had passed through the timbered bottoms on the N. side of the river, and had extended his walk several miles back on the hills; in the bottom lands he had met with several uninhabited Indian lodges built with the boughs of the Elm, and in the plains he met with the remains of two large encampments of a recent date, which from the appearance of some hoops of small kegs, seen near them we concluded that they must have been the camps of the Assinniboins, as no other nation who visit this part of the missouri ever indulge themselves with spirituous liquor. of this article the Assinniboins are pationately fond, and we are informed that it forms their principal inducement to furnish the British establishments on the Assinniboin river with the dryed and pounded meat and grease which they do. they also supply those establishments with a small quantity of fur, consisting principally of the large and small wolves and the small fox skins. these they barter for small kegs of ruin which they generally transport to their camps at a distance from the establishments, where they revel with their friends and relations as long as they possess the means of intoxication, their women and children are equally indulged on those occations and are all seen drunk together. so far is a state of intoxication from being a cause of reproach among them, that with the men, it is a matter of exultation that their skill and industry as hunters has enabled them to get drunk frequently. in their customs, habits, and dispositions these people very much resemble the Siouxs from whom they have descended. The principal inducement with the British fur companies, for continuing their establishments on the Assinniboin river, is the Buffaloe meat and grease they procure from the Assinniboins, and Christanoes, by means of which, they are enabled to supply provision to their engages on their return from rainy Lake to the English river and the Athabaskey country where they winter; without such resource those voyagers would frequently be straitened for provision, as the country through which they pass is but scantily supplyed with game, and the rappidity with which they are compelled to travel in order to reach their winter stations, would leave therm but little leasure to surch for food while on their voyage.

The Assinniboins have so recently left this neighbourhood, that the game is scarce and very shy. the river continues wide, and not more rapid than the Ohio in an averge state of it's current. the bottoms are wide and low, the moister parts containing some timber; the upland is extreemly broken, chonsisting of high gaulded nobs as far as the eye can reach on ether side, and entirely destitute of timber. on these hills many aromatic herbs are seen; resembling in taste, smel and appearance, the sage, hysop, wormwood, southernwood and two other herbs which are strangers to me; the one resembling the camphor in taste and smell, rising to the hight of 2 or 3 feet; the other about the same size, has a long, narrow, smooth, soft leaf of an agreeable smel and flavor; of this last the Atelope is very fond; they feed on it, and perfume the hair of their foreheads and necks with it by rubing against it. the dwarf cedar and juniper is also found in great abundance on the sides of these hills. where the land is level, it is uniformly fertile consisting of a dark loam intermixed with a proportion of fine sand. it is generally covered with a short grass resembling very much the blue grass. — the miniral appearances still continue; considerable quantities of bitumenous water, about the colour of strong lye trickles down the sides of the hills; this water partakes of the taste of glauber salts and slightly of allumn. — while the party halted to take dinner today Capt Clark killed a buffaloe bull; it was meagre, and we therefore took the marrow bones and a small proportion of the meat only. near the place we dined on the Lard. side, there was a large village of burrowing squirrels. I have remarked that these anamals generally celect a South Easterly exposure for their residence, tho they are sometimes found in the level plains. — passed an Island, above which two small creeks fall in on Lard side; the upper creek largest, which we called Sharbono's Creek after our interpreter who encamped several weeks on it with a hunting party of Indians. this was the highest point to which any whiteman had ever ascended; except two Frenchmen who having lost their way had straggled a few miles further, tho to what place precisely I could not learn. — I walked on shore above this creek and killed an Elk, which was so poor that it was unfit for uce; I therefore left it, and joined the party at their encampment on the Stard shore a little after dark. on my arrival Capt Clark informed me that he had seen two white bear pass over the hills shortly after I fired, and that they appeared to run nearly from the place where I shot. the lard. shore on which I walked was very broken, and the hills in many places had the appearance of having sliped down in masses of several acres of land in surface. — we saw many gees feeding on the tender grass in the praries and several of their nests in the trees; we have not in a single instance found the nest of this bird on or near the ground. we saw a number of Magpies their nests and eggs. their nests are built in trees and composed of small sticks leaves and grass, open at top, and much in the stile of the large blackbird comm to the U States. the egg is of a bluish brown colour, freckled with redish brown spots. one of the party killed a large hooting owl. I observed no difference between this burd and those of the same family common to the U States, except that this appeared to be more booted and more thickly clad with feathers.



[Clark, April 14, 1805]

14th of April Sunday 1805. a fine morning, a dog came to us this morning we Suppose him to be left by the Inds. who had their camps near the Lake we passd. yesterday not long Sence, I observed Several Single Lodges built of Stiks of cotten timber in different parts of the bottoms. in my walk of this day which was through the wooded bottoms and on the hills for several miles back from the river on the S. S. I Saw the remains of two Indian incampments with wide beeten tracks leading to them. those were no doubt the Camps of the Ossinnaboin Indians (a Strong evidence is hoops of Small Kegs were found in the incampments) no other nation on the river above the Sioux make use of Spiritious licquer, the Ossinniboins is said to be pasionately fond of Licquer, and is the principal inducement to their putting themselves to the trouble of Catching the fiew wolves and foxes which they furnish, and recive their liquor always in small Kegs. The Ossinniboins make use of the Same kind of Lodges which the Sioux and other Indians on this river make use of — Those lodges or tents are made of a number of dressed buffalow Skins Sowed together with Sinues & deckerated with the tales, & Porcupine quils, when open it forms a half circle with a part about 4 Inches wide projecting about 8 or 9 Inches from the center of the Streight Side for the purpose of attaching it to a pole to it the hight they wish to raise the tent, when they errect this tent four poles of equal length are tied near one end, those poles are elevated and 8 10 or 12 other poles are anexed forming a Circle at the ground and lodging in the forks of the four attached poles, the tents are then raised, by attach the projecting part to a pole and incumpassing the poles with the tent by bringing the two ends together and attached with a Cord, or laied as high as is necessary, leaveing the lower part open for about 4 feet for to pass in & out, and the top is generally left open to admit the Smoke to pass — The Borders of the river has been So much hunted by those Indians who must have left it about 8 or 10 days past and I prosume are now in the neighbourhood of British establishments on the Osinniboin; the game is Scerce and verry wild. The River Continues wide and the current jentle not more rapid than the Current of the Ohio in middle State — The bottoms are wide and low and the moist parts of them Contain Som wood such as cotton Elm & Small ash, willow rose bushes &c. &c. &. next to the hills Great quantity of wild Isoop, the hills are high broken in every direction, and the mineral appearance of Salts Continue to appear in a greater perportion, also Sulpher, Coal & bitumous water in a Smaller quantity, I have observed but five burnt hills, about the little Missouri, and I have not Seen any pumey stone above that River I Saw Buffalow on the L. S. Crossed and dureing the time of dinner killed a Bull, which was pore, we made use of the best of it, I Saw a village of Burrowing dogs on the L. S. passed a Island above which two Small Creeks falls in on the L. S. the upper of which is the largest and we call Shabonas Creek after our interpreter who incamped several weeks on this Creek and is the highest point on the Missouri to which a white man has been previous to this time. Capt. Lewis walked out above this creek and killed an Elk which he found So meager that it was not fit for use, and joined the boat at Dusk at our Camp on the S. S. opposit a high hill Several parts of which had Sliped down. on the Side of those hills we Saw two white bear running from the report of Capt. Lewis Shot, those animals assended those Steep hills with Supprising ease & verlocity. they were too far to discover their prosise Colour & Size — Saw Several gees nests on trees, also the nests & egs of the Magpies, a large grey owl killed, booted & with ears &c.



[Lewis, April 15, 1805]

Monday April 15th 1805. Set out at an early hour this morning. I walked on shore, and Capt. Clark continued with the party it being an invariable rule with us not to be both absent from our vessels at the same time. I passed through the bottoms of the river on the Stard. side. they were partially covered with timber & were extensive, level and beatifull. in my walk which was about 6 miles I passed a small rivulet of clear water making down from the hills, which on tasting, I discovered to be in a small degree brackish. it possessed less of the glauber salt, or alumn, than those little streams from the hills usually do. — in a little pond of water fromed by this rivulet where it entered the bottom, I heard the frogs crying for the first time this season; their note was the same with that of the small frogs which are common to the lagoons and swamps of the U States. — I saw great quantities of gees feeding in the bottoms, of which I shot one. saw some deer and Elk, but they were remarkably shy. I also met with great numbers of Grouse or prarie hens as they are called by the English traders of the N. W. these birds appeared to be mating; the note of the male is kuck, kuck, kuck, coo, coo, coo. the first part of the note both male and female use when flying. the male also dubbs something like the pheasant, but by no means as loud. after breakfast Capt. Clark walked on the Std. shore, and on his return in the evening gave me the following account of his ramble. "I ascended to the high country, about 9 miles distant from the Missouri. the country consists of beatifull, level and fertile plains, destitute of timber I saw many little dranes, which took their rise in the river hills, from whence as far as I could see they run to the N. E." these streams we suppose to be the waters of Mous river a branch of the Assinniboin which the Indians informed us approaches the Missouri very nearly, about this point. "I passed," continued he, "a Creek about 20 yards wide," which falls into the Missouri; the bottoms of this creek are wide level and extreemly fertile, but almost entirely destitute of timber. the water of this creek as well as all those creeks and rivulets which we have passed since we left Fort Mandan was so strongly impregnated with salts and other miniral substances that I was incapable of drinking it. I saw the remains of several camps of the Assinniboins; near one of which, in a small ravene, there was a park which they had formed of timber and brush, for the purpose of taking the Cabrie or Antelope. it was constructed in the following manner. a strong pound was first made of timbers, on one side of which there was a small apparture, sufficiently large to admit an Antelope; from each side of this apparture, a curtain was extended to a considerable distance, widening as they receded from the pound. — we passed a rock this evening standing in the middle of the river, and the bed of the river was formed principally of gravel. we encamped this evening on a sand point on Lard. side. a little above our encampment the river was confined to a channel of 80 yards in width.



[Clark, April 15, 1805]

15th of April Monday 1805 Set out at an early hour, Captn Lewis walked on Shore and Killed a goose, passed a Island in a bend to the L. S. the wind hard from the S. E. after brackfast I walked on Shore and assended to the high Countrey on the S. S. and off from the Missouri about three miles the countrey is butifull open fertile plain the dreans take theer rise near the Clifts of the river and run from the river in a N E derection as far as I could See, this is the part of the River which Mouse river the waters of Lake Winnipec approaches within a fiew miles of Missouri, and I believe those dreans lead into that river. we passed a creek about 20 yds. wide on the S. S. the bottoms of this Creek is extensive & fertile, the water of this as also, all the Streams which head a fiew miles in the hills discharge water which is black & unfit for use (and can Safely Say that I have not Seen one drop of water fit for use above fort Mandan except Knife and the little Missouris Rivers and the Missouri, the other Streams being So much impregnated with mineral as to be verry disagreeble in its present State.) I saw the remains of Several Camps of ossinniboins, near one of those camps & at no great distance from the mouth of the aforesid Creek, in a hollow, I saw a large Strong pen made for the purpose of Catching the antelope, with wings projecting from it widining from the pen

Saw Several gangs of Buffalow and Some elk at a distance, a black bear Seen from the Perogues to day — passed a rock in the Middle of the river, Some Smaller rocks from that to the L. Shore, the dog that came to us yesterday morning continues to follow us, we camped on a Sand point to the L. S.



[Lewis, April 16, 1805]

Tuesday April 16th 1805. Set out very early this morning. Capt. Clark walked on Shore this morning, and killed an Antelope, rejoined us at 1/2 after eight A.M. he informed me that he had seen many Buffaloe Elk and deer in his absence, and that he had met with a great number of old hornets nests in the woody bottoms through which he had passed. — the hills of the river still continue extreemly broken for a few miles back, when it becomes a fine level country of open fertile lands immediately on the river there are many fine leavel extensive and extreemly fertile high plains and meadows. I think the quantity of timbered land on the river is increasing. the mineral appearances still continue. I met with several stones today that had the appearance of wood first carbonated and then petrefyed by the water of the river, which I have discovered has that effect on many vegitable substances when exposed to it's influence for a length of time. l believe it to be the stratas of Coal seen in those hills which causes the fire and birnt appearances frequently met with in this quarter. where those birnt appearances are to be seen in the face of the river bluffs, the coal is seldom seen, and when you meet with it in the neighbourhood of the stratas of birnt earth, the coal appears to be presisely at the same hight, and is nearly of the same thickness, togeter with the sand and a sulphurious substance which ususually accompanys it. there was a remarkable large beaver caught by one of the party last night. these anamals are now very abundant. I have met with several trees which have been felled by them 20 Inches in diameter. bark is their only food; and they appear to prefer that of the Cotton wood and willow; as we have never met with any other species of timber on the Missouri which had the appearance of being cut by them. — we passed three small creeks on the Stard. side. they take their rise in the river hills at no great distance. we saw a great number of geese today, both in the plains and on the river — I have observed but few ducks, those we have met with are the Mallard and blue winged Teal



[Clark, April 16, 1805]

16th of April Tuesday 1805 Wind hard from the S. E I walked on Shore and Killed an antilope which was verry meagre, Saw great numbers of Elk & some buffalow & Deer, a verry large Beaver Cought this morning. Some verry handsom high planes & extensive bottoms, the mineral appearances of Coal & Salt together with Some appearance of Burnt hils continue. a number of old hornets nests Seen in every bottom more perticularly in the one opposit to the place we camped this night — the wooded bottoms are more extensive to day than Common. passed three Small Creeks on the S. S. to day which take their rise in the hills at no great distance, Great numbers of Gees in the river & in the Plains feeding on the Grass.



[Lewis, April 17, 1805]

Wednesday April 17th 1805. A delightfull morning, set out at an erly hour. the country though which we passed to (lay was much the same as that discribed of yesterday; there wase more appearance of birnt hills, furnishing large quanties of lava and pumice stone, of the latter some pieces were seen floating down the river. Capt. Clark walked on shore this morning on the Stard. side, and did not join us untill half after six in the evening. he informed me that he had seen the remains of the Assinniboin encampments in every point of woodland through which he had passed. we saw immence quantities of game in every direction around us as we passed up the river; consisting of herds of Buffaloe, Elk, and Antelopes with some deer and woolves. tho we continue to see many tracks of the bear we have seen but very few of them, and those are at a great distance generally runing from us; I thefore presume that they are extreemly wary and shy; the Indian account of them dose not corrispond with our experience so far. one black bear passed near the perogues on the 16th and was seen by myself and the party but he so quickly disappeared that we did not shoot at him. — at the place we halted to dine on the Lard. side we met with a herd of buffaloe of which I killed the fatest as I concieved among them, however on examining it I found it so poar that I thought it unfit for uce and only took the tongue; the party killed another which was still more lean. just before we encamped this evening we saw some tracks of Indians who had passed about 24 hours; they left four rafts of timber on the Stard. side, on which they had passed. we supposed them to have been a party of the Assinniboins who had been to war against the rocky mountain Indians, and then on their return. Capt. Clark saw a Curlou today. there were three beaver taken this morning by the party. the men prefer the flesh of this anamal, to that of any other which we have, or are able to procure at this moment. I eat very heartily of the beaver myself, and think it excellent; particularly the tale, and liver. we had a fair wind today which enabled us to sail the greater part of the distance we have travled, encamped on the Lard shore the extremity of the last course



[Clark, April 17, 1805]

17th of April Wednesday 1805 a fine morning wind from the S E. Genly to day handsom high extencive rich Plains on each Side, the mineral appearances continue with greater appearances of Coal, much greater appearance of the hills haveing been burnt, more Pumice Stone & Lava washed down to the bottoms and some Pumice Stone floating in the river, I walked on the S. S. Saw great numbs. of Buffalow feeding in the Plains at a distance Capt. Lewis killed 2 Buffalow buls which was near the water at the time of dineing, they were So pore as to be unfit for use. I Saw Several Small parties of antelopes large herds of Elk, Some white wolves, and in a pond (formed on the S. S. by the Missouries Changeing its bead) I Saw Swan Gees & different kinds of Ducks in great numbers also a Beaver house. Passed a Small Creek on the S. S. & Several runs of water on each Side, Saw the remains of Indian camps in every point of timbered land on the S. S. in the evining a thunder gust passed from the S W, without rain, about Sunset Saw Some fresh Indians track and four rafts on the shore S. S. Those I prosume were Ossinniboins who had been on a war party against the Rockey Mountain Indians — Saw a Curlow, Some verry large beaver taken this morning. those animals are made use of as food and preferred by the party to any other at this Season



[Lewis, April 18, 1805]

Thursday April 18th 1805. A fine morning, set out at an early hour. one Beaver caught this morning by two traps, having a foot in each; the traps belonged to different individuals, between whom, a contest ensued, which would have terminated, most probably, in a serious rencounter had not our timely arrival at the place prevented it. after breakfast this morning, Capt. Clark walked on Stad. shore, while the party were assending by means of their toe lines, I walked with them on the bank; found a species of pea bearing a yellow flower, and now in blume; it seldom rises more than 6 inches high, the leaf & stalk resembles that of the common gardin pea, the root is pirenial. (See specimen of vegitables No. 3.) I also saw several parsels of buffaloe's hair hanging on the rose bushes, which had been bleached by exposure to the weather and became perfectly white. it every appearance of the wool of the sheep, tho much finer and more silkey and soft. I am confident that an excellent cloth may be made of the wool of the Buffaloe. the Buffaloe I killed yesterday had cast his long hare, and the poll which remained was very thick, fine, and about 2 inches in length. I think this anamal would have furnished about five pounds of wool. we were detained today from one to five P.M. in consequence of the wind which blew so violently from N. that it was with difficulty we could keep the canoes from filling with water altho they were along shore; I had them secured by placing the perogues on the out side of them in such manner as to break the waves off them. at 5 we proceed, and shortly after met with Capt. Clark, who had killed an Elk and a deer and was wating our arrival. we took the meat on board and continued our march untill nearly dark when we came too on the Stard side under a boald welltimbered bank which sheltered us from the wind which had abated but not yet ceased. here we encamped, it being the extremity of the last course of this day.



[Clark, April 18, 1805]

18th of April Thursday 1805 Set out at an early hour one Beaver & a Musrat Cought this morning, the beaver cought in two traps, which like to have brought about a missunderstanding between two of the party &c. after brackfast I assended a hill and observed that the river made a great bend to the South, I concluded to walk thro the point about 2 miles and take Shabono, with me, he had taken a dost of Salts &c. his Squar followed on with his child, when I Struck the next bend of the river could See nothing of the Party, left this man & his wife & Child on the river bank and went out to hunt, Killed a young Buck Elk, & a Deer, the Elk was tolerable meat, the Deer verry pore, Butcherd the meat and Continued untill near Sunset before Capt Lewis and the party Came up, they were detained by the wind, which rose Soon after I left the boat from the N W. & blew verry hard untill verry late in the evening. we Camped on the S. S. in an excellent harbor, Soon after We came too, two men went up the river to Set their beaver traps they met with a Bear and being without their arms thought prodent to return &c. the wild Cheries are in bloom, Great appearance of Burnt hills Pumice Stone &c. the Coal & Salt appearance Continued, the water in the Small runs much better than below, — Saw Several old Indian Camps, the game, Such as Buffalow Elk, antelopes & Deer verry plenty



[Lewis, April 19, 1805]

Friday April 19th 1805.